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Sample records for gariepinus fed high

  1. Growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings fed graded levels of dietary fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Gbore, Francis A; Adewole, Adeyemo M; Oginni, Olatunde; Oguntolu, Mercy F; Bada, Ayodeji M; Akele, Olatunbosun

    2010-11-01

    Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, on growth, haematological and serum biochemical parameters. The fingerlings were sorted, weighed and randomly stocked in 16 plastic tanks at the rate of 20 fingerlings per tank. Fusarium-cultured maize grains containing FB1 were used to formulate three diets containing approximately 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg FB1/kg, constituting diets 2, 3, and 4 respectively. These three diets, plus diet 1, which contained non-Fusarium cultured maize grains that served as the control, were used in a 6-week feeding trial. The final weight gains by the fingerlings were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by FB1. The final weights of the fingerlings fed diets 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 70.07 to 87.10% of the controls. The haematocrit, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the serum protein constituents (total protein, albumin and globulin) values significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, while the leucocytes, MCV and MCH increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in the dietary FB1. The total serum protein values of the fingerlings fed diets 2, 3 and 4 were 34.53, 39.42 and 50.17% lower than the total serum protein values of those fed the control diet. These results indicate that Fusarium-contaminated diets containing about 5.0 mg or more FB1/kg reduced weight gain and significantly altered haematological parameters and serum protein constituents in the fingerlings. These may have a significant impact on physiological activities and may be vital in immunosuppression in the fingerlings with a strong negative impact on subsequent performance of the fish.

  2. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    PubMed

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.

  3. Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop

  4. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  5. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, John M.; Zadoks, Abraham L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  6. Dietary fucoidan enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, immunosuppressed by cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    El-Boshy, Mohamed; El-Ashram, Ahmed; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Zahran, Eman; Gab-Alla, Ali

    2014-12-15

    Fucoidan is sulfated polysaccharide extracted from seaweed brown algae. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects and disease resistance of dietary fucoidan on catfish, Clarias gariepinus, immunosuppressed by cadmium. Three hundred and sixty African catfish, C. gariepinus, was allocated into six equal groups. The first group served as a control. Groups (F1 and F2) were fed on fucoidan supplemented ration at concentrations of 4 and 6g/kg diet respectively for 21 days. Groups (Cd, CdF1 and CdF2) were subjected throughout the experiment to a sub-lethal concentration of 5ppm cadmium chloride solution and groups (CdF1 and CdF2) were fed on a ration supplemented with fucoidan. Macrophages oxidative burst, phagocytic activity percentages and lymphocytes transformation index were a significant increase in the fucoidan-treated groups (F1 and F2), while serum lysozyme, nitric oxide and bactericidal activity were enhanced only in group (F2) when compared with controls. These parameters as well as absolute lymphocyte count and survival rate were significantly increased in group (CdF2) when compared with cadmium chloride immunosuppressed group (Cd). It could be concluded that the fucoidan can be used as immunostimulant for the farmed African catfish, C. gariepinus as it can improve its resistance to immunosuppressive stressful conditions.

  7. Super-chilling (-0.7°C) with high-CO2 packaging inhibits biochemical changes of microbial origin in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) muscle during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingchun; Ma, Lizhen; Yang, Hua; Xiao, Yan; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-09-01

    Controlled freezing-point storage (CFPS) is an emerging preservative technique desirable for fish. In the present study, catfish fillets were stored at -0.7°C under different packaging atmospheres: air (AP), vacuum (VP), and 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP). Chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed during storage. Results showed the following descending order of chemical changes (degradation of nucleotides, conversion of protein to volatile-based nitrogen and biogenic amines, and production of trimethylamine nitrogen), as well as loss of sensory properties: 4°C AP>-0.7°C AP≈4°C VP>-0.7°C VP≈4°C MAP>-0.7°C MAP. The chemical changes were well-correlated with microbial growth suggesting the microbiological pathways. Hence, CFPS at -0.7°C in combination with high-CO2 MAP can effectively maintain the quality of fresh catfish meat compared to traditional preservation methods.

  8. Super-chilling (-0.7°C) with high-CO2 packaging inhibits biochemical changes of microbial origin in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) muscle during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingchun; Ma, Lizhen; Yang, Hua; Xiao, Yan; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-09-01

    Controlled freezing-point storage (CFPS) is an emerging preservative technique desirable for fish. In the present study, catfish fillets were stored at -0.7°C under different packaging atmospheres: air (AP), vacuum (VP), and 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP). Chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed during storage. Results showed the following descending order of chemical changes (degradation of nucleotides, conversion of protein to volatile-based nitrogen and biogenic amines, and production of trimethylamine nitrogen), as well as loss of sensory properties: 4°C AP>-0.7°C AP≈4°C VP>-0.7°C VP≈4°C MAP>-0.7°C MAP. The chemical changes were well-correlated with microbial growth suggesting the microbiological pathways. Hence, CFPS at -0.7°C in combination with high-CO2 MAP can effectively maintain the quality of fresh catfish meat compared to traditional preservation methods. PMID:27041314

  9. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  10. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  11. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  12. Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers.

  13. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al.

  14. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al. PMID:27086300

  15. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-06-01

    The beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of the dietary spice compounds curcumin and capsaicin were evaluated. Curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination were included in the diet of high-(30%)-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. Dietary high-fat-induced hypertriglyceridemia was countered by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination by 12%-20%. Curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination also produced a slight decrease in serum total cholesterol in these animals. Serum alpha-tocopherol content was increased by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination in high-fat-fed rats. Serum total thiol content in high-fat-fed animals and serum ascorbic acid in normal animals was elevated by the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione was increased by curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination in normal animals. Hepatic glutathione and alpha-tocopherol were increased, whereas lipid peroxide level was reduced by dietary curcumin and combination of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed animals. Serum glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in high-fat-fed rats were generally higher as a result of dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated by dietary spice principles in high-fat-fed animals. The additive effect of the 2 bioactive compounds was generally not evident with respect to hypolipidemic or antioxidant potential. However, the effectiveness of the combination was higher in a few instances.

  16. Evaluation of red seaweed Gracilaria arcuata as dietary ingredient in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Shamlol, Faozi S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried marine seaweed, Gracilaria arcuata for the first time as dietary ingredient in partial substitution of fishmeal on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group; D2; D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% G. arcuata meal respectively. One hundred and eighty African catfish weighing 9.62 ± 0.42 g, (mean ± SE) was divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fishes showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the control (D1); D2 and other treated groups D3 and D4, with weights of 66.98, 59.60, 47.34 and 30.73 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed utilization between treatment and control groups. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the control group and fishes fed D2 for all previous parameters. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with a diet containing G. arcuata than in the control group and D2 which contains 10% of G. arcuata. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with G. arcuata included in 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and D2. However, the study recommended that C. gariepinus can accept this ingredient up to 10% in their diets. More defined experiments therefore seem to be necessary in order to determine the maximum level of this marine seaweed in diets with amino acid supplementation for African catfish.

  17. Evaluation of red seaweed Gracilaria arcuata as dietary ingredient in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Shamlol, Faozi S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried marine seaweed, Gracilaria arcuata for the first time as dietary ingredient in partial substitution of fishmeal on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group; D2; D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% G. arcuata meal respectively. One hundred and eighty African catfish weighing 9.62 ± 0.42 g, (mean ± SE) was divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fishes showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the control (D1); D2 and other treated groups D3 and D4, with weights of 66.98, 59.60, 47.34 and 30.73 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed utilization between treatment and control groups. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the control group and fishes fed D2 for all previous parameters. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with a diet containing G. arcuata than in the control group and D2 which contains 10% of G. arcuata. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with G. arcuata included in 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and D2. However, the study recommended that C. gariepinus can accept this ingredient up to 10% in their diets. More defined experiments therefore seem to be necessary in order to determine the maximum level of this marine seaweed in diets with amino acid supplementation for African catfish. PMID:26981001

  18. Green tea attenuates cardiovascular remodelling and metabolic symptoms in high carbohydrate-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Celestine; Iyer, Abishek; Chan, Vincent; Brown, Lindsay

    2010-12-01

    Excess carbohydrate in the diet may initiate a chronic state of oxidative stress exacerbating the clinical and biochemical symptoms of diet-induced type 2 diabetes, especially glucose intolerance, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. This study has tested whether green tea, rich in antioxidants, improves both cardiovascular symptoms and glucose intolerance and also reduces oxidative stress in rats fed a high carbohydrate diet. Male 8 week old Wistar rats were fed a diet including fructose and condensed milk (each 40%) for 16 weeks (112 days); control rats were fed corn starch. Green tea-containing food was started from day 1 for the prevention protocol and from day 56 for the reversal protocol. High carbohydrate diet-fed rats showed glucose intolerance, hypertension, mild left ventricular hypertrophy, approximate doubling of cardiac interstitial and perivascular collagen deposition, increased passive diastolic stiffness and increased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations. Administration of green tea to high carbohydrate diet-fed rats prevented and reversed glucose intolerance and the increased systolic blood pressure, left ventricular wet weight, interstitial collagen and passive diastolic stiffness. Plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were also normalized. In summary, treatment with green tea both prevented and reversed the cardiovascular remodelling and metabolic changes seen in high carbohydrate-fed rats suggesting a chronic state of oxidative stress plays a key role in the symptom initiation and progression. Further, green tea may be a useful complementary therapy in diet-induced type 2 diabetes.

  19. Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Till S.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Heinsbroek, Leon T. N.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after the consumption of a single meal. Chyme was collected quantitatively and was analysed for osmolality and dry matter (DM) content. Postprandial water fluxes were calculated, while using yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker to account for the absorption of DM along the GIT. The largest differences in chyme characteristics between diets were observed in the stomach and decreased towards subsequent compartments. A high initial osmotic pressure was measured in the stomach for both diets (up to 498±2 mOsm kg−1) and was likely the driver for the endogeneous water influx to this compartment. Large additions of water were recorded to the stomach and proximal intestine for both diets and absorption of water took place in the mid- and distal intestine. Interestingly, the dietary treatment had an impact on water balance in the stomach and proximal intestine of the fish, but not in the mid- and distal intestine. A strong complementary relationship suggested that 59% of the water fluxes in the proximal intestine could be explained by previous additions to the stomach. Therefore, a higher dietary inclusion of starch led to a shift in water additions from the proximal intestine to the stomach. However, the sum of water additions to the GIT was not different between diets and was on average 6.52±0.85 ml water g−1 DM. The interactions between osmoregulation and digestion, in the GIT of fed freshwater fish, deserve further attention in future research. PMID:23372842

  20. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-03-10

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.

  1. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  2. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  3. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  4. Blueberry intervention improves vascular reactivity and lowers blood pressure in high-fat-, high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Ishisaka, Akari; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Terao, Junji

    2013-05-28

    Growing evidence suggests that intake of flavonoid-containing foods may exert cardiovascular benefits in human subjects. We have investigated the effects of a 10-week blueberry (BB) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, known to induce endothelial dysfunction. Rats were randomly assigned to follow a control chow diet, a chow diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) BB, a high-fat diet (10 % lard; 0·5 % cholesterol) or the high fat plus BB for 10 weeks. Rats supplemented with BB showed significant reductions in systolic BP (SBP) of 11 and 14 %, at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, relative to rats fed the control chow diet (week 8 SBP: 107·5 (SEM 4·7) v. 122·2 (SEM 2·1) mmHg, P= 0·018; week 10 SBP: 115·0 (SEM 3·1) v. 132·7 (SEM 1·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Furthermore, SBP was reduced by 14 % in rats fed with the high fat plus 2 % BB diet at week 10, compared to those on the high-fat diet only (SBP: 118·2 (SEM 3·6) v. 139·5 (SEM 4·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Aortas harvested from BB-fed animals exhibited significantly reduced contractile responses (to L-phenylephrine) compared to those fed the control chow or high-fat diets. Furthermore, in rats fed with high fat supplemented with BB, aorta relaxation was significantly greater in response to acetylcholine compared to animals fed with the fat diet. These data suggest that BB consumption can lower BP and improve endothelial dysfunction induced by a high fat, high cholesterol containing diet. PMID:23046999

  5. Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

    PubMed

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Mukesh, Reshma K; Ayoob, Shabna K; Ramavarma, Smitha K; Suseela, Indu M; Manalil, Jeksy J; Kuzhivelil, Balu T; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy.

  6. Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

    PubMed

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Mukesh, Reshma K; Ayoob, Shabna K; Ramavarma, Smitha K; Suseela, Indu M; Manalil, Jeksy J; Kuzhivelil, Balu T; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy. PMID:26788013

  7. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

  8. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  9. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity. PMID:27239252

  10. Ezetimibe and Simvastatin Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Sun; Fang, Longhou; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol-fed zebrafish is an emerging animal model to study metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory vascular processes relevant to pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) develop hypercholesterolemia and are characterized by profound lipoprotein oxidation and vascular lipid accumulation. Using optically translucent zebrafish larvae has the advantage of monitoring vascular pathology and assessing the efficacy of drug candidates in live animals. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin and ezetimibe, the principal drugs used in management of hypercholesterolemia in humans, would also reduce cholesterol levels in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. We found that ezetimibe was well tolerated by zebrafish and effectively reduced cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. In contrast, simvastatin added to water was poorly tolerated by zebrafish larvae and, when added to food, had little effect on cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. Combination of low doses of ezetimibe and simvastatin had an additive effect in reducing cholesterol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that ezetimibe exerts in zebrafish a therapeutic effect similar to that in humans and that the hypercholesterolemic zebrafish can be used as a low-cost and informative model for testing new drug candidates and for investigating mechanisms of action for existing drugs targeting dyslipidemia. PMID:22693663

  11. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  12. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  13. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng-Yew; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C.; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:23201770

  14. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  15. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  16. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  17. Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate attenuates hepatic and metabolic alterations in high fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Abd-Elghany, Manal I

    2016-01-01

    High fructose consumption is currently linked to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia as well as hepatic steatosis. Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) is a hepatoprotectant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study therefore is to evaluate the effect of DDB on high fructose-induced metabolic disturbances and hepatic steatosis in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control, fructose-fed (10% in drinking water and 10% in diet), and fructose-fed DDB (300 mg/kg, orally)-treated groups. Rats were fed a high-fructose diet for 6 weeks, while DDB was administered for an additional 2 weeks. High-fructose consumption elevated serum glucose and insulin levels and impaired oral glucose tolerance test, revealing insulin resistance. It also increased serum triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase as well as visceral fat content and decreased serum high-density lipoprotein. Additionally, histopathological examination revealed that high fructose intake induced hepatic steatosis. These alterations were associated with increased serum uric acid as well as hepatic content of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in addition to overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). DDB administration significantly ameliorated the high fructose-induced hepatic and metabolic alterations. In conclusion, DDB ameliorates high fructose-induced metabolic disorders and hepatic steatosis in rats. Such protection is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, decrease in iNOS overexpression, and reduction of elevated uric acid.

  18. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Gaetke, Lisa M; McClain, Craig J; Toleman, C Jean; Stuart, Mary A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adding yogurt to animal diets that were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 microg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, six groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of six AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. The diets were as follows: (a) AIN, (b) AIN with active yogurt, (c) AIN and inactive yogurt, (d) AIN with PA, (e) AIN with PA plus active yogurt and (f) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and food efficiency ratio was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (P<.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (P<.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats; however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still suboptimal.

  19. Ameliorative effects of boron on serum profile in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of boron on the serum profile of buffalo calves fed a high fluoride ration. Twelve male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves of 6-8 months age, divided into three groups of four calves in each, were fed basal diets and supplemented with sodium fluoride (NaF, 60 ppm) alone or in combination with borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O, 140 ppm) for 90 days. Boron (B) was added in the ration as borax to make @140 ppm boron (elemental B) on DM basis in treatment II. Dietary F caused a significant (p<0.05) depressing effect on serum Ca and Zn on day 90 which was improved with B supplementation. However, serum Fe and Cu did not show any significant change on F or F+B supplementation. The serum ALP and phosphorus level were increased significantly (p<0.05) on F feeding but declined significantly (p<0.05) when B was fed. The findings suggested beneficial effect of boron on serum minerals and ALP in buffalo calves fed high fluoride ration.

  20. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  1. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  2. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on May 25, 2010 (75 FR 29364). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China... coated paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated...

  3. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  4. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Pattison, Jennifer; Deer, Elena; Sayaphupha, Tiffany; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model has been developed to study early events of atherogenesis. This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals. Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and of various lysophosphatidylcholines were also significantly elevated. Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages. Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation. The TLR4 deficiency in murine macrophages prevented their activation with zebrafish lipoproteins. Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL. These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis. PMID:20710028

  5. Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT. PMID:23494741

  6. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  7. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  8. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  9. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids.

  10. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects. PMID:24173620

  11. Troxerutin reverses fibrotic changes in the myocardium of high-fat high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Radika, Mutulur Krishnamoorthy; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamurthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2015-09-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that troxerutin (TX) provides cardioprotection by mitigating lipid abnormalities in a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aims to investigate the reversal effect of TX on the fibrogenic changes in the myocardium of HFFD-fed mice. Adult male Mus musculus mice were grouped into four and fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Each group was divided into two, and the mice were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) from the 16th day. HFFD-fed mice showed marked changes in the electrocardiographic data. Increased levels of myocardial superoxide, p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, transforming growth factor (TGF), smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-9 and -2, and decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs-1 and -2 were observed. Furthermore, degradation products of troponin I and myosin light chain-1 were observed in the myocardium by immunoblotting. Rise in collagen was observed by hydroxyproline assay, while fibrotic changes were noticed by histology and Western blotting. Hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and myocardial calcium accumulation were also observed in HFFD-fed mice. TX treatment exerted cardioprotective and anti-fibrotic effects in HFFD-fed mice by improving cardiac contractile function, reducing superoxide production and by favorably modifying the fibrosis markers. These findings suggest that TX could be cardioprotective through its antioxidant and antifibrogenic actions. This new finding could pave way for translation studies to human MS.

  12. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects.

  13. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  14. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  15. 75 FR 75663 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed... Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination and Countervailing Duty Order, 75 FR 70201 (November 17, 2010) (``Amended...

  16. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  17. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products. PMID:20387744

  18. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products.

  19. Plant Proteins Differently Affect Body Fat Reduction in High-fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohee; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Oran

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of corn gluten (CG), wheat gluten (WG), and soybean protein isolate (SPI), as well as their hydrolysates, on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet. Eight-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=70) were fed a high-fat diet (40% of the calories were fat) for 4 weeks. Rats were then randomly divided into seven groups and were fed isocaloric diets with different protein sources for 8 weeks. The protein sources were casein (control group), intact CG (CG group), CG hydrolysate (CGH group), intact WG (WG group), WG hydrolysate (WGH group), intact SPI (SPI group), and SPI hydrolysate (SPIH group). Body weight gain, adipose tissue weights, lipid profiles in plasma and liver; and hepatic activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase, fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assessed. The CGH group showed significant weight reduction compared with the other groups. Epididymal fat pad and plasma triglycerides in the CGH group were the lowest and were significantly different than those in the control group. FAS activity in the CGH group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. In conclusion, the CGH diet of these experimental animals demonstrated a weight-reducing effect by lowering the adipose tissue weight and by affecting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes.

  20. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  1. Effect of starving and feeding on some haematological and physiological responses of the Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to copper at extreme seasons.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameid, Nassr-Allah H

    2011-12-01

    The lethal concentration for 50% of fish for 96h (96h LC(50)) of copper (Cu(2+)) was estimated for the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in extreme seasons, winter and summer, 4.31 and 4.79 mg/l, respectively. The Nile catfish was exposed to 96h LC(50) of copper for 7 days in extreme winter and summer. The body indices, haematological parameters as well as some plasma and liver enzyme activities and metabolite level were significantly differed in fish exposed to copper over than those of the control fish. Most of the tested parameters were not significantly different between the control fish of winter and summer (winter, water temperature 18 ± 2°C and summer, 27 ± 2°C). The effect of two ration sizes on copper toxicity in two different seasons on C. gariepinus was justified. It was found that the haematological parameters and the tested plasma activities of enzymes were significantly valid due to season differences. The blood parameters as well as plasma activities of enzymes were significantly differed in fishes fed elevated ration (3%) and exposed to copper challenge. On the other hand, the exploit of low feeding ration (0.5%) along with copper exposure during the examined seasons induced non-significant differences of the tested parameters, from those of the corresponding control. Therefore, the low feeding ration provides some tolerance against the possible water-borne copper exposure.

  2. Eriobotrya japonica improves hyperlipidemia and reverses insulin resistance in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (loquat) on insulin resistance was examined in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. First, the mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a 45% HF diet for 10 weeks. After 6 weeks of induction, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally loquat or not for 4 weeks afterward. It was demonstrated that loquat was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as in decreasing the levels of free fatty acid (FFA), but increasing the adipose PPARγ (peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ) and hepatic PPARα mRNA levels. Loquat significantly decreased the body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue and visceral fat accompanying the suppressed leptin mRNA levels. Loquat not only suppressed the hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and lowered the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level, but also affected fatty acid oxidation enzyme levels. These regulations may contribute to triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipose tissue. The findings provide a nutritional basis for the use of loquat as a functional food factor that may have benefits for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and diabetes.

  3. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. PMID:27230905

  4. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice.

  5. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  6. Effect of nicotine on antioxidant defence mechanisms in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ashakumary, L; Vijayammal, P L

    1996-03-01

    Nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer in smokers. Lipid peroxidation is a process associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the level of lipid peroxides is increased in smokers. In rats fed a high-fat diet, the tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was found to be increased. On nicotine administration along with a high-fat diet an additive effect was observed in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers. The activities of scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were found to be decreased, while the glutathione concentration and activity of glutathione peroxidase were enhanced. PMID:8849484

  7. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  8. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  9. High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

    1997-05-23

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a high temperature, high efficiency system for converting thermal to electrical energy, with no moving parts. It is based on the unique properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which is an excellent conductor of sodium ions, but an extremely poor conductor of electrons. When the inside of the BASE is maintained at a higher temperature and pressure, a concentration gradient is created across the BASE. Electrons and sodium atoms cannot pass through the BASE. However, the sodium atoms are ionized, and the sodium ions move through the BASE to the lower potential (temperature) region. The electrons travel externally to the AMTEC cell, providing power. There are a number of potential advantages to a wick-pumped, vapor-fed AMTEC system when compared with other designs. A wick-pumped system uses capillary forces to passively return liquid to the evaporator, and to distribute the liquid in the evaporator. Since the fluid return is self-regulating, multiple BASE tubes can use a single remote condenser, potentially improving efficiency in advanced AMTEC designs. Since the system is vapor-fed, sodium vapor is supplied at a uniform temperature and flux to the BASE tube, even with non-uniform heat fluxes and temperatures at the evaporator. The primary objective of the Phase 2 program was to develop wick-pumped AMTEC cells. During the program, procedures to fabricate wicks with smaller pore sizes were developed, to allow operation of an AMTEC cell at 800 C. A revised design was made for a High-Temperature, Wick-Fed AMTEC cell. In addition to the smaller wick pore size, several other changes were made to increase the cell efficiency: (1) internal artery return of condensate; (2) high temperature electrical feedthrough; and (3) separate heat pipe for providing heat to the BASE.

  10. Insufficient glucose supply is linked to hypothermia upon cold exposure in high-fat diet-fed mice lacking PEMT.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia; van der Veen, Jelske N; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Vance, Jean E; Vance, Dennis E; Jacobs, René L

    2015-09-01

    Mice that lack phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt(-/-) mice) are protected from high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice show higher oxygen consumption and heat production, indicating that more energy might be utilized for thermogenesis and might account for the resistance to diet-induced weight gain. To test this hypothesis, HF-fed Pemt(-/-) and Pemt(+/+) mice were challenged with acute cold exposure at 4°C. Unexpectedly, HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice developed hypothermia within 3 h of cold exposure. In contrast, chow-fed Pemt(-/-) mice, possessing similar body mass, maintained body temperature. Lack of PEMT did not impair the capacity for thermogenesis in skeletal muscle or brown adipose tissue. Plasma catecholamines were not altered by Pemt genotype, and stimulation of lipolysis was intact in brown and white adipose tissue of Pemt(-/-) mice. HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice also developed higher systolic blood pressure, accompanied by reduced cardiac output. Choline supplementation reversed the cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice with no effect on blood pressure. Plasma glucose levels were ∼50% lower in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice compared with Pemt(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized plasma hypoglycemia and the expression of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis. We propose that cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice is linked to plasma hypoglycemia due to compromised hepatic glucose production.

  11. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  12. [Dynamic changes of circulating monocyte subsets in high-NaCl diet fed mice].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaotong; Luo, Yanwei; Ma, Yongqiang; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Ji, Wenjie; Li, Yuming; Zhou, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of the circulating monocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice fed with high-NaCl diet. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: 9, 40 and 80 g/L NaCl groups. Before the treatment and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment, the cardiac function was dynamically determined by echocardiography and the blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Flow cytometry analysis of circulating monocyte subsets was performed. HE staining was used to observe cardiac pathological changes at the time of sacrifice. Results Systolic blood pressure significantly increased with the progression of the high-salt diet. Compared with 9 g/L NaCl group, the ejection fraction of the other two groups slightly increased at week 4, followed by a significant decreasing trend up to week 12, in addition, the percentage of Ly6C(high) monocyte subset showed a progressive increase during high-salt feeding and reached a plateau at week 4, and then abruptly went down up to week 12. On the contrary, Ly6C(low) monocyte subset had an opposite trend, whereas Ly6C(int) monocyte subset remained constant. HE staining showed that cardiomyocyte size, as determined by the myocyte cross-sectional area, became enlarged obviously in the latter two groups. Conclusion Circulating monocyte subsets dynamically changed in the mice fed with high-salt diet. PMID:27371845

  13. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Mjoun, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet.

  14. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  15. Beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Shin, Su-Kyung; Seong, Chi-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of curcumin (0.05-g/100-g diet) supplementation on a high-fat diet (10% coconut oil, 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) fed to hamsters, one of the rodent species that are most closely related to humans in lipid metabolism. Curcumin significantly lowered the levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, whereas it elevated the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and paraoxonase activity in plasma, compared with the control group. The levels of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride were also lower in the curcumin group than in the control group. In the liver, fatty acid beta-oxidation activity was significantly higher in the curcumin group than in the control group, whereas fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activities were significantly lower. Curcumin significantly lowered the lipid peroxide levels in the erythrocyte and liver compared with the control group. These results indicate that curcumin exhibits an obvious hypolipidemic effect by increasing plasma paraoxonase activity, ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol and of apo A-I to apo B, and hepatic fatty acid oxidation activity with simultaneous inhibition of hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in high-fat-fed hamsters.

  16. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  17. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  18. Model-Based Fed-Batch for High-Solids Enzymatic Cellulose Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, D. B.; Karim, M. N.; Schell, D. J.; McMillan, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    While many kinetic models have been developed for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, few have been extensively applied for process design, optimization, or control. High-solids operation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose is motivated by both its operation decreasing capital costs and increasing product concentration and hence separation costs. This work utilizes both insights obtained from experimental work and kinetic modeling to develop an optimization strategy for cellulose saccharification at insoluble solids levels greater than 15% (w/w), where mixing in stirred tank reactors (STRs) becomes problematic. A previously developed model for batch enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was modified to consider the effects of feeding in the context of fed-batch operation. By solving the set of model differential equations, a feeding profile was developed to maintain the insoluble solids concentration at a constant or manageable level throughout the course of the reaction. Using this approach, a stream of relatively concentrated solids (and cellulase enzymes) can be used to increase the final sugar concentration within the reactor without requiring the high initial levels of insoluble solids that would be required if the operation were performed in batch mode. Experimental application in bench-scale STRs using a feed stream of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover solids and cellulase enzymes resulted in similar cellulose conversion profiles to those achieved in batch shake-flask reactors where temperature control issues are mitigated. Final cellulose conversions reached approximately 80% of theoretical for fed-batch STRs fed to reach a cumulative solids level of 25% (w/w) initial insoluble solids.

  19. Model-based fed-batch for high-solids enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David B; Karim, M Nazmul; Schell, Daniel J; McMillan, James D

    2009-01-01

    While many kinetic models have been developed for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, few have been extensively applied for process design, optimization, or control. High-solids operation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose is motivated by both its operation decreasing capital costs and increasing product concentration and hence separation costs. This work utilizes both insights obtained from experimental work and kinetic modeling to develop an optimization strategy for cellulose saccharification at insoluble solids levels greater than 15% (w/w), where mixing in stirred tank reactors (STRs) becomes problematic. A previously developed model for batch enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was modified to consider the effects of feeding in the context of fed-batch operation. By solving the set of model differential equations, a feeding profile was developed to maintain the insoluble solids concentration at a constant or manageable level throughout the course of the reaction. Using this approach, a stream of relatively concentrated solids (and cellulase enzymes) can be used to increase the final sugar concentration within the reactor without requiring the high initial levels of insoluble solids that would be required if the operation were performed in batch mode. Experimental application in bench-scale STRs using a feed stream of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover solids and cellulase enzymes resulted in similar cellulose conversion profiles to those achieved in batch shake-flask reactors where temperature control issues are mitigated. Final cellulose conversions reached approximately 80% of theoretical for fed-batch STRs fed to reach a cumulative solids level of 25% (w/w) initial insoluble solids.

  20. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia.

  1. Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 wk. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40 – 60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cycloxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24561154

  2. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  3. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p<0.05) in the DSW-drinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (p<0.05) serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and faecal TC, TAG, and bile acid outputs were measured in the DSW-drinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (p<0.05) by DSW drinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.

  4. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  5. High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Appendices for final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

    1997-05-23

    This report consists of four appendices for the final report. They are: Appendix A: 700 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Calculations; Appendix B: 700 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Parts Drawings; Appendix C: 800 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Calculations; and Appendix D: 800 C Wick-Pumped AMTEC Cell System Design.

  6. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in CRT and T3 levels; the mean levels of T4, TST, E2 exhibited significant decreases (p<0.05) in carbofuran-treated fish. Toxicity of carbofuran on liver, kidney, gills, gonads and muscles after 35 days of exposure was found. Glycogen levels showed a highly significant decrease in liver and gills (p< 0.001), a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in kidney and muscles, and insignificant changes (p>0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (p<0.05) in treated fish. SOD, CAT, GSH and GST levels showed significant decreases (p<0.05) in all tissues of fish after exposure to carbofuran. LPO levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in all tissues except gonads after 5 weeks of exposure to carbofuran. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in DNA fragmentation percentage in treated fish. Our results provide a clear evidence on the response of C. gariepinus to sublethal doses of carbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  7. Spirulina prevents atherosclerosis by reducing hypercholesterolemia in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mi Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) were investigated in the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model. The animal had hypercholesterolemia induced by being fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 0.5% cholesterol for 4 wk, and then fed a HCD supplemented with 1 or 5% spirulina (SP1 or SP5) for an additional 8 wk. Spirulina supplementation lowered intimal surface of the aorta by 32.2 to 48.3%, compared to HCD. Serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) significantly were reduced in SP groups. After 8 wk, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remarkably decreased by 26.4% in SP1 and 41.2% in SP5, compared to HCD. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was markedly increased in SP1 and SP5 compared with that in the HCD group from 2 to 8 wk. These results suggest that spirulina intake can cause the reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, associated with a decrease in levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C, and an elevation of HDL-C level. Spirulina may, therefore, be beneficial in preventing atherosclerosis and reducing risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20354344

  8. Automatic one dimensional spectra extraction for Weihai fiber-fed high resolution echelle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shao Ming; Gao, Dong Yang

    2014-11-01

    One fiber-fed high resolution echelle spectrograph was built for the one meter telescope atWeihai Observatory of Shandong University. It is used for exoplanet searching by radial velocity method and for stellar spectra analysis. One dimensional spectra extraction from the raw echelle data is researched in this paper. Flat field images with different exposure times were used to trace the order position accurately. The accurate background was fitted from each CCD image and it was subtracted from the raw image to correct the background and straylight. The intensity of each order decreases towards the order margin, and the lengths of order are different between the blue and red regions. The order tracing during the data reduction was investigated in this work. Accurate flux can be obtained after considering the effects of bad pixels, the curvature of each order and so on. One Interactive Data Language program for one dimensional spectra extraction was adopted and implemented to echelle data reduction for Weihai fiber-fed high resolution echelle spectra, and the results are illustrated here. The program is efficient and accurate for echelle data reduction. It can be adopted to reduce data taken by other instruments even the spectrographs in other fields, and it is very convenient for astronomers.

  9. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  10. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of UC-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( UC-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from UC-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of UC-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of UC-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides.

  11. Antidiabetic activity of 3-hydroxyflavone analogues in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Yogendra; Venkatachalam, H.; Daroji, Vijay Kumar; Mathew, Geetha; Jayashree, B.S.; Unnikrishnan, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues (JY-1, JY-2, JY-3, JY-4), were tested for antidiabetic activity in high-fructose-diet-fed (66 %, for 6 weeks) insulin-resistant Wistar rats (FD-fed rats). The fasting blood glucose, insulin, creatinine and AGEs were decreased to near normal upon treatment with test compounds. Insulin resistance markers such as HOMA-IR, K-ITT, plasma triglycerides, lipids, endogenous antioxidant defense and glycogen were restored in FD-fed rats after treatment with 3-hydroxyflavones. It is known that insulin resistance is partly because of oxidative stress and hence antioxidant activity was determined. They exhibited significant in vitro DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50: 10.66-66.63 µM). Test compounds inhibited ROS and NO production in RAW 264.7 cells (IC50: 10.39–42.63 µM) and they were found as potent as quercetin. Further, the test compounds inhibited lipid peroxidation at low concentrations (IC50: 99.61-217.47 µM). All test compounds at concentrations 100-200 µM protected calf thymus DNA-damage by Fenton reaction. In addition, test compounds inhibited protein glycation in different in vitro antiglycation assays. JY-2 showed maximum potency in all the stages of glycation which was comparable to the standard quercetin and aminoguanidine. Test compounds also enhanced the glucose uptake by L6 myotubes at an EC50 much lower than that of quercetin. Thus the synthetic 3-hydroxyflavones were found to have good antidiabetic activity by pleotropic and multimodal suppression of insulin resistance and enhancement of glucose uptake by skeletal muscles. These compounds are non-toxic at the doses tested. Further, the combined antioxidant and antiglycation activities of these molecules have complementary benefits in management of diabetes. PMID:26417321

  12. Growth, metabolic status and ovarian function in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers fed a low energy or high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Baruselli, P S; Vecchio, D; Prandi, A; Neglia, G; Carvalho, N A T; Sales, J N S; Gasparrini, B; D'Occhio, M J

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to establish the capacity of buffalo heifers to adapt their metabolic requirements to a low energy diet. Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers undergoing regular estrous cycles were randomly assigned by age, live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) to a high energy group (HE, 5.8 milk forage units (MFU)/day, n=6) or low energy group (LE, 3.6 MFU/day, n=6). Circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates, metabolic hormones and reproductive hormones were determined weekly for 19 weeks. Ovarian follicular characteristics and oocyte parameters were also ascertained weekly. Heifers fed the LE diet had a better dry matter conversion than heifers fed the HE diet and the calculated daily energy provision was negative for heifers fed the LE diet (-0.248 MFU) and positive for heifers fed the HE diet (5.4 MFU). Heifers fed the HE diet had an increase in 50 kg LW over the duration of the study whereas LW remained constant for heifers fed the LE diet. The BCS of heifers fed the HE diet (4.2) was greater (P<0.05) than the BCS for heifers fed the LE diet (3.4). Heifers fed the HE diet had greater (P<0.05) circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates (glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and metabolic hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin and T3) compared with heifers fed the LE diet. There were no significant differences in circulating reproductive hormones between the two groups of heifers. Ovarian follicular characteristics were similar for the two groups of heifers while heifers fed the LE diet tended to have oocytes of reduced quality compared with heifers fed the HE diet. The most notable finding was that heifers fed the LE diet had a negative calculated daily energy provision but were able to maintain LW and reproductive activity. It was concluded that buffalo heifers may potentially have the capacity to undergo metabolic adjustment and reduce their energy requirements when dietary energy is limiting. This adaptive capacity would

  13. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  14. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Morton, John; Mangalindan, Ruby; Ladiges, Warren

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa), the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD) with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC) with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  15. High Resolution CNT-FED and Improvement in Field-Emission Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Sashiro; Yotani, Junko; Nagasako, Takeshi; Yamada, Hiromu; Ezaki, Tomotaka; Maesoba, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Takehiro; Ito, Masaaki; Sakurai, Akira; Shimoda, Hideo; Saito, Yahachi; Shinohara, Hisanori

    A recent study of carbon nanotube (CNT)-field emission display (FED) was described, and luminance uniformity of the experimental panel and the results of the life test of the CNT emitters were revealed. Furthermore, a high-resolution CNT-FED was investigated for graphic-displays. The sub-pixel size was 0.2 mm × 0.6 mm. The configuration of the display was a metal-backed color-phosphor screen, tall-spacer of 0.5-1.0 mm height for individual phosphor line, a metal gate-substrate with tall spacer and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown-CNT on a metal-electrode. In order to improve field-emission characteristics of the CNT cathode, we developed two kinds of new CNT emitters by thermal-CVD. One is an emitter with thin CNTs which were grown on an alumina layer. The emission was extremely increased at lower voltage, compared to our conventional CNT emitter. Another is an emitter with secondary thin CNTs grown on thick CNTs. The emission showed an improvement in emission distribution uniformity.

  16. Parallel and series FED microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A microstrip array antenna for vertically polarized fan beam (approximately 2 deg x 50 deg) for C-band SAR applications with a physical area of 1.7 m by 0.17 m comprises two rows of patch elements and employs a parallel feed to left- and right-half sections of the rows. Each section is divided into two segments that are fed in parallel with the elements in each segment fed in series through matched transmission lines for high efficiency. The inboard section has half the number of patch elements of the outboard section, and the outboard sections, which have tapered distribution with identical transmission line sections, terminated with half wavelength long open-circuit stubs so that the remaining energy is reflected and radiated in phase. The elements of the two inboard segments of the two left- and right-half sections are provided with tapered transmission lines from element to element for uniform power distribution over the central third of the entire array antenna. The two rows of array elements are excited at opposite patch feed locations with opposite (180 deg difference) phases for reduced cross-polarization.

  17. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  18. Dietary chitosan improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiali; Liu, Jingna; Li, Ling; Xia, Wenshui

    2008-06-01

    The hypolipidemic mechanism of chitosan was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 8): a normal fat control group, a high-fat control group (HF), a positive control group (CR), and 2 chitosan groups (CIS1 and CIS2). Chitosan was fed at the beginning (CIS1) and after 2 weeks (CIS2). A commercial diet with 5% (wt/wt) cellulose (HF), cholestyramine (CR), or chitosan (CIS1, CIS2) was fed for 6 weeks. Chitosan did not affect food intake but decreased body weight gain and significantly increased fecal fat and cholesterol excretion, reduced the lipid level in plasma and liver, increased liver hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities compared with HF (P < .05), and tended to relieve the degenerated fatty liver tissue. No significant differences in all measurements were found between the CIS1 and CIS2 groups although the CIS1 rats exhibited lower lipid levels compared to those in the CIS2 group. The results suggest that chitosan reduced the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol in vivo and could effectively improve hypercholesterolemia in rats.

  19. Are viruses important in the plankton of highly turbid glacier-fed lakes?

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Fabian; Peter, Hannes; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems where they significantly contribute to microbial mortality. In glacier-fed turbid lakes, however, viruses not only encounter low host abundances, but also a high number of suspended mineral particles introduced by glacier meltwaters. We hypothesized that these particles potentially lead to unspecific adsorption and removal of free virus from the plankton, and thus significantly reduce their abundance in this type of lake. We followed the distribution of free virus-like particles (VLP) during the ice-free season across a turbidity gradient in four alpine lakes including one adjacent clear system where hydrological connectivity to the receding glacier is already lost. In the glacier-fed turbid lakes, VLP abundance increased with distance to the glacier, but the highest numbers were observed in the clear lake by the end of August, coinciding with the maximum in prokaryotic abundance. Our results suggest that viral loss by attachment to particles is less important than expected. Nevertheless, the relatively lower variability in VLP abundance and the lower virus-to-prokaryote ratio found in the turbid lakes than in the clear one point to a rather low temporal turnover and thus, to a reduced impact on microbial communities. PMID:27094854

  20. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  1. Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun-Yeong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Beom Soo

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis was cultivated to high cell density for nattokinase production by pH-stat fed-batch culture. A concentrated mixture solution of glucose and peptone was automatically added by acid-supplying pump when culture pH rose above high limit. Effect of the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution was investigated on cell growth and nattokinase production by changing the ratio from 0.2 to 5 g glucose/g peptone. The highest cell concentration was 77 g/L when the ratio was 0.2 g glucose/g peptone. Cell concentration decreased with increasing the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution, while the optimum condition existed for nattokinase production. The highest nattokinase activity was 14,500 unit/mL at a ratio of 0.33 g glucose/g peptone, which was 4.3 times higher than that in batch culture.

  2. Improved methane production from brown algae under high salinity by fed-batch acclimation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Here, a methanogenic microbial community was developed from marine sediments to have improved methane productivity from brown algae under high salinity. Fed-batch cultivation was conducted by adding dry seaweed at 1wt% total solid (TS) based on the liquid weight of the NaCl-containing sediment per round of cultivation. The methane production rate and level of salinity increased 8-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, at the 10th round of cultivation. Moreover, the rate of methane production remained high, even at the 10th round of cultivation, with accumulation of salts derived from 10wt% TS of seaweed. The salinity of the 10th-round culture was equivalent to 5% NaCl. The improved methane production was attributed to enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis because acetate became rapidly converted to methane during cultivation. The family Fusobacteriaceae and the genus Methanosaeta, the acetoclastic methanogen, predominated in bacteria and archaea, respectively, after the cultivation.

  3. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase knockout mice show resistance to obesity when fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Ito, Takahito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Nanchi, Isamu; Notoya, Mitsuru; Oka, Shogo; Yukioka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone secreted from stomach. Since the discovery that acylation of the serine-3 residue by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its functions, GOAT has been regarded as an therapeutic target for attenuating appetite, and thus for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, contrary to the expectations, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have not shown meaningful body weight reduction, under high-fat diet. Here, in this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism with a focus on dietary sucrose, because macronutrient composition of diet is important for appetite regulation. We found that peripherally administered acylated-ghrelin, but not unacylated one, stimulated sucrose consumption in a two-bottle-drinking test. The role of acylated-ghrelin in sucrose preference was further supported by the finding that GOAT KO mice consumed less sucrose solution compared with WT littermates. Then, we investigated the effect of dietary composition of sucrose on food intake and body weight in GOAT KO and WT mice. As a result, when fed on high-fat diet, food intake and body weight were similar between GOAT KO and WT mice. However, when fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet, GOAT KO mice showed significantly reduced food intake and marked resistance to obesity, leading to amelioration of glucose metabolism. These results suggest that blockade of acylated-ghrelin production offers therapeutic potential for obesity and metabolic disorders caused by overeating of palatable food.

  4. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hollmann, Manfred; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Sabitzer, Sonja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants. PMID:24349094

  5. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Morton, Tiffany L; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete's paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a "brown" phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD. PMID:27445983

  6. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Tiffany L.; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete’s paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a “brown” phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD. PMID:27445983

  7. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  8. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P < 0.001) with a trend of declining milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P < 0.01) but milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting partitioning of dietary N away from urine. When CT was pelleted with grain, in a second experiment and fed twice daily as a supplement at milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate

  9. 75 FR 70203 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... cards, and other commercial printing applications requiring high quality print graphics. Specifically... International Trade Administration Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on certain coated paper suitable for high-quality...

  10. Compact double-p slotted inset-fed microstrip patch antenna on high dielectric substrate.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M R; Islam, M T; Habib Ullah, M; Mahadi, W N L; Latef, T A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact sized inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna embedded with double-P slots. The proposed antenna has been designed and fabricated on ceramic-PTFE composite material substrate of high dielectric constant value. The measurement results from the fabricated prototype of the antenna show -10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidths of 200 MHz and 300 MHz with center resonant frequency of 1.5 GHz and 4 GHz, respectively. The fabricated antenna has attained gains of 3.52 dBi with 81% radiation efficiency and 5.72 dBi with 87% radiation efficiency for lower band and upper band, respectively. The measured E- and H-plane radiation patterns are also presented for better understanding. Good agreement between the simulation and measurement results and consistent radiation patterns make the proposed antenna suitable for GPS and C-band applications.

  11. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of perilla oil in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yeseul; Jang, Ja Young; Ban, Young-Hwan; Guo, Haiyu; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Jieun; An, Eun-Suk; Seo, Da-Woom; Yon, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation. Perilla oil not only attenuated hypercholesterolemia and atheroma formation, but also reduced fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic and renal tissues. The results indicate that perilla oil prevents atherosclerosis and fatty liver by controlling lipid metabolism, and that it could be the first choice oil to improve diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27729934

  12. Antidyslipidemic activity of polyprenol from Coccinia grandis in high-fat diet-fed hamster model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Geetu; Gupta, Prasoon; Rawat, Preeti; Puri, Anju; Bhatia, Gitika; Maurya, Rakesh

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt showed significant triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol-lowering effects in dyslipidemic hamster model. Ethanolic extract was fractionated into chloroform, n-butanol and water-soluble fractions and were evaluated. Activity was proved to be concentrated in chloroform-soluble fraction. Chloroform-soluble fraction containing active component was subjected to repeated column chromatography, furnished a polyprenol characterized as C(60)-polyprenol (1) isolated for the first time from this plant. It significantly decreased serum TG by 42%, total cholesterol (TC) 25% and glycerol (Gly) 12%, accompanied HDL-C/TC ratio 26% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic hamsters at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Results are comparable to standard drug fenofibrate at the dose of 108 mg/kg. Based on these investigations, it was concluded that the compound polyprenol (1) isolated from leaves of C. grandis possess marked antidyslipidemic activity.

  13. Compact double-p slotted inset-fed microstrip patch antenna on high dielectric substrate.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M R; Islam, M T; Habib Ullah, M; Mahadi, W N L; Latef, T A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact sized inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna embedded with double-P slots. The proposed antenna has been designed and fabricated on ceramic-PTFE composite material substrate of high dielectric constant value. The measurement results from the fabricated prototype of the antenna show -10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidths of 200 MHz and 300 MHz with center resonant frequency of 1.5 GHz and 4 GHz, respectively. The fabricated antenna has attained gains of 3.52 dBi with 81% radiation efficiency and 5.72 dBi with 87% radiation efficiency for lower band and upper band, respectively. The measured E- and H-plane radiation patterns are also presented for better understanding. Good agreement between the simulation and measurement results and consistent radiation patterns make the proposed antenna suitable for GPS and C-band applications. PMID:25165750

  14. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Allan S.; Perez, Paola K.; Streckenbach, Liana J.; Olson, Jake M.; Cook, Mark E.; Hernandez, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  15. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Bohrer, Justin C; Prichard, Allan S; Perez, Paola K; Streckenbach, Liana J; Olson, Jake M; Cook, Mark E; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  16. 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Rie; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Deguchi, Yohei; Yaku, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Masaki; Munakata, Hiroshi; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Alpinia galanga and Languas galanga, which are plants belonging to the ginger family, are frequently used for cooking, especially in Thai and Indonesian cuisine. The compound 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of these gingers, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of ACA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high fat diet (HFD)-induced rat models of obesity. ACA caused a significant decrease in the activity of GPDH in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without eliciting cell cytotoxicity, and it inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through the down-regulation of transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα. ACA also induced a dose-dependent phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the animal model, rats fed an HFD containing 0.05% ACA gained less weight than rats fed an HFD alone. The visceral fat mass in rats fed an HFD containing 0.05% ACA tended to be lower than that in rats fed an HFD alone. Furthermore, a histological examination of livers from rats fed an HFD showed steatohepatitis. However, rats fed an HFD containing 0.05% ACA showed no histopathological changes in the liver tissue. Our results show that ACA exerts anti-obesity activities both in vitro and in vivo and suggests that ACA may have a novel preventive activity against obesity and possibly other metabolic diseases.

  17. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Methods Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 mg protein/kg of body weight) or tap water for four weeks [groups: normolipidic diet plus water (C); normolipidic diet and coacervate (CC); high-fat diet and water (H); and high-fat diet and coacervate (HC)]. Results The high-fat diet promoted inflammation, possibly by decreased adiponectin/sum of adipose tissues ratio and increased phosphorylation of NF-κB p50. In HC we observed a positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-α in mesenteric adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and liver tissue. We also observed a positive correlation between lipopolisaccharide with IL-10 in the liver tissue. Conclusions High-fat diet treatment promoted metabolic alterations and inflammation, and chitosan coacervate whey protein modulated inflammatory milieu. PMID:24673809

  18. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  19. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  20. Abnormal aortic fatty acid composition and small artery function in offspring of rats fed a high fat diet in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P; Bitsanis, D; Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A; Poston, L

    2001-01-01

    Disturbances of the in utero environment are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study we have determined whether abnormal vascular function in the adult offspring of rats fed a high saturated fat diet in pregnancy is associated with altered plasma lipids or vascular fatty acid content. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a breeding diet (4 % fat) or a diet high in saturated fat (20 % fat) for 10 days prior to and throughout pregnancy, and during weaning. Female offspring were then fed a maintenance diet (3 % fat) until 160 days of age. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was blunted in isolated branches of the femoral artery from 160-day-old female offspring of dams fed the saturated fat diet when compared with female offspring of dams fed the breeding diet. These offspring exhibited elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The fatty acid composition of the aortas was abnormal, with a marked reduction in the content of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. This study demonstrates that a high fat diet in pregnant rats produces abnormal vascular function, plasma lipid disturbances and altered vascular fatty acid content in their female offspring during adulthood. PMID:11410637

  1. Pressor recovery after acute stress is impaired in high fructose-fed Lean Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jennifer A; D'Angelo, Gerard; Mintz, James D; Fulton, David J; Stepp, David W

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanistic link remains unclear. This study aims to determine if early cardiovascular changes associated with short-term fructose feeding in the absence of obesity manifest as abnormal blood pressure control. Metabolic dysfunction was induced in Lean Zucker rats by short-term high-fructose feeding. Rats were implanted with telemetry devices for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and subjected to air jet stress at 5 and 8 weeks after feeding. Additional animals were catheterized under anesthesia for the determination of MAP and blood flow responses in the hind limb and mesenteric vascular beds to intravenous injection of isoproterenol (0.001-0.5 μm), a β-adrenergic agonist. Metabolic dysfunction in high-fructose rats was not accompanied by changes in 24-h MAP Yet, animals fed a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks exhibited a marked impairment in blood pressure recovery after air-jet stress. Dose-dependent decreases in MAP and peripheral blood flow in response to isoproterenol treatment were significantly attenuated in high-fructose rats. These data suggest that impaired blood pressure recovery to acute mental stress precedes the onset of hypertension in the early stages of insulin resistance. Further, blunted responses to isoproterenol implicate β2-adrenergic sensitivity as a possible mechanism responsible for altered blood pressure control after short-term high-fructose feeding.

  2. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kasbi Chadli, Fatima; Nazih, Hassane; Krempf, Michel; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3)H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01) and cholesterol (p<0.001) with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001). Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001) and cholesterol (p<0.001) related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05) compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05) compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05) compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05) and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05). A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3)H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT. PMID:23613796

  3. Effect of potato on acid-base and mineral homeostasis in rats fed a high-sodium chloride diet.

    PubMed

    Narcy, Agnès; Robert, Laetitia; Mazur, Andrzej; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Excessive dietary NaCl in association with a paucity of plant foods, major sources of K alkaline salts, is a common feature in Western eating habits which may lead to acid-base disorders and to Ca and Mg wasting. In this context, to evaluate the effects of potato, rich in potassium citrate, on acid-base homeostasis and mineral retention, Wistar rats were fed wheat starch (WS) or cooked potato (CP) diets with a low (0.5 %) or a high (2 %) NaCl content during 3 weeks. The replacement of WS by CP in the diets resulted in a significant urinary alkalinisation (pH from 5.5 to 7.3) parallel to a rise in citrate and K excretion. Urinary Ca and Mg elimination represented respectively 17 and 62 % of the daily absorbed mineral in rats fed the high-salt WS diet compared with 5 and 28 % in rats fed the high-salt CP diet. The total SCFA concentration in the caecum was 3-fold higher in rats fed the CP diets compared with rats fed the WS diets, and it led to a significant rise in Ca and Mg intestinal absorption (Ca from 39 to 56 %; Mg from 37 to 60 %). The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that CP may be effective in alkalinising urine, enhancing citrate excretion and ameliorating Ca and Mg balance.

  4. Preferential fat intake of pups nursed by dams fed low fat diet during pregnancy and lactation is higher than that of pups nursed by dams fed control diet and high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko; Tsukita, Yoko; Yokoyama, Meiko

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the effect of dams' dietary fat type during pregnancy and lactation on fat choice of pups, three groups of dams were fed one of three diets: a low fat diet (LFD), a control diet (CTD) or a high fat diet (HFD). After weaning their pups were offered a self-selection regimen of both a fat protein diet (FPD) and a carbohydrate protein diet (CPD) for 3 wk. Although the ratio of FPD intake [FPD intake (g)/total intake (g)] by pups nursed by dams fed LFD during the self-selection period was higher than that by pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD, no significant difference in the ratio was observed between pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD. It was considered that pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD self-selected FPD and CPD in an adequate fat energy ratio (F ratio) compared to that of AIN-93G and AIN-93M. The ratio of FPD intake by pups of these three groups was 16-21% within the first week after weaning. Although pups nursed by dams fed CTD continued to consume the same ratio of FPD during the self-selection period, the ratio of pups nursed by dams fed LFD increased and that of pups nursed by dams fed HFD decreased. These findings indicate that: [1] pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD have the ability to consume FPD and CPD in an adequate F ratio, and [2] preferential fat intake of pups nursed by dams fed LFD is stronger than that of pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD.

  5. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  6. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  7. [Reduced performance and high somatic cell counts in a dairy herd fed high amounts of brewers' grain].

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, B

    2013-09-01

    The present case report describes a herd problem on a Holstein Friesian dairy farm in Switzerland, which could be attributed to the feeding of high amounts of wet brewers' grain over several months. Apathy and reduced general appearance, reduced feed intake as well as a decline in milk yield could be observed. A strong increase in milk somatic cell counts as well as an increase in the incidence of mastitis could be found. The milk fat content was highly elevated in all cows, whereas the milk protein content was reduced. The exclusion of wet brewers' grain from the partial mixed ration resulted in a considerable improvement of the general appearance of the cows and a decrease of the milk somatic cell counts. Feed that is easily spoiled could be a health risk for animals, particularly under hot and humid weather conditions and if fed in high amounts.

  8. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  9. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of spider brake (Pteris multifida) with rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lee, Hou-I; Yang, Clinton; Yang, Chi-Ching

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluates the possible potency of the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of spider brake [(Pteris multifida Poiret (Pteridaceae)]. We investigated this by feeding the hyperlipidemic Sprague-Dawley rats, caused by a high cholesterol diet, with lyophilized powder of spider brake (LSB) and compared the result with the rats fed with beta-sitosterol. The results indicated that the administration of lyophilized powder of spider brake (LSB) lowered the hyperlipidemic level on rats. The relative weights of the liver, adipose tissue, and relative adipose tissue of 10% substitutions of LSB group (LSB-10) showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) by 6%, 15.9%, and 14.3% in contrast to the untreated counterparts (control), respectively. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, liver CH, and TG contents were also observed in LSB-10 compared to the untreated counterparts (by 36.8%, 21%, 18.7%, 10.2% and 14.3% reduction, respectively). Simultaneously, the wet fecal weight, dry fecal weight, nitrogen compounds, excretion of neutral steroids, and bile acids significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 9.6%, 10.6%, 23.7%, 9.7%, and 3.4% respectively. The results showed that LSB could cause not only a reduction in CH and TG, but also could increase the excretion of lipids and metabolic by-products via the intestinal tract.

  10. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.

  11. Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kang, Tae-Young; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Young-Chul; Sohn, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not alkaline reduced water (ARW) has a positive effect on obesity is unclear. This study aims to prove the positive effect of ARW in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) in C57BL/6 mice model. Toward this, obesity was induced by feeding the C57BL/6 male mice with high-fat diet (w/w 45% fat) for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were administered with either ARW or tap water. Next, the degree of adiposity and DIO-associated parameters were assessed: clinico-pathological parameters, biochemical measurements, histopathological analysis of liver, the expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in the liver, and serum levels of adipokine and cytokine. We found that ARW-fed mice significantly ameliorated adiposity: controlled body weight gain, reduced the accumulation of epididymal fats and decreased liver fats as compared to control mice. Accordingly, ARW coordinated the level of adiponectin and leptin. Further, mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1 was upregulated. In summary, our data shows that ARW intake inhibits the progression of HF-DIO in mice. This is the first note on anti-obesity effect of ARW, clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for obesity control.

  12. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP. PMID:24944632

  13. Regional scale hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlling high biodiversity of a groundwater fed alkaline fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; (D. G.) Cirkel, Gijsbert; (J. P. M) witte, Flip

    2014-05-01

    The high floral biodiversity of groundwater fed fens and mesotrophic grasslands depends on the different chemical signatures of the shallow rainwater fed topsoil water and the slightly deeper geochemically affected groundwater. The relatively abrupt gradients between these two layers of groundwater enable the close proximity of plants that require quite different site factors and have different rooting depths. However, sulphur inflow into such botanically interesting areas is generally perceived as a major threat to biodiversity. Although in Europe atmospheric deposition of sulphur has decreased considerably over the last decades, groundwater pollution by sulphate may still continue due to pyrite oxidation in soil as a result of excessive fertilisation. Inflowing groundwater rich in sulphate can change biogeochemical cycling in nutrient-poor wetland ecosystems because of 'so called' internal eutrophication as well as the accumulation of dissolved sulphide, which is phytotoxic. Complementary to conventions, we propose that upwelling sulphate rich groundwater may, in fact, promote the conservation of rare and threatened alkaline fens: excessive fertilisation and pyrite oxidation also produces acidity, which invokes calcite dissolution, and increased alkalinity and hardness of the inflowing groundwater. For a very species-rich wetland nature reserve, we show that sulphate is reduced and effectively precipitated as iron sulphides, when this calcareous and sulphate rich groundwater flows upward through the organic soil of the investigated nature reserve. Also, we show that sulphate reduction occurs simultaneously with an increase in alkalinity production, which in our case results in active calcite precipitation in the soil. In spite of the occurring sulphate reduction, we found no evidence for internal eutrophication. Extremely low phosphorous concentration in the pore water could be attributed to a high C:P ratio of soil organic matter and co-precipitation with

  14. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation.

  15. (-)-Epicatechin reduces blood pressure increase in high-fructose-fed rats: effects on the determinants of nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Litterio, Maria C; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A; Adamo, Ana M; Elesgaray, Rosana; Oteiza, Patricia I; Galleano, Monica; Fraga, Cesar G

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin in a model of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a regular chow diet without (Control) or with 10% (w/v) fructose in the drinking water (high fructose, HF) for 8 weeks. A subgroup of the HF-fed rats was supplemented with (-)-epicatechin 20 mg/kg body weight (HF-EC). Dietary (-)-epicatechin reverted the increase in BP caused by the fructose treatment. In aorta, superoxide anion production and the expression of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits p47(phox) and p22(phox) were enhanced in the HF-fed rats. The increase was prevented by (-)-epicatechin. Similar profile was observed for NOX4 expression. The activity of aorta nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was increased in the HF group and was even higher in the HF-EC rats. These effects were paralleled by increased endothelial NOS phosphorylation at the activation site Ser1177. Among the more relevant mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in vascular tissue, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was shown to be activated in the aorta of the HF-fed rats, and (-)-epicatechin supplementation mitigated this activation. Thus, the results suggest that dietary (-)-epicatechin supplementation prevented hypertension in HF-fed rats, decreasing superoxide anion production and elevating NOS activity, favoring an increase in NO bioavailability. PMID:25943039

  16. Evaluation of tolerable levels of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect in high cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Keiko; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Terao, Junji

    2010-04-01

    The tolerable level of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was evaluated in high cholesterol-fed rats, using quercetin-containing diets (31-1260 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day) and onion diets (19-94 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day), from the viewpoint of a safety assessment. After feeding for 4 weeks, the urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels of the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day were higher than the group fed a quercetin-free diet, although the plasma quercetin metabolite levels and plasma antioxidative activity were elevated depending on the amounts of quercetin or onion diet intake. No significant effect on body weight gain by quercetin-containing diets or onion diets was observed. However, ratios of the liver and kidney weights to the body weight were significantly increased in the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 314 mg and 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day, respectively, and in the onion diet groups fed more than 47 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day. These results indicated that the tolerable level for dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was between 126 and 157 mg/kg/day for the quercetin diet and between 19 and 34 mg/kg/day for the onion diet. PMID:20138950

  17. 75 FR 29364 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... COMMISSION Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

  18. 75 FR 54650 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... investigations (75 FR 29364, May 25, 2010). The Commission has decided to revise its schedule with respect to the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

  19. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  20. Promotion of atherosclerosis in high cholesterol diet-fed rabbits by immunization with the P277 peptide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiyan; Feng, Jiao; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Yunxiao; Lu, Yong; Li, Taiming; Zhang, Xiaohong; Cao, Rongyue; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Previous evidence has proved the ability of immunization with heat shock protein (HSP) 60/65 to induce atherosclerosis. P277, a 24-residue peptide of human HSP60, is a promising peptide vaccine against autoimmune diabetes. But as a fragment of HSP60, its potential ability of promoting atherosclerosis has never been investigated yet. In the present study, the rabbits fed with normal standard diet or high cholesterol diet were immunized with P277 or PBS emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant 4 times at 4-week intervals. Atherosclerotic lesions of the rabbits receiving P277 treatment and fed with high cholesterol diet increased significantly compared with those of the rabbits receiving PBS treatment and the same diet. However, no obvious lesions were found in the two groups of rabbits fed with the normal standard diet. Significant expression of P277 was detected in the high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions and heat-stressed endothelial cells. Surface exposure of P277 was also observed in the stressed cells. In the subsequent assay of endothelial cells in vitro, the purified anti-P277 antibodies mediated a noticeable cytotoxicity to the stressed cells with the participation of complement. In conclusion, subcutaneous immunization with P277 emulsified in IFA can aggravate the atherosclerosis in high cholesterol diet-fed rabbits. Surface expression of P277 was observed on stressed endothelial cells, and were suggested to mediate the autoimmune attack and promote the disease. PMID:26730848

  1. Cereal byproducts have prebiotic potential in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Berger, Karin; Falck, Peter; Linninge, Caroline; Nilsson, Ulf; Axling, Ulrika; Grey, Carl; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva; Nyman, Margareta; Holm, Cecilia; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2014-08-13

    Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04-6.66) and 7.47 (7.30-7.74), respectively; p < 0.001) in parallel with a tendency of increased production of propionic acid and indications of improved metabolic function compared with high-fat fed control mice. The oat-derived product caused an increase in the pool of cecal propionic (from 0.62 ± 0.12 to 0.94 ± 0.08) and butyric acid (from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.60 ± 0.04) compared with the high-fat control, and it caused a significant increase in lactobacilli (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.83 (6.65-7.53) and 8.04 (7.86-8.33), respectively; p < 0.01) in the cecal mucosa. However, no changes in measured metabolic parameters were observed by either oat or barley products.

  2. Energy requirement for maintenance and growth of Nellore bulls and steers fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Boin, C; Fox, D G; Leme, P R; Alleoni, G F; Lanna, D P D

    2002-06-01

    Data from three comparative slaughter experiments with individually fed Nellore bulls (n = 31) and steers (n = 66) were utilized to determine their NEm and NEg requirements when fed high-forage diets. The experimental design provided ranges in ME intake, BW, and ADG for the development of regression equations to predict NEm and NEg requirements. The Nellore bulls (Trial 1) were divided into two intake levels (ad libitum and 65% of the ad libitum). The steers (Trials 2 and 3) were allocated to three intake levels (ad libitum and 55 and 70% of the ad libitum). In both trials, there were three slaughter groups within each intake level. The three end points for the bulls were different days on treatment (100, 150, and 190 d and 130, 180, and 200 d, respectively, for older and younger animal subgroups). The steers were slaughtered when animals of the ad libitum treatment reached 400, 440, and 480 kg shrunk BW (SBW) on average for the first, second, and third group, respectively. For all body composition determinations, whole empty body components were weighed, ground, and subsampled for chemical analysis. In each of the trials, initial body composition was determined with equations developed from a baseline slaughter group, using SBW and empty BW (EBW), fat (EBF), and protein (EBP) as variables. The NEm was similar for bulls and steers; NEm averaged 77.2 kcal/ kg0.75 EBW. However, the efficiency of conversion of ME to net energy for maintenance was greater for steers than for bulls (68.8 and 65.6%, respectively), indicating that bulls had a greater ME requirement for maintenance than steers (5.4%; P < 0.05). Our analyses do not support the NRC (2000) conclusion that Nellore, a Bos indicus breed, has a lower net energy requirement for maintenance than Bos taurus breeds. An equation developed with the pooled data to predict retained energy (RE) was similar to the NRC (2000) equation. A second equation was developed to predict RE adjusted for degree of maturity (u): RE

  3. Growth performance and muscle oxidation in rats fed increasing amounts of high-tannin sorghum.

    PubMed

    Larraín, R E; Richards, M P; Schaefer, D M; Ji, L L; Reed, J D

    2007-12-01

    Oxidative processes deteriorate the quality of meat products. High tannin sorghums (HTS) contain flavonoid oligomers known as proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. These compounds act as anti-oxidants in vitro, but their effectiveness in vivo remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that moderate amounts of dietary HTS could reduce markers of oxidation on muscle of rats without having detrimental effects in growth. We used 2 groups of 38 male Sprague Dawley rats at 5 and 13 wk of age each. Each age group was fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design. The younger group was fed the experimental diets for 10 wk (10W); whereas the older group was fed for 2 wk (2W). The diets were modified from the NIH-07 diet and contained HTS and corn at ratios of 0:50 (S0, control), 20:30 (S20), 35:15 (S35), and 50:0 (S50) as a percentage of the diet. Growth and the efficiency of gain were assessed periodically measuring BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Oxidation in muscle was measured in fresh tissue and after 6 d of aerobic-refrigerated storage. Muscles evaluated were LM and soleus (SM). Fresh liver was also evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content were used as markers of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. No differences in BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were observed in 2W rats. Greater (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG were observed in 10W-S35 group between d 1 and 7 and greater BW (P = 0.049) was observed in group 10W-S35 at d 70 compared with 10W-S0. No differences were observed between S0 and any HTS diet in G:F in 10W and 2W rats. No differences in TBARS or carbonyls were observed in liver. No differences in TBARS were observed in fresh and aged LM and SM. When LM samples were aged for 6 d, decreased carbonyl contents (P < 0.01) were observed in 10W-S35 and 10W-S50 diets compared with 10W-S0. Reductions in carbonyls were also observed in aged SM between 2W-S50 and 2W-S0 (P = 0.013). We concluded that inclusion of 35% HTS in the diet increased intake

  4. Growth performance and muscle oxidation in rats fed increasing amounts of high-tannin sorghum.

    PubMed

    Larraín, R E; Richards, M P; Schaefer, D M; Ji, L L; Reed, J D

    2007-12-01

    Oxidative processes deteriorate the quality of meat products. High tannin sorghums (HTS) contain flavonoid oligomers known as proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. These compounds act as anti-oxidants in vitro, but their effectiveness in vivo remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that moderate amounts of dietary HTS could reduce markers of oxidation on muscle of rats without having detrimental effects in growth. We used 2 groups of 38 male Sprague Dawley rats at 5 and 13 wk of age each. Each age group was fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design. The younger group was fed the experimental diets for 10 wk (10W); whereas the older group was fed for 2 wk (2W). The diets were modified from the NIH-07 diet and contained HTS and corn at ratios of 0:50 (S0, control), 20:30 (S20), 35:15 (S35), and 50:0 (S50) as a percentage of the diet. Growth and the efficiency of gain were assessed periodically measuring BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Oxidation in muscle was measured in fresh tissue and after 6 d of aerobic-refrigerated storage. Muscles evaluated were LM and soleus (SM). Fresh liver was also evaluated. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content were used as markers of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. No differences in BW, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were observed in 2W rats. Greater (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG were observed in 10W-S35 group between d 1 and 7 and greater BW (P = 0.049) was observed in group 10W-S35 at d 70 compared with 10W-S0. No differences were observed between S0 and any HTS diet in G:F in 10W and 2W rats. No differences in TBARS or carbonyls were observed in liver. No differences in TBARS were observed in fresh and aged LM and SM. When LM samples were aged for 6 d, decreased carbonyl contents (P < 0.01) were observed in 10W-S35 and 10W-S50 diets compared with 10W-S0. Reductions in carbonyls were also observed in aged SM between 2W-S50 and 2W-S0 (P = 0.013). We concluded that inclusion of 35% HTS in the diet increased intake

  5. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  6. Hypolipidemic effect of dihydroisoquinoline oxaziridine in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aydi, Rihab; Gara, Amel Ben; Chaaben, Rim; Saad, Hajer Ben; Fki, Lotfi; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima; Kammoun, Majed

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increases the risk of many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effects of oxaziridine 3 on lipoprotein lipase activity in the serum of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) on body weight, lipid profile and liver-kidney functions. The administration of oxaziridine 3 to HFD-rats lowered body weight and inhibited the lipase activity of obese rats leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-Ch levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-Ch concentration in serum. Moreover, the findings of this study revealed that oxaziridine 3 helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Additionally, oxaziridine 3 administration to HFD-rats induces antioxidant activity proven by the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the decrease in Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. It also induces the protection of liver-kidney functions confirmed by a decrease in the levels of toxicity parameters in blood. PMID:27470409

  7. Quercetin alleviates inflammation after short-term treatment in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharya; Ghosh, Santinath; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately trigger inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) and its active component quercetin in preventing NF-κB-mediated inflammation raised by short-term HFD. Quercetin was found to be one of the major flavonoid components from HPLC of MoLE. Swiss mice were fed for 15 days on HFD, both with or without MoLE/quercetin. The antioxidant profile was estimated from liver homogenate. NF-κB and some relevant inflammatory markers were evaluated by immunoblotting, RT-PCR and ELISA. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower antioxidant profile and higher lipid peroxidation was found in HFD group compared to control (P < 0.05). Increased nuclear import of NF-κB and elevated expressions of pro-inflammatory markers were further manifestations in the HFD group. All these changes were reversed in the MoLE/quercetin-treated groups with significant improvement of antioxidant activity compared to the HFD group. MoLE was found to be rich in polyphenols and both MoLE and quercetin showed potent free radical and hydroxyl radical quenching activity. Thus, the present study concluded that short-term treatment with MoLE and its constituent quercetin prevent HFD-mediated inflammation in mice. PMID:23644882

  8. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue-Wei; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR) in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR) were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling) was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling. PMID:26115673

  9. Compact Double-P Slotted Inset-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna on High Dielectric Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, M. R.; Islam, M. T.; Habib Ullah, M.; Mahadi, W. N. L.; Latef, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact sized inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna embedded with double-P slots. The proposed antenna has been designed and fabricated on ceramic-PTFE composite material substrate of high dielectric constant value. The measurement results from the fabricated prototype of the antenna show −10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidths of 200 MHz and 300 MHz with center resonant frequency of 1.5 GHz and 4 GHz, respectively. The fabricated antenna has attained gains of 3.52 dBi with 81% radiation efficiency and 5.72 dBi with 87% radiation efficiency for lower band and upper band, respectively. The measured E- and H-plane radiation patterns are also presented for better understanding. Good agreement between the simulation and measurement results and consistent radiation patterns make the proposed antenna suitable for GPS and C-band applications. PMID:25165750

  10. Quercetin alleviates inflammation after short-term treatment in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharya; Ghosh, Santinath; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately trigger inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) and its active component quercetin in preventing NF-κB-mediated inflammation raised by short-term HFD. Quercetin was found to be one of the major flavonoid components from HPLC of MoLE. Swiss mice were fed for 15 days on HFD, both with or without MoLE/quercetin. The antioxidant profile was estimated from liver homogenate. NF-κB and some relevant inflammatory markers were evaluated by immunoblotting, RT-PCR and ELISA. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower antioxidant profile and higher lipid peroxidation was found in HFD group compared to control (P < 0.05). Increased nuclear import of NF-κB and elevated expressions of pro-inflammatory markers were further manifestations in the HFD group. All these changes were reversed in the MoLE/quercetin-treated groups with significant improvement of antioxidant activity compared to the HFD group. MoLE was found to be rich in polyphenols and both MoLE and quercetin showed potent free radical and hydroxyl radical quenching activity. Thus, the present study concluded that short-term treatment with MoLE and its constituent quercetin prevent HFD-mediated inflammation in mice.

  11. CFAVC scheme for high frequency series resonant inverter-fed domestic induction heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Booma; Reddy Sathi, Rama

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the investigations on the constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation control in the AC-AC resonant converter-fed domestic induction heating system. Conventional fixed frequency control techniques used in the high frequency converters lead to non-zero voltage switching operation and reduced output power. The proposed control technique produces higher output power than the conventional fixed-frequency control strategies. In this control technique, zero-voltage-switching operation is maintained during different duty cycle operation for reduction in the switching losses. Complete analysis of the induction heating power supply system with asymmetric voltage cancellation control is discussed in this article. Simulation and experimental study on constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation (CFAVC)-controlled full bridge series resonant inverter is performed. Time domain simulation results for the open and closed loop of the system are obtained using MATLAB simulation tool. The simulation results prove the control of voltage and power in a wide range. PID controller-based closed loop control system achieves the voltage regulation of the proposed system for the step change in load. Hardware implementation of the system under CFAVC control is done using the embedded controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the performance of the CFAVC control technique for series resonant-based induction cooking system.

  12. Modeling Energy Dynamics in Mice with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Fed High Calorie Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Nichole D.; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D.; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies show that lean mass or strength is positively associated with metabolic health. Mice deficient in myostatin, a growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, have increased muscle and body weights and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Their leanness is often attributed to higher energy expenditure in the face of normal food intake. However, even obese animals have an increase in energy expenditure compared to normal weight animals suggesting this is an incomplete explanation. We have previously developed a computational model to estimate energy output, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient from food intake and body composition measurements to more accurately account for changes in body composition in rodents over time. Here we use this approach to understand the dynamic changes in energy output, intake, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient in muscular mice carrying a dominant negative activin receptor IIB expressed specifically in muscle. We found that muscular mice had higher food intake and higher energy output when fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks compared to WT mice. Transgenic mice also matched their rate of fat oxidation to the rate of fat consumed better than WT mice. Surprisingly, when given a choice between high-fat diet and Ensure® drink, transgenic mice consumed relatively more calories from Ensure® than from the high-fat diet despite similar caloric intake to WT mice. When switching back and forth between diets, transgenic mice adjusted their intake more rapidly than WT to restore normal caloric intake. Our results show that mice with myostatin inhibition in muscle are better at adjusting energy intake and output on diets of different macronutrient composition than WT mice to maintain energy balance and resist weight gain. PMID:27076790

  13. Lipoic acid increases the expression of genes involved in bone formation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Cui, Jue; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2011-04-01

    Antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) has been reported to have a potential prophylactic effect on bone loss induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this work was to examine the hypothesis that LA decreases bone resorption-related gene expression and increases bone formation-related gene expression in HFD-fed mice, preventing a shift in the bone metabolism balance toward resorption. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, HFD, or HFD plus 0.1% LA for 12 weeks. The bone metabolism-related genes differentially expressed between mice fed HFD and those fed HFD supplemented with LA were identified through complementary DNA microarray. The supplemental LA significantly increased bone mineral density and bone antioxidant capacity in mice fed HFD (P < .05). Compared with the HFD-fed mice, LA induced the decreased expression of genes associated with bone resorption, such as Mmp9 (1.9-fold) and Ctsk (2.3-fold), and increased those genes associated with bone formation, such as Col1a1 (1.3-fold) and Alp1 (1.5-fold). Furthermore, LA upregulated many genes involved in the Igf signaling pathway, such as Igf-1 (increased 1.7-fold), and downregulated genes involved in the p53 apoptotic pathway, such as p53 (decreased 2.3-fold), thus attenuating the HFD-induced inhibition of bone formation. Lipoic acid induced upregulation of Il12a (2.1-fold) and downregulation of Tgfbr1 (4.3-fold) and Il17a (11.3-fold), which may reduce bone resorption. In summary, LA supplementation during HFD could affect bone density, altering gene expression.

  14. A Mitochondrial-Targeted Coenzyme Q Analog Prevents Weight Gain and Ameliorates Hepatic Dysfunction in High-Fat–Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Brian D.; Herlein, Judith A.; Guo, Deng Fu; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Yu, Liping; Grobe, Justin L.; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kerns, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, mitoquinone (mitoQ), known to have mitochondrial uncoupling properties, might prevent the development of obesity and mitigate liver dysfunction by increasing energy expenditure, as opposed to reducing energy intake. We administered mitoQ or vehicle (ethanol) to obesity-prone C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat (HF) or normal-fat (NF) diets. MitoQ (500 µM) or vehicle (ethanol) was added to the drinking water for 28 weeks. MitoQ significantly reduced total body mass and fat mass in the HF-fed mice but had no effect on these parameters in NF mice. Food intake was reduced by mitoQ in the HF-fed but not in the NF-fed mice. Average daily water intake was reduced by mitoQ in both the NF- and HF-fed mice. Hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and the long form of the leptin receptor were reduced in the HF but not in the NF mice. Hepatic total fat and triglyceride content did not differ between the mitoQ-treated and control HF-fed mice. However, mitoQ markedly reduced hepatic lipid hydroperoxides and reduced circulating alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver function. MitoQ did not alter whole-body oxygen consumption or liver mitochondrial oxygen utilization, membrane potential, ATP production, or production of reactive oxygen species. In summary, mitoQ added to drinking water mitigated the development of obesity. Contrary to our hypothesis, the mechanism involved decreased energy intake likely mediated at the hypothalamic level. MitoQ also ameliorated HF-induced liver dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant properties without altering liver fat or mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:25301169

  15. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-03-17

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  16. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25790040

  17. Endothelial and vascular dysfunctions and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Frédéric; Bachelard, Hélène; Badeau, Mylène; Mélançon, Sébastien; Pitre, Maryse; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on vascular and metabolic actions of insulin. Male rats were randomized to receive an HFHS or regular chow diet for 4 wk. In a first series of experiments, the rats had pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters implanted to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. Insulin sensitivity and vascular responses to insulin were assessed during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp performed in conscious rats. In a second series of experiments, new groups of rats were used to examine skeletal muscle glucose transport activity and to determine in vitro vascular reactivity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in muscle and vascular tissues and endothelin content, nitrotyrosine formation, and NAD(P)H oxidase protein expression in vascular tissues. The HFHS-fed rats displayed insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and impaired insulin-mediated renal and skeletal muscle vasodilator responses. A reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, accompanied by a decreased eNOS protein expression in muscles and blood vessel endothelium, and increased vascular endothelin-1 protein content were also noted in HFHS-fed rats compared with control rats. Furthermore, the HFHS diet induced a reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in muscles and increased levels of NAD(P)H oxidase protein and nitrotyrosine formation in vascular tissues. These findings support the importance of eNOS protein in linking metabolic and vascular disease and indicate the ability of a Westernized diet to induce endothelial dysfunction and to alter metabolic and vascular homeostasis.

  18. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  19. Curcumin Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Activation of Redox-Sensitive Kinases in High Fructose- and High-Fat-Fed Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Maithili Karpaga Selvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and redox-sensitive kinases in high fructose- and high-fat-fed rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups with ten animals each. Rats were fed with a standard rodent diet, high fructose diet (60%), and high-fat diet (30%). Curcumin was administered to control, high fructose and high fat diet groups for ten weeks. At the end of the study, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. The antioxidant enzymes GSH (reduced glutathione), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), and catalase activities were estimated in the blood. MDA, TAS, and TOS were estimated in the plasma, liver, and kidney. Curcumin treatment decreased body weight and blood glucose levels in the rats fed with fructose and high-fat diet. Antioxidant enzymes and plasma TAS were significantly improved by curcumin treatment in high fructose-fed rats, whereas in high-fat-fed rats, there was an increase only in the GPx activity. Curcumin significantly attenuated the elevation of plasma MDA and TOS in both diet groups. Hepatic MDA and TOS were found to be decreased upon curcumin supplementation in both diet groups, whereas a decrease in the renal MDA levels was observed only in fructose-treated rats, not in fat-fed rats. Curcumin treatment elevated liver TAS in rats fed only with the fructose-rich diet. Curcumin showed a significant decrease in the oxidative stress index (OSI) in plasma, liver, and kidney tissues in both diet groups. ERK phosphorylation was significantly decreased in both diet groups by curcumin treatment. Similarly, curcumin reduced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK only in the high fructose-fed rats, not in the high-fat-fed rats. No significant changes were found in JNK phosphorylation in both diet groups. Thus, curcumin may be effective in the management of diet-induced oxidative stress and could be explored as a therapeutic adjuvant against complications associated with obesity and

  20. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  1. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Buras, Eric Dale; Yang, Lina; Saha, Pradip; Kim, Jongoh; Mehta, Pooja; Yang, Yisheng; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Kojima, Hideto; Chen, Wenhao; Smith, C Wayne; Chan, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been shown to lead to ATM accumulation in rodents; however, the impact of hyperglycemia on ATM dynamics in HFD-fed type 2 diabetic models has not been studied. We previously showed that hyperglycemia induces the appearance of proinsulin (PI)-producing proinflammatory bone marrow (BM)-derived cells (PI-BMDCs) in rodents. We fed a 60% HFD to C57BL6/J mice to produce an obese type 2 diabetes model. Absent in chow-fed animals, PI-BMDCs account for 60% of the ATMs in the type 2 diabetic mice. The PI-ATM subset expresses TNF-α and other inflammatory markers, and is highly enriched within crownlike structures (CLSs). We found that amelioration of hyperglycemia by different hypoglycemic agents forestalled PI-producing ATM accumulation and adipose inflammation in these animals. We developed a diphtheria toxin receptor-based strategy to selectively ablate PI-BMDCs among ATMs. Application of the maneuver in HFD-fed type 2 diabetic mice was found to lead to near total disappearance of complex CLSs and reversal of insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis in these animals. In sum, we have identified a novel ATM subset in type 2 diabetic rodents that underlies systemic insulin resistance. PMID:25953849

  2. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin; Roh, Gu Seob

    2016-03-01

    Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  3. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Results from the present study suggest that Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  4. Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.

    PubMed

    Ikpi, Gabriel; Offem, Benedict

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland), mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver (C, rainforest) along 200 km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7 g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8 x 10(3) cfu/g), while the least counts (1.2 x 103 cfu/g) were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7 x 10(2) cfu/mL) co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended.

  5. Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on Roundup and Stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Gihan G.; Shaaban, F. E.; Hadeed, A. H. Abo; Elhady, Walaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current study was directed to investigate the immunotoxic and oxidative stress effects of Roundup and Stomp herbicides and their combination on Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 120 fish that randomly divided into four equal groups with three replicates: The first group kept as control, the second group exposed to 1/2 96 h lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of Roundup, the third group exposed to 1/2 96 h LC50 of Stomp, and the fourth one exposed to a combination of Roundup and Stomp at previously-mentioned doses. The experiment was terminated after 15 days; blood samples were obtained at 1st, 8th, and 15th days of treatment where the sera were separated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes. Meanwhile, at 15th day of exposure part of blood was collected from all groups with an anticoagulant for evaluation of phagocytic activity, then the fish were sacrificed, and specimens from the liver of all groups were obtained for histopathological examination. Results: Our results indicated that both herbicides either individually or in combination elucidated significant decrease in phagocytic activity that was highly marked in group exposed to both herbicides. Furthermore, our data elicited an obvious elevation in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Meanwhile, the data depicted reduction in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Histopathological investigation of liver proved the aforementioned results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that either Roundup or Stomp alone cause significant deleterious effects on aquatic vertebrates. However, the use of their combination enhanced their toxic effects. Toxicity can end up in humans through the food chain. PMID:27397989

  6. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.I.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  7. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Kalra, Satya P; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 10(7) particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  8. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Kalra, Satya P; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 10(7) particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  9. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  10. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, M. J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M. R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  11. PTEN Inhibition Improves Muscle Regeneration in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Huiling; Lee, In Hee; Modi, Swati; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mechanisms impairing wound healing in diabetes are poorly understood. To identify mechanisms, we induced insulin resistance by chronically feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD). We also examined the regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) during muscle regeneration because augmented IGF-1 signaling can improve muscle regeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Muscle regeneration was induced by cardiotoxin injury, and we evaluated satellite cell activation and muscle maturation in HFD-fed mice. We also measured PIP3 and the enzymes regulating its level, IRS-1–associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PTEN. Using primary cultures of muscle, we examined how fatty acids affect PTEN expression and how PTEN knockout influences muscle growth. Mice with muscle-specific PTEN knockout were used to examine how the HFD changes muscle regeneration. RESULTS The HFD raised circulating fatty acids and impaired the growth of regenerating myofibers while delaying myofiber maturation and increasing collagen deposition. These changes were independent of impaired proliferation of muscle progenitor or satellite cells but were principally related to increased expression of PTEN, which reduced PIP3 in muscle. In cultured muscle cells, palmitate directly stimulated PTEN expression and reduced cell growth. Knocking out PTEN restored cell growth. In mice, muscle-specific PTEN knockout improved the defects in muscle repair induced by HFD. CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance impairs muscle regeneration by preventing myofiber maturation. The mechanism involves fatty acid–stimulated PTEN expression, which lowers muscle PIP3. If similar pathways occur in diabetic patients, therapeutic strategies directed at improving the repair of damaged muscle could include suppression of PTEN activity. PMID:20200318

  12. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (P<0.05), but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed for these measurements. Overall, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher (P<0.05) in both HCD and LCD lambs receiving 0.3 mg thymol per kg diet. Supplementation of carvacrol had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions. PMID:27175199

  13. Nrf2 Deficiency Improves Glucose Tolerance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. PMID:23017736

  14. Curcumin prevents liver fat accumulation and serum fetuin-A increase in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Koçak, Hikmet; Seyidhanoğlu, Muhammed; Gürdöl, Figen; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Yildirim, Funda; Çevik, Aydin; Uysal, Müjdat

    2013-12-01

    Fetuin-A is synthesized in the liver and is secreted into the bloodstream. Clinical studies suggest involvement of fetuin-A in metabolic disorders such as visceral obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and fatty liver. Curcumin is extracted from the rhizome Curcuma longa and has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on serum fetuin-A levels as well as hepatic lipids and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was fed control diet (10 % of total calories from fat). Groups 2 and 3 were given curcumin (100 and 400 mg/kg bw/day, respectively ) by gavage for 8 weeks and were fed control diet. Group 4 was fed with HFD (60 % of total calories from fat). Groups 5 and 6 received HFD together with the two doses of curcumin, respectively. Curcumin treatment appeared to be effective in reducing liver triglycerides and serum fetuin-A levels. These findings suggest that the reduction of fetuin-A may contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  15. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 inhibits adipose tissue inflammation and intestinal permeability in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Michio; Miyoshi, Masaya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Fumihiko; Kadooka, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has anti-obesity effects. Obesity is closely correlated with inflammation in adipose tissue, and maintaining adipose tissue in a less-inflamed state requires intestinal integrity or a barrier function to protect the intestine from the disruption that can be caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we examined the anti-inflammatory and intestinal barrier-protecting effects of LG2055 in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat diet (NFD), HFD, or the HFD containing LG2055 (HFD-LG) for 21 weeks. HFD-LG intake significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral fat mass, and the ratio of inflammatory-type macrophages to anti-inflammatory ones in adipose tissue. Mice fed the HFD showed higher intestinal permeability to a fluorescent dextran administered by oral administration and an elevated concentration of antibodies specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the blood compared with those fed the NFD, suggesting an increased penetration of the gut contents into the systemic circulation. These elevations of intestinal permeability and anti-LPS antibody levels were significantly suppressed in mice fed the HFD-LG. Moreover, treatment with LG2055 cells suppressed an increase in the cytokine-induced permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results suggest that LG2055 improves the intestinal integrity, reducing the entry of inflammatory substances like LPS from the intestine, which may lead to decreased inflammation in adipose tissue.

  16. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  17. Voluntary running improves in vivo insulin resistance in high-salt diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Li, Ping; Kubota, Masakazu; Nagasaki, Masaru; Sato, Yuzo

    2007-11-01

    It is well known that exercise training, including voluntary running (VR), improves insulin resistance. However, the effect of VR on insulin resistance induced by high salt intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether VR would improve the glucose utilization in normal male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-salt diet (HSD) on 2-week early prevention and 1-week midway intervention protocols. In vivo glucose utilization was measured by euglycemic clamp technique. Further analyses of the possible changes in insulin signaling occurring in skeletal muscle were performed by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The glucose infusion rates (GIRs) after 2 weeks of HSD feeding were decreased (HSD vs. control: 21.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 27 +/- 0.5 mg/kg body wt/min; P < 0.05), and improved by 2 weeks VR to 30.5 +/- 1.5 mg/kg body wt/min. Additionally, the GIRs after 3 weeks of HSD feeding were decreased (HSD vs. control: 20.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 26.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg body wt/min; P < 0.05), and they also improved by the third week of VR (28.5 +/- 0.7 mg/ kg body wt/min vs. sedentary; P < 0.01). There were no differences in skeletal muscle for the total mass of insulin receptor-beta (IR-beta), IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), Akt, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in any of the groups of 2 weeks of HSD loading control and VR. VR did not regulate the enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-beta and IRS-1 by 2 weeks of HSD feeding. However, the enhanced serine phosphorylation of Akt and the tyrosine phosphorylation of GLUT4 were significantly inhibited by the early VR. HSD also impaired GLUT4 content in the plasma membrane and mRNA expression, but the decreases were improved by 2 weeks of VR. These results suggest that early voluntary exercise would prevent the development of insulin resistance induced by an HSD due in part by enhancing the impaired GLUT4 translocation and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. PMID:17959846

  18. Erectile dysfunction precedes coronary artery endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose, Western pattern diet.

    PubMed

    La Favor, Justin D; Anderson, Ethan J; Hickner, Robert C; Wingard, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    synthase uncoupling is a key mechanism in diet-induced ED. La Favor JD, Anderson EJ, Hickner RC, and Wingard CJ. Erectile dysfunction precedes coronary artery endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose, Western pattern diet. J Sex Med 2013;10:694-703.

  19. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Sundaram, Sneha

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-produced pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to obesity and cancer. This 2×2 experiment was designed to investigate effects of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) deficiency on pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in MCP-1 deficient and wild-type mice fed a modified AIN93G diet containing 16% and 45% of energy from corn oil, respectively. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of lung metastases compared to the AIN93G control diet. Deficiency in MCP-1 reduced lung metastases by 37% in high-fat diet-fed mice; it reduced metastatic cross-sectional area by 46% and volume by 69% compared to wild-type mice. Adipose and plasma concentrations of MCP-1 were significantly higher in high-fat diet-fed wild-type mice than in their AIN93G-fed counterparts; they were not detectable in MCP-1 deficient mice regardless of diet. Plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in MCP-1 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that adipose-produced MCP-1 contributes to high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis. While MCP-1 deficiency reduces metastasis, the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in the absence of MCP-1 may support the metastatic development and growth of LLC in MCP-1 deficient mice. PMID:27028862

  20. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael; Emek, Sinan C; Albertsson, Per-Ake; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

  1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium alysson extracts in high cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Essawy, Soha S.; Abo-elmatty, Dina M.; Ghazy, Nabila M.; Badr, Jihan M.; Sterner, Olov

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hexane (HEXA), chloroform (CHLORO), ethyl acetate (EA) and total alcoholic (T. ALCOH) extracts of Marrubium alysson in hypercholesterolemic-fed rabbits were evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in male rabbits by high cholesterol diet (HCD) (350 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits were allocated into groups, treated with simvastatin (SIM 5 mg/kg), different extracts of M. alysson at two doses of 250, 500 mg/kg. A normal control group and an HCD control one were used for comparison. Lipid profile, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (ox-LDL-C), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and superoxide anion production (O2•−), C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also evaluated. In addition, histological examination of ascending aorta was performed. We found dyslipidemia associated with significant increases in ox-LDL-C 123.5 ± 9.8 nmol MDA/mg non-HDL, MPO activity 0.08 ± 0.05 U/100 mg tissue and O2•− production 3.5 ± 0.3 nmol cytochrome C reduced/min/g tissue × 10−4 in hypercholerterolemic rabbits. In addition, there was a significant increase in CRP 6.6 ± 0.49 μmol/L and MCP-1 190.9 ± 6.4 pg/ml and its mRNA expression in HCD. Intima appeared thick with thick plaques surrounding the intima and luminal narrowing. SIM, EA and HEXA extracts of M. alysson had lipid lowering effect, decrease in ox-LDL-C, MPO, O2•−, CRP and MCP-1 mRNA expression with improvement of the pathological picture. M. alysson enhanced the stability of plaque, had lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. PMID:25473336

  2. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p < 0.05), with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, both fecal cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p < 0.05). Intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The

  3. Effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development and semen release response in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, A T; Eding, E H; Komen, J

    2001-11-01

    The effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were investigated in an attempt to improve semen collection from this species. Treatment of larvae with dietary 17alpha-methyltestosterone at 50 mg kg(-1) for days 12-33 or days 12-40 after hatching, or at 20 mg kg(-1) for days 12-26, 12-33, 12-40 or 12-47 after hatching inhibited the development of the seminal vesicle finger-like extensions in male catfish, but did not affect the sex ratio. The minimum effective dose and period of treatment to inhibit seminal vesicle development in all male catfish treated with 17alpha-methyltestosterone was 20 mg kg(-1) for days 12-40 after hatching. Male catfish from this treatment group developed normal testes that, in some cases, contained a few oocytes, which tended to disappear before sexual maturation. After sexual maturation, the semen release response was evaluated in males with incomplete seminal vesicles. Fluid with viable spermatozoa was obtained after two consecutive injections of carp pituitary suspension, from 10 of 19 males that had been fed 20 mg 17alpha-methyltestosterone kg(-1) for days 12-40 or days 12-47 after hatching, but from only 4 of 15 males that did not receive any dietary steroid. Intratesticular semen quality was not affected by 17alpha-methyltestosterone treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that the absence of seminal vesicle extensions induced by treatment with 17alpha-methyltestosterone facilitated the collection of semen by stripping from this species of fish.

  4. Reduced crying in term infants fed high beta-palmitate formula: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-palmitate (sn-2 palmitate) mimics human milk fat, enabling easier digestion. Therefore, we hypothesized that infants consuming high beta-palmitate formula would have more frequent, softer stools and reduced crying compared to infants consuming low beta-palmitate formula. Methods Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either (1) formula with high beta-palmitate (HBP, n = 21) or (2) regular formula with a standard vegetable oil mix (LBP, n = 21). A matched group of breastfed infants served as a reference (BF, n = 21). Crying and stool characteristics data were recorded by the parents for 3 days before the 6- and 12-week visits. Results We found no significant differences in the stool frequency or consistency between the two formula groups. The percentage of crying infants in the LBP group was significantly higher than that in the HBP and BF groups during the evening at 6 weeks (88.2% vs. 56.3% and 55.6%, p < 0.05) and during the afternoon at 12 weeks (91.7% vs. 50.0% and 40%, p < 0.05). The infants fed HBP had significantly shorter crying durations when compared with infants fed LBP formula (14.90 ± 3.85 vs.63.96 ± 21.76 min/day, respectively; p = 0.047). Conclusions Our study indicates that consumption of a high beta-palmitate formula affects infant crying patterns during the first weeks of life. Comparable to breastfeeding, it reduced crying duration and frequency, primarily during the afternoon and evening hours, thereby improving the well-being of formula-fed infants and their parents. Trial registration NCT00874068. Registration date March 31, 2009 PMID:24942975

  5. High density lipoproteins improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by suppressing hepatic inflammation[S

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C.; Li, Xiao Hong; Whitworth, Phillippa T.; Kasz, Robert; Tan, Joanne T.; McLennan, Susan V.; Celermajer, David S.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Heather, Alison K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. We also investigated apoAI as a component of reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) in hepatocytes to confirm results we observed in vivo. To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered either saline or lipid-free apoAI. Injections of lipid-free apoAI twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks with lipid-free apoAI resulted in: i) improved insulin sensitivity associated with decreased systemic and hepatic inflammation; ii) suppression of hepatic mRNA expression for key transcriptional regulators of lipogenic gene expression; and iii) suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells exposed to rHDLs showed suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, correlating with decreased NF-κB target gene expression. We conclude that apoAI suppresses liver inflammation in HFD mice and improves insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves a downregulation of NF-κB activation. PMID:24347528

  6. Probing the anti-hyperlipidemic efficacy of the allspice (Pimenta officinalis Lindl.) in rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, M P; Paramundayil, Julie J; Venukumar, M R; Latha, M S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Pimenta officinalis (APO) was investigated in experimental rats fed with high fat diet (HFD). Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by a significant enhancement in the level of glycerol, triglycerides and phopholipids in serum, and also in liver and kidney tissues. HFD caused oxidative stress in these animals as shown by marked increment in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and a distinct diminution in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidneys. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed reduced activity in hyperlipidemic rats. All these biochemical parameters showed reliable signs of retrieving towards near-normalcy in APO-administered HFD fed rats. This study unveiled the anti-hyperlipidemic as well as antioxidant activity of APO.

  7. Liver glycogen reduces food intake and attenuates obesity in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model.

    PubMed

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Zafra, Delia; Duran, Jordi; Adrover, Anna; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2015-03-01

    We generated mice that overexpress protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the liver (PTG(OE)), which results in an increase in liver glycogen. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), these animals reduced their food intake. The resulting effect was a lower body weight, decreased fat mass, and reduced leptin levels. Furthermore, PTG overexpression reversed the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia caused by the HFD and protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Of note, when fed an HFD, PTG(OE) mice did not show the decrease in hepatic ATP content observed in control animals and had lower expression of neuropeptide Y and higher expression of proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus. Additionally, after an overnight fast, PTG(OE) animals presented high liver glycogen content, lower liver triacylglycerol content, and lower serum concentrations of fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate than control mice, regardless of whether they were fed an HFD or a standard diet. In conclusion, liver glycogen accumulation caused a reduced food intake, protected against the deleterious effects of an HFD, and diminished the metabolic impact of fasting. Therefore, we propose that hepatic glycogen content be considered a potential target for the pharmacological manipulation of diabetes and obesity.

  8. Potential fat-lowering and prebiotic effects of enzymatically treated okara in high-cholesterol-fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Suárez, María-José; Pérez-Cózar, María-Luisa; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Redondo-Cuenca, Araceli

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the lipid profile on serum, liver and faeces, and the potential prebiotic effect of diets supplemented with enzymatically treated okara (okara(ET)) in high-cholesterol fed Wistar rats. Triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the serum (p < 0.01) and liver (p < 0.01) of okara(ET) treated rats. Total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the faeces of rats fed the okara(ET) diet. The pH of faecal contents from treated okara(ET) rats was lower (p < 0.001), probably due to the significantly higher (p < 0.001) production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Okara(ET), therefore, reduced triglycerides in serum and liver, and increased the excretion of total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids, improving the lipid profile in rats fed with high-cholesterol diets. Okara(ET) fibre can improve intestinal transit by increasing faecal bulk. The decreased pH and increased SCFA production indicated that okara(ET) fibre fermentation occurred, suggesting a potential prebiotic effect.

  9. Hepatocyte X-box binding protein 1 deficiency increases liver injury in mice fed a high-fat/sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Henkel, Anne S; LeCuyer, Brian E; Schipma, Matthew J; Anderson, Kristy A; Green, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Fatty liver is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the hepatic unfolded protein response (UPR). Reduced hepatic expression of the UPR regulator X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP1s) is associated with human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and feeding mice a high-fat diet with fructose/sucrose causes progressive, fibrosing steatohepatitis. This study examines the role of XBP1 in nonalcoholic fatty liver injury and fatty acid-induced cell injury. Hepatocyte-specific Xbp1-deficient (Xbp1(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat/sugar (HFS) diet for up to 16 wk. HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice exhibited higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) controls. RNA sequencing and Gene Ontogeny pathway analysis of hepatic mRNA revealed that apoptotic process, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix structural constituent pathways had enhanced activation in HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Liver histology demonstrated enhanced injury and fibrosis but less steatosis in the HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Hepatic Col1a1 and Tgfβ1 gene expression, as well as Chop and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), were increased in Xbp1(-/-) compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) mice after HFS feeding. In vitro, stable XBP1-knockdown Huh7 cells (Huh7-KD) and scramble control cells (Huh7-SCR) were generated and treated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h. PA-treated Huh7-KD cells had increased cytotoxicity measured by lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptotic nuclei, and caspase3/7 activity assays compared with Huh7-SCR cells. CHOP and p-JNK expression was also increased in Huh7-KD cells following PA treatment. In conclusion, loss of XBP1 enhances injury in both in vivo and in vitro models of fatty liver injury. We speculate that hepatic XBP1 plays an important protective role in pathogenesis of NASH.

  10. Hepatocyte X-box binding protein 1 deficiency increases liver injury in mice fed a high-fat/sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoying; Henkel, Anne S; LeCuyer, Brian E; Schipma, Matthew J; Anderson, Kristy A; Green, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Fatty liver is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the hepatic unfolded protein response (UPR). Reduced hepatic expression of the UPR regulator X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP1s) is associated with human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and feeding mice a high-fat diet with fructose/sucrose causes progressive, fibrosing steatohepatitis. This study examines the role of XBP1 in nonalcoholic fatty liver injury and fatty acid-induced cell injury. Hepatocyte-specific Xbp1-deficient (Xbp1(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat/sugar (HFS) diet for up to 16 wk. HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice exhibited higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) controls. RNA sequencing and Gene Ontogeny pathway analysis of hepatic mRNA revealed that apoptotic process, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix structural constituent pathways had enhanced activation in HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Liver histology demonstrated enhanced injury and fibrosis but less steatosis in the HFS-fed Xbp1(-/-) mice. Hepatic Col1a1 and Tgfβ1 gene expression, as well as Chop and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), were increased in Xbp1(-/-) compared with Xbp1(fl/fl) mice after HFS feeding. In vitro, stable XBP1-knockdown Huh7 cells (Huh7-KD) and scramble control cells (Huh7-SCR) were generated and treated with palmitic acid (PA) for 24 h. PA-treated Huh7-KD cells had increased cytotoxicity measured by lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptotic nuclei, and caspase3/7 activity assays compared with Huh7-SCR cells. CHOP and p-JNK expression was also increased in Huh7-KD cells following PA treatment. In conclusion, loss of XBP1 enhances injury in both in vivo and in vitro models of fatty liver injury. We speculate that hepatic XBP1 plays an important protective role in pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:26472223

  11. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet. PMID:22034228

  12. Effect of troglitazone on vascular and glucose metabolic actions of insulin in high-sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Santuré, Marta; Pitre, Maryse; Nadeau, André; Bachelard, Hélène

    2003-08-01

    In rats, diets high in simple sugar induce insulin resistance and alter vascular reactivity. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of 5 weeks treatment with troglitazone on insulin sensitivity, regional hemodynamics, and vascular responses to insulin in chow-fed and high-sucrose-fed rats. Male rats were randomly divided in 4 groups to receive a regular chow diet in the absence (group 1) or presence of troglitazone (0.2% in food; group 2), or a sucrose-enriched diet in the absence (group 3) or presence of troglitazone (group 4) for 5 weeks. The rats were instrumented with Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Glucose transport activity was examined in isolated muscles. Sucrose feeding was found to induce insulin resistance and to impair the insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation. Treatment with troglitazone was found to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity in sucrose- and chow-fed rats, but had no effect on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity measured in isolated muscles from both dietary groups. Changes in regional hemodynamics were observed in both dietary cohorts treated with troglitazone, and the hindquarter vasoconstrictor response to insulin noted in sucrose-fed rats was abolished by the treatment. The vascular effects of troglitazone, and its insulin-related attenuating effects on contractile tone, could have contributed, in part, to improve insulin action on peripheral glucose disposal, presumably by improving blood flow distribution and glucose delivery.

  13. Isoflavone and protein constituents of lactic acid-fermented soy milk combine to prevent dyslipidemia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-12-10

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  14. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  15. Haloperidol and rimonabant increase delay discounting in rats fed high-fat and standard-chow diets.

    PubMed

    Boomhower, Steven R; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2014-12-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for 3 months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n=9 standard chow; n=10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately versus three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally before some choice sessions under both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition showed increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared with chow-fed controls; haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking dopamine-2 and cannabinoid-1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task.

  16. Automated dynamic fed-batch process and media optimization for high productivity cell culture process development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Franklin; Toh, Poh Choo; Burnett, Iain; Li, Feng; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; Li, Jincai

    2013-01-01

    Current industry practices for large-scale mammalian cell cultures typically employ a standard platform fed-batch process with fixed volume bolus feeding. Although widely used, these processes are unable to respond to actual nutrient consumption demands from the culture, which can result in accumulation of by-products and depletion of certain nutrients. This work demonstrates the application of a fully automated cell culture control, monitoring, and data processing system to achieve significant productivity improvement via dynamic feeding and media optimization. Two distinct feeding algorithms were used to dynamically alter feed rates. The first method is based upon on-line capacitance measurements where cultures were fed based on growth and nutrient consumption rates estimated from integrated capacitance. The second method is based upon automated glucose measurements obtained from the Nova Bioprofile FLEX® autosampler where cultures were fed to maintain a target glucose level which in turn maintained other nutrients based on a stoichiometric ratio. All of the calculations were done automatically through in-house integration with a Delta V process control system. Through both media and feed strategy optimization, a titer increase from the original platform titer of 5 to 6.3 g/L was achieved for cell line A, and a substantial titer increase of 4 to over 9 g/L was achieved for cell line B with comparable product quality. Glucose was found to be the best feed indicator, but not all cell lines benefited from dynamic feeding and optimized feed media was critical to process improvement. Our work demonstrated that dynamic feeding has the ability to automatically adjust feed rates according to culture behavior, and that the advantage can be best realized during early and rapid process development stages where different cell lines or large changes in culture conditions might lead to dramatically different nutrient demands.

  17. Manganese protects against heart mitochondrial lipid peroxidation in rats fed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Malecki, E A; Greger, J L

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency depressed Mn concentrations in most tissues and consistently depressed Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels in heart. To examine the functional consequences of these effects, we fed weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12/diet) diets containing 20% (wt/wt) corn oil or 19% menhaden oil + 1% corn oil by weight and 0.75 or 82 mg Mn/kg diet for 2 mo (the fish oil mixture was supplemented with (+)-(mixed)-alpha-tocopherol to the level in corn oil). Heart and liver Mn concentrations in the Mn-deficient rats were 56% of those in Mn-adequate rats (P < 0.0001), confirming Mn deficiency. The Mn-deficient rats had more conjugated dienes in heart mitochondria than Mn-adequate rats (P < 0.001); rats fed fish oil had more conjugated dienes than those fed corn oil (P < 0.001). The MnSOD activity was inversely correlated with conjugated dienes (r = -0.71, P < 0.005), and Mn-deficient rats had 37% less MnSOD activity in the heart than did Mn-adequate rats (P < 0.0001). The dietary treatments did not affect heart microsomal conjugated diene formation, possibly because of compensation by copper-zinc (CuZn) SOD activity; CuZnSOD activities were 35% greater in the hearts of Mn-deficient animals (P < 0.01). Liver was less sensitive to Mn deficiency than was the heart as judged by MnSOD activity and conjugated diene formation. This work is the first to demonstrate that dietary Mn protects against in vivo oxidation of heart mitochondrial membranes. PMID:8558311

  18. Effect of curcumin on hepatic heme oxygenase 1 expression in high fat diet fed rats: is there a triangular relationship?

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Koçak, Hikmet; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Aydin, A Fatih; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Yapişlar, Hande; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2014-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is associated with oxidative stress induced fatty liver. Curcumin, an extract of Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression along with pro-oxidant-antioxidant status and lipid accumulation in rats fed an HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed among 4 groups: Group 1, which was fed the control diet (10% of total calories from fat); Group 2, which was fed the HFD (60% of total calories from fat); and groups 3 and 4, which received the HFD supplemented with curcumin and the control diet supplemented with curcumin (1 g/kg diet; w/w), respectively, for 16 weeks. HFD caused increases in hepatic lipid levels, production of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Further, HO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Histopathological examination showed hepatic fat accumulation and slight fibrotic changes. Curcumin treatment reduced hepatic lipids and oxidative stress parameters, and HO-1 expression was significantly increased. These findings suggest that increased HO-1 expression, along with suppressed oxidative stress as well as reduced hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes, contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in attenuating the pathogenesis of fatty liver induced metabolic diseases.

  19. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2−/−/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2−/−/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX−/−/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  20. Low concentration of ethanol favors progenitor cell differentiation and neovascularization in high-fat diet-fed mice model.

    PubMed

    Vergori, Luisa; Lauret, Emilie; Soleti, Raffaella; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2016-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and monocytic cells from bone marrow (BM) can be recruited to the injured endothelium and contribute to its regeneration. During metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, progenitor cell function is impaired. Several studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption prevents the development and progression of atherosclerosis in a variety of animal/mouse models and increases mobilization of progenitor cells. Along with these studies, we identify ethanol at low concentration as therapeutic tool to in vitro expand progenitor cells in order to obtain an adequate number of cells for their use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effects of ethanol on the phenotype of BM-derived cells from mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). HFD did not induce changes in weight of mice but induced metabolic alterations. HFD feeding increased the differentiation of monocytic progenitors but not EPCs. Whereas ethanol at 0.6% is able to increase monocytic progenitor differentiation, 1% ethanol diminished it. Furthermore, ethanol at 0.6% increased the ability of progenitor cells to promote in vivo angiogenesis as well as secretome of BM-derived cells from mice fed with HFD, but not in mice fed normal diet. In conclusion, ethanol at low concentration is able to increase angiogenic abilities of progenitor cells from animals with early metabolic alterations.

  1. Defective adipose tissue development associated with hepatomegaly in cathepsin E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Kido, Mizuho A; Hatakeyama, Junko; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-03-28

    Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase, which is predominantly distributed in immune-related and epithelial cells. However, the role of the enzyme in adipose tissues remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a mouse model of obesity. HFD-fed CatE(-/-) mice displayed reduced body weight gain and defective development of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Moreover, fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice showed abnormal lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues characterized by hepatomegaly, which is probably due to defective adipose tissue development. Detailed pathological and biochemical analyses showed that hepatomegaly was accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice. In fat-induced CatE(-/-) mice, the number of macrophages infiltrating into WAT was significantly lower than in fat-induced wild-type mice. Thus, the impaired adipose tissue development in HFD-induced CatE(-/-) mice was probably due to reduced infiltration of macrophages and may lead to hepatomegaly accompanied by hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia.

  2. Heterotrophic high cell-density fed-batch cultures of the phycocyanin-producing red alga Galdieria sulphuraria.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rikke Ankerstjerne; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Eriksen, Niels Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Growth and phycocyanin production in batch and fed-batch cultures of the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G, which was grown heterotrophically in darkness on glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sugar beet molasses, was investigated. In batch cultures, specific growth rates and yields of biomass dry weight on the pure sugars were 1.08-1.15 day-1 and 0.48-0.50 g g-1, respectively. They were slightly higher when molasses was the carbon source. Cellular phycocyanin contents during the exponential growth phase were 3-4 mg g-1 in dry weight. G. sulphuraria was able to tolerate concentrations of glucose and fructose of up to 166 g L-1 (0.9 M) and an ammonium sulfate concentration of 22 g L-1 (0.17 M) without negative effects on the specific growth rate. When the total concentration of dissolved substances in the growth medium exceeded 1-2 M, growth was completely inhibited. In carbon-limited fed-batch cultures, biomass dry weight concentrations of 80-120 g L-1 were obtained while phycocyanin accumulated to concentrations between 250 and 400 mg L-1. These results demonstrate that G. sulphuraria is well suited for growth in heterotrophic cultures at very high cell densities, and that such cultures produce significant amounts of phycocyanin. Furthermore, the productivity of phycocyanin in the heterotrophic fed-batch cultures of G. sulphuraria was higher than is attained in outdoor cultures of Spirulina platensis, where phycocyanin is presently obtained. PMID:15723314

  3. A combination of flaxseed oil and astaxanthin alleviates atherosclerosis risk factors in high fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the most common pathologic process underlying cardiovascular disease. Both flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) are believed to benefit cardiovascular system. The combined effect of FO and ASX on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet was investigated. Methods Astaxanthin was dissolved in flaxseed oil to a final concentration of 1g/kg (FO + ASX). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was lard (HFD) or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX (50 mg ASX/kg diet) or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX (100 mg ASX/kg diet) or FO + ASX (200 mg ASX/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Results The combination of FO and ASX significantly increased the antioxidant defense capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma. Evident decreases in the levels TG, TC and LDL-C contents, as well as IL-6 and CRP were also observed in plasma of FO and ASX fed rats. Conclusion The combination of FO and ASX can improve oxidative stress, lipid abnormalities and inflammation, providing evidence that the combination of FO and ASX could be a promising functional food in cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:24708887

  4. D-psicose increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Onishi, Kana; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of D-psicose by increasing energy expenditure in rats pair-fed the high-sucrose diet (HSD). Wistar rats were divided into two dietary groups: HSD containing 5% cellulose (C) and 5% d-psicose (P). The C dietary group was further subdivided into two groups: rats fed the C diet ad libitum (C-AD) and pair-fed the C diet along with those in the P group (C-PF). Resting energy expenditure during darkness and lipoprotein lipase activity in the soleus muscle were significantly higher in the P group than in the C-PF group. Serum levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue; and body fat accumulation were all significantly lower in the P group than in the C-PF group. The anti-obesity effects of D-psicose could be induced not only by suppressing lipogenic enzyme activity but also by increasing EE in rats.

  5. Capsaicin-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus and alterations in gut microbial count in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Murtaza, Nida; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Karmase, Aniket; Kaur, Jaspreet; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a global health problem and recently it has been seen as a growing concern for developing countries. Several bioactive dietary molecules have been associated with amelioration of obesity and associated complications and capsaicin is one among them. The present work is an attempt to understand and provide evidence for the novel mechanisms of anti-obesity activity of capsaicin in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Swiss albino mice divided in three groups (n=8-10) i.e. control, HFD fed and capsaicin (2mg/kg, po)+HFD fed were administered respective treatment for 3months. After measuring phenotypic and serum related biochemical changes, effect of capsaicin on HFD-induced transcriptional changes in hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT) (visceral and subcutaneous), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and gut microbial alterations was studied and quantified. Our results suggest that, in addition to its well-known effects, oral administration of capsaicin (a) modulates hypothalamic satiety associated genotype, (b) alters gut microbial composition, (c) induces "browning" genotype (BAT associated genes) in subcutaneous WAT and (d) increases expression of thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in BAT. The present study provides evidence for novel and interesting mechanisms to explain the anti-obesity effect of capsaicin.

  6. Role of Sphingolipid Mediator Ceramide in Obesity and Renal Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat DietS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Treatment of mice with the acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) inhibitor amitriptyline significantly attenuated the HFD-induced plasma ceramide levels. Corresponding to increase in plasma ceramide, the HFD significantly increased the body weight gain, plasma leptin concentration, urinary total protein and albumin excretion, glomerular damage index, and adipose tissue ASMase activity compared with the LFD-fed mice. These HFD-induced changes were also significantly attenuated by treatment of mice with amitriptyline. In addition, the decline of plasma glucose concentration after an intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.15 U/kg b.wt.) was more sustained in mice on the HFD with amitriptyline than on the HFD alone. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (3 g/kg b.wt.) resulted in a slow increase followed by a rapid decrease in the plasma glucose concentration in LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice, but such blood glucose response was not observed in HFD-fed mice. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a decrease in the podocin and an increase in the desmin in the glomeruli of HFD-fed mice compared with the LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a pivotal role for ceramide biosynthesis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated kidney damage. PMID:20543095

  7. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  8. Hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of "triguero" asparagus from andalusia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    García, M D; De la Puerta, R; Sáenz, M T; Marquez-Martín, A; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2012-01-01

    The cultivated species of the wild autochthonous Asparagus officinalis in Andalusia in Spain is commonly called "triguero" asparagus. This vegetable has traditionally been very much appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. This study has been designed to evaluate the potential effect of different concentrations of freeze-dried asparagus (500, 250, and 125 mg/Kg of body weight/day) on oxidative status and lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After five weeks of treatment, doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg of asparagus were able to significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Atherogenic index was also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by administrating freeze-dried asparagus. A beneficial effect was observed in the HDL cholesterol levels in asparagus-fed groups although the increase was not significant. Consumption of asparagus also improved antioxidant status, assayed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, and protected against lipid peroxidation. These results show that the intake of green asparagus from Andalusia (Spain) helps to regulate plasma lipid levels and prevents oxidative damage in hypercholesterolemic conditions. PMID:22203881

  9. Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-12-01

    Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages.

  10. Elevated GH/IGF-I promotes mammary tumors in high-fat, but not low-fat, fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Sanchez-Sanchez, Rafael; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José; Swanson, Steven M; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice developed mammary tumors compared with GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared with diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status.

  11. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  12. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. PMID:27698957

  13. Enhanced production of human serum albumin by fed-batch culture of Hansenula polymorpha with high-purity oxygen.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jong Kyu; Shang, Longan; Kim, Moon Il; Jeong, Chang Moon; Chang, Ho Nam; Hahm, Moon Sun; Rhee, Sang Ki; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2010-11-01

    Fed-batch cultures of Hansenula polymorpha were studied to develop an efficient biosystem to produce recombinant human serum albumin (HSA). To comply with this purpose, we used high purity oxygen supplying strategy to increase viable cell density in a bioreactor and enhance the production of target protein. A mutant strain, H. polymorpha GOT7 was utilized in this study as a host strain in both 5-L and 30-L scale fermentors. To supply high purity oxygen into a bioreactor, nearly 100 % high purity oxygen from commercial bomb or higher than 93 % oxygen available in-situ from a pressure swing adsorption oxygen generator (PSA) was employed. Under the optimal fermentation of H. polymorpha with high purity oxygen, the final cell densities and produced HSA concentrations were 24.6 g/L and 5.1 g/L in the 5-L fermentor, and 24.8 g/L and 4.5 g/L in the 30-L fermentor, respectively. These were about 2-10 times higher than those obtained in air-based fed-batch fermentations. The discrepancies between the 5-L and 30-L fermentors with air supply were presumably due to the higher contribution of surface aeration over submerged aeration in the 5-L fermentor. This study, therefore, proved the positive effect of high purity oxygen to enhance viable cell density as well as target recombinant protein production in microbial fermentations. PMID:21124059

  14. A polyphenol-rich fraction obtained from table grapes decreases adiposity, insulin resistance and markers of inflammation and impacts gut microbiota in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brian; Hoffman, Jessie; Martinez, Kristina; Grace, Mary; Lila, Mary Ann; Cockrell, Chase; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Chang, Eugene; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Mackert, Jessica; Shen, Wan; Cooney, Paula; Hopkins, Robin; McIntosh, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if consuming an extractable or nonextractable fraction of table grapes reduced the metabolic consequences of consuming a high-fat, American-type diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (LF) diet, a high fat (HF) diet, or an HF diet containing whole table grape powder (5% w/w), an extractable, polyphenol-rich (HF-EP) fraction, a nonextractable, polyphenol-poor (HF-NEP) fraction or equal combinations of both fractions (HF-EP+NEP) from grape powder for 16weeks. Mice fed the HF-EP and HF-EP+NEP diets had lower percentages of body fat and amounts of white adipose tissue (WAT) and improved glucose tolerance compared to the HF-fed controls. Mice fed the HF-EP+NEP diet had lower liver weights and triglyceride (TG) levels compared to the HF-fed controls. Mice fed the HF-EP+NEP diets had higher hepatic mRNA levels of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose TG lipase, and decreased expression of c-reactive protein compared to the HF-fed controls. In epididymal (visceral) WAT, the expression levels of several inflammatory genes were lower in mice fed the HF-EP and HF-EP+NEP diets compared to the HF-fed controls. Mice fed the HF diets had increased myeloperoxidase activity and impaired localization of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 in ileal mucosa compared to the HF-EP and HF-NEP diets. Several of these treatment effects were associated with alterations in gut bacterial community structure. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the polyphenol-rich, EP fraction from table grapes attenuated many of the adverse health consequences associated with consuming an HF diet.

  15. Cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica regulates the diabetic and hyperlipidemic signs of high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Ciou, Jiun-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin; Ho, Hui-Ya

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet (n = 9), whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was orally given TA or rosiglitazone or not for 4 weeks. Blood and visceral adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Treatment with TA reduced body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT) (including epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric WAT and visceral fat), and hepatic triacylglycerol content significantly without affecting food intake in diet-induced diabetic mice. TA effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) and attenuated insulin resistance. Treatment with TA, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TA effectively significantly increased the protein contents of phosphorylation of AMPK-α (Thr172) both in liver and adipose tissue. It is shown that TA exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by decreasing gene expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of triglycerides, and antidiabetic properties occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) down- regulation, improved insulin sensitization and TA (at 1.0 g/kg dose) decreased expression of hepatic and adipose 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Futhermore, TA at doses of 0

  16. Cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica regulates the diabetic and hyperlipidemic signs of high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Ciou, Jiun-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin; Ho, Hui-Ya

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet (n = 9), whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was orally given TA or rosiglitazone or not for 4 weeks. Blood and visceral adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Treatment with TA reduced body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT) (including epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric WAT and visceral fat), and hepatic triacylglycerol content significantly without affecting food intake in diet-induced diabetic mice. TA effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) and attenuated insulin resistance. Treatment with TA, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TA effectively significantly increased the protein contents of phosphorylation of AMPK-α (Thr172) both in liver and adipose tissue. It is shown that TA exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by decreasing gene expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of triglycerides, and antidiabetic properties occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) down- regulation, improved insulin sensitization and TA (at 1.0 g/kg dose) decreased expression of hepatic and adipose 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Futhermore, TA at doses of 0

  17. Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kraft, Guillaume; Irimia, Jose M; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W; Roach, Peter J; Shiota, Masakazu; Cherrington, Alan D

    2013-02-01

    The cellular events mediating the pleiotropic actions of portal vein glucose (PoG) delivery on hepatic glucose disposition have not been clearly defined. Likewise, the molecular defects associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) following consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) are unknown. Our goal was to identify hepatocellular changes elicited by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and PoG signaling in normal chow-fed (CTR) and HFFD-fed dogs. In CTR dogs, we demonstrated that PoG infusion in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in vivo. In contrast, 4 weeks of HFFD feeding markedly reduced GK protein content and impaired the activation of GS in association with diminished HGU and GSYN in vivo. Furthermore, the enzymatic changes associated with PoG sensing in chow-fed animals were abolished in HFFD-fed animals, consistent with loss of the stimulatory effects of PoG delivery. These data reveal new insight into the molecular physiology of the portal glucose signaling mechanism under normal conditions and to the pathophysiology of aberrant postprandial hepatic glucose disposition evident under a diet-induced glucose-intolerant condition.

  18. Polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract exerts hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effects in mice fed a diet containing high fat and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Yang, Yue; Pham, Tho X; Ku, Chai Siah; Farruggia, Callie; Harness, Ellen; Smyth, Joan A; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-06-14

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. We investigated whether polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent high fat/high cholesterol (HF/HC) diet-induced metabolic disturbances in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M diet containing HF/HC (16% fat, 0·25% cholesterol, w/w) or the same diet supplemented with 0·1% BCE (w/w) for 12 weeks. There were no differences in total body weight and liver weight between groups. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels were significantly lower in BCE group than in controls, while plasma TAG levels were not significantly different. There was a decreasing trend in hepatic TAG levels, and histological evaluation of steatosis grade was markedly lower in the livers of mice fed BCE. Although the mRNA levels of major regulators of hepatic cholesterol metabolism, i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), were not significantly altered by BCE supplementation, protein expression of mature sterol-regulatory element-binding protein and LDLR was significantly increased with no change in HMGR protein. The expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 that facilitates LDLR protein degradation, as well as one of its transcriptional regulators, i.e. hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, was significantly decreased in the livers of mice fed BCE. Taken together, BCE supplementation decreased plasma TC and glucose, and inhibited liver steatosis, suggesting that this berry may be consumed to prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by diets high in fat and cholesterol.

  19. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  20. EDTA disodium zinc has superior bioavailability compared to common inorganic or chelated zinc compounds in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Sherrard, Lindsey; Plouffe, Louise J

    2012-10-01

    Different zinc (Zn) compounds have unique properties that may influence the amount of Zn absorbed particularly in the presence of phytic acid (PA), a common food component that binds Zn and decreases its bioavailability. In this study, 30-day-old male rats (n=12/diet group) were fed diets supplemented with PA (0.8%) and low levels (8mg Zn/kg diet) of inorganic (Zn oxide, Zn sulphate) or chelated (Zn gluconate, Zn acetate, Zn citrate, EDTA disodium Zn, Zn orotate) Zn compounds for 5 weeks. Two control groups were fed diets supplemented with low or normal (30mg Zn/kg diet) Zn (as Zn oxide) without added PA. Control rats fed the low Zn oxide diet showed depressed Zn status. Addition of PA to this diet exacerbated the Zn deficiency in rats. Growth (body weight gain and femur length) and Zn concentrations in plasma and tissues were similar in rats fed Zn oxide, Zn sulphate, Zn gluconate, Zn acetate, Zn citrate or Zn orotate. Rats fed EDTA disodium Zn showed enhanced growth compared to rats fed Zn oxide or Zn gluconate and had higher Zn concentrations in plasma and femur compared to rats fed all other Zn compounds. Only the haematological profile of rats fed EDTA disodium Zn did not differ from control rats fed normal Zn. These data indicate that in rats fed a high PA diet, bioavailability of commonly used inorganic or chelated Zn compounds does not differ appreciably, but Zn supplied as an EDTA disodium salt has superior bioavailability.

  1. Implication of fermentable carbohydrates targeting the gut microbiota on conjugated linoleic acid production in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Druart, Céline; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Dewulf, Evelyne M; De Backer, Fabienne C; Possemiers, Sam; Van de Wiele, Tom; Moens, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc; Cani, Patrice D; Larondelle, Yvan; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-09-28

    In vitro experiments have shown that isolated human gut bacteria are able to metabolise PUFA into conjugated PUFA like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). The hypothesis of the present paper was that high-fat (HF) diet feeding and supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates that have prebiotic properties modulate the in vivo production of CLA by the mouse gut microbiota. Mice were treated for 4 weeks as follows: control (CT) groups were fed a standard diet; HF groups were fed a HF diet rich in linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6); the third groups were fed with the HF diet supplemented with either inulin-type fructans (HF-ITF) or arabinoxylans (HF-Ax). HF diet feeding increased rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 CLA) content both in the caecal and liver tissues compared with the CT groups. ITF supplementation had no major effect compared with the HF diet whereas Ax supplementation increased further rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 CLA) in the caecal tissue. These differences between both prebiotics may be linked to the high fat-binding capacity of Ax that provides more substrates for bacterial metabolism and to differential modulation of the gut microbiota (specific increase in Roseburia spp. in HF-Ax v. HF). In conclusion, these experiments supply the proof of concept that the mouse gut microbiota produces CLA in vivo, with consequences on the level of CLA in the caecal and liver tissues. We postulate that the CLA-producing bacteria could be a mediator to consider in the metabolic effects of both HF diet feeding and prebiotic supplementation.

  2. Maternal green tea extract supplementation to rats fed a high-fat diet ameliorates insulin resistance in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiying; Tse, Iris M Y; Li, Edmund T S

    2012-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition is associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders in the offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal green tea (GT) supplementation can alleviate metabolic derangements in high-fat-diet-fed rats born of obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low-fat (LF, 7%), high-fat (HF, 30%) or HF diet containing 0.75% or 1.0% GT extract (GT1, GT2) prior to conception and throughout gestation and lactation. Both doses of GT significantly improved metabolic parameters of HF-fed lactating dams (P<.05). Birth weight and litter size of offspring from HF dams were similar, but GT supplementation led to lighter pups on day 21 (P<.05). The weaned male pups received HF, GT1 or GT2 diet (dam/pup diet groups: LF/HF, HF/HF, HF/GT1, HF/GT2, GT1/HF and GT2/HF). At week 13, they had similar weight but insulin resistance index (IRI), serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and liver triglyceride of rats born to GT dams were 57%, 23% and 26% lower, accompanied by improved gene/protein expressions related to lipid and glucose metabolism, compared with the HF/HF rats (P<.05). Although HF/GT1 and HF/GT2 rats had lower serum NEFA, their insulin and IRI were comparable to HF/HF rats. This study shows that metabolic derangements induced by an overnourished mother could be offset by supplementing GT to the maternal diet and that this approach is more effective than giving GT to offspring since weaning. Hence, adverse effects of developmental programming are reversible, at least in part, by supplementing bioactive food component(s) to the mother's diet.

  3. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. Results NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. Conclusion From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue. PMID:24403834

  4. Heart CD36 expression is increased in murine models of diabetes and in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwalt, D E; Scheck, S H; Rhinehart-Jones, T

    1995-01-01

    High levels of CD36 expression are found in triglyceride storing and secreting cells such as differentiated adipocytes and mammary secretory epithelial cells and in some capillary endothelial cells. We have found high levels of CD36 in the capillary endothelium of murine adipose tissue and in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Muscle cells themselves were CD36 negative. No CD36 was found in brain endothelium. Cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues are highly oxidative and catabolize long-chain fatty acids as a source of energy while brain tissue does not use long-chain fatty acids for energy production. Since capillary endothelial cell CD36 expression appeared to correlate with parenchymal cell fatty acid utilization and since CD26 has been identified recently as a long-chain fatty acid-binding protein, we examined heart tissue CD36 expression in murine models of insulin-dependent (nonobese diabetic, NOD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (KKAY). Diabetic NOD and KKAY mice had serum triglyceride levels 2.6- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than normal mice and exhibited 7- and 3.5-fold higher levels of heart microsomal CD36, respectively, than control mice. Mice fed a 40% fat diet expressed heart tissue CD36 at a level 3.5-fold higher than those fed a 9% fat diet. These data suggest that endothelial cell CD36 expression is related to parenchymal cell lipid metabolism. Images PMID:7544802

  5. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds. PMID:27052872

  6. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  7. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  8. Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue in high-fat junk food (HFJF) and chow-fed rats with dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions (DMNL rats).

    PubMed

    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1991-05-15

    Male weanling rats received dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus lesions (DMNL) or sham operations and were fed for 173 postoperative days a high-fat diet and given a 32% sucrose solution as drinking fluid. This was supplemented with chocolate chip cookies, potato chips and marshmallows. Other DMNL and sham-operated controls were fed lab chow instead of the above high-fat junk food diet (HFJF) and given tap water instead of 32% sucrose solution. All animals were killed on postoperative day 174. Caloric intake per 100 g body weight was similar in all groups; however, the HFJF fed control and DMNL rats had significantly elevated carcass fat. Since HFJF-DMNL rats were not nearly as obese as the HFJF control animals, it appears that the DMNL offered some protection against the HFJF-diet-produced obesity. When their smaller body size is considered. DMN lesions had no effect on brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass in chow-fed or HFJF fed rats, whereas BAT size was significantly enlarged in HFJF-fed control animals. This suggests but does not prove that HFJF-fed controls, but not DMNL rats, may be using dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) to attenuate their obesity. We hypothesize that the HFJF-fed DMNL may not be enhancing DIT as reflected in normal BAT size, because they had not attained a degree of fatness to activate this system, or the DMN lesions impaired its activation. Both HFJF-fed groups showed reduced linear growth compared to their counterparts. The reason for stunting is uncertain, but may be related to their low plasma insulin concentrations.

  9. Resveratrol supplementation confers neuroprotection in cortical brain tissue of nonhuman primates fed a high-fat/sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Michel; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Allard, Joanne; Faulkner, Shakeela; Wnorowski, Artur; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Moaddel, Ruin; Alfaras, Irene; Mattison, Julie A; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Pearson, Kevin J; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of long-term resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in preventing pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, arterial stiffening and metabolic decline induced by high-fat/high-sugar (HFS) diet in nonhuman primates. Here, the analysis was extended to examine whether RSV may reduce dietary stress toxicity in the cerebral cortex of the same cohort of treated animals. Middle-aged male rhesus monkeys were fed for 2 years with HFS alone or combined with RSV, after which whole-genome microarray analysis of cerebral cortex tissue was carried out along with ELISA, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analyses to examine markers of vascular health and inflammation in the cerebral cortices. A number of genes and pathways that were differentially modulated in these dietary interventions indicated an exacerbation of neuroinflammation (e.g., oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, NF-κB activation) in HFS-fed animals and protection by RSV treatment. The decreased expression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, dysregulation in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and reduced capillary density induced by HFS stress were rescued by RSV supplementation. Our results suggest that long-term RSV treatment confers neuroprotection against cerebral vascular dysfunction during nutrient stress. PMID:27070252

  10. Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effects of D-chiro-inositol-enriched tartary buckwheat extract in high fructose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yan; Ren, Daoyuan; Guo, Jianjun; Luo, Yiyang; Yang, Xingbin

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of d-Chiro-Inositol (DCI) enriched tartary buckwheat extract (DTBE) against high fructose (HF) diet-induced hyperglycemia and liver injury in mice. HPLC analysis revealed that the content of DCI present in purified DTBE was 34.06%. Mice fed 20% fructose in drinking water for 8 weeks significantly displayed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress (p < 0.01). Continuous administration of DTBE in HF-fed mice dose-dependently reduced the HF-induced elevation of body weight, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, as well as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, while the HF-induced decline of serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels could be markedly elevated in the mice. Meanwhile, DTBE also dose-dependently increased the hepatic total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and decreased hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, relative to HF-treated mice. Histopathology of H&E and Oil Red O staining confirmed liver injury induced by a HF diet and the hepatoprotective effect of DTBE. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the intake of DTBE may be a feasible preventive or therapeutic strategy for HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis and oxidative injury. PMID:26412138

  11. Resveratrol supplementation confers neuroprotection in cortical brain tissue of nonhuman primates fed a high-fat/sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Michel; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Allard, Joanne; Faulkner, Shakeela; Wnorowski, Artur; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Moaddel, Ruin; Alfaras, Irene; Mattison, Julie A.; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Pearson, Kevin J.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of long-term resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in preventing pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, arterial stiffening and metabolic decline induced by high-fat/high-sugar (HFS) diet in nonhuman primates. Here, the analysis was extended to examine whether RSV may reduce dietary stress toxicity in the cerebral cortex of the same cohort of treated animals. Middle-aged male rhesus monkeys were fed for 2 years with HFS alone or combined with RSV, after which whole-genome microarray analysis of cerebral cortex tissue was carried out along with ELISA, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analyses to examine markers of vascular health and inflammation in the cerebral cortices. A number of genes and pathways that were differentially modulated in these dietary interventions indicated an exacerbation of neuroinflammation (e.g., oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, NF-κB activation) in HFS-fed animals and protection by RSV treatment. The decreased expression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, dysregulation in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and reduced capillary density induced by HFS stress were rescued by RSV supplementation. Our results suggest that long-term RSV treatment confers neuroprotection against cerebral vascular dysfunction during nutrient stress. PMID:27070252

  12. Treadmill Exercise Training Modulates Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism and Circulating PCSK9 Concentration in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Kavita S.; Williamson, David L.; Rideout, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel biomarker of LDL clearance and a therapeutic target of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise training in modulating PCSK9 abundance and hepatic sterol regulation in high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 8) were assigned to a low-fat (LF), high-fat (HF), or an HF with exercise (HF + EX) group for 8 weeks. The HF + EX group was progressively trained 5 days/week on a motorized treadmill. The HF + EX group was protected against body weight (BW) gain and diet-induced dyslipidemia compared with the HF group. The HF + EX group demonstrated an increase in hepatic PCSK9 mRNA (1.9-fold of HF control, P < 0.05) and a reduction in plasma PCSK9 (14%) compared with the HF group. Compared with HF mice, HF + EX mice demonstrated reduced hepatic cholesterol (14%) and increased (P < 0.05) nuclear SREBP2 protein (1.8-fold of HF group) and LDLr mRNA (1.4-fold of HF group). Plasma PCSK9 concentrations correlated positively with plasma non-HDL-C (P = 0.01, r = 0.84). Results suggest that treadmill exercise reduces non-HDL cholesterol and differentially modulates hepatic and blood PCSK9 abundance in HF-fed C57BL/6 mice. PMID:23862065

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P < 0.01). High concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents. PMID:26319309

  14. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid influence liver triacylglycerol and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Deminice, Rafael; Simões-Ambrosio, Livia Maria Cordeiro; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO) on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6) and Fructose (Fr, n = 32), the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased) and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased). The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet.

  15. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  16. Inhibition of ileal bile acid uptake protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anuradha; Kosters, Astrid; Mells, Jamie E; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Amanso, Angelica M; Wynn, Grace M; Xu, Tianlei; Keller, Brad T; Yin, Hong; Banton, Sophia; Jones, Dean P; Wu, Hao; Dawson, Paul A; Karpen, Saul J

    2016-09-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and safe and effective therapies are needed. Bile acids (BAs) and their receptors [including the nuclear receptor for BAs, farnesoid X receptor (FXR)] play integral roles in regulating whole-body metabolism and hepatic lipid homeostasis. We hypothesized that interruption of the enterohepatic BA circulation using a luminally restricted apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT) inhibitor (ASBTi; SC-435) would modify signaling in the gut-liver axis and reduce steatohepatitis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Administration of this ASBTi increased fecal BA excretion and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BA synthesis genes in liver and reduced mRNA expression of ileal BA-responsive genes, including the negative feedback regulator of BA synthesis, fibroblast growth factor 15. ASBT inhibition resulted in a marked shift in hepatic BA composition, with a reduction in hydrophilic, FXR antagonistic species and an increase in FXR agonistic BAs. ASBT inhibition restored glucose tolerance, reduced hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations, and improved NAFLD activity score in HFD-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced hepatic expression of lipid synthesis genes (including liver X receptor target genes) and normalized expression of the central lipogenic transcription factor, Srebp1c Accumulation of hepatic lipids and SREBP1 protein were markedly reduced in HFD-fed Asbt(-/-) mice, providing genetic evidence for a protective role mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic BA circulation. Together, these studies suggest that blocking ASBT function with a luminally restricted inhibitor can improve both hepatic and whole body aspects of NAFLD.

  17. Inhibition of ileal bile acid uptake protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anuradha; Kosters, Astrid; Mells, Jamie E; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Amanso, Angelica M; Wynn, Grace M; Xu, Tianlei; Keller, Brad T; Yin, Hong; Banton, Sophia; Jones, Dean P; Wu, Hao; Dawson, Paul A; Karpen, Saul J

    2016-09-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and safe and effective therapies are needed. Bile acids (BAs) and their receptors [including the nuclear receptor for BAs, farnesoid X receptor (FXR)] play integral roles in regulating whole-body metabolism and hepatic lipid homeostasis. We hypothesized that interruption of the enterohepatic BA circulation using a luminally restricted apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT) inhibitor (ASBTi; SC-435) would modify signaling in the gut-liver axis and reduce steatohepatitis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Administration of this ASBTi increased fecal BA excretion and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BA synthesis genes in liver and reduced mRNA expression of ileal BA-responsive genes, including the negative feedback regulator of BA synthesis, fibroblast growth factor 15. ASBT inhibition resulted in a marked shift in hepatic BA composition, with a reduction in hydrophilic, FXR antagonistic species and an increase in FXR agonistic BAs. ASBT inhibition restored glucose tolerance, reduced hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations, and improved NAFLD activity score in HFD-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced hepatic expression of lipid synthesis genes (including liver X receptor target genes) and normalized expression of the central lipogenic transcription factor, Srebp1c Accumulation of hepatic lipids and SREBP1 protein were markedly reduced in HFD-fed Asbt(-/-) mice, providing genetic evidence for a protective role mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic BA circulation. Together, these studies suggest that blocking ASBT function with a luminally restricted inhibitor can improve both hepatic and whole body aspects of NAFLD. PMID:27655848

  18. p13 overexpression in pancreatic β-cells ameliorates type 2 diabetes in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Shintaro; Katagi, Kazuhiko; Shintani, Norihito; Ikeda, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Soken; Inoue, Naoki; Tanaka, Shota; Koumoto, Mai; Kasai, Atsushi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hamagami, Ken-Ichi; Tomimoto, Shuhei; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Ago, Yukio; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-06-12

    We examined the pancreatic function of p13 encoded by 1110001J03Rik, whose expression is decreased in pancreatic islets in high-fat-fed diabetic mice, by generating transgenic mice overexpressing p13 (p13-Tg) in pancreatic β-cells. p13-Tg mice showed normal basal glucose metabolism; however, under high-fat feeding, these animals showed augmented glucose-induced first-phase and total insulin secretion, improved glucose disposal, greater islet area and increased mitotic insulin-positive cells. In addition, high-fat diet-induced 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity, a reliable marker and causative agent of lipid peroxidative stress, was significantly decreased in p13-Tg mouse islets. These results indicate that p13 is a novel pancreatic factor exerting multiple beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes.

  19. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  20. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  1. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshan, Suganya; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Chinnasamy, Velmurugan; Chandiran, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus (200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver). Hyperlipidemia condition assessed in terms of body weight, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, ester cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and atherogenic index and the results showed significant differences between HFD and non-HFD fed rats (p<0.001). High-fat diet treated rats showed changes in hepatic tissue architecture such as micro and macrovascular steatosis, increased fatty infiltration, and inflammation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H. indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage. PMID:27761421

  2. Resveratrol appears to protect against oxidative stress and steroidogenesis collapse in mice fed high-calorie and high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-J; Wang, Q; Lv, Z-M; Wang, C-L; Li, C-P; Rong, Y-L

    2015-02-01

    The detrimental effects on Leydig cells steroidogenesis in mice on high-calorie and high-cholesterol diet (HCD) were determined, and the possible protection conferred by resveratrol supplementation was investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed high-calorie and alone (HCD group) or with resveratrol supplementation (HCD + Res group) for 18 weeks. Male C57BL/6J mice fed standard diet without or with the same dose of resveratrol served as controls. At the end of the experiment, there were significant declines of serum testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) in HCD group as compared to controls. In line with the hormone alterations, the expressions of StAR and steroidogenic enzymes in testicular tissues were significantly down-regulated in HCD group. Resveratrol supplementation could significantly improve expressions of StAR and steroidogenic enzymes, and increase serum testosterone and LH concentrations in HCD + Res group. Mice in HCD group also showed a statistically significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of MnSOD and GPx4. Resveratrol supplementation improved testicular MnSOD and GPx4 expression in comparison with HCD group. We propose that resveratrol may attenuate detrimental effects on Leydig cells steroidogenesis in HCD-fed mice, and its upregulations of antioxidant defence mechanisms and LH level may play a role in its protection. Our data suggest resveratrol appears to have the potential for therapeutic approaches targeting male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism.

  3. Effects of Rumen-Mate on lactational performance of Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Emery, R S; Schricker, B R

    1989-07-01

    Three Latin-square trials were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing Rumen-Mate, a commercial buffer containing KCl, NaCl, and Mg and Na carbonates, on lactation performance of Holsteins. Cows were fed a basal ration of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate in Trials 1 and 2, and 40% corn silage, 55% concentrate, and 5% alfalfa hay in Trial 3 (DM basis). In Trial 1, treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either 1% NaHCO3, or 1, 3, or 4.4% Rumen-Mate. Increasing dietary Rumen-Mate resulted in a linear increase in milk fat production and concentration with no difference between 1% Rumen-Mate and 1% bicarbonate. There was a significant linear decrease in milk protein concentration, but not production, with increasing concentrations of Rumen-Mate. In Trial 2 treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either .8% NaHCO3, 2.6% Rumen-Mate, .5% MgO, .8% NaHCO3 plus .5% MgO, or 1.8% Rumen-Mate plus .8% NaHCO3. Organic matter and CP intakes and milk protein yield and concentration were decreased by Rumen-Mate with a nonsignificant increase in milk fat concentration. Data from Trials 1 and 2 were combined with data from Trial 3, which compared basal diet, 1% bicarbonate, and 3% Rumen-Mate. The combined data showed a larger increase over basal diet in milk fat yield and concentration for 2.6 to 3% Rumen-Mate vs. .8 to 1% bicarbonate. Rumen-Mate did not decrease DM intake or protein yield relative to basal diet but did decrease protein yield 34 g/d compared with that of bicarbonate.

  4. Deletion of LOX-1 reduces atherogenesis in LDLR knockout mice fed high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jawahar L; Sanada, Nobuhito; Hu, Chang Ping; Chen, Jiawei; Dandapat, Abhijit; Sugawara, Fumiaki; Satoh, Hiroo; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kawase, Yosuke; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro; Schnackenberg, Laura; Beger, Richard; Hermonat, Paul L; Thomas, Maria; Sawamura, Tatsuya

    2007-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and upregulation of LOX-1, an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Here, we describe generation of LOX-1 knockout (KO) mice in which binding of oxLDL to aortic endothelium was reduced and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation preserved after treatment with oxLDL (P<0.01 versus wild-type mice). To address whether endothelial functional preservation might lead to reduction in atherogenesis, we crossed LOX-1 KO mice with LDLR KO mice and fed these mice 4% cholesterol/10% cocoa butter diet for 18 weeks. Atherosclerosis was found to cover 61+/-2% of aorta in the LDLR KO mice, but only 36+/-3% of aorta in the double KO mice. Luminal obstruction and intima thickness were significantly reduced in the double KO mice (versus LDLR KO mice). Expression of redox-sensitive NF-kappaB and the inflammatory marker CD68 in LDLR KO mice was increased (P<0.01 versus wild-type mice), but not in the double KO mice. On the other hand, antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression and superoxide dismutase activity were low in the LDLR KO mice (P<0.01 versus wild-type mice), but not in the double KO mice. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was also preserved in the double KO mice. The proinflammatory signal MAPK P38 was activated in the LDLR KO mice, and LOX-1 deletion reduced this signal. In conclusion, LOX-1 deletion sustains endothelial function leading to a reduction in atherogenesis in association with reduction in proinflammatory and prooxidant signals. PMID:17478727

  5. Effects of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate on lactating Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Grummer, R R; Dentine, M R

    1989-02-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Orthogonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation vs. sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation. There were no differences among treatments for milk yield (34.9 kg/d), milk fat yield (.99 kg/d), 3.5% FCM (31.1 kg/d), or milk protein concentration (3.15%). There were no treatment effects on total chewing time. Milk fat concentration tended to be greater for cows fed sodium bicarbonate (2.92%) and sodium sesquicarbonate (2.89%) relative to control (2.82%). Relative to control, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation increased DM intake (22.0 and 22.7 vs. 21.4 kg/d), digestible DM intake (16.7 and 16.2 vs. 14.8 kg/d), digestible organic matter intake (16.0 and 15.5 vs. 14.3 kg/d); and apparent digestibility of DM (77.3 and 74.8 vs. 73.3%) and NDF (62.6 and 56.5 vs. 54.7%). Relative to sesquicarbonate, bicarbonate supplementation increased apparent digestibilities of CP (82.3 vs. 78.8%) and NDF, and decreased milk protein yield (1.06 vs. 1.11 kg/d). Sesquicarbonate was as effective as bicarbonate in alleviating milk fat depression and increasing intake of digestible organic matter. PMID:2539402

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Hojung; Yoon, Ji-Young; Lee, In-Young; Seo, Youngwan; Moon, Hong-Seop; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism. PMID:26569269

  7. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Hojung; Yoon, Ji-Young; Lee, In-Young; Seo, Youngwan; Moon, Hong-Seop; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-11-12

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  8. Myeloid-specific SIRT1 Deletion Aggravates Hepatic Inflammation and Steatosis in High-fat Diet-fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Kim, Hwajin; Heo, Rok Won; Shin, Hyun Joo; Yi, Chin-ok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates cellular metabolism and inflammatory response. The organ-specific deletion of SIRT1 induces local inflammation and insulin resistance in dietary and genetic obesity. Macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, however, the macrophage-specific SIRT1 function in the context of obesity is largely unknown. C57/BL6 wild type (WT) or myeloid-specific SIRT1 knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks. Metabolic parameters and markers of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in liver were compared in WT and KO mice. SIRT1 deletion enhanced HFD-induced changes on body and liver weight gain, and increased glucose and insulin resistance. In liver, SIRT1 deletion increased the acetylation, and enhanced HFD-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), hepatic inflammation and macrophage infiltration. HFD-fed KO mice showed severe hepatic steatosis by activating lipogenic pathway through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), and hepatic fibrogenesis, as indicated by induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen secretion. Myeloid-specific deletion of SIRT1 stimulates obesity-induced inflammation and increases the risk of hepatic fibrosis. Targeted induction of macrophage SIRT1 may be a good therapy for alleviating inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome. PMID:26330758

  9. Estrogen receptor alpha activation enhances mitochondrial function and systemic metabolism in high-fat-fed ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Dale J; Minze, Laurie J; Kumar, Tanvi; Cao, Tram N; Lyon, Christopher J; Geiger, Paige C; Hsueh, Willa A; Gupte, Anisha A

    2016-09-01

    Estrogen impacts insulin action and cardiac metabolism, and menopause dramatically increases cardiometabolic risk in women. However, the mechanism(s) of cardiometabolic protection by estrogen remain incompletely understood. Here, we tested the effects of selective activation of E2 receptor alpha (ERα) on systemic metabolism, insulin action, and cardiac mitochondrial function in a mouse model of metabolic dysfunction (ovariectomy [OVX], insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and advanced age). Middle-aged (12-month-old) female low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)(-/-) mice were subjected to OVX or sham surgery and fed "western" high-fat diet (WHFD) for 3 months. Selective ERα activation with 4,4',4″-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) (PPT), prevented weight gain, improved insulin action, and reduced visceral fat accumulation in WHFD-fed OVX mice. PPT treatment also elevated systemic metabolism, increasing oxygen consumption and core body temperature, induced expression of several metabolic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 in heart, liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, and increased cardiac mitochondrial function. Taken together, selective activation of ERα with PPT enhances metabolic effects including insulin resistance, whole body energy metabolism, and mitochondrial function in OVX mice with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27582063

  10. Production of savinase and population viability of Bacillus clausii during high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Torben; Michaelsen, Søren; Wümpelmann, Mogens; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-08-01

    The growth and product formation of a Savinase-producing Bacillus clausii were investigated in high-cell-density fed-batch cultivations with both linear and exponential feed profiles. The highest specific productivity of Savinase was observed shortly after the end of the initial batch phase for all feed profiles applied and, in addition, there was a time-dependent decrease in specific productivity. The specific glucose uptake rate increased with time for constant specific growth rate indicating that the maintenance requirements increased with time, possibly due to a decreasing K(+) concentration. The physiological state of the cells was monitored during the cultivations using a flow cytometry assay based on the permeability of the cell membrane to propidium iodide. In the latter parts of the fed-batch cultures with a linear feed profile, a large portion of the cell population was found to have a permeable membrane, indicating a large percentage of dead cells. By assuming that only cells with a nonpermeable membrane contributed to growth and product formation, the physiological properties of this subpopulation were calculated. PMID:12783490

  11. Modeling high speed growth of large rods of cesium iodide crystals by edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeckel, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    A thermocapillary model of edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) is developed to analyze an experimental system for high speed growth of cesium iodide as a model system for halide scintillator production. The model simulates heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the die, melt, and crystal under conditions of steady growth. Appropriate mass, force, and energy balances are used to compute self-consistent shapes of the growth interface and melt-vapor meniscus. The model is applied to study the effects of growth rate, die geometry, and furnace heat transfer on the limits of system operability. An inverse problem formulation is used to seek operable states at high growth rates by adjusting the overall temperature level and thermal gradient in the furnace. The model predicts that steady growth is feasible at rates greater than 20 mm/h for crystals up to 18 mm in diameter under reasonable furnace gradients.

  12. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase.

  13. Hepatocyte-Specific Depletion of UBXD8 Induces Periportal Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norihiro; Suzuki, Michitaka; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Abe, Takaya; Shioi, Go; Goto, Hidemi; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that UBXD8 plays a key role in proteasomal degradation of lipidated ApoB in hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the functions of UBXD8 in liver in vivo. For this purpose, hepatocyte-specific UBXD8 knockout (UBXD8-LKO) mice were generated. They were fed with a normal or high-fat diet, and the phenotypes were compared with those of littermate control mice. Hepatocytes obtained from UBXD8-LKO and control mice were analyzed in culture. After 26 wk of a high-fat diet, UBXD8-LKO mice exhibited macrovesicular steatosis in the periportal area and microvesicular steatosis in the perivenular area, whereas control mice exhibited steatosis only in the perivenular area. Furthermore, UBXD8-LKO mice on a high-fat diet had significantly lower concentrations of serum triglyceride and VLDL than control mice. A Triton WR-1339 injection study revealed that VLDL secretion from hepatocytes was reduced in UBXD8-LKO mice. The decrease of ApoB secretion upon UBXD8 depletion was recapitulated in cultured primary hepatocytes. Accumulation of lipidated ApoB in lipid droplets was observed only in UBXD8-null hepatocytes. The results showed that depletion of UBXD8 in hepatocytes suppresses VLDL secretion, and could lead to periportal steatosis when mice are fed a high-fat diet. This is the first demonstration that an abnormality in the intracellular ApoB degradation mechanism can cause steatosis, and provides a useful model for periportal steatosis, which occurs in several human diseases. PMID:25970332

  14. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: I. Effects on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Estienne, M J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) and vitamin E on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status in pigs fed diets high in oxidants. Crossbred barrows (n=100, 10.91±0.65 kg BW, 36±2 d of age, Landrace×Duroc) were allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included 1) HO, high-oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soybean oil and 10% PUFA source (providing 2.05% docosahexaenoic acid in the diet), 2) VE, the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E, 3) AOX, the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg), 4) VE+AOX, the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend, and 5) SC, a standard corn-soy control diet. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet because the animals were displaying very poor health. Compared with SC pigs, HO pigs had decreased ADG (0.92 vs. 0.51 kg for d 26 to 55, 1.29 vs. 0.34 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05) and ADFI (1.84 vs. 0.96 kg for d 26 to 55, 3.41 vs. 1.14 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05). However, switching the HO pigs to the SC diet resulted in HO pigs having a greater ADG than VE-fed pigs from d 83 to 118 (0.90 vs. 0.60 kg; P<0.05). The antioxidant blend restored pig performance to a level similar that of pigs fed the SC diet (P>0.05) with greater G:F for the entire period (0.44 vs. 0.38; P<0.05). A greater liver to BW ratio was found in HO compared with other treatments on d 55 and in VE on d 118. Total bilirubin concentration in plasma of HO pigs on d 55 was greater than that in VE+AOX pigs (P<0.05), whereas on d 118, bilirubin concentration in VE was higher than those in VE+AOX and SC (P<0.05). A similar trend was observed in aspartate transaminase. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl were elevated (P<0.05) in the HO pigs compared with the SC pigs on d 55 but not on d 118. Liver TBARS and

  15. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and musclin expression.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Zheng, J; Liu, X F; Feng, Z L; Zhang, X P; Cao, L L; Zhou, Z P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin.

  16. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and musclin expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J.; Zheng, J.; Liu, X.F.; Feng, Z.L.; Zhang, X.P.; Cao, L.L.; Zhou, Z.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin. PMID:27143172

  17. Exercise improved lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rats fed a high-fat diet by regulating glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and musclin expression.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Zheng, J; Liu, X F; Feng, Z L; Zhang, X P; Cao, L L; Zhou, Z P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin. PMID:27143172

  18. Free availability of high-energy foods led to energy over-ingestion and protein under-ingestion in choice-fed broilers.

    PubMed

    Catanese, Francisco; Rodriguez Ganduglia, Héctor; Villalba, Juan J; Distel, Roberto A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare energy and protein content of the diet selected by choice-fed broilers with that of broilers fed a balanced diet. One hundred and eighty 1-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned in groups of 10 to one of three experimental treatments (n = 6). Control broilers were fed a standard balanced diet, whereas choice-fed broilers were fed three foods which were more concentrated (Choice C+ treatment) or less concentrated (Choice C- treatment) in protein, carbohydrate or fat. We evaluated food intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance parameters of broilers from 2 to 7 weeks of age. Choice C+ broilers showed enhanced preference for the high-fat food, which led to higher energy intake and lower protein intake than those of control broilers at 2 to 4 weeks of age. Body weight, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were negatively affected by diet selection of Choice C+ broilers. Choice C- broilers selected a balanced diet, and showed performance parameters similar to those of control broilers. Our results supported the hypothesis that free availability of high-energy foods bias ingestive behavior of choice-fed broilers toward selecting a diet with higher energy and lower protein than needed for normal growth.

  19. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum HDL cholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum and hepatic total cholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat. PMID:26761869

  20. Lipogenesis Is Decreased by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins According to Liver Proteomics of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Baiges, Isabel; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bladé, Cinta; Gregersen, Niels; Arola, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). This is the first study of the effects of flavonoids on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. Three groups of rats were fed over a period of 13 weeks either a chow diet (control), an HFD, or a high fat diet supplemented for the last 10 days with GSPE (HFD + GSPE). The liver proteome was fractionated, using a Triton X-114-based two-phase separation, into soluble and membrane protein fractions so that total proteome coverage was considerably improved. The data from isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 90 proteins with a significant (p < 0.05) minimal expression difference of 20% due to metabolic syndrome (HFD versus control) and 75 proteins due to GSPE treatment (HFD + GSPE versus HFD). The same animals have previously been studied (Quesada, H., del Bas, J. M., Pajuelo, D., Díaz, S., Fernandez-Larrea, J., Pinent, M., Arola, L., Salvadó, M. J., and Bladé, C. (2009) Grape seed proanthocyanidins correct dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet in rats and repress genes controlling lipogenesis and VLDL assembling in liver. Int. J. Obes. 33, 1007–1012), and GSPE was shown to correct dyslipidemia observed in HFD-fed rats probably through the repression of hepatic lipogenesis. Our data corroborate those findings with an extensive list of proteins describing the induction of hepatic glycogenesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in HFD, whereas the opposite pattern was observed to a large extent in GSPE-treated animals. GSPE was shown to have a wider effect than previously thought, and putative targets of GSPE involved in the reversal of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome were revealed. Some

  1. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  2. Oral Resveratrol Prevents Osteoarthritis Progression in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hailun; Li, Keyu; Li, Xingyao; Yu, Xiaolu; Wang, Wei; Ding, Lifeng; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The effects of resveratrol on osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models employing intra-articular injections. However, the potential for oral resveratrol supplements to mediate protective effects on OA have not been examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-OA effects of oral resveratrol on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD, and a subset of the latter also received varying doses of resveratrol. Twelve weeks later, all of the animals were sacrificed and knee joints were evaluated with histological, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL analyses. Mice that received a HFD had significantly greater body weights than the control mice and also exhibited features consistent with knee OA. The mice that received a HFD in combination with low, intermediate, or high doses of resveratrol were only slightly heavier than the control mice at the end of 12 weeks. Quantitative histological assessments indicated that resveratrol treatment partly recovered joint structure in the mice that received a HFD, while high doses of resveratrol prevented the degradation of type II collagen into C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and retained type II collagen expression in cartilage. Furthermore, TUNEL analyses revealed a reduction in chondrocyte apoptosis in the resveratrol-treated mice compared with the HFD mice. Thus, oral resveratrol appears to exert anti-OA effects in a mouse model of HFD-induced OA, thereby highlighting the potential preventive and therapeutic value of administering resveratrol for obesity-associated OA. PMID:27104565

  3. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  4. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation decreases food consumption and weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, A; Thor, P

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.

  5. Propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, attenuates the decrease in trabecular bone mass in high calorie diet fed growing mice.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of high calorie and low calorie diets on skeletal integrity, and whether β-adrenergic blockade (BB) attenuates bone loss induced by dietary calorie alteration. Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either an ad-lib fed control diet (CON), a high calorie diet (HIGH), or a low calorie diet (LOW) group. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Over 12-weeks, β-blockade mitigated body weight and fat mass increases induced by the high calorie diet. Femoral trabecular bone mineral density and the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes in bone marrow cells were reduced in HIGHVEH and LOWVEH mice, and BB significantly attenuated this decline only in HIGH mice. In summary, the magnitude of bone loss induced by low calorie diet was greater than that caused by high calorie diet in growing mice, and β-blockade mitigated high calorie diet-induced bone loss.

  6. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread. PMID:27094809

  7. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources.

  8. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread.

  9. CHIRON TOOLS: Integrated Target Submission, Scheduling and Observing Systems for a High-Resolution Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew; Fischer, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The CHIRON spectrometer is a new high-resolution, fiber-fed instrument on the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-America Observatory (CTIO). To optimize use of the instrument and limited human resources, we have designed an integrated set of Web applications allowing target submission, observing script planning, nightly script execution and logging, and access to reduced data by multiple users. The unified and easy-to-use interface has dramatically reduced the time needed to submit and schedule observations and improved the efficiency and accuracy of nightly operations. We present our experience to help astronomers and project managers who need to plan for the scope of effort required to commission a queue-scheduled facility instrument.

  10. Additional effect of metformin and celecoxib against lipid dysregulation and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed rats with insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chieh-Hua; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan

    2016-10-15

    We investigated the effects of metformin and celecoxib on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), fatty liver, and high blood pressure in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either regular or HF diet for 8 weeks. Rats fed with regular diet were treated with vehicle for further 4 weeks. HF fed rats were divided into 6 groups, namely, vehicle, celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day), metformin (150mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), and metformin (150mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (15mg/kg/day) for additional 4 weeks. Increased body weight in HF fed rats was significantly reduced by metformin alone and metformin combined with celecoxib. The increases in the HOMA-IR value and the area under the curve of glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test, systolic blood pressure, and adipocyte size were significantly diminished in treated rats, especially rats undergoing combined treatment. Treatments with either celecoxib or in combination with metformin resulted in a reduction in AT macrophage infiltration and decreases in levels of adipose tissue TNF-α, MCP-1, and leptin levels in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Furthermore, the elevated hepatic triglycerides content was significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared to that of groups of celecoxib or metformin alone. Celecoxib exerts a synergistic beneficial effect with metformin on and obesity-associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in high-fat fed rats.

  11. Changes in Gut Microbiota in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet Correlate with Obesity-Associated Metabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Christopher A.; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001), this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD. PMID:25992554

  12. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. PMID:24656388

  13. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  14. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001), this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  15. Effects of intraruminal infusions of mineral salts on volatile fatty acid production in steers fed high-grain and high-roughage diets.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J A; Davis, C L

    1982-06-01

    Four rumen fistulated Holstein steers were used to assess the effects of intraruminal salt infusions on various rumen characteristics including volatile fatty acid production rates. In the first experiment, the basal diet consisted of 75% concentrate and 25% corn silage (high-grain diet). The experimental design was a 4 X 4 Latin square in which the four treatments were: 1) intraruminal infusion of 8 liters of water (control) or 8 liters of water plus 2) 288 g sodium bicarbonate, 3) 200 g sodium chloride, or 4) 600 g sodium chloride. In the second experiment, procedures were the same except the basal diet consisted of 64% alfalfa hay and 18% each of corn silage and concentrate (high-roughage diet). When the high-grain basal diet was fed, intraruminal infusions of mineral salts increased dilution rate of rumen fluid. Total fluid flow from the rumen also was increased by salt infusions with sodium bicarbonate and the most sodium chloride from (600 g/day) exerting greatest effects for both dietary regimens. Salt infusions reduced the molar percentage of rumen propionate and increased the molar percentage of acetate when the high-grain diet was fed. These same treatments were without effect on molar percentages of rumen acids when the high-roughage diet was fed. The change in the molar percentages of acetate and propionate on the high-grain ration was solely from reduction in propionate production. The lower production of propionate, from salt infusions, may have occurred because of the washout of readily fermentable materials. Dry matter disappearance from feeds placed in dacron bags and suspended in the rumen was unaffected by infusion of mineral salts.

  16. Global rain-fed, irrigated, and paddy croplands: A new high resolution map derived from remote sensing, crop inventories and climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. Meghan; Friedl, Mark A.; Frolking, Steve; Wisser, Dominik; Douglas, Ellen M.

    2015-06-01

    Irrigation accounts for 70% of global water use by humans and 33-40% of global food production comes from irrigated croplands. Accurate and timely information related to global irrigation is therefore needed to manage increasingly scarce water resources and to improve food security in the face of yield gaps, climate change and extreme events such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Unfortunately, this information is not available for many regions of the world. This study aims to improve characterization of global rain-fed, irrigated and paddy croplands by integrating information from national and sub-national surveys, remote sensing, and gridded climate data sets. To achieve this goal, we used supervised classification of remote sensing, climate, and agricultural inventory data to generate a global map of irrigated, rain-fed, and paddy croplands. We estimate that 314 million hectares (Mha) worldwide were irrigated circa 2005. This includes 66 Mha of irrigated paddy cropland and 249 Mha of irrigated non-paddy cropland. Additionally, we estimate that 1047 Mha of cropland are managed under rain-fed conditions, including 63 Mha of rain-fed paddy cropland and 985 Mha of rain-fed non-paddy cropland. More generally, our results show that global mapping of irrigated, rain-fed, and paddy croplands is possible by combining information from multiple data sources. However, regions with rapidly changing irrigation or complex mixtures of irrigated and non-irrigated crops present significant challenges and require more and better data to support high quality mapping of irrigation.

  17. Effects of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts in high-fat diet-fed obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Young-Mi; Moon, Dae-In; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Se-Chul; Lee, Kun-Hee; Seol, Su-Yeon; Park, Yong-Sik; Park, Jong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng and its extracts have been used as traditional medicines and functional foods in countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts (GS-E3D), and the effects of GS-E3D on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as on metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver in high-fat diet fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups: normal diet group, high fat diet-vehicle group, high fat diet + 0.1 g/kg GS-E3D (0.1-GS-E3D), high fat diet + 0.3 g/kg (0.3-GS-E3D), high fat diet + 1.0 g/kg (1.0-GS-E3D). Treatment of GS-E3D reduced differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with low cytotoxicity. In the animal model, compared to the high fat diet control, serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and leptin level were reduced in treatment animals in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that GS-E3D could decrease total hepatic lipid droplets. These results suggest that GS-E3D, as a dietary supplement, has beneficial effects on obesity and may have useful effects in health-care products. PMID:25628725

  18. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  19. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  20. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals; our lab has demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against put...

  2. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Syrian Mesquite (Prosopis farcta) Root in High Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Miraghaee, Shahram; Babaei, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Bahrami, Mohammad Taher; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis farcta root has been proposed as an efficacious natural drug for cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. The present study evaluates the efficacy of aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta root on experimental atherosclerosis development in rabbits with high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipid parameters were significantly increased in the high cholesterol diet groups in comparison with the normal control group (P < .050). Histopathological findings revealed that atheromatous plaques were formed in both thoracic and abdominal aorta of hypercholestrolemic rabbits. Treatment with Prosopis farcta root significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein levels compared to high cholesterol diet rabbits (P < .050). This finding may reflect a reduction of chest pain or the beneficial effects of this plant root extract on cardiovascular health. The present study can serve as a basis for future investigations on the other effects of this plant on cardiovascular health.

  3. Ant workers die young and colonies collapse when fed a high-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Dussutour, A.; Simpson, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein and carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary insects. Here, we investigated the link between high-protein diet and longevity, both at the level of individual ants and colonies in black garden ants, Lasius niger. We explored how lifespan was affected by the dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and the duration of exposure to a high-protein diet. We show that (i) restriction to high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets decreased worker lifespan by up to 10-fold; (ii) reduction in lifespan on such diets was mainly due to elevated intake of protein rather than lack of carbohydrate; and (iii) only one day of exposure to a high-protein diet had dire consequences for workers and the colony, reducing population size by more than 20 per cent. PMID:22357267

  4. Partially Adaptive Phased Array Fed Cylindrical Reflector Technique for High Performance Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Z.; Hilland, J.

    2001-01-01

    Spaceborne microwave radar instruments demand a high-performance antenna with a large aperature to address key science themes such as climate variations and predictions and global water and energy cycles.

  5. Pasture v. standard dairy cream in high-fat diet-fed mice: improved metabolic outcomes and stronger intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Debard, Cyrille; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Daira, Patricia; Bodennec, Jacques; Cousin, Olivier; Vidal, Hubert; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2014-08-28

    Dairy products derived from the milk of cows fed in pastures are characterised by higher amounts of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and several studies have shown their ability to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, their specific metabolic effects compared with standard dairy in a high-fat diet (HFD) context remain largely unknown; this is what we determined in the present study with a focus on the metabolic and intestinal parameters. The experimental animals were fed for 12 weeks a HFD containing 20 % fat in the form of a pasture dairy cream (PDC) or a standard dairy cream (SDC). Samples of plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, duodenum, jejunum and colon were analysed. The PDC mice, despite a higher food intake, exhibited lower fat mass, plasma and hepatic TAG concentrations, and inflammation in the adipose tissue than the SDC mice. Furthermore, they exhibited a higher expression of hepatic PPARα mRNA and adipose tissue uncoupling protein 2 mRNA, suggesting an enhanced oxidative activity of the tissues. These results might be explained, in part, by the higher amounts of ALA in the PDC diet and in the liver and adipose tissue of the PDC mice. Moreover, the PDC diet was found to increase the proportions of two strategic cell populations involved in the protective function of the intestinal epithelium, namely Paneth and goblet cells in the small intestine and colon, compared with the SDC diet. In conclusion, a PDC HFD leads to improved metabolic outcomes and to a stronger gut barrier compared with a SDC HFD. This may be due, at least in part, to the protective mechanisms induced by specific lipids.

  6. Erythropoietin inhibits gluconeogenesis and inflammation in the liver and improves glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ran; Zhu, Dalong; Bi, Yan; Yang, Donghui; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has multiple biological functions, including the modulation of glucose metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying the action of EPO are still obscure. This study is aimed at investigating the potential mechanisms by which EPO improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and then treated with EPO (HFD-EPO) or vehicle saline (HFD-Con) for two week. The levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and glucose tolerance were measured and the relative levels of insulin-related phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrate 1 (IRS1) phosphorylation were determined. The levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6- phosphatase (G6Pase), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK activation in the liver were examined. EPO treatment significantly reduced the body weights and the levels of fasting blood glucose and serum insulin and improved the HFD-induced glucose intolerance in mice. EPO treatment significantly enhanced the levels of Akt, but not IR and IRS1, phosphorylation, accompanied by inhibiting the PEPCK and G6Pase expression in the liver. Furthermore, EPO treatment mitigated the HFD-induced inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6 production, TLR4 expression, NF-κB and JNK, but not ERK and p38 MAPK, phosphorylation in the liver. Therefore, our data indicated that EPO treatment improved glucose intolerance by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and inflammation in the livers of HFD-fed mice. PMID:23326455

  7. Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhao, Yufeng; Derrien, Muriel; Rocher, Emilie; van-Hylckama Vlieg, Johan ET; Strissel, Katherine; Zhao, Liping; Obin, Martin; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Structural disruption of gut microbiota and associated inflammation are considered important etiological factors in high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Three candidate probiotic strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 (BA), were individually administered to HFD-fed mice (108 cells day−1) for 12 weeks. Each strain attenuated weight gain and macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissue and markedly improved glucose–insulin homeostasis and hepatic steatosis. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing of fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the probiotic strains shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean mice fed a normal (chow) diet. Redundancy analysis revealed that abundances of 83 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were altered by probiotics. Forty-nine altered OTUs were significantly correlated with one or more host MS parameters and were designated ‘functionally relevant phylotypes'. Thirteen of the 15 functionally relevant OTUs that were negatively correlated with MS phenotypes were promoted, and 26 of the 34 functionally relevant OTUs that were positively correlated with MS were reduced by at least one of the probiotics, but each strain changed a distinct set of functionally relevant OTUs. LC and LR increased cecal acetate but did not affect circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; in contrast, BA did not increase acetate but significantly decreased adipose and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. These results suggest that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium differentially attenuate obesity comorbidities in part through strain-specific impacts on MS-associated phylotypes of gut microbiota in mice. PMID:24936764

  8. Pancreatic Fat Accumulation, Fibrosis, and Acinar Cell Injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Fed a Chronic High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Methods Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. Results In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05), and lipid droplets were observed in acinar cells. Subsequently, at 24 weeks of age in this group, pancreatic fibrosis and the serum exocrine pancreatic enzyme levels were increased significantly relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions In ZDF rats fed a chronic high-fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury. PMID:24717823

  9. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Lai, Jia; Tang, Qiong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis.

  11. Mulberry ethanol extract attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Lai, Jia; Tang, Qiong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. Mulberry is an important source of phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are related to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we developed a hypothesis that mulberry exerted beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and evaluated the influence of the mulberry ethanol extract (MEE) on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into 3 groups and fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet with or without supplementation with MEE. Our results showed that administration of MEE reduced diet-induced body weight gain, improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, alleviated insulin resistance, and improved glucose homeostasis. Analysis of hepatic gene expression indicated that MEE treatment changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MEE supplementation protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the protective effects of MEE were associated with the induction of fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27262537

  12. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. Objective: This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. Results: The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29–42% and affected (P < 0.05–0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. Conclusions: The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue

  13. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with a high colon cancer risk, and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (...

  14. High-voltage portable pulsed power supply fed by low voltage source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanejad, Mohammad; Sheikholeslami, Abdolreza; Adabi, Jafar; Valinejad, Mohammadreza

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes a new structure of voltage multiplier for portable pulsed power applications. In this configuration, which is based on capacitor-diode voltage multiplier, the capacitors are charged by low AC input voltage and discharge through the load in series during pulse generation mode. The proposed topology is achieved by integrating of solid-state switches with conventional voltage multiplier, which can increase the low input voltage step by step and generate high-voltage high-frequency pulsed power across the load. After some discussion, simulations and experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed topology.

  15. S100A8 Production in CXCR2-Expressing CD11b+Gr-1high Cells Aggravates Hepatitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Miyagi, Takuya; Nishio, Kumiko; Yokoyama, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Saito, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Shigekawa, Minoru; Nawa, Takatoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Yoshihara, Harumasa; Imai, Yasuharu; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease with a spectrum of presentations. S100A8 has been suggested to play a pivotal role as an endogenous immune-activator in inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the involvement of S100A8 in the development of NAFLD. We used a diet model of NAFLD, in which mice were fed either a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFHCD) or a normal diet (ND) as a control. We also assessed liver tissues from patients with NAFLD, including patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HFHCD-fed mice, but not ND-fed mice, developed steatohepatitis. S100A8 expression was significantly elevated in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice compared with the controls. S100A8 was exclusively expressed in CXCR2-expressing CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) cells, which significantly increased in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice. These cells were F4/80 negative and did not possess a suppressor function. TNF-α expression was enhanced by S100A8 in primary liver leukocytes or a hepatocyte cell line and significantly elevated in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice. TNF-α was primarily produced from CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in liver leukocytes in response to S100A8. TNF-α deficiency attenuated hepatitis in HFHCD-fed mice. S100A8 was significantly more expressed in the liver tissues of patients with NASH than in those of patients with NAFL. In conclusion, these results suggest that S100A8 is primarily produced from CXCR2-expressing CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) cells, and it upregulates TNF-α production in CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells through cellular cross-talk, which is an important mechanism in the development of NAFLD.

  16. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  18. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  19. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  20. Onion extract structural changes during in vitro digestion and its potential antioxidant effect on brain lipids obtained from low- and high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Lee, S J; Kim, D H; Chun, S C; Lee, S K

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of onion (Allium cepa, L.) extract on the antioxidant activity of lipids in low-and high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids and its structural change during in vitro human digestion. The onion extracts were passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juice. The brain lipids were collected from low- and high-fat-fed mouse brain and then incubated with the in vitro-digested onion extracts to determine the lipid oxidation. The results confirmed that the main phenolics of onion extract were kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The quercetin content increased with digestion of the onion extract. Antioxidant activity was strongly influenced by in vitro human digestion of both onion extract and quercetin standard. After digestion by the small intestine, the antioxidant activity values were dramatically increased, whereas the antioxidant activity was less influenced by digestion in the stomach for both onion extract and quercetin standard. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract in mouse brain lipids increased after digestion in the stomach. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract was higher in the high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in the low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. The major study finding is that the antioxidative effect of onion extract may be higher in high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. Thus, dietary onion may have important applications as a natural antioxidant agent in a high-fat diet.

  1. Physicochemical and kinetic characteristics of rhodanese from the liver of African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell in Asejire lake.

    PubMed

    Akinsiku, Omolara Titilayo; Agboola, Femi Kayode; Kuku, Adenike; Afolayan, Adeyinka

    2010-09-01

    Two forms of rhodanese were purified from the liver of Clarias gariepinus Burchell, designated catfish rhodanese I (cRHD I) and rhodanese II (cRHD II), by ion-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sepharose CL-6B column and gel filtration through a Sephadex G-75 column. The apparent molecular weight obtained for cRHD I and cRHD II was 34,500 +/- 707 and 36,800 +/- 283 Da, respectively. The subunit molecular weight determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 33,200 +/- 283 and 35,100 +/- 141 Da for cRHD I and cRHD II, respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis revealed that cRHD II contained a high level of iron (Fe), which presumably was responsible for the brownish colour of the preparation. In contrast, no Fe was identified in cRHD I, and its preparation was colourless. Further characterization of cRHD II gave true Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) values of 25.40 +/- 1.70 and 18.60 +/- 1.68 mM for KCN and Na(2)S(2)O(3), respectively, an optimum pH of 6.5 and an optimum temperature of 40 degrees C. The Arrhenius plot of the effects of temperature on the reaction rate consisted of two linear segments with a break occurring at 40 degrees C. The apparent activation energy values from these slopes were 7.3 and 72.9 kcal/mol. Inhibition studies on the cRHD II enzyme showed that the activity of the enzyme was not affected by Mn(2+), Co(2+), Sn(2+), Ni(2+) and NH(4) (+), but Zn(2+) inhibited the enzyme considerably.

  2. Leafy vegetable mix supplementation improves lipid profiles and antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Min Hee; Son, ChanWok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Cho, YongSik; Chun, HyeKyung; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-08-01

    Daily consumption of an antioxidant-rich leafy vegetable mix (LVM) was assessed for beneficial effects on plasma lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet (20% fat and 1% cholesterol, wt/wt) for 4 weeks. The LVM contained beet leaf, angelica, red leaf lettuce, dandelion, green cos lettuce, lollo rosso, romaine lettuce (12.5%, respectively), scotch kale, and red kale (6.25%, respectively). The mice (n = 16) were randomly divided into either the control (high fat and cholesterol diet without LVM) or the LVM (high fat and cholesterol diet with 8% LVM supplement) groups after a 1-week acclimation. Lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the plasma, liver, heart, and kidney was significantly lower. Antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) were improved in mice fed LVM diet. In the comet assay, tail extent moment, olive tail moment, and tail length were significantly less in the hepatocyte and lymphocyte DNA of the LVM group, indicating the beneficial effect of LVM on the resistance of hepatocytes and lymphocytes DNA to oxidative damage. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with LVM may be useful for protecting cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  3. Delayed star formation in high-redshift stream-fed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, J. M.; Bournaud, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    We propose that star formation (SF) is delayed relative to the inflow rate in rapidly accreting galaxies at very high redshift (z > 2) because of the energy conveyed by the accreting gas. Accreting gas streams provide fuel for SF, but they stir the disc and increase turbulence above the usual levels compatible with gravitational instability, reducing the SF efficiency in the available gas. After the specific inflow rate has sufficiently decreased - typically at z < 3 - galaxies settle in a self-regulated regime with efficient SF. An analytic model shows that this interaction between infalling gas and young galaxies can significantly delay SF and maintain high gas fractions (>40 per cent) down to z ≈ 2, in contrast to other galaxy formation models. Idealized hydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas streams on to primordial galaxies confirm the efficient energetic coupling at z > 2 and suggest that this effect is largely under-resolved in existing cosmological simulations.

  4. Hypocholesterolemic effect of daily fisetin supplementation in high fat fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min-Jeong; Cho, Yoonsu; Moon, Jiyoung; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Seung-Min; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to test whether fisetin could modulate cholesterol homeostasis in rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which fisetin exerts its cholesterol lowering effect. Blood lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol content, as well as gene expressions in cholesterol metabolism were examined. Elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, along with hepatic cholesterol content in a high fat group were found to be significantly reduced by fisetin. The high fat diet significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of LDLR, SREBP2, HMGCR and PCSK9 in comparison to the control diet, however, fisetin did not further elicit any changes in mRNA levels of the same genes. The high fat diet dramatically increased the transcript levels of CYP7A1, which was subsequently reversed by the fisetin. In HepG2 cells, fisetin was found to increase the levels of a nuclear form of SREBP2 and LDLR. In conclusion, fisetin supplementation displayed hypocholesterolemic effects by modulating the expression of genes associated with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism.

  5. Ayurvedic formulation of Liv-Pro-08 reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Suriyavathana Vedanarayanan, M; Krishnan, Nandhini

    2011-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a serious obesity-related disorder, and it will continue to be a major liver health issue worldwide in the coming decades. We aimed to determine the effect of Liv-Pro-08 (Nigella sativa, Entada pursaetha, and Ficus glomerata) an oral ayurvedic formulation on rats fed with high-fat diet. Rats were given a high-fat diet for a period of 7 days. After this period, Liv-Pro-08 (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg.body weight was given orally for 7 days. We examined the effect of the high-fat diet on various parameters related to obesity and insulin resistance. In the experimental rats who received the extract of Liv-Pro-08, their lipoprotein profiles were significantly improved compared with those that are not receiving the extract. Also, a slight reduction was observed in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. Moreover, Liv-Pro-08 significantly decreased their fasting serum glucose and fasting insulin levels. This experimental study suggests that Liv-Pro-08 can act as a therapeutic tool in preventing NAFLD progression (i.e., reducing hepatic lipid accumulation). Although further investigations and large randomized trials should be conducted, ayurvedic Liv-Pro-08 oral formulation may be a potential natural drug for NAFLD in the future. PMID:22196506

  6. Preload recruitable stroke work in the presence of intact cardiovascular reflexes in rats fed a diet high in unsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Trifunovic, B; Woodiwiss, A J; Norton, G R

    1995-01-15

    A decreased inotropic effect of myocardial beta receptor agonists in animals receiving diets high in unsaturated fats (UNSAT) has been demonstrated. The effect of an UNSAT diet on myocardial systolic performance under different loading conditions, in the presence of intact cardiovascular reflexes, has not been examined. We investigated the effect of an UNSAT diet on preload recruitable stroke work (SW) in the anaesthetised, open chest, ventilated rat. A control (CONTROL, 11% by energy), a high saturated fat (SAT, 37% by energy) and a high UNSAT (37% by energy) diet were fed to three groups of rats. At three months, systolic myocardial performance (stroke work: SW) at increasing left ventricular end diastolic pressures (LVEDP) was measured within a physiological preload range. There were no significant differences in either the slope or the intercept of the LVEDP/SW relation were found between the three diet groups. Systemic vascular resistance and heart rate decreased to the same extent in the three diet groups over the range of preloads examined. This occurred as a consequence of intact baroreceptor reflexes. Hence dietary modulation of unsaturated fats does not influence myocardial contraction over a wide range of physiological preloads in the presence of intact baroreceptor reflexes.

  7. Effect of green tea extract microencapsulation on hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular tissues in high fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moon Hee; Seong, Pil Nam; Kim, Myung Hwan; Myong, Na-Hye; Chang, Moon-Jeong

    2013-10-01

    The application of polyphenols has attracted great interest in the field of functional foods and nutraceuticals due to their potential health benefits in humans. However, the effectiveness of polyphenols depends on their bioactivity and bioavailability. In the present study, the bioactive component from green tea extract (GTE) was administrated orally (50 mg/kg body weight/day) as free or in a microencapsulated form with maltodextrin in rats fed a high fructose diet. High fructose diet induced features of metabolic syndrome including hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, increased serum total cholesterol, and retroperitoneal obesity. In addition, myocardial fibrosis was increased. In rats receiving high fructose diet, the lowering of blood triglycerides, total cholesterol, non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and uric acid, as well as the reduction in final body weight and retroperitoneal fat weight associated with the administration of GTE, led to a reversal of the features of metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In particular, the administration of microencapsulated GTE decreased myocardial fibrosis and increased liver catalase activity consistent with a further alleviation of serum NEFA, and hyperuricemia compared to administration of GTE. Taken together, our results suggest that microencapsulation of the bioactive components of GTE might have a protective effect on cardiovasucular system by attenuating the adverse features of myocardial fibrosis, decreasing uric acid levels and increasing hepatic catalase activity effectively by protecting their bioactivities.

  8. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  9. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.

  10. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Frédéric; Wang, Long; Moser, Mireille; Metairon, Sylviane; Mansourian, Robert; Zwahlen, Marie-Camille; Kussmann, Martin; Fuerholz, Andreas; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet that has a high (H) or a low (L) protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C) ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d) followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words).

  11. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  12. High-resolution fibre-fed spectrograph for the 6-m telescope. Polarimetric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, D. E.; Sazonenko, D. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Yushkin, M. V.; Bychkov, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We report the computation of the design of a polarimetric unit for the optical scheme of the fiberfed high-resolution spectrograph for the 6-m Russian telescope.We discuss a variant of its integration into the design of conversion optics at the input of the fiber path if the instrument and estimate the efficiency of the entire pre-fiber optical system. The luminous efficiency of the assembly is equal to 80 and 90% when operated in the polarimetry and normal spectroscopic modes, respectively.We estimate the lower limit for the distorting instrumental effects of the polarimetric unit.

  13. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    PubMed

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy. PMID:25788096

  14. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  15. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    PubMed

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  16. High-power dual-fed traveling wave photodetector circuits in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Sinsky, Jeffrey H; Dong, Po; de Valicourt, Guilhem; Chen, Young-Kai

    2015-08-24

    We introduce the concept of dual-illuminated photodetectors for high-power applications. Illuminating the photodetector on both sides doubles the number of optical channels, boosting DC and RF power handling capability. This concept is demonstrated utilizing multiple-stage dual-illuminated traveling wave photodetector circuits in silicon photonics, showing a maximum DC photocurrent of 112 mA and a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 GHz at 0.3 mA. Peak continuous-wave RF power is generated up to 12.3 dBm at 2 GHz and 5.3 dBm at 40 GHz, at a DC photocurrent of 55 mA. High speed broadband data signals are detected with eye amplitudes of 2.2 V and 1.3 V at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s, respectively. A theoretical analysis is presented illustrating design tradeoffs for the multiple-stage photodetector circuits based on the bandwidth and power requirements.

  17. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  18. Fatty acids, calcium soaps of fatty acids, and cottonseeds fed to high yielding cows.

    PubMed

    Sklan, D; Ashkenazi, R; Braun, A; Devorin, A; Tabori, K

    1992-09-01

    We examined the effects of dietary fat as cottonseed, fatty acids, or calcium soaps of fatty acids in the rations of high yielding lactating cows receiving low forage. Experiments were with isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing equal amounts of forage. Inclusion of up to 510 g/d of fatty acids in the ration enhanced FCM yield. With cottonseed, increased FCM was mainly due to increased fat yield. Dietary fatty acids tended to increase milk in mid and late lactation and to decrease fat percentage. Calcium soaps of fatty acids enhanced FCM, particularly in early lactation. Feeding cottonseed and fatty acids together did not enhance yield. Effects described may be attributed in part to changes in ruminal fermentation in which cottonseed increased acetate concentrations and fatty acids decreased the ratio of acetate and butyrate to propionate and in part to enhanced efficiency of milk yield when fat was included in the ration.

  19. Effects of Silicon vs. Hydroxytyrosol-Enriched Restructured Pork on Liver Oxidation Status of Aged Rats Fed High-Saturated/High-Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Pinar; López-Oliva, M. Elvira; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pork is an essential component of the diet that has been linked with major degenerative diseases and development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previous studies have. Previous studies have demonstrated the in vitro antioxidant activity of silicon (Si). Furthermore, when Si is added to restructured pork (RP) strongly counterbalances the negative effect of high-cholesterol-ingestion, acting as an active hypocholesterolemic and hypolipemic dietary ingredient in aged rats. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Si vs hydroxytyrosol (HxT) RP on liver antioxidant defense in aged rats fed cholesterol-enriched high saturated/high cholesterol diets as a NASH model. Methods Four diets were prepared: Control RP diet (C) with non-added cholesterol; Cholesterol-enriched high-saturated/high-cholesterol control RP diet (CHOL-C) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; Si- or HxT-RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated/high-cholesterol diets (CHOL-Si and CHOL-HxT). Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-yr old) were fed these modified diets for eight weeks. Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, liver Nrf2 and antioxidant (CAT, SOD, GSH, GSSG, GR, GPx) markers were determined. Results Both CHOL-Si and CHOL-HxT diets enhanced the liver antioxidant status, reduced hepatosomatic index and increased SOD actvity. Hydrogen peroxide removal seemed to be involved, explaining that the value of redox index was even lower than C without changing the CAT activity. CHOL-Si results were quite better than CHOL-HxT in most measured parameters. Conclusions Our study suggests that Si incorporated into RP matrix was able to counterbalance, more efficiently than HxT, the deleterious effect of consuming a high-saturated/high-cholesterol diet, by improving the liver antioxidant defenses in the context of NASH. PMID:26807847

  20. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of pine needle powder ingestion and endurance training in high cholesterol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Nam-Ho; Ryu, Sungpil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Pine needle is a kind of medicinal plant ingested traditionally for a variety of purposes. Therefore, we examined the antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities of pine needle ingestion in high cholesterol-fed and endurance exercise-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into six groups as; CON: normal diet control group; EX: normal diet and exercise training group; HC: high cholesterol diet group; HCE: high cholesterol diet and exercise training group; HCP: high cholesterol and pine needle group; HCPE: high-cholesterol and pine needle diet with exercise training group, respectively. Each group consisted of seven Sprague-Dawley male rats. The swim-training groups, EX, HCE, and HCPE swam in the swim pool 60 min/d and 5 d/week for 5 weeks. During the rearing periods, freeze-dried pine needle powder mix with 5% of the high cholesterol diet was supplied to the HCP and HCPE groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was used as the skeletal muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu, Zn containing superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacities. Finally, p53, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), caspase-3 protein expression was analyzed to determine antiapoptotic ability. [Results] MDA showed low content in HCPE compared to the HC. Mn-SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD, and GPx protein expression was significantly increased by pine needle ingestion and/or exercise training. In addition, suppression of p53 protein expression resulted in Bcl-2 increase followed by caspase-3 decrease with/without pine needle ingestion and exercise training. [Conclusion] When exercise training in addition to pine needle powder ingestion may be a helpful nutritional regimen to athletes and exercisers. PMID:25566467

  1. Bone density and tissue lead accretion in growing rats fed low high calcium with or without supplemental clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, W.G.; Ho, H.; Su, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of lead in animals and humans is well documented. The naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, is known to offer protection against ammonium ion toxicity in rats and sheep and to counteract cadmium-induced iron deficiency anemia in rats and swine. The cation-exchange and adsorption properties of clinoptilolite suggest is possible role in reducing tissue uptake of ingested lead by animals. Evidence supporting this role was reported in growing pigs whose liver and kidney concentrations of lead were significantly reduced by the addition of 1.0% clinoptilolite to diets containing 500 or 1000ppm of lead. The basal diet was a highly fortified milk-replacer containing about 1% calcium supplied by milk constituents. High dietary calcium is known to reduce tissue uptake of lead and protect the pig from the tissue pathology associated with lead ingestion. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels affect the growth, tissue uptake and bone morphology of growing rats fed diets containing toxic levels of lead. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase. PMID:26432053

  3. Fed-batch approach to production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown on high substrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1983-09-01

    The bioconversion of sugars present in wood hemicellulose to 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown on high sugar concentrations was investigated. When K. pneumoniae was grown under finite air conditions in the presence of added acetic acid, 50 g of D-glucose and D-xylose per liter could be converted to 25 and 27 g of butanediol per liter, respectively. The efficiency of bioconversion decreased with increasing sugar substrate concentrations (up to 200 g/liter). Butanediol production at low sugar substrate concentrations was less efficient when the organism was grown under aerobic conditions; however, final butanediol values were higher for cultures grown on an initial sugar concentration of 150 g/liter, particularly when the inoculum was first acclimatized to high sugar levels. When a double fed-batch approach (daily additions of sugars together with yeast extract) was used under aerobic conditions, up to 88 and 113 g of combined butanediol and acetyl methyl carbinol per liter could be obtained from the utilization of 190 g of D-xylose and 226 g of D-glucose per liter, respectively. 22 references.

  4. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs.

  5. Lipidomic Profiling of Liver Tissue from Obesity-Prone and Obesity-Resistant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Miso; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Sunhee; Jung, Youngae; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial health problem resulting from genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. A particularly interesting aspect of obesity is the differences observed in response to the same high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we performed lipidomic profiling on livers from HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Mice were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), HFD-obesity prone (HFD-OP), and HFD-obesity resistant (HFD-OR). Principal components analyses showed a difference between the HFD-OP and HFD-OR groups. Individuals in the HFD-OR group were closer to those in the ND group compared with those in the HFD-OP group. In particular, phosphocholine (PC) and triglyceride (TG) levels differed significantly depending on the length of the acyl chain and degree of unsaturation, respectively. PC species were either positively or negatively correlated with concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, and hepatic cholesterol according to the length of the acyl chain. Decreased expression of the scavenger receptor B1 and ATP-binding cassette A1 in HFD-OP mice indicated that the acyl chain length of PC species may be related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. This study demonstrates that lipidomic profiling is an effective approach to analyzing global lipid alterations as they pertain to obesity. PMID:26592433

  6. High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Wilson, David R.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5 L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g β-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

  7. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs. PMID:21280112

  8. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A.; Plouffe, Louise J.; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet. PMID:27136580

  9. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A; Plouffe, Louise J; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-04-28

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  10. HO-1 Upregulation Attenuates Adipocyte Dysfunction, Obesity, and Isoprostane Levels in Mice Fed High Fructose Diets

    PubMed Central

    Harsh, Mohit; Sodhi, Komal; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Abraham, Nader G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fructose metabolism is an unregulated metabolic pathway and excessive fructose consumption is known to activate ROS. HO-1 is a potent antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing ROS and isoprostanes. We examined whether the fructose-mediated increase in adipocyte dysfunction involves an increase in isoprostanes and that pharmacological induction of HO-1 would decrease both isoprostane levels and adipogenesis. Methods and Results. We examined the effect of fructose, on adipogenesis in human MSCs in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1. Fructose increased adipogenesis and the number of large lipid droplets while decreasing the number of small lipid droplets (P < 0.05). Levels of heme and isoprostane in fructose treated MSC-derived adipocytes were increased. CoPP reversed these effects and markedly increased HO-1 and the Wnt signaling pathway. The high fructose diet increased heme levels in adipose tissue and increased circulating isoprostane levels (P < 0.05 versus control). Fructose diets decreased HO-1 and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. Induction of HO-1 by CoPP decreased isoprostane synthesis (P < 0.05 versus fructose). Conclusion. Fructose treatment resulted in increased isoprostane production and adipocyte dysfunction, which was reversed by the increased expression of HO-1. PMID:25295182

  11. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit Parts in Rabbits Fed High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Yuon, Lau Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of C. odontophyllum (CO) fruit parts was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-nine rabbits, which were randomly divided into seven groups of seven animals (n = 7), received a diet containing different parts of CO fruit parts for 8 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) normal diet: NC group and (2) hypercholesterolemic diet: PC, HS (10 mg/kg/day simvastatin), HPO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the pulp of CO), HKO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the kernel of CO), HF (50 g kg−1 fullfat pulp of CO), and HD (50 g kg−1 defatted pulp of CO). Among these groups, rabbits receiving defatted pulp of CO showed the greatest cholesterol lowering effect as it had reduced plasma LDL-C, TC, and thiobarbiturate reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of high dietary fiber and antioxidants activity are potential factors contributing to the cholesterol lowering effect. Consequently, these results indicate the potential use of CO defatted pulp as a cholesterol lowering and antioxidant agent. PMID:22811751

  12. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei; He, Yan Ran; Lu, Jian Mei; Li, Na; Wang, Wan Gen; Gu, Wen; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong Hua

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) and its processed products (PMRP) on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) to 1536 ± 47.69 pg/mL (P < 0.001) and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL) to 23.59 ± 0.2758 U/mL (P < 0.05). HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A). Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r = 0.756, P < 0.05) was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP. PMID:24876874

  13. Effects of dietary nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on feeding behavior of tethered heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Ruiz de la Torre, J L; Calsamiglia, S

    2006-05-01

    To describe the feeding behavior of growing heifers fed high-concentrate diets with different sources of protein and nonstructural carbohydrates, and to explain the ruminal fermentation pattern, 4 ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two non-structural carbohydrate sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] that differ in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined, resulting in a synchronized, rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized, slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets consisting of a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM and corn-SFM). The corn-SFM diet resulted in a lower frequency of feeding (P < or = 0.05), longer meal length (P < or = 0.043), and larger meal size (P < or = 0.037) than the other 3 diets. Dietary treatment had no effect (P > or = 0.09) on the daily percentages of posture and behaviors. In general, heifers spent 9.97 +/- 0.83% of the day eating, 2.11 +/- 0.42% drinking, 25.13 +/- 1.36% ruminating, 16.97 +/- 1.42% in other activities such as social behavior and self-grooming, and the rest of the day (45.82 +/- 2.55%) resting or doing no chewing activities. Eating, drinking, and social behaviors were performed while standing (P < or = 0.01), whereas resting and ruminating occurred mainly while lying (P = 0.001). Eating took place mainly in the first 4 h after feeding (P = 0.001), whereas ruminating occurred mainly at night (P = 0.001). When chewing activities (eating and ruminating) were expressed per kilogram of DM or NDF from roughage intake, more time (P = 0.004) was spent chewing per kilogram of DMI for barley-based diets, and per kilogram of NDF from roughage intake for barley- (P = 0.01) and SFM- (P = 0.002) based diets. Tethered heifers fed the more fermentable and rapidly synchronized diet (barley

  14. Body composition and grip strength are improved in transgenic sickle mice fed a high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Capers, Patrice L; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Cue, Shayla; Chappa, Prasanthi; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Weitzmann, M Neale; Archer, David R; Newman, Gale W; Quarshie, Alexander; Stiles, Jonathan K; Hibbert, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Key pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia includes compensatory erythropoiesis, vascular injury and chronic inflammation, which divert amino acids from tissue deposition for growth/weight gain and muscle formation. We hypothesised that sickle mice maintained on an isoenergetic diet with a high percentage of energy derived from protein (35 %), as opposed to a standard diet with 20 % of energy derived from protein, would improve body composition, bone mass and grip strength. Male Berkeley transgenic sickle mice (S; n 8-12) were fed either 20 % (S20) or 35 % (S35) diets for 3 months. Grip strength (BIOSEB meter) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) were measured. After 3 months, control mice had the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) (P < 0·005). S35 mice had the largest increase in grip strength. A two-way ANOVA of change in grip strength (P = 0·043) attributed this difference to genotype (P = 0·025) and a trend in type of diet (P = 0·067). l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation of the 20 % diet was explored, as a possible mechanism for improvement obtained with the 35 % diet. Townes transgenic sickle mice (TS; n 6-9) received 0·8, 1·6, 3·2 or 6·4 % l-Arg based on the same protocol and outcome measures used for the S mice. TS mice fed 1·6 % l-Arg for 3 months (TS1.6) had the highest weight gain, BMD, BMC and lean body mass compared with other groups. TS3.2 mice showed significantly more improvement in grip strength than TS0·8 and TS1.6 mice (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the high-protein diet improved body composition and grip strength. Outcomes observed with TS1.6 and TS3.2 mice, respectively, confirm the hypothesis and reveal l-Arg as part of the mechanism.

  15. Characterisation of the Faecal Bacterial Community in Adult and Elderly Horses Fed a High Fibre, High Oil or High Starch Diet Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Geor, Raymond J.; Nielsen, Brian D.; Schott, Harold C.; Elzinga, Sarah; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from seventeen animals, each fed three different diets (high fibre, high fibre with a starch rich supplement and high fibre with an oil rich supplement). DNA was extracted and the V1–V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the faecal microbiome of the horse. The effect of age was also considered by comparing mature (8 horses aged 5–12) versus elderly horses (9 horses aged 19–28). A reduction in diversity was found in the elderly horse group. Significant differences between diets were found at an OTU level (52 OTUs at corrected Q<0.1). The majority of differences found were related to the Firmucutes phylum (37) with some changes in Bacteroidetes (6), Proteobacteria (3), Actinobacteria (2) and Spirochaetes (1). For the forage only diet,with no added starch or oil, we found 30/2934 OTUs (accounting for 15.9% of sequences) present in all horses. However the core (i.e. present in all horses) associated with the oil rich supplemented diet was somewhat smaller (25/3029 OTUs, 10.3% ) and the core associated with the starch rich supplemented diet was even smaller (15/2884 OTUs, 5.4% ). The core associated with samples across all three diets was extremely small (6/5689 OTUs accounting for only 2.3% of sequences) and dominated by the order Clostridiales, with the most abundant family being Lachnospiraceae. In conclusion, forage based diets plus starch or oil rich complementary feeds were associated with differences in the faecal bacterial community compared with the forage alone. Further, as observed in people, ageing is associated with a reduction in bacterial diversity. However there was no change in the bacterial community structure in these healthy animals associated with age. PMID:24504261

  16. Characterisation of the faecal bacterial community in adult and elderly horses fed a high fibre, high oil or high starch diet using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A; Girdwood, Susan E; Pinloche, Eric; Geor, Raymond J; Nielsen, Brian D; Schott, Harold C; Elzinga, Sarah; Newbold, C Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from seventeen animals, each fed three different diets (high fibre, high fibre with a starch rich supplement and high fibre with an oil rich supplement). DNA was extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the faecal microbiome of the horse. The effect of age was also considered by comparing mature (8 horses aged 5-12) versus elderly horses (9 horses aged 19-28). A reduction in diversity was found in the elderly horse group. Significant differences between diets were found at an OTU level (52 OTUs at corrected Q<0.1). The majority of differences found were related to the Firmucutes phylum (37) with some changes in Bacteroidetes (6), Proteobacteria (3), Actinobacteria (2) and Spirochaetes (1). For the forage only diet,with no added starch or oil, we found 30/2934 OTUs (accounting for 15.9% of sequences) present in all horses. However the core (i.e. present in all horses) associated with the oil rich supplemented diet was somewhat smaller (25/3029 OTUs, 10.3% ) and the core associated with the starch rich supplemented diet was even smaller (15/2884 OTUs, 5.4% ). The core associated with samples across all three diets was extremely small (6/5689 OTUs accounting for only 2.3% of sequences) and dominated by the order Clostridiales, with the most abundant family being Lachnospiraceae. In conclusion, forage based diets plus starch or oil rich complementary feeds were associated with differences in the faecal bacterial community compared with the forage alone. Further, as observed in people, ageing is associated with a reduction in bacterial diversity. However there was no change in the bacterial community structure in these healthy animals associated with age. PMID:24504261

  17. Effects of Dietary Calcium Supplementation on Bone Metabolism, Kidney Mineral Concentrations, and Kidney Function in Rats Fed a High-Phosphorus Diet.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Shinichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation on bone metabolism, kidney mineral concentrations, and kidney function in rats fed a high-phosphorus (P) diet. Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and fed their respective diets for 21 d: a diet containing 0.3% P and 0.5% Ca (C), a diet containing 1.5% P and 0.5% Ca (HP), a diet containing 0.3% P and 1.0% Ca (HCa), or a diet containing 1.5% P and 1.0% Ca (HPCa). Compared to the C group, the high-P diet increased serum parathyroid hormone concentration, markers of bone turnover, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand mRNA expression of the femur, kidney Ca and P concentrations, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, and urinary β2-microglobulin excretion, and decreased bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the femur and tibia. Dietary Ca supplementation improved the parameters of bone metabolism and kidney function in rats fed the high-P diet, while there were no significant differences in kidney Ca or P concentrations between the HP and HPCa groups. These results suggest that dietary Ca supplementation prevented the bone loss and decline in kidney function induced by a high-P diet, whereas dietary Ca supplementation did not affect kidney mineral concentrations in rats fed the high-P diet.

  18. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  19. High fat-fed diabetic mice present with profound alterations of the osteocyte network.

    PubMed

    Mabilleau, Guillaume; Perrot, Rodolphe; Flatt, Peter R; Irwin, Nigel; Chappard, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered to be an independent risk factor for bone fragility fractures. Reductions in bone mass, observed only with type 1 diabetes mellitus, as well as modifications of bone microarchitectures and tissue material properties are landmarks of diabetes-related bone alterations. An interesting feature observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the augmented concentration in circulating sclerostin. This observation prompts us to hypothesize that modifications of osteocyte network and perilacunar mineralization occur in T2DM. As such, the aims of the present study were to ascertain by quantitative backscattered electron imaging, confocal microscopy and image analysis, modifications of perilacunar tissue mineral density, osteocyte morphology and osteocyte network topology in a mouse model of high fat-induced type 2 diabetes. As compared with lean control animals, diabetic mice exhibited a significant 48% decrease in perilacunar mineralization heterogeneity although mean perilacunar mineralization was unchanged. Furthermore, in diabetic animals, osteocyte volume was significantly augmented by 34% with no change in the overall number of dendrite processes. Finally, the network topology was profoundly modified in diabetic mice with increases in the mean node degree, mean node volume and hub numbers whilst the mean link length was reduced. Overall, it appeared that in diabetic animals, the dendritic network exhibited features of a scale-free network as opposed to the single-scale characteristic observed in lean controls. However, it is important to ascertain whether diabetic patients exhibit such modifications of the osteocyte network and whether anti-diabetic drugs could restore normal osteocyte and network parameters, thereby improving bone quality and protecting against fragility fractures. PMID:27312542

  20. Voluntary exercise improves metabolic profile in high-fat fed glucocorticoid-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, Jacqueline L.; Dunford, Emily C.; Leclair, Erwan; Mandel, Erin R.; Peckett, Ashley J.; Haas, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is rapidly induced in young male Sprague-Dawley rats following treatment with exogenous corticosterone (CORT) and a high-fat diet (HFD). Regular exercise alleviates insulin insensitivity and improves pancreatic β-cell function in insulin-resistant/diabetic rodents, but its effect in an animal model of elevated glucocorticoids is unknown. We examined the effect of voluntary exercise (EX) on diabetes development in CORT-HFD-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼6 wk old). Animals were acclimatized to running wheels for 2 wk, then given a HFD, either wax (placebo) or CORT pellets, and split into 4 groups: placebo-sedentary (SED) or -EX and CORT-SED or -EX. After 2 wk of running combined with treatment, CORT-EX animals had reduced visceral adiposity, and increased skeletal muscle type IIb/x fiber area, oxidative capacity, capillary-to-fiber ratio and insulin sensitivity compared with CORT-SED animals (all P < 0.05). Although CORT-EX animals still had fasting hyperglycemia, these values were significantly improved compared with CORT-SED animals (14.3 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 0.9 mM). In addition, acute in vivo insulin response to an oral glucose challenge was enhanced ∼2-fold in CORT-EX vs. CORT-SED (P < 0.05) which was further demonstrated ex vivo in isolated islets. We conclude that voluntary wheel running in rats improves, but does not fully normalize, the metabolic profile and skeletal muscle composition of animals administered CORT and HFD. PMID:25792713

  1. Voluntary exercise improves metabolic profile in high-fat fed glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Emily C; Leclair, Erwan; Mandel, Erin R; Peckett, Ashley J; Haas, Tara L; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is rapidly induced in young male Sprague-Dawley rats following treatment with exogenous corticosterone (CORT) and a high-fat diet (HFD). Regular exercise alleviates insulin insensitivity and improves pancreatic β-cell function in insulin-resistant/diabetic rodents, but its effect in an animal model of elevated glucocorticoids is unknown. We examined the effect of voluntary exercise (EX) on diabetes development in CORT-HFD-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼6 wk old). Animals were acclimatized to running wheels for 2 wk, then given a HFD, either wax (placebo) or CORT pellets, and split into 4 groups: placebo-sedentary (SED) or -EX and CORT-SED or -EX. After 2 wk of running combined with treatment, CORT-EX animals had reduced visceral adiposity, and increased skeletal muscle type IIb/x fiber area, oxidative capacity, capillary-to-fiber ratio and insulin sensitivity compared with CORT-SED animals (all P < 0.05). Although CORT-EX animals still had fasting hyperglycemia, these values were significantly improved compared with CORT-SED animals (14.3 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 0.9 mM). In addition, acute in vivo insulin response to an oral glucose challenge was enhanced ∼2-fold in CORT-EX vs. CORT-SED (P < 0.05) which was further demonstrated ex vivo in isolated islets. We conclude that voluntary wheel running in rats improves, but does not fully normalize, the metabolic profile and skeletal muscle composition of animals administered CORT and HFD.

  2. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1999-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum; Lauraceae) and cardamom (Amomum subulatum; Zingiberaceae) hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas GSH content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices. In addition, these spices partially counteracted increase in lipid conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides, the primary products of lipid peroxidation. Thus, it appears that these spices exert antioxidant protection through their ability to activate the antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Astaxanthin reduces hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation in high fructose and high fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, Saravanan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-03-01

    We recently showed that astaxanthin (ASX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway of insulin signaling and improves glucose metabolism in liver of high fructose-fat diet (HFFD)-fed mice. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ASX influences phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation in liver of HFFD-fed mice. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either with control diet or HFFD for 15 days. After this period, mice in each group were divided into two and administered ASX (2 mg/kg/day, p.o) in 0.3 ml olive oil or 0.3 ml olive oil alone for the next 45 days. At the end of 60 days, liver tissue was excised and examined for lipid accumulation (Oil red O staining), intracellular ROS production, ER stress, and inflammatory markers. Elevated ROS production, lipid accumulation, and increased hepatic expression of ER stress markers such as Ig-binding protein, PKR-like ER kinase, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, X-box binding protein 1, activating transcription factor 6, and the apoptotic marker caspase 12 were observed in the liver of the HFFD group. ASX significantly reversed these changes. This reduction was accompanied by reduced activation of JNK1 and I kappa B kinase β phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear translocation in ASX-treated HFFD mice. These findings suggest that alleviation of inflammation and ER stress by ASX could be a mechanism responsible for its beneficial effect in this model. ASX could be a promising treatment strategy for insulin resistant patients. PMID:23852435

  4. The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin. PMID:22413035

  5. Metabolomic and genomic profiling of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid effects on muscle metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that feeding mice high-fat (HF) diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased inflammation, adiposity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we used skeletal muscle from mice fed HF or HF-EPA for 11 weeks to further dissect mechanisms mediating EPA effects o...

  6. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  7. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  8. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  9. Colonic inflammation and enhanced-beta-catenin signaling accompany an increase of the Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of an obesigenic / high-fat (HF) diet is associated with an increase of inflammation-related colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that a HF feeding accelerates inflammatory processes and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF ...

  10. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  11. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate.

    PubMed

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-07-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  12. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate.

    PubMed

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-07-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations. PMID:26936773

  13. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  14. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance.

  15. Effects of aqueous celery (Apium graveolens) extract on lipid parameters of rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tsi, D; Das, N P; Tan, B K

    1995-02-01

    The antihyperlipidemic property of aqueous celery extract was studied in rats. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet for eight weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. One group was supplemented with aqueous celery extract in the diet while the other group served as control. At the end of the experiment, a significant reduction was found in the serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations in the celery-treated rats. However, the concentration of hepatic TG was significantly higher in the celery-treated group than in the control group. Hepatic triacylglycerol lipase (HL) activity was found to be significantly lower in the celery-treated rats while the reverse was observed for the hepatic microsomal P450 content. Analysis of an ethereal extract of the aqueous extract of celery by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with two different solvent systems showed that the extract did not contain 3-n-butylphthalide (BuPh), a unique compound in celery that has previously been reported to have lipid-lowering action. Our study indicates that other active principle(s) could be responsible for the observed effects of aqueous celery extract on serum and hepatic lipid levels.

  16. Lipid Lowering Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens L. and Dill Tablet in High Cholesterol Fed Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Oshaghi, Ebrahim; Khodadadi, Iraj; Saidijam, Massoud; Yadegarazari, Reza; Shabab, Nooshin; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohamad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Anethum graveolens extract and Anethum graveolens (dill) tablet on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and gene expression and enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA reductase in high cholesterol fed hamsters. Materials and Methods. Golden Syrian male hamsters (130 ± 10 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 6) and received daily the following: group 1 received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid (HCD), groups 2 and 3 received HCD diet plus 100 and 200 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of dill, respectively, and groups 4 and 5 received HCD diet plus 100 and 200 mg/kg dill tablet, respectively. Group 6 received only chow. After 1 month feeding serum biochemical factors were determined. HMG-CoA reductase mRNA level was measured (real-time PCR) and its activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Results. Compared with hypercholesterolemic group 1, lipid profile, blood glucose, and liver enzymes significantly decreased in all dill tablet or dill extract treated groups (p < 0.05). The changes in HMG-CoA reductase gene expression level and enzyme activity significantly reduced in animals that received 200 mg/kg of extract or tablet. Conclusion. Dill extract and dill tablet showed potential hypocholesterolemic properties in hamsters by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. PMID:26823981

  17. Cinnamaldehyde supplementation prevents fasting-induced hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Jain, Yachna; Baboota, Ritesh K; Mangal, Priyanka; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Sharma, Shyam S; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi K; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive component of cinnamon, is increasingly gaining interest for its preventive and therapeutic effects against metabolic complications like type-2 diabetes. This study is an attempt to understand the effect of cinnamaldehyde in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated increase in fasting-induced hyperphagia and related hormone levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and inflammation, and selected cecal microbial count in mice. Cinnamaldehyde, at 40 µM dose, prevented lipid accumulation and altered gene expression toward lipolytic phenotype in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines. In vivo, cinnamaldehyde coadministration prevented HFD-induced body weight gain, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, as well as circulating leptin and leptin/ghrelin ratio. In addition to that, cinnamaldehyde altered serum biochemical parameters related to lipolysis, that is, glycerol and free fatty acid levels. At transcriptional level, cinnamaldehyde increased anorectic gene expression in hypothalamus and lipolytic gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde also decreased serum IL-1β and inflammatory gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. However, cinnamaldehyde did not modulate the population of selected gut microbial (Lactobacillus, Bifidibaceria, and Roseburia) count in cecal content. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde increased adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, normalized circulating levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio, and reduced inflammation in HFD-fed mice, which augurs well for its antiobesity role. PMID:26893251

  18. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  19. Fructus xanthii improves lipid homeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiumin; Yang, Mingxing; Li, Zhipeng; Xue, Mei; Shangguan, Zhaoshui; Ou, Zhimin; Liu, Ming; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity triggers common features of human metabolic syndrome in rats. Our previous study showed that Fructus xanthii (FX) attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipid metabolism in epididymal fat (EF), and examine its underlying mechanisms. Aqueous extraction fractions of FX or vehicle were orally administered by gavage for 6 weeks to rats fed either a HFD or a normal chow diet (NCD). The levels of circulating free fatty acid (FFA) were determined in plasma, and the expression levels of lipid metabolism‑ and inflammation‑associated genes in the EF were measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The general morphology, size and number of adipocytes in the EF, and the levels of macrophage infiltration were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining or immunohistochemical staining. FX decreased circulating levels of FFA, increased the expression levels of sterol‑regulatory‑element‑binding protein‑1c, FAS, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase lipogenic genes in the EF. FX increased the numbers of adipocytes in the EF, and featured a shift towards smaller adipocyte size. Compared with the vehicle‑treated rats, positive staining of F4/80 was more dispersed in the FX‑treated rats, and the percentage of F4/80 positive cells was significantly decreased. FX attenuated HFD‑induced lipid dyshomeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue.

  20. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance. PMID:26653843

  1. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) extract inhibits obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet over the long term.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-14

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are traditionally used to add bitterness and flavour to beer. Although the isomerised hop extracts produced by the brewing process have been thought to ameliorate lipid and glucose metabolism, the influence of untreated hop extracts on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is unclear. The present study examined the anti-obesity effects of a hop extract in male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF diet, or HF diet plus 2 or 5 % hop extract for 20 weeks. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed at week 19. Furthermore, water excretion was evaluated in water-loaded Balb/c male mice. The effects of the extract on lipid accumulation and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined. The hop extract inhibited the increase in body and adipose tissue weight, adipose cell diameter and liver lipids induced by the HF diet. Furthermore, it improved glucose intolerance. The extract enhanced water excretion in water-loaded mice. Various fractions of the hop extract inhibited lipid accumulation and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hop extracts might be useful for preventing obesity and glucose intolerance caused by a HF diet.

  2. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  3. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  4. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hussin, Aminuddin Bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  5. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  6. Resveratrol increases nephrin and podocin expression and alleviates renal damage in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-07-14

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  7. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  8. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  9. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-07-01

    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus. PMID:26994807

  10. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Materials and Methods: Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. Results: High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Conclusion: Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets. PMID:27516982

  11. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran pesticide on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): hematological, biochemical and cytogenetic response.

    PubMed

    Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2014-05-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of two sublethal concentrations of carbofuran pesticide (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) on hematological and blood biochemical parameters of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and to evaluate the genotoxic potential of carbofuran on the erythrocytes of C. gariepinus for the first time by micronucleus and erythrocyte alteration assays. The results revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in red blood cells (RBCs) count, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (Hct) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) levels, but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) levels were increased. White blood cells (WBCs) count, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes were increased significantly (p<0.05), while the lymphocytes were decreased. Also, carbofuran exposure caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The results obtained showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma glucose, total lipids, urea and creatinin levels, but the total protein, albumin concentration and globulin levels were decreased (p<0.05) significantly and consequently A/G ratio also decreased. Carbofuran caused many genotoxic and morphological alterations in erythrocytes such as formation of micronuclei (MN), echinocytes, acanthocytes, tear like drop cells, microcytes and erythrocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and pale nucleus. The exposed groups have shown significant variations in frequencies of MN and altered erythrocytes in comparison to control group, and these frequencies increased significantly (p<0.05) with the increase of carbofuran concentration. Therefore, current results present a clear evidence of the response of C. gariepinus to carbofuran and allow us to consider that C. gariepinus as a good bioindicator to reflect the toxicity and the

  12. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  13. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications. PMID:26713546

  14. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  15. Negative impacts of ultraviolet-A radiation on antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers of African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ultraviolet-A (UVA) effects on biochemical, oxidative stress and antioxidant changes using aquatic species. The destructive effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was revealed in terms of the carbonyl protein (CP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant (TAO) in the gills, kidney, liver, muscles and skin. Also, glucose, total lipid, total protein and cortisol content of fish serums was detected. These parameters can be used as biomarkers to identify the negative effects of UVA radiation (20, 60 and 180 min per day) for 3 days in different tissues of Clarias gariepinus. There was a significant decrease in the activity of SOD, CAT, Gpx, GSH, G6PDH, LDH, and TAO in all of the examined tissues. The pattern of GR activity in UVA exposed groups showed no significant differences compared with the control group. However, CP, LPO and DNA damage were increased significantly with exposure periods in all of the examined tissues. The exposure to different doses of UVA caused hypoglycaemia, hypolipidimia and hypoproteinimia. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after UV exposure when compared with the control group. In conclusion, UVA exposure with different time periods has been shown to have negative effects on the blood biochemistry, hormonal and antioxidant capacity of Clarias gariepinus tissues.

  16. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  17. Effects of Ilex latifolia and Camellia sinensis on cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian-Yang; Li, Na-Na; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Ilex latifolia or green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the levels of plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. We demonstrated that daily administration by gavage of I. latifolia or C. sinensis at doses of 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol levels and circulating immune complexes and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet compared with levels in the high-cholesterol diet control group. C. sinensis was more effective than I. latifolia. I. latifolia and C. sinensis could be used as food supplements to protect against the development of hypercholesterolaemia.

  18. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  19. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-09-01

    Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol

  20. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-09-01

    Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol

  1. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  2. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae. PMID:27503614

  3. Inhibitory effects of Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ye Rim; Won, Sae Bom; Chung, Young-Shin; Kwak, Chung Shil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Because adipose tissue is considered a major source of inflammatory signals, we investigated the protective effects of Doenjang and steamed soybean on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat diet (LF), a high-fat diet (HF), or a high-fat containing Doenjang diet (DJ) or a high-fat containing steamed soybean diet (SS) for 11 weeks. RESULTS Mice fed a DJ diet showed significantly lower body and adipose tissue weights than those in the HF group. Although no significant differences in adipocyte size and number were observed among the HF diet-fed groups, consumption of Doenjang alleviated the incidence of crown-like structures in adipose tissue. Consistently, we observed significantly reduced mRNA levels of oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and p40phox), pro-inflammatory adipokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1), macrophage markers (CD68 and CD11c), and a fibrosis marker (transforming growth factor beta 1) by Doenjang consumption. Gene expression of anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin was significantly induced in the DJ group and the SS group compared to the HF group. The anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects observed in mice fed an SS diet were not as effective as those in mice fed a DJ diet, suggesting that the bioactive compounds produced during fermentation and aging may be involved in the observed health-beneficial effects of Doenjang. CONCLUSIONS Doenjang alleviated oxidative stress and restored the dysregulated expression of adipokine genes caused by excess adiposity. Therefore, Doenjang may ameliorate systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity via inhibition of inflammatory signals of adipose tissue. PMID:26060534

  4. Chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves antioxidant status in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kang, Min-Jung; Choe, Eunok; Auh, Joong Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet increases insulin resistance and results in type 2 diabetes mellitus in C57BL/6J mice. Hyperglycemia in diabetics increases oxidative stress, which is associated with a high risk of diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of chamnamul [Pimpinella brachycarpa (Kom.) Nakai] in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul was measured in vitro. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a basal or HFHS diet with or without a 70% ethanol extract of chamnamul at a 0.5% level of the diet for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. After sacrifice, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and lipid profiles, and lipid peroxidation of the liver were determined. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Chamnamul extract inhibited α-glucosidase by 26.7%, which was 78.3% the strength of inhibition by acarbose at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. Serum glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels, as well as HOMA-IR values, were significantly lower in the chamnamul group than in the HFHS group. Chamnamul extract significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver compared with the HFHS group. These findings suggest that chamnamul may be useful in prevention of hyperglycemia and reduction of oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet. PMID:24353829

  5. A high-dose Shiitake mushroom increases hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol in rats fed a high-fat diet: underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Dian; Meyer, Barbara J; Chen, Jiezhong; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-02-12

    Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty Wistar rats were divided into control group were given HFD and treatment group were fed HFD, enriched with Shiitake mushroom powder at a low dose (LD-M): 0.7%, medium dose (MD-M): 2%, or high dose (HD-M): 6% (wt:wt) for six weeks. Diets were isocaloric containing ~50% energy from fat. After six weeks' dietary intervention, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples were collected. The HD-M group showed a significantly higher ratio of liver weight to 100 g body weight (p < 0.05), a more severe hepatic steatosis marker, such as hepatocyte ballooning (p < 0.0001), and more liver triacylglycerol content than LD-M and MD-M (p < 0.05). HD-M also showed a significantly decreased ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to HFD (p < 0.05), however, there were no differences compared to HD-M and MD-M. Our results also showed a positive association between the dosage, liver TAG, and liver ballooning histology. A negative association was found between the mushroom dosage and the ratio of liver PC to PE. This study showed the mechanism of how high-dose Shiitake mushroom (HD-M) prevents obesity by increasing TAG accumulation in the liver, rather than adipose tissue.

  6. Taurine supplementation preserves hypothalamic leptin action in normal and protein-restricted mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rafael L; Batista, Thiago M; Ribeiro, Rosane A; Branco, Renato C S; Da Silva, Priscilla M R; Izumi, Clarice; Araujo, Thiago R; Greene, Lewis J; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-11-01

    Malnutrition programs the neuroendocrine axis by disruption of food-intake control, leading to obesity. Taurine (Tau) is neuroprotective and improves anorexigenic actions in the hypothalamus. We evaluated the hypothalamic gene-expression profile and food-intake control in protein-restricted mice submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD) and Tau supplementation. Mice were fed on a control (14 % protein-C) or a protein-restricted diet (6 % protein-R) for 6 weeks. Thereafter, mice received, or not, HFD for 8 weeks (CH and RH) with or without 5 % Tau supplementation (CHT and RHT). Protein restriction led to higher food intake, but calories were matched to controls. Excessive calorie intake occurred in HFD mice and this was prevented by Tau supplementation only in the CH group. Additionally, RH and CH mice developed hypothalamic leptin resistance, which was prevented by Tau. Global alterations in the expressions of genes involved in hypothalamic metabolism, cellular defense, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways were induced by dietary manipulations and Tau treatment. The orexigenic peptides NPY and AgRP were increased by protein restriction and lowered by the HFD. The anorexigenic peptide Pomc was increased by HFD, and this was prevented by Tau only in CH mice. Thus, food intake was disrupted by dietary protein restriction and obesity. HFD-induced alterations were not enhanced by previous protein deficiency, but the some beneficial effects of Tau supplementation upon food intake were blunted by protein restriction. Tau effects upon feeding behavior control are complex and involve interactions with a vast gene network, preventing hypothalamic leptin resistance. PMID:26133737

  7. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Kotowska, Dorota; Sand, Elin; Bjursell, Mikael; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Holm, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Berger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF)-induced metabolic alterations. Methods Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2) during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP) as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain. PMID:27125264

  8. Increased atherosclerosis and vascular smooth muscle cell activation in AIF-1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, Laura J; Kelemen, Sheri E; Ellison, Stephen P; England, Ross N; Autieri, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic, scaffold signal transduction protein constitutively expressed in inflammatory cells, but inducible in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to injury or inflammatory stimuli. Although several basic science and population studies have reported increased AIF-1 expression in human and experimental atherosclerosis, a direct causal effect of AIF-1 expression on development of atherosclerosis has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to establish a direct relationship between AIF-1 expression and development of atherosclerosis. AIF-1 expression is detected VSMC in atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE(-/-) mice, but not normal arteries from wild-type mice. AIF-1 expression can be induced in cultured VSMC by stimulation with oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Transgenic mice in which AIF-1 expression is driven by the G/C modified SM22 alpha promoter to restrict AIF-1 expression to VSMC develop significantly increased atherosclerosis compared with wild-type control mice when fed a high-fat diet (P=0.022). Cultured VSMC isolated from Tg mice demonstrated significantly increased migration in response to ox-LDL compared with matched controls (P<0.001). VSMC isolated from Tg mice and cultured human VSMC which over express AIF-1 demonstrated increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and protein and increased NF-κB activation in response to ox-LDL as compared with wild-type control mice. VSMC which over express AIF-1 have significantly increased uptake of ox-LDL, and increased CD36 expression. Together, these data suggest a strong association between AIF-1 expression, NF-κB activation, and development of experimental atherosclerosis.

  9. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  10. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  11. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  12. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels.

  13. Anticholesterolemic effect of 3,4-di(OH)-phenylpropionic amides in high-cholesterol fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Ja; Bok, Song-Hae; Lee, Sangku; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook . E-mail: mschoi@knu.ac.kr

    2005-10-01

    Two amide synthetic derivatives of 3,4-di(OH)-hydrocinnamate (HC), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-serine methyl ester) amide (E030) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-aspartic acid) amide (E076), were investigated to compare their lipid-lowering efficacy with HC. Male rats were fed a 1 g/100 g high-cholesterol diet for 6 weeks with supplements of either clofibrate (0.02%, w/w), HC (0.025%, w/w), E030 (0.039%, w/w) or E076 (0.041%, w/w). The clofibrate supplement was used as a positive control for the lipid-lowering efficacy. The food intakes and body weight gains were not significantly different among the groups. The plasma and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in clofibrate, HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The supplementation of HC and its amide derivatives was as effective as clofibrate in increasing the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total plasma cholesterol and reducing the atherogenic index (AI). The hepatic cholesterol level in the HC and E076 groups was significantly lower than that in the clofibrate group. The hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase) and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activities were significantly lower in the all test groups than in the control group. The excretion of neutral sterol was significantly higher in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The plasma AST and ALT activities, indirect indexes of hepatic toxicity, were significantly lower in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups than in the control group. Accordingly, the current results suggest that E030 and E076, two amide synthetic derivatives of HC, are effective in lowering lipid activity.

  14. Use of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle.

    PubMed

    Klomklao, Sappasith; Kishimura, Hideki; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2013-01-15

    Proteolytic activity of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) was studied. The optimal pH and temperature were 9.0 and 50°C, respectively, when toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle was used as a substrate. When viscera extract from hybrid catfish was used for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish muscle, extract concentration, reaction time, and fish muscle/buffer ratio affected the hydrolysis and nitrogen recovery (NR) (p<0.05). Optimum conditions for toothed ponyfish muscle hydrolysis were 3.5% hybrid catfish viscera extract, 15 min reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio of 1:3 (w/v). High correlation between the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and NR (R(2)=0.974) was observed. Freeze-dried hydrolysate had a high protein content (89.02%, dry weight basis) and it was brownish yellow in colour (L(∗)=63.67, a(∗)=6.33, b(∗)=22.41). The protein hydrolysate contained a high amount of essential amino acids (48.22%) and had arginine and lysine as the dominant amino acids. PMID:23122156

  15. Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Juhae

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. MATERIALS/METHODS Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. RESULTS Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including LXRα, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. CONCLUSIONS Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring. PMID:27478544

  16. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet.

  17. miRNA profiling of high, low and non-producing CHO cells during biphasic fed-batch cultivation reveals process relevant targets for host cell engineering.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Fabian; Fischer, Simon; Sczyrba, Alexander; Otte, Kerstin; Hesse, Friedemann

    2016-05-10

    Fed-batch cultivation of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is one of the most widely used production modes for commercial manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivations are often conducted as biphasic processes where the culture temperature is decreased to maximize volumetric product yields. However, it remains to be elucidated which intracellular regulatory elements actually control the observed pro-productive phenotypes. Recently, several studies have revealed microRNAs (miRNAs) to be important molecular switches of cell phenotypes. In this study, we analyzed miRNA profiles of two different recombinant CHO cell lines (high and low producer), and compared them to a non-producing CHO DG44 host cell line during fed-batch cultivation at 37°C versus a temperature shift to 30°C. Taking advantage of next-generation sequencing combined with cluster, correlation and differential expression analyses, we could identify 89 different miRNAs, which were differentially expressed in the different cell lines and cultivation phases. Functional validation experiments using 19 validated target miRNAs confirmed that these miRNAs indeed induced changes in process relevant phenotypes. Furthermore, computational miRNA target prediction combined with functional clustering identified putative target genes and cellular pathways, which might be regulated by these miRNAs. This study systematically identified novel target miRNAs during different phases and conditions of a biphasic fed-batch production process and functionally evaluated their potential for host cell engineering.

  18. Urine and serum metabolite profiling of rats fed a high-fat diet and the anti-obesity effects of caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Mee Youn; Park, Hye Min; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling. PMID:25689639

  19. Effects of disodium fumarate on ruminal fermentation and microbial communities in sheep fed on high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y W; McSweeney, C S; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of disodium fumarate (DF) on fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in the rumen of Hu sheep fed on high-forage diets. Two complementary feeding trials were conducted. In Trial 1, six Hu sheep fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly allocated to a 2 × 2 cross-over design involving dietary treatments of either 0 or 20 g DF daily. Total DNA was extracted from the fluid- and solid-associated rumen microbes, respectively. Numbers of 16S rDNA gene copies associated with rumen methanogens and bacteria, and 18S rDNA gene copies associated with rumen protozoa and fungi were measured using real-time PCR, and expressed as proportion of total rumen bacteria 16S rDNA. Ruminal pH decreased in the DF group compared with the control (P < 0.05). Total volatile fatty acids increased (P < 0.001), but butyrate decreased (P < 0.01). Addition of DF inhibited the growth of methanogens, protozoa, fungi and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in fluid samples. Both Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens populations increased (P < 0.001) in particle-associated samples. Trial 2 was conducted to investigate the adaptive response of rumen microbes to DF. Three cannulated sheep were fed on basal diet for 2 weeks and continuously for 4 weeks with supplementation of DF at a level of 20 g/day. Ruminal samples were collected every week to analyze fermentation parameters and microbial populations. No effects of DF were observed on pH, acetate and butyrate (P > 0.05). Populations of methanogens and R. flavefaciens decreased in the fluid samples (P < 0.001), whereas addition of DF stimulated the population of solid-associated Fibrobacter succinogenes. Population of R. albus increased in the 2nd to 4th week in fluid-associated samples and was threefold higher in the 4th week than control week in solid samples. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints revealed that there were significant changes in rumen

  20. Effects of disodium fumarate on ruminal fermentation and microbial communities in sheep fed on high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y W; McSweeney, C S; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of disodium fumarate (DF) on fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in the rumen of Hu sheep fed on high-forage diets. Two complementary feeding trials were conducted. In Trial 1, six Hu sheep fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly allocated to a 2 × 2 cross-over design involving dietary treatments of either 0 or 20 g DF daily. Total DNA was extracted from the fluid- and solid-associated rumen microbes, respectively. Numbers of 16S rDNA gene copies associated with rumen methanogens and bacteria, and 18S rDNA gene copies associated with rumen protozoa and fungi were measured using real-time PCR, and expressed as proportion of total rumen bacteria 16S rDNA. Ruminal pH decreased in the DF group compared with the control (P < 0.05). Total volatile fatty acids increased (P < 0.001), but butyrate decreased (P < 0.01). Addition of DF inhibited the growth of methanogens, protozoa, fungi and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in fluid samples. Both Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens populations increased (P < 0.001) in particle-associated samples. Trial 2 was conducted to investigate the adaptive response of rumen microbes to DF. Three cannulated sheep were fed on basal diet for 2 weeks and continuously for 4 weeks with supplementation of DF at a level of 20 g/day. Ruminal samples were collected every week to analyze fermentation parameters and microbial populations. No effects of DF were observed on pH, acetate and butyrate (P > 0.05). Populations of methanogens and R. flavefaciens decreased in the fluid samples (P < 0.001), whereas addition of DF stimulated the population of solid-associated Fibrobacter succinogenes. Population of R. albus increased in the 2nd to 4th week in fluid-associated samples and was threefold higher in the 4th week than control week in solid samples. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints revealed that there were significant changes in rumen

  1. Efficacy of Oral Curcuminoid Fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuminoid Cider in High-cholesterol Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mauren, Flavia Maria; Yanti; Lay, Bibiana Widiati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The present work was aimed to study the efficacy of curcuminoid fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its curcuminoid cider in reducing blood cholesterol level and four genes related to oxidative stress, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in high-cholesterol fed rats in vivo. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, namely normal group diet, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) 2%, HCD + 100 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + 300 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + cider 1% v/v, and HCD + curcuminoid cider 2% v/v for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, 14, and 28. Vascular tissues and organs from lung and liver were collected for RNA extraction, followed by quantitative analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Our results demonstrated that among all the treatment groups, curcuminoid cider at 2% v/v significantly lowered total cholesterol level compared to those of positive control. Real-time PCR data showed both curcuminoid fractions (100 and 300 mg/kg) and curcuminoid cider (1 and 2% v/v) inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1, indicating their hypocholesterolemic effects via attenuating genes related to oxidative stress in rats in vivo. Conclusion: Oral administration of curcuminoid fraction and its cider product may exert potential inhibitory effects on oxidative stress related-genes for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. SUMMARY Curcuminoid and its cider significantly inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1 in rats in vivoCurcuminoid and its cider suppressed oxidative stress

  2. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, Peter H; Cun, Grace S

    2015-12-01

    Beef heifers which had grazed 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose'; 10 heifers) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio'; 10 heifers) with high levels of Se (>2 mg/kg DM) due to growth in saline soils, accumulated high Se levels in blood, liver and muscle (Juchem et al., 2012). We determined the decrease in Se levels in blood, liver and muscle from these heifers, particularly the decrease of Se in muscle, in order to determine the maximum feeding length of a low Se diet (LSeD) required sustaining Se-enriched beef. Immediately after grazing, all heifers were fed a LSeD containing <0.30 mg/kg DM for 209 d. Blood, liver and muscle samples, as well as body weight (BW), were collected at the beginning and end of the LSeD feeding period and at intermediate times. After grazing, CWR and TWG heifers had similar BW, but TWG heifers had higher levels of Se in whole blood (1.19 versus 0.81 mg/L), liver (2.67 versus 2.12 mg/kg wet weight (WW)), and muscle tissue (0.87 versus 0.63 mg/kg WW) than CWR heifers. The Se levels decreased with exposure time to the LSeD and, at 82 d of feeding the LSeD, Se levels were 77 (liver), 49 (blood) and 31% (muscle) lower. The BW gains for both groups were ~0.5 kg/d during the first 82 d of feeding, but increased thereafter. Levels of Cu in serum (0.28 versus 0.50 mg/L) and liver (1.14 versus 22.9 mg/kg WW) were lower at the end of grazing in TWG heifers, and suggested a potential Cu deficiency. Grazing forages with high Se levels can result in Se-enriched beef, but a LSeD feeding period of <82 d is required to maintain enrichment.

  3. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, Peter H; Cun, Grace S

    2015-12-01

    Beef heifers which had grazed 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose'; 10 heifers) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio'; 10 heifers) with high levels of Se (>2 mg/kg DM) due to growth in saline soils, accumulated high Se levels in blood, liver and muscle (Juchem et al., 2012). We determined the decrease in Se levels in blood, liver and muscle from these heifers, particularly the decrease of Se in muscle, in order to determine the maximum feeding length of a low Se diet (LSeD) required sustaining Se-enriched beef. Immediately after grazing, all heifers were fed a LSeD containing <0.30 mg/kg DM for 209 d. Blood, liver and muscle samples, as well as body weight (BW), were collected at the beginning and end of the LSeD feeding period and at intermediate times. After grazing, CWR and TWG heifers had similar BW, but TWG heifers had higher levels of Se in whole blood (1.19 versus 0.81 mg/L), liver (2.67 versus 2.12 mg/kg wet weight (WW)), and muscle tissue (0.87 versus 0.63 mg/kg WW) than CWR heifers. The Se levels decreased with exposure time to the LSeD and, at 82 d of feeding the LSeD, Se levels were 77 (liver), 49 (blood) and 31% (muscle) lower. The BW gains for both groups were ~0.5 kg/d during the first 82 d of feeding, but increased thereafter. Levels of Cu in serum (0.28 versus 0.50 mg/L) and liver (1.14 versus 22.9 mg/kg WW) were lower at the end of grazing in TWG heifers, and suggested a potential Cu deficiency. Grazing forages with high Se levels can result in Se-enriched beef, but a LSeD feeding period of <82 d is required to maintain enrichment. PMID:26247689

  4. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  5. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-15

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  7. Up-regulation of blood-brain barrier short-form leptin receptor gene products in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Boado, R J; Golden, P L; Levin, N; Pardridge, W M

    1998-10-01

    Leptin is a 16-kDa protein synthesized in adipose tissue that produces a satiety effect in the CNS. Leptin may gain access to the brain via receptor-mediated transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the BBB leptin receptor (OBR) may regulate the availability of circulating leptin to brain cells. The aim of the present study was twofold: first, to identify the OBR isoform expressed at the BBB, i.e., short, or "a," and long, or "b," form; and second, to compare the abundance of the BBB OBR mRNA and protein between control and high fat-fed rats. RT-PCR with isoform-specific primers showed that OBRa is the most abundant isoform at the BBB. BBB OBRa transcript content was markedly increased in high fat-fed rats compared with controls (11-fold), and no changes were observed in the expression of the internal standard control actin. The high fat feeding induction of OBR mRNA was correlated with an increase in the immunoreactive BBB OBR determined by immunocytochemistry using an all-isoform reactive antibody in high fat-fed obese rats. This investigation demonstrates (a) the OBRa is the principal leptin receptor expressed at the BBB and (b) this BBB OBR isoform is up-regulated by a high fat diet.

  8. Cloning and expression of StAR during gonadal cycle and hCG-induced oocyte maturation of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, G; Sridevi, P; Sahoo, P K; Swapna, I; Ge, W; Kirubagaran, R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2009-09-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) have been isolated from different fish species, yet the relevance of StAR during gonadal cycle and more importantly in final oocyte maturation has not been assessed so far. A cDNA encoding StAR was isolated from the ovarian follicles of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Catfish StAR exhibited 55 to 72% identity at nucleotide level with other vertebrate orthologs. RT-PCR analysis of tissue distribution pattern demonstrated the presence of StAR mRNA in various tissues including gonads, kidney, liver, brain and intestine of catfish. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed high expression of StAR mRNA in the pre-spawning phase of ovary while it was low in preparatory, spawning and regressed phases. In testis, maximum expression was noticed during the preparatory phase. During human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced oocyte maturation, both in vitro and in vivo, StAR mRNA levels were augmented by 2 h and then declined gradually to reach basal levels by 12 h as that of saline-treated controls. Taken together, high level of expression during hCG-induced oocyte maturation vis-à-vis in spawning suggests a role for StAR, in addition to the steroidogenic enzyme genes in final oocyte maturation.

  9. Cloning and expression of StAR during gonadal cycle and hCG-induced oocyte maturation of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, G; Sridevi, P; Sahoo, P K; Swapna, I; Ge, W; Kirubagaran, R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2009-09-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) have been isolated from different fish species, yet the relevance of StAR during gonadal cycle and more importantly in final oocyte maturation has not been assessed so far. A cDNA encoding StAR was isolated from the ovarian follicles of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Catfish StAR exhibited 55 to 72% identity at nucleotide level with other vertebrate orthologs. RT-PCR analysis of tissue distribution pattern demonstrated the presence of StAR mRNA in various tissues including gonads, kidney, liver, brain and intestine of catfish. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed high expression of StAR mRNA in the pre-spawning phase of ovary while it was low in preparatory, spawning and regressed phases. In testis, maximum expression was noticed during the preparatory phase. During human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced oocyte maturation, both in vitro and in vivo, StAR mRNA levels were augmented by 2 h and then declined gradually to reach basal levels by 12 h as that of saline-treated controls. Taken together, high level of expression during hCG-induced oocyte maturation vis-à-vis in spawning suggests a role for StAR, in addition to the steroidogenic enzyme genes in final oocyte maturation. PMID:19409506

  10. Effects of feeding different levels of dietary fiber through the addition of corn stover on nutrient utilization of dairy heifers precision-fed high and low concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Heinrichs, A J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of manipulating dietary fiber by replacing corn silage (CS) with lower quality forage as corn stover (CST) when used in high concentrate (HC) and low concentrate (LC) diets for precision-fed dairy heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (335.6 ± 7.41 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of concentrate: HC (20% forage) and LC (80% forage), and to a forage type sequence [0% of forage as corn stover (CST), 100% corn silage (CS); 20% CST, 80% CS; 40% CST, 60% CS; and 60% CST, 40% CS] within concentrate level administered according to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design (21-d periods). Heifers fed HC had higher apparent total-tract dry matter digestibility (DMD). Increasing the fiber level by increasing the amount of CST in the diet resulted in a linear decrease of DMD and organic matter digestibility. Heifers fed LC diets had higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and tended to have lower acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility than those fed HC diets. Substituting CS with 20% CST resulted in the highest NDF and ADF digestibilities. Digestibility of N was not different, but N retention increased for HC and decreased quadratically for LC diets. Heifers fed HC diets decreased fecal output, and CST linearly increased these parameters. Urine volume tended to be higher for HC-fed heifers, and increasing dietary fiber through CST inclusion tended to decrease urine output. This shift in water excretion resulted in similar total manure output. Total purine derivative excretion did not differ between treatments, but interacted with CST addition, resulting in a linear increase in microbial protein flow to the duodenum in HC-fed heifers and in a linear decrease in LC diets as CST increased. In conclusion, increasing dietary fiber through CST decreased DMD and organic matter digestibility linearly, whereas NDF and ADF digestibility were maximized when 20% CST was added to HC and LC diets

  11. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in normolipidic diet--but not high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Santana, Aline; Santamarina, Aline; Souza, Gabriel; Mennitti, Laís; Okuda, Marcos; Venancio, Daniel; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane; Lira, Fabio; Oyama, Lila

    2015-09-01

    Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which restores metabolic profiles, has been proposed as an option for preventing and treating obesity. We investigated whether decaffeinated green tea extract rich in EGCG, attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in Swiss mice. The mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 8 weeks and supplemented with either a placebo or EGCG (50mg/kg/day). Body weight, serum lipid profiles, cytokine protein expression, and content in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues, and adipocyte area were measured. The body weights of HFD + placebo-fed mice were increased compared with those of HFD + EGCG-fed mice (28 and 21%, respectively), whereas the body weights of CD + EGCG-fed mice were decreased 16% compared with those of the CD + placebo group. Serum triglyceride levels were decreased 32% in the CD + EGCG group compared with the CD + placebo group. Compared with the CD + placebo group, increased phosphorylation of AMPK and hormone-sensitive lipase in EPI and RET, respectively, was found in the CD + EGCG group. Increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation was observed in both adipose tissues. In addition, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in EPI and adiponectin levels were higher in the CD + EGCG group than in the CD + placebo group. TNF-α levels were lower in the HFD + EGCG group than in the HFD + placebo group. Furthermore, the CD + EGCG group exhibited a lower adipocyte area than the CD + placebo group. These indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract on body mass may be related to the crosstalk between lipolytic and inflammatory pathways in normolipidic diet-fed mice but not in HFD-fed mice.

  12. Intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses are positively associated with sulfidogenic bacteria abundance in high-fat-fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wan; Wolf, Patricia G; Carbonero, Franck; Zhong, Wei; Reid, Tanya; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the relation between high-fat (HF) diets, the gut microbiota, and inflammation. However, the role of sulfidogenic bacteria in mediating these effects has been explored only recently. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that an HF diet rich in saturated fat stimulates sulfidogenic bacteria and that these increases correlate with intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses. Forty C57BL/6J male mice were fed a low-fat (LF; 10% of energy) or an HF lard-based (60% of energy) diet for 6 or 20 wk. Mucosa samples were collected from the ileum, cecum, and colon and used for measuring 16S ribosomal RNA and functional genes of sulfidogenic bacteria. Matching intestinal samples and visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were used to measure mRNA abundance for inflammatory genes. Mice fed the HF diet had greater (P < 0.05) abundance of 3 types of sulfidogenic bacteria, primarily in colonic mucosa, compared with LF-fed mice at week 20. Although HF feeding did not increase intestinal inflammation at week 6, ileal markers of macrophage infiltration and inflammation were upregulated (P < 0.05) 1- to 6-fold at week 20. HF feeding impaired the localization of the tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 at the apical area of the ileal epithelium at weeks 6 and 20. Mice fed the HF diet had 1- to 100-fold greater (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of markers of macrophage infiltration in visceral and subcutaneous WAT at week 20, but not at week 6, compared with LF-fed mice. These results provide evidence that chronic, but not acute, consumption of an HF lard-based diet may be linked with pathways of microbial metabolism that potentially contribute to chronic intestinal and systemic inflammation. Such linkage provides further support for reducing consumption of saturated fats.

  13. Hazards Associated with High Altitude Rain-Fed Lakes (HARL) in the Overdeepened Deglaciated Region of Hindu Kush and Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritashya, U. K.; Hess, T. G.

    2014-12-01

    Mountain regions are changing rapidly as a result of climate change. It has been well established that these mountain regions are experiencing rapid glacier retreat. With accelerated retreat, glacial melt runoff can accumulate in an overdeepened glacier bed left behind by the receding glacier and can be bound by the walls of unstable frontal and lateral moraines to form a hazardous lake. However, when smaller glaciers retreat and downwaste they no longer contain enough ice to sustain the flow of water and maintain level of the lake. Furthermore, some smaller glaciers in the Hindu Kush and Himalayan region are observing extreme downwasting, which are either turning them into a rock glacier or heavily debris covered glacier leading to the reduced ice melt. Consequently, it is important to study these overdeepened beds, which are contained by the unstable mass. This is especially significant considering the great degree of complexity in the mountain weather system and recent examples of high intensity and short duration rainfall in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan, Karakoram region of Pakistan, and Central Himalayan region of India and Nepal. A precise understanding of mountain climate system is necessary, but so does these potentially deglaciated overdeepened beds where rain-fed lakes can form and increase systems hydrostatic pressure that can breach moraine containment and flood entire downstream region. Once lake has formed it possesses hydrological characteristics that are similar to the glacial lakes, which are known to put lives and infrastructure in danger. Therefore, in this study we evaluated overdeepened beds that are located in the complex topography and contained by abandoned or unstable lateral moraine using field and remote sensing satellite images. Our results provide degree of failure associated with these lakes based on the complex spatial and topological analysis as well as orographic distribution of the region. Such studies are not common in the

  14. Systematic optimization of fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high-solid loading based on enzymatic hydrolysis and dynamic metabolic modeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Khajeeram, Sutamat; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-03-01

    An integrative simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) modeling is a useful guiding tool for rapid process optimization to meet the techno-economic requirement of industrial-scale lignocellulosic ethanol production. In this work, we have developed the SSF model composing of a metabolic network of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell associated with fermentation kinetics and enzyme hydrolysis model to quantitatively capture dynamic responses of yeast cell growth and fermentation during SSF. By using model-based design of feeding profiles for substrate and yeast cell in the fed-batch SSF process, an efficient ethanol production with high titer of up to 65 g/L and high yield of 85 % of theoretical yield was accomplished. The ethanol titer and productivity was increased by 47 and 41 %, correspondingly, in optimized fed-batch SSF as compared to batch process. The developed integrative SSF model is, therefore, considered as a promising approach for systematic design of economical and sustainable SSF bioprocessing of lignocellulose.

  15. Beneficial effect of a low dose of ethanol on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Aimi; Okazaki, Yukako; Kimoto, Akiko; Izu, Hanae; Kato, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the consumption of 1% or 2% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water for 12 wk on rats fed a high-fat diet. Body weight gain, food intake, and fluid intake were unaffected by ethanol intake. Adipose tissue weight, and serum glucose and lipids were unaffected. Compared to the control (no ethanol), 1% ethanol intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia (p<0.05), whereas 2% ethanol intake did so to a lesser extent. Serum urate was significantly lower in both the 1% and 2% ethanol groups than that in the control group (p<0.05). The results suggest a low dose of ethanol has beneficial effects on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  16. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  17. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  18. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and β-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  19. Suppression of hepatic fat accumulation by highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid prevents the progression of d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Satoshi; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Akiko; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the importance of hepatic fat accumulation on the progression of hepatitis. BALB/cA mice were fed with a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 14 days followed by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine (DGalN) or vehicle. After 20-21 h, plasma and liver tissue were collected and analyzed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in plasma were increased significantly in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN compared to STD-fed mice treated with DGalN. This exacerbation by the HFHSD was also observed in the plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) levels, and hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the fibrogenic gene expression, such as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and osteopontin (OPN) in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN. The triglyceride contents of the liver were significantly increased by the HFHSD. When eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a suppressor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), was administered to HFHSD-fed mice, the sensitivity of DGalN, as a result of plasma ALT and AST levels, was suppressed accompanied by reduced plasma sTNFR2 level and hepatic levels of triglyceride, ROS, and fibrogenic parameters, and by increased plasma adiponectin levels. These data suggest that the progression of steatotic liver injury closely depends on the accumulation of fat in the liver and is prevented by EPA through the suppression of the fatty liver change. PMID:19416647

  20. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-01-01

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P < 0.0001); however, the essential oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of antibiotic may be considered as a pronounced stress factor in the fish even when it used in the prophylactic dose. In conclusion, medicinal plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems. PMID:27609474

  1. Pesticides used in cotton production affect reproductive development, endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Agbohessi, Prudencio T; Toko, Ibrahim I; Atchou, Vincent; Tonato, Roland; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We exposed African catfish Clarias gariepinus from embryo-larvae stage to adult stage (13 months old, BW) to chronic doses of Tihan 175 O-TEQ and endosulfan (Thionex) and assessed the impact of this exposure on endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness. Endosulfan exposure caused a significant increase in plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and decreased plasma testosterone (T) but not 11 ketotestosterone (11-KT). Tihan decreased significantly plasma E2 and 11-KT, but not T. Endosulfan doses altered gonad histology and induced high proportions (18–30% of males) of ovotestis in males and follicular atretic oocytes in females, indicating occurrence of feminization in fish. Tihan also altered gonad histology but only one case of ovotestis was observed at the highest dose. Presence of foam cells in lobular lumen, fibrosis, necrosis, and immature cells released in lobular lumen were found in male gonads and melano-macrophage centers (MMCs), necrosis, fibrosis and vacuolation were observed in female gonads. Fish livers also suffered injuries such as MMCs, necrosis, fibrosis, vacuolation, dilatation of sinusoids, and nuclear pleomorphism. Chronic Tihan and Thionex exposures decreased fertilization rate, hatching rate, ova and larval weight, as well as larval resistance to osmotic choc. They also delayed hatching and increased abnormalities in the F1 generation, all these indicators suggesting transgenerational effects of these compounds.

  2. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  3. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  4. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  5. Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia in an air-breathing fish, the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Belão, T C; Zeraik, V M; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Leite, C A C; Rantin, F T

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the role of the first pair of gill arches in the control of cardiorespiratory responses to normoxia and hypoxia in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. An intact group (IG) and an experimental group (EG, bilateral excision of first gill arch) were submitted to graded hypoxia, with and without access to air. The first pair of gill arches ablations reduced respiratory surface area and removed innervation by cranial nerve IX. In graded hypoxia without access to air, both groups displayed bradycardia and increased ventilatory stroke volume (VT), and the IG showed a significant increase in breathing frequency (fR). The EG exhibited very high fR in normoxia that did not increase further in hypoxia, this was linked to reduced O2 extraction from the ventilatory current (EO2) and a significantly higher critical O2 tension (PcO2) than the IG. In hypoxia with access to air, only the IG showed increased air-breathing, indicating that the first pair of gill arches excision severely attenuated air-breathing responses. Both groups exhibited bradycardia before and tachycardia after air-breaths. The fH and gill ventilation amplitude (VAMP) in the EG were overall higher than the IG. External and internal NaCN injections revealed that O2 chemoreceptors mediating ventilatory hypoxic responses (fR and VT) are internally oriented. The NaCN injections indicated that fR responses were mediated by receptors predominantly in the first pair of gill arches but VT responses by receptors on all gill arches. Receptors eliciting cardiac responses were both internally and externally oriented and distributed on all gill arches or extra-branchially. Air-breathing responses were predominantly mediated by receptors in the first pair of gill arches. In conclusion, the role of the first pair of gill arches is related to: (a) an elevated EO2 providing an adequate O2 uptake to maintain the aerobic metabolism during normoxia; (b) a significant bradycardia and increased fAB elicited

  6. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-01-01

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  7. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  8. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  9. Substitution of Soy Protein for Casein Prevents Oxidative Modification and Inflammatory Response Induced in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, S.; Geetha, Rajagopalan; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-rich diet is known to cause metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to compare the effects of two dietary proteins of animal and plant origins on fructose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in liver. Wistar rats were fed either starch or fructose (60%) diet with casein or soy protein (20%) as the protein source for 8 weeks. Glucose and insulin, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, AOPP, and FRAP were determined in circulation. Intracellular ROS, oxidatively modified proteins (4-HNE and 3-NT adducts), adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and PAI-1 mRNA expression, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and IKKβ, and NF-κB binding activity were assayed in liver. In comparison with starch fed group, fructose + casein group registered significant decline in antioxidant potential and increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated proteins. Increased ROS production, 4-HNE and 3-NT modified proteins, JNK and IKKβ activation, and NF-κB binding activity were observed in them along with increased gene expression of PAI-1, IL-6, and TNF-α and decreased adiponectin expression. Substitution of soy protein for casein reduced oxidative modification and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rats. These data suggest that soy protein but not casein can avert the adverse effects elicited by chronic consumption of fructose. PMID:25006525

  10. Substitution of soy protein for casein prevents oxidative modification and inflammatory response induced in rats fed high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, S; Geetha, Rajagopalan; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-rich diet is known to cause metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to compare the effects of two dietary proteins of animal and plant origins on fructose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in liver. Wistar rats were fed either starch or fructose (60%) diet with casein or soy protein (20%) as the protein source for 8 weeks. Glucose and insulin, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine, AOPP, and FRAP were determined in circulation. Intracellular ROS, oxidatively modified proteins (4-HNE and 3-NT adducts), adiponectin, TNF- α , IL-6 and PAI-1 mRNA expression, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and IKK β , and NF- κ B binding activity were assayed in liver. In comparison with starch fed group, fructose + casein group registered significant decline in antioxidant potential and increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated proteins. Increased ROS production, 4-HNE and 3-NT modified proteins, JNK and IKK β activation, and NF- κ B binding activity were observed in them along with increased gene expression of PAI-1, IL-6, and TNF- α and decreased adiponectin expression. Substitution of soy protein for casein reduced oxidative modification and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rats. These data suggest that soy protein but not casein can avert the adverse effects elicited by chronic consumption of fructose. PMID:25006525

  11. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet. PMID:23291748

  12. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats. PMID:27465728

  13. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets. PMID:24763110

  14. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice. PMID:27658722

  15. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats.

  16. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Boa, Beatriz C S; Souza, Maria das Graças C; Leite, Richard D; da Silva, Simone V; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    -independent microvascular reactivity was similar between groups, suggesting that only endothelial damage had occurred. Our results indicate that an aerobic routine and/or dietary modification may cause significant improvements to high fat fed animals, diminishing visceral depots, increasing eNOS expression and reducing microcirculatory dysfunction.

  17. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Moon

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia. PMID:24353830

  18. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Moon; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia.

  19. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-01

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26247962

  20. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-01

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p < 0.01). An in vitro mechanistic study showed that (S)-[6]-gingerol, the major pungent phenolic principle in ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 μM) increased AMPK α-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1α mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol.

  2. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  3. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  4. Artificial neural network modeling of biomarkers to infer characteristics of contaminant exposure in Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Christianus, Annie; Bahraminejad, Behzad; Gagné, François; Courtenay, Simon C

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the potential of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling to infer timing, route and dose of contaminant exposure from biomarkers in a freshwater fish. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and biliary concentrations of BaP, 1-OH BaP, 3-OH BaP and 7,8D BaP were quantified in juvenile Clarias gariepinus injected intramuscularly or intraperitoneally with 10-50 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 1-3 d earlier. A feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) ANN resulted in more accurate prediction of timing, route and exposure dose than a linear neural network or a radial basis function (RBF) ANN. MLP sensitivity analyses revealed contribution of all five biomarkers to predicting route of exposure but no contribution of hepatic GST activity or one of the two hydroxylated BaP metabolites to predicting time of exposure and dose of exposure. We conclude that information content of biomarkers collected from fish can be extended by judicious use of ANNs.

  5. Histopathological alterations, biochemical responses and acetylcholinesterase levels in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates pesticides.

    PubMed

    Doherty, V F; Ladipo, M K; Aneyo, I A; Adeola, A; Odulele, W Y

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in large scale farming, have been found to be major contaminants in aquatic environment. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force to evaluate single and joint action toxicity of the organophosphates. Effects of phostoxin and DD force on antioxidant enzymes, fish organs and acetylcholinesterase levels in fingerlings and juveniles of C. gariepinus were also investigated. The lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) for phostoxin and DD Force were 0.631 and 1.759 mg/l, respectively. The results obtained from the bioassay showed that phostoxin was 2.8× more toxic than DD Force after exposure of C. gariepinus. Joint action toxicity evaluations of phostoxin and DD Force showed that the interaction between the chemicals was synergistic (RTU >1). The biochemical responses in the exposed fish differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the control fish. The result of acetylcholinesterase study revealed significant difference between acetylcholinesterase levels in the exposed fish and control, with reduction in the acetylcholineterase level in fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force. Haematological studies revealed an increase in WBC, RBC, PCV and platelets in the exposed fish. Histopathology of the gills showed shortened primary lamellae, loss of secondary lamellae and loss of ceratobrachial bones. In the acute toxicity studies, respiratory stress, erratic swimming and instant death of fish were observed in the exposed fish. This study reveals that changes in histopathology and acetylcholinesterase level are good biomarkers and can be successfully used to detect exposure to organophosphates pesticides in fish. PMID:27121169

  6. Quercetin inhibits AMPK/TXNIP activation and reduces inflammatory lesions to improve insulin signaling defect in the hypothalamus of high fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Pan, Ying; Wang, Rong; Kang, Lin-Lin; Xue, Qiao-Chu; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Fructose is a nutritional composition of fruits and honey. Its excess consumption induces insulin resistance-associated metabolic diseases. Hypothalamic insulin signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling whole-body insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, has been reported to ameliorate high fructose-induced rat insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated its regulatory effects on the hypothalamus of high fructose-fed rats. Rats were fed 10% fructose in drinking water for 10 weeks. After 4 weeks, these animals were orally treated with quercetin (50 and 100 mg/kg), allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and water daily for the next 6 weeks, respectively. Quercetin effectively restored high fructose-induced hypothalamic insulin signaling defect by up-regulating the phosphorylation of insulin receptor and protein kinase B. Furthermore, quercetin was found to reduce metabolic nutrient sensors adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) overexpression, as well as the glutamine-glutamate cycle dysfunction in the hypothalamus of high fructose-fed rats. Subsequently, it ameliorated high fructose-caused hypothalamic inflammatory lesions in rats by suppressing the activation of hypothalamic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome with interleukin 1β maturation. Allopurinol had similar effects. These results provide in vivo evidence that quercetin-mediated down-regulation of AMPK/TXNIP and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB pathway/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the hypothalamus of rats may be associated with the reduction of hypothalamic inflammatory lesions, contributing to the improvement of hypothalamic insulin signaling defect in this model. Thus, quercetin with the central activity may be a therapeutic for high fructose-induced insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in humans.

  7. Anti-obesity effect and action mechanism of Adenophora triphylla root ethanol extract in C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hei; Lee, Tae-Jong; Kim, Seung-Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-obesity effect of Adenophora triphylla root ethanol extract (ATREE). C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups, a normal diet group (N), a control group fed only high-fat diet (HFD) (C), a positive control group fed HFD with 0.5% catechin (PC), and groups fed HFD with 0.5% (E1) or 1% (E2) ATREE. The body weight gain, hematological and serum biochemistry data, and anti-oxidative index in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue were improved significantly in the E group (E1, E2), as compared to the C group. As for histological findings, adipocyte size was reduced by ATREE. E group (E1, E2) showed significant increases in adiponectin, AMPK, and PPAR-α, and significant decreases in TNF-α, GPDH, and PPAR-γ, as compared to the C group. The above findings indicate that ATREE might have an anti-obesity effect through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. It is considered ATREE can be used as a natural treatment for obesity and metabolic syndrome induced by oxidative stress.

  8. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis.

  9. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  10. Chronic administration of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide effectively improves fatty liver and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Wang, Hanxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Wang, Na; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an active component derived from a water extract of Angelica sinensis, in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed BALB/c mice. The potential mechanisms underlying the activity of this compound were also considered. Specifically, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated, and key proteins involved in the lipid/glucose metabolism were analyzed. Long-term feeding with a HFD induced severe fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Histological examination clearly showed that ASP reduced lipid accumulation in the liver and attenuated hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. In addition, ASP markedly alleviated serum and liver lipid disorders and fatty liver via the upregulation of PPARγ expression and the activation of adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK signaling. Furthermore, ASP also significantly relieved severe oxidative stress, demonstrating that ASP might attenuate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via a “two-hit” mechanism. In addition, ASP reduced blood glucose levels and ameliorated insulin resistance via the regulation of related metabolic enzymes and by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in HFD-fed mice. Our findings revealed that ASP might be used as an alternative dietary supplement or health care product to ameliorate metabolic syndrome in populations that consistently consume HFDs. PMID:27189109

  11. Amelioration of obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice by anthocyanins and ursolic acid in Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas).

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Olson, L Karl; Schutzki, Robert E; Tai, Mei-Hui; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2006-01-11

    Much attention has been focused on food that may be beneficial in preventing diet-induced body fat accumulation and possibly reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Cornelian cherries (Cornus mas) are used in the preparation of beverages in Europe and also to treat diabetes-related disorders in Asia. In this study, the most abundant bioactive compounds in C. mas fruits, the anthocyanins and ursolic acid, were purified, and their ability to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet was evaluated. Mice were initially fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks and then switched to a high-fat diet containing anthocyanins (1 g/kg of high-fat diet) and ursolic acid (500 mg/kg of high-fat diet) for an additional 8 weeks. The high-fat diet induced glucose intolerance, and this was prevented by anthocyanins and ursolic acid. The anthocyanin-treated mice showed a 24% decrease in weight gain. These mice also showed decreased lipid accumulation in the liver, including a significant decrease in liver triacylglycerol concentration. Anthocyanin and ursolic acid treated mice exhibited extremely elevated insulin levels. Both treatments, however, showed preserved islet architecture and insulin staining. Overall, these data suggest that anthocyanins and ursolic acid purified from C. mas fruits have biological activities that improve certain metabolic parameters associated with diets high in saturated fats and obesity. PMID:16390206

  12. High heterogeneity in the number of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the bloodmeal of mosquitoes fed on the same host.

    PubMed

    Pichon, G; Awono-Ambene, H P; Robert, V

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the quantitative distribution of Plasmodiumfalciparum gametocytes into the vector bloodmeal, Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes were fed on 3 volunteers naturally infected with gametocytes. The content of each mosquito midgut was smeared on a microscope slide and Giemsa stained. The distribution of gametocytes ingested by mosquitoes followed a negative binomial distribution, with apparently constant overdispersion (parameter k +/- S.E. = 3.105 +/- 0.392) for the 3 series. This aggregation of gametocytes in some midguts probably facilitates the conjunction of gametes and fertilization. This suggests that P. falciparum gametocytes in the peripheral blood flow of infected man do not follow an independent, homogeneous pattern but show a significant aggregation. PMID:11085230

  13. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increase