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Sample records for garlic extract age

  1. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  2. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-04

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5-15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies.

  3. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116.

  4. Pharmacologic activities of aged garlic extract in comparison with other garlic preparations.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, S; Uda, N; Kyo, E; Ushijima, M; Morihara, N; Itakura, Y

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the pharmacologic activities of four garlic preparations, raw garlic juice (RGJ), heated garlic juice (HGJ), dehydrated garlic powder (DGP) and aged garlic extract (AGE). The study used three animal models, i.e., testicular hypogonadism (hypospermatogensis and impotence) induced by warm water treatment, intoxication of acetaldehyde and growth of inoculated tumor cells. RGJ was found to be effective only in recovery of testicular function. The efficacy of HGJ was observed in three models; however, it did not improve impotence. DGP was effective in recovery of spermatogenesis and stimulated acetaldehyde detoxification. Significant beneficial effects of AGE were found in all three models. Although all four garlic preparations significantly enhanced natural killer (NK) and killer cell activities of the spleen cells of tumor-bearing mice, only AGE and HGJ inhibited the growth of inoculated tumor cells. These results suggest that different types of garlic preparations have different pharmacologic properties, and among the four garlic preparations studied, AGE could be the most useful garlic preparation.

  5. Aged garlic extract, garlic powder extract, S-allylcysteine, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide do not interfere with the antibiotic activity of gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Perla D; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2005-03-01

    It was shown that aged garlic extract (AGE), garlic powder and the following garlic-derived compounds: S-allylcysteine (SAC), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS), ameliorate gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it was not established if the above mentioned extracts and compounds of garlic could interfere with the antibiotic action of GM. To address this point, AGE, garlic powder extract (GPE), SAC, DAS and DADS were assessed for their ability to interfere with the in vitro antibiotic activity of GM in Escherichia coli cultures. It was found that the above mentioned extracts and compounds of garlic were unable to decrease the antibiotic capacity of GM and even SAC, DAS and DADS alone inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and enhanced the antibiotic effect of GM. Our data show that SAC, DAS and DADS are antibacterial compounds against E. coli and suggest that AGE, GPE, SAC, DAS and[sol ]or DADS may be administered along with GM-treatment to ameliorate GM-induced nephrotoxicity without interfering with its antibiotic activity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial.

    PubMed

    Ried, K; Frank, O R; Stocks, N P

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic has blood pressure-lowering properties and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial assessed the effect, dose-response, tolerability and acceptability of different doses of aged garlic extract as an adjunct treatment to existing antihypertensive medication in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo. Blood pressure was assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks and compared with baseline using a mixed-model approach. Tolerability was monitored throughout the trial and acceptability was assessed at 12 weeks by questionnaire. Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8±5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (-7.4±4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily. Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  7. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose–response trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, K; Frank, O R; Stocks, N P

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: Hypertension affects about 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic has blood pressure-lowering properties and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial assessed the effect, dose–response, tolerability and acceptability of different doses of aged garlic extract as an adjunct treatment to existing antihypertensive medication in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Subjects/methods: A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose–response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo. Blood pressure was assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks and compared with baseline using a mixed-model approach. Tolerability was monitored throughout the trial and acceptability was assessed at 12 weeks by questionnaire. Results: Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8±5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (−7.4±4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily. Conclusions: Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy. PMID:23169470

  8. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hee; Jeong, Hee Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Kim, Hyeon Ju; Shin, Jeong Hae; Heo, Ho Jin

    2013-10-18

    In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  9. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  10. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (<3 kDa; LF) fructans were isolated. The structures of purified HF and LF from AGE determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy revealed that both have (2→1) β-D-fructofuranosyl bonds linked to a terminal glucose at the non-reducing end and β-D-fructofuranosyl branching on its backbone. Biological activity of fructans was assessed by immunostimulatory activity using murine lymphocytes and peritoneal exudate cells (source of macrophages). Both HF and LF displayed mitogenic activity and activation of macrophages including phagocytosis. These activities were comparable to that of known polysaccharide immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury.

  12. [Effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on hyperglycemia induced by immobilization stress in mice].

    PubMed

    Kasuga, S; Ushijima, M; Morihara, N; Itakura, Y; Nakata, Y

    1999-09-01

    The effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on stress induced hyperglycemia was investigated using the immobilization stress model in mice. After the exposure to immobilization stress for 16 hr per day for 2 consecutive days, the adrenal glands of the mice hypertrophied, and their serum glucose level and corticosterone secretion became elevated, but insulin secretion did not change. These results suggest that the elevation of serum glucose was probably due to the stimulation of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis by the stress. Pretreatment of AGE (5 and 10 ml/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented adrenal hypertrophy, hyperglycemia and elevation of corticosterone, but did not alter serum insulin level. The efficacy of AGE was the same as that of diazepam (5 mg/kg, p.o.). From these results, it is suggested that AGE may prevent stress-induced hyperglycemia, which is the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus and its progression.

  13. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Macan, Henry; Uykimpang, Rolando; Alconcel, Marcionila; Takasu, Junichiro; Razon, Rafael; Amagase, Harunobu; Niihara, Yutaka

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been known to have antiplatelet properties. Because of the lack of major clinical data regarding the safety of concomitant use of garlic supplements and anticoagulants, we decided to evaluate the safety of using garlic extract along with oral anticoagulation therapy. During this project we tested aged garlic extract (AGE), a commercial garlic preparation, with warfarin (Coumadin). Sixty-six (66) patients were screened for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Fifty-two (52) patients were randomized for the project. Forty-eight patients (30 men and 18 women, with a mean age of 56+/-10 years) completed the study. Eighteen patients (14 before randomization, 4 after randomization) were dropped from the study. The study medication (AGE or placebo) was administered at a dose of 5 mL twice a day for 12 wk. Potential bleeding and thromboembolic episodes were monitored. There was no evidence of increased hemorrhage in either the placebo or the AGE group. Adverse events included headache, fatigue, colds, and dizziness. However, no significant difference was found in the incidence of these minor adverse events between the groups. Thus, the adverse events are unlikely to be attributable to AGE. The results suggest that AGE is relatively safe and poses no serious hemorrhagic risk for closely monitored patients on warfarin oral anticoagulation therapy. Although the risk-benefit ratio of AGE use needs to be considered carefully when warfarin therapy is necessary, its positive effects may be beneficial to people with a high-risk background or who are taking cardiovascular medications.

  14. Green tea extract and aged garlic extract inhibit anion transport and sickle cell dehydration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S T; Ohnishi, T; Ogunmola, G B

    2001-01-01

    Both green tea extract (GTE or tea polyphenols) and aged garlic extract (AGE) effectively inhibited in vitro dehydration of sickle red blood cells induced by K-Cl cotransport or red cell storage. For K-Cl cotransport induced by 500 mM urea, 0.3 mg/ml EGCg (epigallocatechin gallate; a major component in GTE) almost completely inhibited dehydration, and 6 mg/ml AGE inhibited dehydration to 30% of the control level. Both vitamins E and C had no effect at the level of 2 mM. Different tea extracts had different degrees of inhibition, but the inhibitory activity increased when the number of hydroxyl groups in the compounds increased. With storage of sickle cells at 4 degrees C for 6 days, the cells started to undergo spontaneous dehydration when incubated at 37 degrees C. Neither inhibitors for Ca-induced K efflux nor K-Cl cotransport could inhibit cell dehydration of stored sickle cells, but both GTE and AGE effectively inhibited it. Chloride efflux measurements using a chloride electrode demonstrated that both GTE and AGE inhibited anion transport in red blood cells. The inhibitory mechanism of these compounds may be related to anion transport inhibition, although involvement of their antioxidant activities can not yet be ruled out. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  16. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  17. Effects of fresh, aged and cooked garlic extracts on short- and long-term memory in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Valipour Chehardacheric, Saeed; Farbood, Yaghoub; Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Basirian, Effat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of fresh, aged, and cooked garlic extracts on blood glucose and memory of diabetic rats induced by streptozocine (STZ). Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg of each garlic extract was given daily for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. Five days after STZ injection, five groups were formed: Control (intact) rats (Cont) + Vehicle of garlic extract (normal saline) (Veh), STZ + Veh, STZ + Fresh (row) garlic (FG), STZ + Aged garlic (AG), and STZ + cooked (boiled) garlic (CG). In order to assess the passive avoidance memory, rats were gently placed on the wooden platform, and latency to step-down (SDL) was recorded as initial phase, after then a light electrical shock [0.3 mA, 3 sec, Alternative current (AC)] was delivered to their foot paw. The retrieval tests were done for short- and long-term memories, respectively. Blood glucose was assayed by glucometer before and after treatment with STZ and garlic extracts. Results: Hyperglycemia induced by STZ decreased short-term memory in both diabetic males and females rats significantly compared with the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.01). Fresh and cooked but not aged garlic extracts decreased blood glucose in diabetic males and increased memory in both diabetic male and female rats significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Conclusions: STZ causes elevation of the blood glucose and resulted in memory deficits, possibly viafree radicals production in brain tissue. Garlic has some bioactive chemicals including allicin and sulfur compound (OSC) which could lower the blood glucose during chronic hyperglycemia, inhibit free radicals production in brain, and improve short-term (but not long-term) memory. PMID:25050258

  18. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shiju, T M; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining. The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) constituents such as albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, the serum lipid profile of the diabetic rats were altered significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control rats. However, the diabetic rats supplemented with aged garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney. From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.

  19. The antioxidant mechanisms underlying the aged garlic extract- and S-allylcysteine-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana L; Santana, Ricardo A; Silva-Islas, Carlos A; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo--in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress--and in vitro conditions--using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor--a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels.

  20. The Antioxidant Mechanisms Underlying the Aged Garlic Extract- and S-Allylcysteine-Induced Protection

    PubMed Central

    Colín-González, Ana L.; Santana, Ricardo A.; Silva-Islas, Carlos A.; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E.; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D.

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo—in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress—and in vitro conditions—using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor—a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels. PMID:22685624

  1. Aged red garlic extract reduces cigarette smoke extract-induced cell death in human bronchial smooth muscle cells by increasing intracellular glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi-Yeong; Park, Hye-Jin; Cho, Young-Woo; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Mun, Yun-Ja; Lee, Jong Deog; Shin, Jung-Hye; Sung, Nak-Ju; Kang, Dawon; Han, Jaehee

    2012-01-01

    Increasing antioxidant capacity has been proposed as a promising strategy to prevent cigarette smoke-induced lung diseases. This study tested whether garlic extracts prevented cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell death in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). Garlic extracts were prepared from fresh raw garlic (FRG), aged black garlic (ABG) and aged red garlic (ARG). Treatment of HBSMCs with 10% CSE induced cell death accompanied by activation of caspase. Of the garlic extracts, treatment with ARG extract reduced CSE-induced cell death. The combination of ARG extract with CSE attenuated the CSE-induced reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression compared with CSE treatment without ARG extract. Furthermore, the combination of L-BSO, a GSH synthesis inhibitor, with ARG and CSE extracts failed to increase the intracellular GSH content and cell viability. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ARG extract reduces CSE-induced cell death by increasing GSH content and reducing ROS generation in HBSMCs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Aged black garlic extract induces inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jiao, Fei; Wang, Qin-Wen; Wang, Juan; Yang, Ke; Hu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Han-Chen; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that garlic extracts possess significant anticancer actions. However, no studies have been reported on the effects of aged black garlic extracts (ABGE) on gastric cancer in vitro or in vivo. To examine the potential action of ABGE against gastric cancer, the present study evaluated its effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. Additionally, we performed an in vivo study by inoculating the murine foregastric carcinoma cell line in Kunming mice and treating them with various doses of ABGE (0, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 2 weeks. Dose-dependent apoptosis was detected in ABGE-treated cells in in vitro studies. In tumor-bearing mice, significant antitumor effects of ABGE were observed, such as growth inhibition of inoculated tumors. Further investigation of serum superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-2 and the increased indices of spleen and thymus indicated that the anticancer action of ABGE may be partly due to its antioxidant and immunomodulative effects.

  3. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Varela López, Elvira; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2016-10-26

    The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cardiovascular functioning (CF) in metabolic syndrome (MS) remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS), MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning) plus saline solution (MS + SS), control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h) and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE) were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p < 0.01). Cholesterol was decreased by AGE (p = 0.05). Glutathion and GPx activity were reduced in MS + SS rats and increased with AGE (p = 0.05). Lipid peroxidation was increased in MS + SS and AGE reduced it (p = 0.001). Vascular functioning was deteriorated by MS (increased vasocontraction and reduced vasodilation) and AGE improved it (p = 0.001). Coronary vascular resistance was increased in MS rats and AGE decreased it (p = 0.001). Cardiac performance was not modified by MS but AGE increased it. NO measured in the perfusate liquid from the heart and serum citrulline, nitrites/nitrates were decreased in MS and AGE increased them (p < 0.01). In conclusion, AGE reduces MS-induced cardiovascular risk, through its anti-oxidant properties.

  4. Aged garlic extract attenuates cerebral damage and cyclooxygenase-2 induction after ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Barrera, Diana; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Maldonado, Perla D

    2011-11-01

    Different garlic products reduce the cerebral ischemic damage due to their antioxidant properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels and activity, and its role as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. AGE (1.2 ml/kg weight, i.p.) was administered at onset of reperfusion. To evaluate the damage induced by cerebral ischemia, the neurological deficit, the infarct area, and the histological alterations were measured. As an oxidative stress marker to deoxyribonucleic acid, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were determined. Finally, as inflammatory markers, TNFα levels and COX-2 protein levels and activity were measured. AGE treatment diminished the neurological alterations (61.6%), the infarct area (54.8%) and the histological damage (37.7%) induced by cerebral ischemia. AGE administration attenuated the increase in 8-OHdG levels (77.8%), in TNFα levels (76.6%), and in COX-2 protein levels (73.6%) and activity (30.7%) induced after 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of AGE is associated not only to its antioxidant properties, but also with its capacity to diminish the increase in TNFα levels and COX-2 protein expression and activity. AGE may have the potential to attenuate the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation.

  5. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  6. Aged garlic extract and S-allylcysteine prevent apoptotic cell death in a chemical hypoxia model.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Muñoz-Sánchez, Jorge; Zavala-Medina, Martín E; Pineda, Benjamín; Magaña-Maldonado, Roxana; Vázquez-Contreras, Edgar; Maldonado, Perla D; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) and its main constituent S-allylcysteine (SAC) are natural antioxidants with protective effects against cerebral ischemia or cancer, events that involve hypoxia stress. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) has been used to mimic hypoxic conditions through the stabilization of the α subunit of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) and up-regulation of HIF-1α-dependent genes as well as activation of hypoxic conditions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. The present study was designed to assess the effect of AGE and SAC on the CoCl2-chemical hypoxia model in PC12 cells. We found that CoCl2 induced the stabilization of HIF-1α and its nuclear localization. CoCl2 produced ROS and apoptotic cell death that depended on hypoxia extent. The treatment with AGE and SAC decreased ROS and protected against CoCl2-induced apoptotic cell death which depended on the CoCl2 concentration and incubation time. SAC or AGE decreased the number of cells in the early and late stages of apoptosis. Interestingly, this protective effect was associated with attenuation in HIF-1α stabilization, activity not previously reported for AGE and SAC. Obtained results show that AGE and SAC decreased apoptotic CoCl2-induced cell death. This protection occurs by affecting the activity of HIF-1α and supports the use of these natural compounds as a therapeutic alternative for hypoxic conditions.

  7. Effect of 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Hajimoradi, Monire; Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Roudbary, Maryam; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2011-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), traditionally being used as a spice worldwide, has different applications and is claimed to possess beneficial effects in several health ailments such as tumor and atherosclerosis. Garlic is also an immunomodulator and its different components are responsible for different properties. The present work aimed to assess the effect of protein fractions of garlic on peritoneal macrophages. 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of garlic were purified. Mice peritoneal macrophages were lavaged and cultured in a microtiter plate and exposed to different concentrations of garlic proteins. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the viability of macrophage. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) was detected in culture supernatants of macrophages by Griess reagent and furthermore, the cytotoxicity study of culture supernatants was carried out on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell line as tumor necrosis factor-α bioassay. MTT assay results for both 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of stimulated macrophages were not significant (P > 0.05). Both 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions significantly suppressed production of NO from macrophages (P = 0.007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cytotoxicity of macrophages' supernatant on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells was not affected by garlic protein fractions (P = 0.066 for 14-kDa and P = 0.085 for 47-kDa fractions). according to our finding, 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions of aged garlic extract are able to suppress NO production from macrophages, which can be used as a biological advantage. These molecules had no cytotoxic effect on macrophages and do not increase tumoricidal property of macrophages.

  8. Comparison of antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic fresh and aged garlic extracts and their effects on cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Maria Isabel; de Oca Balderas, Pavel Montes; de Jesús Gutiérrez-Baños, José; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Espinoza-Rojo, Mónica; Ruiz-Tachiquín, Martha; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Calzada, Fernando; Aguilera, Penélope

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant properties and protective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and of 20% hydroethanolic fresh extracts from garlic clove (GCE) and skin (GSE) on cerebral ischemia were evaluated by administering extracts at the beginning of reperfusion in a rat model of stroke. All three extracts scavenged superoxide anion, peroxynitrite anion, and peroxyl radicals, but with different efficiencies; furthermore, GCE and GSE scavenged hydroxyl radicals and GSE scavenged singlet oxygen. These extracts significantly prevented reduction of neuronal nuclear antigen in the infarcted area, although no improvement in neurological function was observed. Importantly, GCE and GSE contained S-allylcystein, a compound associated with AGE's neuroprotective effect against damage induced by cerebral ischemia. Extracts decreased mRNA expression of NR1- and NR2B-NMDA-receptor subunits and prevented ischemia-induced reduction in mitochondrial potential and in ATP synthesis. These results indicate that antioxidants present in garlic extracts may regulate ROS concentrations during ischemia, favour pro-survival pathways, and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aged garlic extract improves homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in macro- and microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Ide, Nagatoshi; Abahji, Thomas; Nill, Lars; Keller, Christiane; Hoffmann, Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction caused by increases in vascular oxidant stress that decrease bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in the vascular pathobiology of hyperhomocysteinemia. Boosting cellular glutathione levels or increasing the activity of cellular glutathione peroxidase can compensate for homocysteine's effects on endothelial function. Aged garlic extract (AGE) contains water- and oil-soluble sulfur compounds that modify the intracellular thiol and redox state, minimize intracellular oxidant stress, and stimulate NO generation in endothelial cells and animals. We performed a placebo-controlled, blinded, crossover trial to examine whether AGE reduces macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction during acute hyperhomocysteinemia induced by an oral methionine challenge in healthy subjects. Acute hyperhomocysteinemia leads to a significant decrease in flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery as determined by vascular ultrasound, indicative of macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. In addition, acute hyperhomocysteinemia leads to a decrease in acetylcholine-stimulated skin perfusion as measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. This indicates microvascular endothelial dysfunction, which is presumably a result of impairment of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor pathway. Pretreatment with AGE for 6 wk significantly diminished the adverse effects of acute hyperhomocysteinemia in both vascular territories. We conclude that AGE may at least partly prevent a decrease in bioavailable NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor during acute hyperhomocysteinemia. This pilot study warrants further investigations on the effects of AGE on endothelial dysfunction in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors or established vascular disease and on the clinical outcome of patients with cardiovascular disease.

  10. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant potential of aged garlic extract (AGE) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Martha; Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Js, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-19

    Although aged garlic extract (AGE) shares some active components with fresh garlic and in spite of its palatability and milder side effects, the anti-diabetic and related anti-oxidant properties of AGE have not been investigated extensively, and the reported findings are inconsistent. This study investigated the anti-diabetic effects of 3 incremental doses of AGE in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (fasting blood sugar > 20 mM). Diabetic rats were divided into a control diabetic group (CD) and AGE-treated diabetic group (AGE-D). The AGE-D was divided into 3 groups and accordingly treated with AGE i.p. at 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks. A control normal group (CN) was also included for reference. Compared to the CN group, the CD group showed significant loss of body weight (over 50 %); and decreased serum insulin concentration (10 fold) and total anti-oxidant level and catalase activity (45-70 %) in serum, kidney and liver. Conversely, the CD rats had an elevated blood glucose (nearly 4 fold), serum cholesterol (nearly 2 fold) and triglycerides (>2 fold), erythrocyte glycated hemoglobin (GHb, 3 fold) and kidney and liver lipid peroxidation (MDA levels). Treatment with AGE positively reversed the diabetic changes in the targeted parameters to levels significantly lower than those measured in the CD group and the degrees of attenuation were almost dose dependent especially with the two higher doses. AGE exhibits a dose-dependent ameliorative action on indicators of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  12. [Effect of raw and extracted-aged garlic juice on growth of young rats and their organs after peroral administration (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, S; Masamoto, K; Sumiyoshi, H; Kunihiro, K; Fuwa, T

    1980-02-01

    The effects of peroral administration of raw garlic juice and extracted-aged garlic juice (garlic extract) were studied with female Wistar strain rats. For the examination, 5, 5 and 10 rats were sacrificed after 3, 8 and 21 days respectively. In the group to which raw garlic juice (5 ml/kg) was administered 5 rats died of the serious stomach injury in 21 days and body weight of still living rats was down at the beginning as food and water intake were decreased. The growth of rats to which raw garlic juice administered group was retarded. The retardation of growth was thought to be caused by the stomach injury due to raw garlic, which limited in fundus. The injured section of stomach was not far gone by the longer administration, however, the mucous secretion of the surface and neck area were stimulated. Swelling of the liver, hypertrophy of the spleen and adrenal glands, and the decrease of erythrocytes with various morphological changes were clearly observed after 3 and 8 days on the group dosed high raw garlic juice, but almost these changes were not observed at any time on extracted-aged garlic juice administration.

  13. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation, and other cardiovascular markers in patients with

  14. Aged Garlic Extract Suppresses the Development of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Morihara, Naoaki; Hino, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Takako; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to retard the progression of coronary calcification in patients with coronary artery disease. To clarify the mechanism of AGE's action to retard atherosclerosis, we investigated whether AGE suppresses the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E (Apoe)-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice. Male C57BL/6J mice (control mice, 5 wk old) were fed a standard diet, whereas male ApoE-KO mice (5 wk old) were fed a standard diet with or without 3% AGE for 12 or 24 wk. After the treatment, blood samples, aortas, and spleens were collected from all mice. Concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) in serum were measured. The area of atherosclerotic lesion in the aorta was examined by Oil Red O staining. The relative abundances of monocytes plus macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells in spleen were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The atherosclerotic lesion areas in the aortas of ApoE-KO mice were 87 and 114 times as great (P < 0.01) as those in control mice at 12 and 24 wk, respectively. AGE feeding significantly inhibited the progression of atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE-KO mice by 22% (P < 0.05) at 12 wk. In addition, serum concentrations of TC and TGs in ApoE-KO mice were significantly higher than those in control mice at 12 and 24 wk. Treatment with AGE significantly suppressed the increases in serum concentrations of TC and TGs in ApoE-KO mice by 21% (P < 0.05) and 19% (P < 0.05) at 24 wk, respectively, and reduced the relative abundance of CD11b(+) cells in ApoE-KO mice by 24% (P < 0.05) at 12 wk. These data suggest that the antiatherosclerotic activity of AGE is at least partly due to the suppression of inflammation and lipid deposition in the vessels during the early stage of atherosclerotic development in ApoE-KO mice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Potential of Aged Garlic Extract and Its Constituent, S-Allyl Cysteine, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

    2015-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats. At the end of treatment of AGE and SAC, separated serum and freshly prepared liver tissue homogenate were analyzed for biochemical enzymes and biomarkers to evaluate and compare potencies of investigational agents. Both AGE and SAC significantly declined elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione in serum and inclined superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total sulfhydryl values in liver tissue with reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The protective effects were superior with AGE compared with SAC indicating potential implication of other active constituents apart from SAC in AGE for combating hyperlipidemic stress. PMID:25918544

  16. Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Fibrosis in a Rat Hypertension Model

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuki; Noda, Akiko; Miyata, Seiko; Minoshima, Makoto; Sugiura, Mari; Kojima, Jun; Otake, Masafumi; Furukawa, Mayuko; Cheng, Xian Wu; Nagata, Kohzo; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2013-01-01

    Daily consumption of garlic is known to lower the risk of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. In this study, we examined whether aged garlic extract (AGE) prevents hypertension and the progression of compensated left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. DS rats were randomly divided into three groups: those fed an 8% NaCl diet until 18 weeks of age (8% NaCl group), those additionally treated with AGE (8% NaCl + AGE group), and control rats maintained on a diet containing 0.3% NaCl until 18 weeks of age (0.3% NaCl group). AGE was administered orally by gastric gavage once a day until 18 weeks of age. LV mass was significantly higher in the 8% NaCl + AGE group than in the 0.3% NaCl group at 18 weeks of age, but significantly lower in the 8% NaCl + AGE group than in the 8% NaCl group. No significant differences were observed in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between the 8% NaCl and 8% NaCl + AGE groups at 12 and 18 weeks of age. LV end-diastolic pressure and pressure half-time at 12 and 18 weeks of age were significantly lower in the 8% NaCl + AGE group compared with the 8% NaCl group. AGE significantly reduced LV interstitial fibrosis at 12 and 18 weeks of age. Chronic AGE intake attenuated LV diastolic dysfunction and fibrosis without significantly decreasing SBP in hypertensive DS rats. PMID:24172194

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of the 47 kDa Protein Isolated from Aged Garlic Extract on Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Namdar Ahmadabad; Zuhair, Mohammad Hassan; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Garlic (Allium sativum) is known as a potent spice and a medicine with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer, and anticoagulant. One of the major purified garlic protein components is the 47 kDa protein. In this study, the effect of 47 kDa protein extracted from aged garlic (AGE) was evalua Materials and Methods Forty seven kDa protein was purified from AGE by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weight and purity of the isolated protein. DCs were purified from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to the plastic dish. The 47 kDa protein isolated from AGE was added to DCs medium during the overnight culture and the expression of DC surface markers was assessed via flowcytometry. Results The 47 kDa protein-treated DCs lowered the expression of DC maturation markers including: CD40, CD86 and MHC-II in comparison with non-treated DCs; (median of 41% versus 47%, 84% versus 91% and 83% versus 90%, respectively) but we observed no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusion Upon treatment with DCs with 47 kDa protein, DCs down regulated the expression of costimulatory and MHC-II surface molecules, which is similar to tolerogenic DC phenotype. According to the results of the present study, we found that 47 kDa protein purified from AGE can be considered as a potential candidate to generate tolerogenic DCs in vitro. PMID:23493446

  18. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-03-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

  19. Aged garlic extract restores nitric oxide bioavailability in cultured human endothelial cells even under conditions of homocysteine elevation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Papatheodorou, Louisa; Morihara, Naoaki; Hilge, Robert; Ide, Nagatoshi

    2013-01-09

    Supplementation with aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to restore impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilator response in subjects with acutely elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels after an oral methionine load and in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Moreover, AGE has been shown to inhibit the progression of coronary calcifications in patients with coronary artery disease. The molecular mechanisms, by which AGE preserves endothelial function is unknown. Our objective was to explore whether AGE preserves endothelial nitric oxide (NO) output even under conditions of elevated Hcy levels by preventing oxidative inactivation of the NO synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. Endothelial (EA.hy 926) cells were incubated with hypoxanthine, aminopterin, thymidine and methionine (HAT/MET) to increase cellular Hcy levels, and with and without AGE. Agonist stimulated NO output was measured using the fluorescent probe DAF-2, and cellular thiol levels (Hcy, cysteine, reduced and oxidized glutathione) and cellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. HAT/MET incubation resulted in significantly increased cellular Hcy levels, unaffected by coincubation with AGE. Elevated Hcy went along with significantly decreased NO output (to 34.4 ± 4.4% of control) and levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (from 4.67 ± 2.17 to 2.17 ± 0.97 pmol/mg). Incubation with AGE (5mg/mL) in HAT/MET-treated cells prevented the declines in NO output and tetrahydrobiopterin levels. AGE increased cellular levels of cysteine and total glutathione, and prevented glutathione and tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation induced by elevated Hcy. Incubation with AGE preserved normal NO output from endothelial cells even under conditions of elevated Hcy levels by increasing cellular thiol antioxidant and prevention of tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation. This suggests that AGE might be useful in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  20. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Min; Gweon, Oh-Cheon; Seo, Yeong-Ju; Im, Jieun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myo-Jeong; Kim, Jung-In

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were 13.3 +/- 0.5 and 59.2 +/- 0.8 micromol/g wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nillert, Nutchareeporn; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AGE on Aβ (1-42)-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats. In conclusion, AGE may be useful for improving the short-term recognition memory and relieve the neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats. PMID:28054940

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats.

    PubMed

    Nillert, Nutchareeporn; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-01-03

    Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AGE on Aβ (1-42)-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats. In conclusion, AGE may be useful for improving the short-term recognition memory and relieve the neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats.

  3. Aged garlic extract ameliorates immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity and impaired burn-healing in malathion- and carbaryl-treated male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Ahmed, Rehab S A

    2017-03-01

    Malathion and carbaryl are the most widely used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, respectively, especially in developing countries; they pose a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of an odorless (free from allicin) Kyolic aged garlic extract (AGE, containing 0.1% S-allylcysteine; 200 mg/kg body weight) on the toxicity induced by 0.1 LD50 of malathion (89.5 mg/kg body weight) and/or carbaryl (33.9 mg/kg body weight) in male Wistar rats. Doses were orally administered to animals for four consecutive weeks. The present study showed that AGE completely modulated most adverse effects induced by malathion and/or carbaryl in rats including the normocytic normochromic anemia, immunosuppression, and the delay in the skin-burning healing process through normalizing the count of blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets), hemoglobin content, hematocrit value, blood glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase activity, weights and cellularity of lymphoid organs, serum γ-globulin concentration, and the delayed type of hypersensitivity response to the control values, and accelerating the inflammatory and proliferative phases of burn-healing. In addition, AGE completely modulated the decrease in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the increase in clotting time in malathion alone and carbaryl alone treated rats. Moreover, AGE induced a significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum GSH concentration (above the normal value) and accelerating burn-healing process in healthy rats. In conclusion, AGE was effective in modulating most adverse effects induced in rats by malathion and carbaryl, and hence may be useful as a dietary adjunct for alleviating the toxicity in highly vulnerable people to insecticides intoxication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 789-798, 2017.

  4. Aged black garlic extract inhibits HT29 colon cancer cell growth via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Menghua; Yang, Guiqing; Liu, Hanchen; Liu, Xiaoxu; Lin, Sixiang; Sun, Dongning; Wang, Yishan

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aged black garlic extract (ABGE) may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABGE on the proliferation and apoptosis of HT29 colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ABGE inhibited HT29 cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We further investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal transduction pathway and the molecular mechanisms underlying the ABGE-induced inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation. We observed that ABGE may regulate the function of the PI3K/Akt pathway through upregulating PTEN and downregulating Akt and p-Akt expression, as well as suppressing its downstream target, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway is crucial for the development of colon cancer. ABGE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that ABGE may be effective in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer in humans.

  5. Development of an Analytic Method for Sulfur Compounds in Aged Garlic Extract with the Use of a Postcolumn High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Sulfur-Specific Detection.

    PubMed

    Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Garlic and its processed preparations contain numerous sulfur compounds that are difficult to analyze in a single run using HPLC. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and convenient sulfur-specific HPLC method to analyze sulfur compounds in aged garlic extract (AGE). We modified a conventional postcolumn HPLC method by employing a hexaiodoplatinate reagent. Identification and structural analysis of sulfur compounds were conducted by LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance. The production mechanisms of cis-S-1-propenylcysteine (cis-S1PC) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) were examined by model reactions. Our method has the following advantages: less interference from nonsulfur compounds, high sensitivity, good correlation coefficients (r > 0.98), and high resolution that can separate >20 sulfur compounds, including several isomers, in garlic preparations in a single run. This method was adapted for LC-MS analysis. We identified cis-S1PC and γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-mercaptocysteine in AGE. The results of model reactions suggest that cis-S1PC is produced from trans-S1PC through an isomerization reaction and that SAMC is produced by a reaction involving S-allylcysteine/S1PC and diallyldisulfide during the aging period. We developed a rapid postcolumn HPLC method for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of sulfur compounds, and this method helped elucidate a potential mechanism of cis-S1PC and SAMC action in AGE. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Park, Sejin; Chung, Yoon Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Byung Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cheol; Park, Sejin; Chung, Yoon Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Byung Woo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. CONCLUSIONS Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:24741395

  8. Aged red garlic extract reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and acute pulmonary inflammation through haeme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Park, H-J; Jeon, B T; Kim, H C; Roh, G S; Shin, J-H; Sung, N-J; Han, J; Kang, D

    2012-05-01

    It is known that garlic has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Aged red garlic (ARG), a novel aged garlic formulation, has higher antioxidant effects than fresh raw garlic. This study was performed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ARG extract (ARGE). The anti-inflammatory effects of ARGE were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 macrophages and acute lung inflammatory mice. NO production was determined by the Griess method, and iNOS, HO-1 and COX-2 expressions were measured using Western blot analysis. Histology and inflammation extent of lung were analysed using haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. ARGE treatment markedly reduced LPS-induced nitrite production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Treatment of cells with ARGE led to a significant increase in haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, which was mediated by stimulating the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Treatment with zinc protoporphyrin, a selective inhibitor of HO-1, significantly reversed the ARGE-mediated inhibition of nitrite production (P < 0.05). In LPS-induced inflammatory mice, ARGE treatment down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expressions, while it up-regulated HO-1 expression. These results show that ARGE reduces LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction and suggest that ARGE may have potential effects on prevention and treatment of acute inflammatory lung injury. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  9. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  10. Garlic Revisited: Antimicrobial Activity of Allicin-Containing Garlic Extracts against Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J.; Place, Marc; Govan, John R. W.; Campopiano, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics. PMID:25438250

  11. Aged Garlic Extract Improves Adiponectin Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Lahera, Vicente; Oubiña, Pilar; Valero-Muñoz, Maria; de las Heras, Natalia; Rodríguez, Yudy; García, Ronald Gerardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been shown to have important benefits in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the risk factors that constitute the cluster of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods and Design. Double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of 1.2 g/day of AGE (Kyolic), for 24 weeks of treatment (12 weeks of AGE and 12 weeks of placebo), on subjects with MS. Results. The administration of AGE increased the plasma levels of adiponectin (P = 0.027). No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion. The present results have shown for the first time that the administration of AGE for 12 weeks increased plasma adiponectin levels in patients with MS. This suggests that AGE might be a useful, novel, nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention to increase adiponectin and to prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications in individuals with MS. PMID:23533302

  12. Aged garlic extract delays the appearance of infarct area in a cerebral ischemia model, an effect likely conditioned by the cellular antioxidant systems.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, P; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Ortiz-Plata, A; León-Aparicio, D; Barrera, D; Espinoza-Rojo, M; Villeda-Hernández, J; Sánchez-García, A; Maldonado, P D

    2010-03-01

    Experimental evidence has shown that some garlic-derived products have a protective effect against ischemic brain injury. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE), establish the therapeutic window, and determine its protective mechanism in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and treated with 1.2ml/kg body wt.(i.p.) of AGE 30min before, at the beginning of (0R), or 1h after reperfusion. The 0R treatment significantly reduced the size of the infarct area after 2h of reperfusion. Repeated doses subsequent to the 0R treatment (at 1, 2, or 3h after reperfusion) had no effect on the temporal window of protection. The protective 0R treatment with AGE prevented the increase in nitrotyrosine and the decrease in total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and extracellular superoxide dismutase activities induced by MCAO. These data indicate that AGE delays the effects of ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury. However, this treatment itself was not associated with a noticeable improvement in the neurological outcome, or with an effect on the inflammatory response. We conclude that the neuroprotective effect of AGE in the 0R treatment might be associated with control of the free-radical burst induced by reperfusion, preservation of antioxidant enzyme activity, and the delay of other pathophysiological processes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and γδ-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention.

    PubMed

    Nantz, Meri P; Rowe, Cheryl A; Muller, Catherine E; Creasy, Rebecca A; Stanilka, Joy M; Percival, Susan S

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies show that dietary bioactive compounds can modify proliferation of γδ-T cells. Garlic contains numerous compounds that have this potential and, in addition, has been shown to influence NK cell function. Our primary aim was to demonstrate that aged garlic extract could modify these immune cells. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel intervention study recruited 120 healthy subjects (60 per group) to determine the effect of aged garlic extract supplementation (2.56 g/d) on immune cell proliferation and cold and flu symptoms. After 45 d of consuming an encapsulated aged garlic extract, γδ-T cells (p = 0.039, n = 56) and NK cells (p = 0.043, n = 56) were shown to proliferate better compared to placebo. After 90 d of supplementation, illness diary entries showed that the incidence of colds and flu, a secondary outcome, were not statistically different; however, the group consuming the aged garlic extract appeared to have reduced severity as noted by a reduction in the number of symptoms reported (21% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test of proportions), a reduction in the number of days (61% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test) and incidences (58% fewer p < 0.001, z-test) where the subjects functioned sub-optimally and the number of work/school days missed due to illness (58% fewer, p = 0.035, z-test). These results suggest that supplementation of the diet with aged garlic extract may enhance immune cell function and that this may be responsible, in part, for reduced severity of colds and flu. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  15. Protective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells caused by methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiesong; Ito, Kousei; Sumi, Shin-Ichiro; Fuwa, Toru; Horie, Toshiharu

    2009-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) causes intestinal damage, resulting in diarrhea. The side effects often disturb the cancer chemotherapy. We previously reported that AGE protected the small intestine of rats from the MTX-induced damage. In the present paper, the mechanism of the protection of AGE against the MTX-induced damage of small intestine was investigated, using IEC-6 cells originating from rat jejunum crypt. The viability and apoptosis of IEC-6 cells were examined in the presence of MTX and/or AGE. The viability of IEC-6 cells exposed to MTX was decreased by the increase of MTX concentration. The MTX-induced loss of viable IEC-6 cells was almost completely prevented by the presence of more than 0.1% AGE. In IEC-6 cells exposed to MTX, the cromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release were observed. These were preserved to the control levels by the presence of AGE. MTX markedly decreased intracellular GSH in IEC-6 cells, but the presence of AGE in IEC-6 cells with MTX preserved intracellular GSH to the control level. IEC-6 cells in G2/M stage markedly decreased 72 h after the MTX treatment, which was preserved to the control level by the presence of AGE. These results indicated that AGE protected IEC-6 cells from the MTX-induced damage. The MTX-induced apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was shown to be depressed by AGE. AGE may be useful for the cancer chemotherapy with MTX, since AGE reduces the MTX-induced intestinal damage.

  16. Effects of aged garlic extract and FruArg on gene expression and signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hailong; Lu, Yuan; Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V.; Martin, Matthew B.; Hou, Jie; Cui, Jiankun; Peculis, Brenda A.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Fritsche, Kevin; Schmidt, Francis J.; Walter, Ronald B.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement on account of its protective effects against oxidative stress and inflammation. But less is known about specific molecular targets of AGE and its bioactive components, including N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). Our recent study showed that both AGE and FruArg significantly attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells. This study aims to unveil effects of AGE and FruArg on gene expression regulation in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells. Results showed that LPS treatment significantly altered mRNA levels from 2563 genes. AGE reversed 67% of the transcriptome alteration induced by LPS, whereas FruArg accounted for the protective effect by reversing expression levels of 55% of genes altered by LPS. Key pro-inflammatory canonical pathways induced by the LPS stimulation included toll-like receptor signaling, IL-6 signaling, and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway, along with elevated expression levels of genes, such as Il6, Cd14, Casp3, Nfkb1, Hmox1, and Tnf. These effects could be modulated by treatment with both AGE and FruArg. These findings suggests that AGE and FruArg are capable of alleviating oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory responses stimulated by LPS in BV-2 cells. PMID:27734935

  17. Anti-allergic action of aged black garlic extract in RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄ at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA₂, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases.

  18. Anti-Allergic Action of Aged Black Garlic Extract in RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA2, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  19. Garlic

    MedlinePlus

    ... high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and the common cold, as well as in attempts to prevent cancer ... to show whether garlic is helpful for the common cold. What Do We Know About Safety? Garlic is ...

  20. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    SciTech Connect

    Knasmueller, S. ); Szakmary, A. ); Domjan, G. ); de Martin, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of {gamma}-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detected with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells.

  1. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Falconi, Caterina; Marconi, Ombretta; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid oxidation causes changes in quality attributes of vegetable oils. Synthetic antioxidants have been used to preserve oils; however, there is interest in replacing them with natural ones. Garlic and its thiosulfinate compound allicin are known for their antioxidant activities. This study assesses a novel formulation, the supercritical fluid extract of garlic, on sunflower oil oxidation during an accelerated shelf-life test. Three quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide values, and p-anisidine values) were evaluated in each of the six oil samples. The samples included sunflower oil alone, sunflower oil supplemented with BHT, the undiluted supercritical fluid extract of garlic, and sunflower oils supplemented with three levels of garlic extract. The oils were also investigated for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH and the FRAP assays. The results were compared with the effect of the synthetic BHT. Our results underlined that the highest level of garlic extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving sunflower oil. The oxidative degradation of oily samples can be limited by using supercritical fluid extract of garlic as it is a safe and an effective natural antioxidant formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Hexane extract of aged black garlic reduces cell proliferation and attenuates the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM‑1 in TNF-α-activated human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Choi, Young-Whan; Kim, Youn-Han; Lee, Eun Na; Lee, Ja-Rang; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Yoon, Sik

    2013-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the potentially crucial roles of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the pathological process underlying endometriosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) on the proliferation and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-activated human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) isolated from patients with endometriosis. HESCs were isolated from endometriotic tissues obtained from women with advanced endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometrioma (n=18). Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were assessed by WST-1 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was measured by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. The secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK was analyzed by immunoblotting. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were significantly suppressed by HEABG in the TNF-α-induced HESCs through the inhibition of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Remarkably, the treatment of the HESCs with HEABG potently suppressed the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 transcript and protein expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors. Our results suggest that HEABG may be effective in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis in humans.

  3. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  4. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g(-1), respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g(-1). Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating

  5. Fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Boggian, Marisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-S-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (Voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. Primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium gramineareum, Gliocladium roseum 47, Pythium splendens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium, Trichoderma longibranchiatum, and Botrytis cinerea. Secondary screening was carried out using a lyophilized and a spray-dried preparation at different concentrations against the organisms selected for the high inhibition garlic effect in the primary screening and compared with the commercial fungicides mancozeb and iprodione. The best results were observed for the spray-dried garlic compound that showed a good fungicidal activity at the concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL while lyophilized garlic at the same concentration exhibited less inhibition activity against the four fungi analyzed in the second screening.

  6. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Oxidative insults to neurons and synapse are prevented by aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine treatment in the neuronal culture and APP-Tg mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Chauhan, Neelima B; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. In AD patients, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are common features observed in the CNS. Aβ deposition results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the hyperphosphorylation of tau that are associated with neuronal damage. Cholinesterase inhibitors and a partial NMDA receptor antagonist (memantine) have been identified as potential treatment options for AD. However, clinical studies have found that these drugs fail to prevent the disease progression. From ancient times, garlic (Allium sativum) has been used to treat several diseases. By 'aging' of garlic, some adverse reactions of garlic can be eliminated. Recent findings suggest that 'aged garlic extract' (AGE) may be a therapeutic agent for AD because of its antioxidant and Aβ lowering properties. To date, the molecular properties of AGE have been sparsely studied in vitro or in vivo. The present study tested specific biochemical and molecular effects of AGE in neuronal and AD rodent models. Furthermore, we identified S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as one of the most active chemicals responsible for the AGE-mediated effect(s). We observed significant neuroprotective and neurorescue properties of AGE and one of its ingredients, SAC, from ROS (H(2)O(2))-mediated insults to neuronal cells. Treatment of AGE and SAC were found to protect neuronal cells when they were independently co-treated with ROS. Furthermore, a novel neuropreservation effect of AGE was detected in that pre-treatment with AGE alone protected ∼ 80% neuronal cells from ROS-mediated damage. AGE was also found to preserve pre-synaptic protein synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) from ROS-mediated insult. For example, treatment with 2% AGE containing diet and SAC (20 mg/kg of diet) independently increased (∼70%) levels of SNAP25 and synaptophysin in Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice

  8. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in canned artichokes.

    PubMed

    Bravi, E; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Rollo, M R; Perretti, G

    2016-10-01

    The effects of adding supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of garlic (at two different concentrations of allicin) on select chemical indices in extra-virgin olive oil used to canned artichokes were studied. Tests were performed after processing and over a storage period of 1 year. A sensorial test was also conducted on the canned artichokes to establish the impact on flavor (in particular perceptions of rancidity and garlic flavor). Acidity, peroxide levels and p-anisidine values were measured as quality analytical parameters. Radical scavenging activity was also evaluated using the DPPH assay. The samples containing supercritical garlic extracts were compared with several other formulations, including control sample (prepared by mixing artichokes with powdered chili pepper and fresh garlic), artichokes with only garlic or only chili pepper, and artichokes treated with the synthetic antioxidant BHT. The results suggested that the allicin extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving canned artichokes as demonstrated by its positive effects on oxidative stability and sensory profile.

  9. Aged garlic extract enhances heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit expression via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kei; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Morihara, Naoaki

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway defends cells against oxidative stress and regulates the cellular redox balance. Activation of this pathway induces a variety of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in the protection of our bodies against oxidative damage. It has been reported that aged garlic extract (AGE), a garlic preparation that is rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, reduces oxidative stress and helps to ameliorate of cardiovascular, renal and hepatic diseases. We hypothesized that AGE enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2-ARE pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes expression were evaluated using western blotting analyses. We found that AGE promoted the accumulation of Nrf2 into the nucleus in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased the gene expression and polypeptide level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM). Moreover, the effect of AGE in elevating the gene expression of HO-1 and GCLM was found to be mediated via Nrf2 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that AGE induces the expression of HO-1 and GCLM, which are antioxidant enzymes, via activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.

  10. Experimental study on the optimization of extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Garlic oil which is the main active constituent of garlic has a wide range of pharmacological activities, and a broad antibacterial spectrum. It also has a strong anti-cancer activity, and can significantly inhibit a variety of tumors such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of garlic oil. In the CO2 supercritical extraction experiment, factors influencing the yield of garlic oil were: extraction pressure > extraction temperature > extraction time in descending order. Range analysis showed that the optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h. Different concentrations of garlic oil could all inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that garlic oil has an antibacterial effect. The optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were: extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h; garlic oil has an antibacterial effect.

  11. Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Ilker; Cetin, Recep; Candir, Ozden; Devrim, Erdinç; Kiliçoğlu, Bülent; Avci, Aslihan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the natural antioxidant foods, dried black grape and garlic, protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given Cyclosporine A (CsA) orally for 10 days, with the antioxidant food supplementation begun 3 days before CsA treatment and continued during the study period (totaling 13 days). In each group (control, CsA alone, CsA plus black grape, CsA plus aqueous garlic extract, aqueous garlic extract alone and black grape alone), there were 7 animals. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed; their kidneys were removed and prepared for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Oxidant (xanthine oxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes) parameters were measured in the kidney tissues of the groups. Histopathological examinations of the tissues were also performed. It has been found that CsA creates oxidant load to the kidneys through both xanthine oxidase activation and impaired antioxidant defense system, which accelerates oxidation reactions in the kidney tissue. Supplementation with either dried black grape or aqueous garlic extract led to reduced malondialdehyde level in the kidney tissue possibly, by preventing oxidant reactions. In conclusion, the results suggest that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance may play part in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, and some foods with high antioxidant power may ameliorate this toxicity, in agreement with studies with antioxidant vitamins.

  12. Physical stability, antioxidative properties, and photoprotective effects of a functionalized formulation containing black garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Kang, Duk Ho; Chang, Un Jae; Hong, Yang-Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-12-05

    When garlic is fermented, certain aspects of its bioactivity are changed. Black garlic is a type of fermented garlic used as a food ingredient in Asian cuisine. Black garlic's popularity has spread around the world as it has become a sought-after ingredient used in high-end cuisine. The formulations containing 10% black garlic extract or 10% normal garlic extract showed stable pH, color, precipitation, and organoleptic features, although these characteristics changed slightly. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the black garlic formulation were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to those of the base formulation and normal garlic formulation. Mice treated with the black garlic formulation (119.63 μM/g) had significant (p<0.05) decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels by lipid peroxidation compared to ultraviolet B (UVB)-control mice (142.37 μM/g). Moreover, significant (p<0.05) prevention of glutathione reduced form (GSH) depletion was observed in the black garlic formulation treated mice (vehicle: 3.46 mM/g vs. black garlic: 5.60mM/g). The formulation containing 10% black garlic extract retained physical stability and had high anti-radical efficiencies. Furthermore, it is possible to suggest that this formulation may be effective in protecting skin from UVB photodamage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of garlic extract on Eimeria vermiformis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Atef Mohammed; Yasuda, Masahiro; Farid, Ayman Samir; Desouky, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohi-Eldin, Mouchira Mohammed; Haridy, Mohie; Horii, Yoichiro

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the immunomodulatory and parasiticidal effects of garlic extract on coccidiosis caused by Eimeria vermiformis infection in male ICR mice. One group received garlic extract daily until the end of the experiment by the oral route from 10 days prior to oral infection with 300 sporulated E. vermiformis oocysts (infected-garlic(+)). The other group served as a control positive with E. vermiformis infection alone (infected-garlic(-)). In the infected-garlic(+) group, garlic extract treatment induced a significant reduction in fecal oocyst output when compared with the infected-garlic(-) group. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analysis for inflammatory cytokines in ileal tissues showed that the garlic extract treatment impaired intracellular development of E. vermiformis during the early stages by increasing the number of intraepithelial CD8(+) T cells and decreasing IL-10 expression. This induced cell cytotoxicity which was reflected by a decrease in oocyst numbers in the intestinal villi and the feces, indicating anticoccidial effects of the garlic extract. However, further studies to explore the precise mechanism of the observed effects of garlic treatment during Eimeria infection are needed to verify our results.

  14. Composition analysis and antioxidant properties of black garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoming; Li, Ningyang; Qiao, Xuguang; Qiu, Zhichang; Liu, Pengli

    2017-04-01

    Black garlic produced from fresh garlic under controlled high temperature and humidity has strong antioxidant properties. To determine these compounds, five fractions (from F1 to F5) were separated and purified by elution with chloroform:methanol at different ratios (8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 0:1; v/v). The antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed. The results showed that F3 and F4 had higher phenolic contents and stronger 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the others. Seven purified individual components were further separated using semipreparation high-performance liquid chromatography from these two intensely antioxidant fractions (F3 and F4), their structures were elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Three compounds including adenosine, uridine, and 2-acetylpyrrole were first identified in black garlic, except for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (1S, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid. The cellular antioxidant activities of uridine, adenosine, carboline alkaloids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ethyl acetate extracts were consistent with the results of in vitro experimental antioxidant properties. The results provide useful information for understanding the health benefits of black garlic products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Studies on the deodorization by mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) extract of garlic extract-induced oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    The deodorizing effect of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) extract on the malodor produced after garlic consumption was investigated using an electronic sensor and sensory evaluation measurements. Comparative gas chromatography analysis revealed that the quantity of methane- and allylthiols that were usually found after garlic solution rinse, significantly fell after mushroom extract rinsing. Furthermore, in-vitro analysis (mixing the garlic solution and mushroom extract) showed that the methanethiol reaction with the mushroom extract proceeded faster than that of the allylthiol. Ab initio calculations implicated an addition reaction as the possible mechanism between the thiol compounds and the polyphenols. In comparison to the methanethiol, the higher activation energy required by allylthiol for a feasible reaction path way with the model acceptor, o-quinone, is expected to contribute to the difference in the rate of the reaction.

  16. [New pharmacological activities of garlic and its constituents].

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, H

    1997-10-01

    According to the recent pharmacological findings, garlic is a preventive rather than therapeutic. Epidemiological studies in China, Italy and USA showed the inverse relationship between stomach and colon cancer incidences and dietary garlic intake. Anti-carcinogenic activities of garlic and its constituents including sulfides and S-allyl cysteine, have been demonstrated using several animal models. Garlic preparations has been also shown to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which are major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, through inhibition of their bio-synthesis in the liver, and to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that aged garlic extract stimulated immune functions, such as proliferation of lymphocyte, cytokine release, NK activity and phagocytosis. More recently, aged garlic extract has been demonstrated to prolong life span of senescence accelerated mice and prevent brain atrophy. Manufacturing processes significantly affect chemical constituents in garlic preparations. Different forms contain different phytochemicals and may have different effects and toxicities. For example, aged garlic extract inhibited t-BuOOH-induced oxidation, whereas raw garlic stimulated the oxidation. Although garlic has been used as a condiment and folklore for a long time, it has been noted to cause adverse reactions, such as stomach ulcer and anemia. Among the garlic preparations, only aged garlic extract has been proven to be safe through toxicological studies. Thus, aged garlic extract could be the most promising garlic preparation for disease prevention.

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract.

  18. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous Shallot and Garlic Extracts in Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract. PMID:18299719

  19. Individual differences on immunostimulatory activity of raw and black garlic extract in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Purev, Uranchimeg; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-08-01

    The immunostimulatory activities of garlic extract using a cell line or animal models have been reported; however, no previous studies have evaluated individual differences in regards to the immunostimulatory activities. The immunostimulatory activities such as cell proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nitric oxides (NO) production of raw garlic and black garlic extracts on individual primary lymphocytes or macrophages isolated from the blood of 21 volunteers were evaluated. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of raw garlic and black garlic ethanol extract was measured to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The 70% ethanol black garlic extracts at 70°C for 12 h (70% BGE) showed the strongest antioxidant and anticancer activities. Immunostimulatory activities of garlic extracts extracted under optimal condition on primary immune cells obtained from 21 volunteers were analyzed. Results showed that the cell proliferation, TNF-α and NO production of primary immune cells treated with 70% raw garlic extract (70% RGE) were significantly different; however, little difference was observed for the 70% BGE treatment. BGE showed stronger immunostimulatory activities than RGE. These results indicate that the immunostimulatory activities of RGE and BGE can be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and anticancer activities. Determination of immunostimulatory activities of different types of garlic using immune cells isolated from volunteers was dependent on the individual constituents due to changes in the composition of garlic during processing. Individual primary immune cells might be used as important tools to determine individual differences in all food ingredients for the development of personalized immunostimulatory active foods.

  20. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Sonia; Mokni, Meherzia; Limam, Nadia; N'guessan, Prudence; Carrier, Alice; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Aouani, Ezzedine; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2012-05-01

    Garlic is a commonly used spice in folk medicine that can exert adverse health effects when given at a high dose. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibits a variety of beneficial effects even at a high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity of high-dose garlic treatment on liver and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally administered either with garlic extract (5 g·(kg body weight)(-1)) or GSSE (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for 1 month. Plasma and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and transaminases and liver antioxidant status were evaluated. Data showed that a high garlic dose induced liver toxicity and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Garlic increased intracellular H(2)O(2) but decreased free iron and Ca(2+). GSSE alone or in co-treatment with garlic had the reverse effect and counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious impacts to near control levels. In conclusion, a high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, inducing Ca(2+) depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca(2+) repletion.

  1. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  2. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic has been used as a folk medicine for a long history. Numerous studies demonstrated that garlic extracts and its sulfur-containing compounds inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation induced by various receptor agonist including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These effects suggest that garl...

  3. A comparative trial of garlic, its extract and ammonium-potassium tartrate as anthelmintics in carp.

    PubMed

    Peña, N; Auró, A; Sumano, H

    1988-12-01

    While fish chemotherapy is not a common practice in México, folk medicine is usually well accepted by fish farmers. Empirical knowledge suggested that garlic should have anthelmintic properties. Various trials were carried out in Cyprinus carpio infested with Capillaria sp., using minced garlic and its extracts. An empirical concentration of 200 mg/l of minced garlic showed the greatest activity against the above mentioned worms (100%). The hexane extract in equivalent amounts showed a 75% effectiveness while the aqueous extract showed no anthelmintic effect. The addition of ammonium-potassium tartrate to the tanks (1.5 mg/l) gave a 86% anthelmintic effectiveness.

  4. Analysis of lifespan-promoting effect of garlic extract by an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Wu, Yuan-Heng; Zhong, Linda; Tseng, Mu-Yun; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) consumption in treating human diseases have been reported worldwide over a long period of human history. The strong antioxidant effect of garlic extract (GE) has also recently been claimed to prevent cancer, thrombus formation, cardiovascular disease and some age-related maladies. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, aqueous GE was herein shown to increase the expression of longevity-related FOXO transcription factor daf-16 and extend lifespan by 20%. By employing microarray and proteomics analysis on C. elegans treated with aqueous GE, we have systematically mapped 229 genes and 46 proteins with differential expression profiles, which included many metabolic enzymes and yolky egg vitellogenins. To investigate the garlic components functionally involved in longevity, an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach was employed to identify metabolites and protein components associated with treatment of aqueous GE. Among potential lifespan-promoting substances, mannose-binding lectin and N-acetylcysteine were found to increase daf-16 expression. Our study points to the fact that the lifespan-promoting effect of aqueous GE may entail the DAF-16-mediated signaling pathway. The result also highlights the utility of metabolo-proteomics for unraveling the complexity and intricacy involved in the metabolism of natural products in vivo.

  5. Comparative assessment of onion and garlic extracts on endogenous hepatic and renal antioxidant status in rat.

    PubMed

    Suru, Stephen M; Ugwu, Chidiebere E

    2015-07-01

    Despite growing claims of functional health benefits in folkloric medicine, the safety of chronic/elevated intakes of onion and garlic cannot be assumed. Therefore, this study assesses oral administration of varied doses of onion and garlic on some biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions in rats. Animals were divided into five groups: control group received vehicle and extract-treated groups received varied doses of onion or garlic extract (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL/100 g bwt/day) for 6 weeks. Both doses of onion caused marked (p<0.05) increase in hepatic and renal levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and marked (p<0.05) decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with low dose of garlic elicited similar trend except in hepatic CAT, renal SOD and GST levels. A high dose of garlic only caused marked (p<0.05) increase in hepatic GST, renal GST, and SOD. Both doses of onion and low dose of garlic significantly (p<0.05) enhanced renal Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Only a high dose of onion caused significant (p<0.05) increase in hepatic aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and decrease in plasma AST activities. These findings suggest antioxidant enhancing capability for both doses of onion and low dose of garlic, while high dose of garlic elicited pro-oxidant conditions.

  6. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of garlic oil extract on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Reem O A; El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effect potency, and the immunomodulatory response of garlic oil extract in enhancing the host's immune system against the disorders caused by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) in mice at different stages of worm maturation. A total of 70 male CD-1 Swiss albino mice were divided into 7 groups. Group I: healthy control. Group II: garlic oil group orally administrating 100 mg garlic oil extract/kg b.wt. 3 d a week for 6 weeks. Group III: infected with S. mansoni cercariae and left untreated for 42 d. Group IV: treated with garlic oil extract from day 1 to day 7 post infection (PI). Group V: treated with garlic oil extract from day 14 till day 21 PI. Group VI: administrating garlic oil extract from day 35 until day 42 PI. Group VII received oil extract from the first day of infection for 42 d. Garlic oil extract showed changes in the parasite tegument with a significant decrease in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal ova count with a decline in granuloma number and diameter. These alterations were accompanied with a reduction in serum TNF α, ICAM-1, IgG and IgM after 7 and 42 d post S. mansoni cercarial infection. Results obtained confirmed the effect of garlic oil extract on the larval and mature stage of the parasite and in enhancing the host's immune system against the disorders caused by S. mansoni in mice. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  9. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

  10. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  11. Effects of garlic extract on spreading depression: In vitro and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Marschollek, Claudia; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Jafarian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Milad; Mohajeri, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Sadegh; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different types of headaches has been suggested by several medieval literatures. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a propagating wave of neuroglial depolarization, was established as a target for anti-migraine drugs. This study was designed to investigate the effect of garlic extract on CSD in adult rats. CSD was induced by KCl microinjection in the somatosensory cortex. The effects of five different concentrations of garlic oil (1-500 μl/l) were tested on different characteristic features of CSD in necocortical slices. In in vivo experiments, the effects of garlic oil on electrophysiological and morphological changes induced by CSD were investigated. Garlic oil in a dose-dependent manner decreased the amplitude of CSD but not its duration and velocity in neocortical brain slices. Garlic oil at concentration of 500 μl/l reversibly reduced the amplitude of the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation in the third layer of neocortical slices. In in vivo studies, systemic application of garlic oil (1 ml/l) for three consecutive days reduced the amplitude and repetition rate of CSD. Garlic oil also prevented of CSD-induced reactive astrocytosis in the neocortex. Garlic oil suppresses CSD, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity, and prevents its harmful effects on astrocyte. Further studies are required to identify the exact active ingredient(s) of garlic oil that inhibit CSD and may have the potential to use in treatment of CSD-related disorders.

  12. The aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts release nitric oxide from S-nitrosoglutathione and prolong relaxation of aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Grman, Marian; Misak, Anton; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Tomaskova, Zuzana; Bertova, Anna; Ondrias, Karol

    2011-12-01

    Garlic, onion and leek have beneficial effects in treatment of numerous health disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms. To test the potency of the aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts to release NO from GSNO we have measured NO oxidation product, NO(2)-, by the Griess reagent method. Further, we studied the ability of garlic extract to relax noradrenaline-precontracted rat aortic rings in the presence of GSNO and effects of garlic extract on electrical properties of rat heart intracellular chloride channels. We have observed that: i) garlic, onion and leek extracts released NO from GSNO in the order: garlic > onion > leek; ii) the ability of garlic extract to release NO was pH-dependent (8.0 > 7.4 > 6.0) and potentiated by thiols (Cys > GSH = N-acetyl-cysteine > oxidized glutathione) at concentration 100 µmol/l; iii) the garlic extract (0.045 mg/ml) prolonged relaxation time of aortic rings induced by GSNO (50 nmol/l) and inhibited intracellular chloride channels. We suggest that NO-releasing properties of the garlic, onion and leek extracts and their interaction with Cys and GSH are involved in NO-signalling pathway which contributes to some of its numerous beneficial biological effects.

  13. Garlic and Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Ravi; Budoff, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies. Only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. The review of articles and data extraction were performed by 2 independent authors, with any disagreements resolved by consensus. Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses). The most consistent benefits were shown in studies that used aged garlic extract (AGE). A few small studies that used AGE also showed favorable effects on CAC, CRP, and PWV. Although garlic is generally safe, rare adverse reactions have been documented with limited causality established. We conclude that garlic supplementation has the potential for cardiovascular protection based on risk factor reduction (hypertension and total cholesterol) and surrogate markers (CRP, PWV, and CAC) of atherosclerosis. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate these effects further. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Development and characterization of phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles, containing garlic extract, with antilisterial activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Cristian Mauricio Barreto; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h. For free and encapsulated garlic extracts at 5% concentration, a decrease of 4log cycles in viable cell counts was observed at 10h, against four of the five strains of Listeria spp. tested. The results indicate that liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of unstable garlic active compounds and the encapsulation of garlic extract proves to be a promising technology for multiple applications, including antimicrobial agents.

  15. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer; Cekovska, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as ‘Russian penicillin’, ‘natural antibiotic’, ‘vegetable viagra’, ‘plant talisman’, ‘rustic's theriac’, ‘snake grass’ etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life. PMID:22228949

  16. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer; Cekovska, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as 'Russian penicillin', 'natural antibiotic', 'vegetable viagra', 'plant talisman', 'rustic's theriac', 'snake grass' etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life.

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  18. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  19. Attempted chemoprophylaxis of cryptosporidiosis in chickens, using diclazuril, toltrazuril, or garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Sréter, T; Széll, Z; Varga, I

    1999-10-01

    Three battery tests were conducted to study the anticryptosporidial efficacy of the 2 commercially available anticoccidial triazinone derivates, diclazuril and toltrazuril, and a garlic extract. At the recommended level, diclazuril reduced the oocyst output of birds by 14.6%. The efficacy of toltrazuril was 52.1% at the recommended level, which could be moderately increased using 5 or 10 times the recommended dose. However, these doses resulted in significant weight gain reduction. The efficacy of garlic extract was 24.4%. It is concluded that none of the drugs can be recommended for chemoprophylaxis or therapy of cryptosporidiosis in chickens.

  20. Aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; González, Roxana Elizabeth; Renna, Nicolás Federico; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2010-06-09

    The organosulfur profile and the effect on oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed rats (FFR) were evaluated in Fuego INTA and Morado INTA garlic cultivars. Wistar rats were fed either normal rat chow (control) or the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. During the last 6 weeks of a 12 week period of the corresponding diet, a subgroup of control and FFR received an aqueous extract of Fuego INTA and Morado INTA. Fuego INTA showed higher levels of total thiosulfinates, allicin, and pungency than Morado INTA. FFR showed an increase of systolic blood pressure, aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and vascular remodeling that was significantly reduced after both garlic administrations. The beneficial effect was slightly higher when Fuego INTA was administered. Both aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in rats with metabolic syndrome, suggesting the existence of slight differences among cultivars.

  1. An in vitro study of different extracts and fractions of Allium sativum (garlic): vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ganado, Patricia; Sanz, Mercedes; Padilla, Eugenia; Tejerina, Teresa

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different novel extracts and fractions obtained from Allium sativum (garlic) on in vitro vessel contraction in order to deepen our knowledge of their mechanism of action on vascular reactivity. The contraction induced by noradrenaline (NE, 10(-6) or 10(-5) M) or KCl (80 mM) was relaxed with all the extracts and fractions studied, but this effect was higher with RG 20-100 (raw garlic fraction) and FG 20-100 (frozen garlic fraction). To increase our understanding of the mechanisms of action of RG 200-100 and FG 200-100, we found their inhibitory actions were retained in the absence of endothelium, whereas inhibition of the entry of extracellular calcium and mobilization of intracellular calcium may play an instrumental role.

  2. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  3. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  4. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased.

  5. A Classroom Demonstration of Garlic Extract and Conventional Antibiotics' Antimicrobial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekunsanmi, Toye J.

    2005-01-01

    The Kirby-Bauer method is regularly used to test bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and is often employed in the classroom for teaching this concept. In this exercise, additional materials and instructions were given to students for the preparation of garlic extract and loading on blank BBL paper discs. They were further instructed to test…

  6. Sulphur treatment alters the therapeutic potency of alliin obtained from garlic leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Nasim, S A; Dhir, B; Samar, F; Rashmi, K; Mahmooduzzafa; Mujib, A

    2009-04-01

    The therapeutic potency of garlic leaf extract obtained from normal and sulphur treated plants was compared. Alliin, the active compound of garlic leaf extract showed 32% increase in yield under sulphur treated conditions. Alliin obtained from leaf extract of plants brought a significant reduction in serum glucose, triglycerides, total lipids, total cholesterol, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels than glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alliin from sulphur treated plants was more effective in comparison to that obtained from plants raised in normal conditions. Serum glucose levels showed significant reduction of 50% in rats administered with leaf extract from sulphur treated plants in comparison to 37% noted in rats administered with leaf extract from normal plants. No alteration in HDL-cholesterol was noted. Similarly, alliin obtained from leaf extract of plants lowered the serum enzyme (ALP, AST and ALT) levels towards normal than glibenclamide. The reduction in serum enzyme levels was significant in rats administered with leaf extract of plants raised under sulphur treated conditions in comparison to that raised under normal conditions. The present findings suggest that leaf extract from sulphur treated garlic possess more antidiabetic potential and hence show more therapeutic potency in comparison to extract obtained from normal plants.

  7. The effect of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract on infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free embryonic egg

    PubMed Central

    Mohajer Shojai, Tabassom; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Barin, Abbas; Sadri, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV. Materials and Methods: The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10-3 titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract. Results: Based on our results, in the second group, IBV vaccine strain (4/91) at all titration and M41 in 10-2 and 10-3 titration and in the third group both variants of virus the embryonic Index (EI) was significantly increased. Conclusion: The garlic extract had inhibitory effects on IBV in the chickens embryo. PMID:27516987

  8. Protective effects of garlic extract on cardiac function, heart rate variability, and cardiac mitochondria in obese insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Supakul, Luerat; Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2014-04-01

    Garlic has been shown to exhibit antioxidant effects and cardioprotective properties. However, the effects of garlic extract on the heart in insulin resistance induced by long-term high-fat-diet consumption are not well defined. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of garlic extract in the obese insulin-resistant rats. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided into two groups: normal-diet or high-fat-diet (n = 24/group) fed for 12 weeks. Rats in each groups were divided into three subgroups (n = 8 each): vehicle or garlic extract (250 or 500 mg/kg/day, respectively) treated for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Rats that received a high-fat-diet for 12 weeks had increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin levels, total cholesterol, oxidative stress levels, depressed HRV, and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Garlic extract at both concentrations significantly decreased the plasma insulin, total cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment index, and oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, garlic extract at both doses restored the HRV, cardiac function, and cardiac mitochondrial function. We concluded that garlic extract at both concentrations exerted cardioprotective effects against cardiac dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction in obese insulin-resistant rats.

  9. Inhibitory effect of allicin and garlic extracts on growth of cultured hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Aala, Farzad; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Nulit, Rosimah; Rezaie, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is one of the most common dermatophytes worldwide. This fungus invaded skin appendages of humans and animals. Recently, resistance to antifungal drugs as well as appearance of side effects due to indication of these kinds of antibiotics has been reported. Besides, using some plant extracts have been indicated in herbal medicine as an alternative treatment of these fungal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) and pure allicin on the growth of hypha in T. rubrum using Electron miscroscopy. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out to observe the morphological changes of T. rubrum treated with allicin as well as aqueous garlic extract using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: SEM surveys, showed that hypha treated with allicin has rough and granular like surface, abnormal and irregularly-shape. However, hypha treated with garlic extract had rough and fluffy surface and also irregularly-shape. TEM studies also found that hypha treated with allicin displays disintegration of cytoplasm, breaking down in cell membrane and the cell wall, and collapsing of hypha, meanwhile hypha treated with garlic extract exhibiting degradation and dissolution of cytoplasm components, demolition of cell wall and cell membrane, and hypha appeared to break. Conclusion: The present study revealed that pure allicin (6.25 µg/ml and 12.5 µg/ml) is more efficient in inhibition of the growth in hyphal cells compare to the garlic extract (2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml) and they could be used as alternatives in treatment of dermatophytosis. PMID:24847416

  10. Correlation between antioxidant activity of garlic extracts and WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma tumor growth in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Taji, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2011-09-01

    The biological activities of garlic may be affected by different processing methods. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate potential anticancer effects of different type of processed garlic extracts on WEHI-164 tumor cells in inbred BALB/c mice and correlate the tumor growth rates with some garlic constituents. In a preclinical trial 60 BALB/c mice were injected with WEHI-164 tumor cells and divided into six groups of 10 animals. Group 1 mice received 200 μL of saline, and groups 2-6 were injected intraperitoneally with fresh, microwaved, 3-month-old, leaves, and boiled garlic extracts, respectively, at 20 mg/kg/0.2 mL. Three weeks following tumor inoculation, the mean tumor size in garlic extract-treated groups was reduced with significant reductions observed in the fresh and microwaved extract groups compared with the control group (P<.05). The antioxidant capacity and the amounts of allicin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in differentially processed garlic were evaluated and correlated with their anticancer activities. There was a linear correlation between the amounts of allicin, flavonoids, or phenolic components derived from fresh, microwaved, 3-month-old, leaves, and boiled garlic and cancer growth prevention. In conclusion, garlic has anticancer activity against WEHI-164 tumor cells, and processing such as heating reduces its effect dramatically. The anticancer activities of different kinds of garlic are related to the level of allicin, flavonoids, and phenolic components. Therefore, fresh garlic has the highest content of bioactive components and the greatest anticancer efficacy.

  11. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Murphy, Ryan; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Yu, Liping; Netticadan, Thomas

    2012-08-29

    In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H₂S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H₂S.

  12. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  13. Aqueous garlic extract and its phytochemical profile; special reference to antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Rasul Suleria, Hafiz Ansar; Sadiq Butt, Masood; Muhammad Anjum, Faqir; Saeed, Farhan; Batool, Rizwana; Nisar Ahmad, Atif

    2012-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L) has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its bioactive components and is used in different diet-based therapies to cure various lifestyle-related disorders. For this purpose, characterization and extraction of garlic were carried out followed by antioxidant assays. Different solvents (50% aqueous ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol and water) at different time intervals (4, 5 and 6 h) at 60°C were used to optimize aqueous extraction efficiency of garlic. Among the solvents, water extract resulted in better extraction yield (31.85 ± 2.09 g/25 g) at 5 h. The antioxidant potential of all these solvents was estimated through in vitro studies. In this context, it was observed that higher amount of total phenolic contents was present in aqueous methanol 71.87 ± 1.69% at 45 min. Antiradical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and antioxidant activity showed that the maximum value was 73.80 ± 3.69 and 83.83 ± 0.16%, respectively, in methanolic extract at 45 min while glucose diffusion and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 97.00 ± 0.20 and 32.66 ± 0.72% at p < 0.05, respectively. Aqueous garlic extract was selected as the best treatment on the basis of percentage yield and safety modulation in human body absorption. Aqueous garlic extract was subjected to pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and colour. It was observed that the pH of aqueous garlic extract decreased with the passage of time while acidity increased. It was also concluded that storage affected the value of TSS and colour significantly. L* values for colour on 0 day were 34.18 ± 0.08, whereas those on 28th day were 38.84 ± 0.03. It was predicted that 28 days storage resulted in significant increase in L* value, while a* value decreased from 4.31 ± 0.01 to 0.32 ± 0.01 at the end of storage study.

  14. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUN/OBJECTIVES Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. METHODS/MATERIALS After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. RESULTS Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. CONCLUSIONS The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and

  15. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and antioxidant systems in rats fed with black garlic extract were

  16. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p < 0.05). MDA, TOS and NO increased (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared with the control group, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p < 0.01). The level of TNF-α mRNA did not differ between groups but the TNF-α protein level in diabetic rats was higher than in the control rats (p < 0.01), whereas after treatment with garlic, it was close to the normal level (p < 0.01). These results indicate that garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  17. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  18. Aqueous garlic extract attenuates hepatitis and oxidative stress induced by galactosamine/lipoploysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A

    2008-10-01

    Injection of D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (DGaIN/LPS) is useful as an experimental model of acute hepatic damage. Juvenile rats were used for investigation. The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract (AGE) at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 14 days, intraperitoneal (i.p.) prior to the induction of DGalN/LPS, was investigated against DGalN/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats. DGalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight, i.p.), induced hepatic damage that was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (gamma GT)], bilirubin, lipid peroxides (LPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity level in serum. Also, the lipid profile in serum and liver homogenate including total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids were significantly deteriorated. The antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; reduced glutathione, GSH; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPX) in liver homogenate were significantly decreased in the DGalN/LPS. Pretreatment of rats with AGE reversed these altered parameters near to normal control values. Results of this study revealed that AGE could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of DGalN/LPS-induced hepatic damage.

  19. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-03

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices.

  20. Study of garlic extracts and fractions on cholesterol plasma levels and vascular reactivity in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Slowing, K; Ganado, P; Sanz, M; Ruiz, E; Tejerina, T

    2001-03-01

    Garlic is known for its pharmacologic and nutritional properties. In previous studies, garlic elicited a reduction in plasma levels of lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate in an in vivo model the effects of garlic extract and some fractions on cholesterol levels and vascular reactivity in cholesterol-fed rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 16 wk and were divided into 10 groups as follows: control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups, 4 groups fed frozen garlic fractions and 4 groups fed raw garlic fractions with different doses. Blood samples were obtained to analyze HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. After treatment, rats were killed. The heart, liver and kidneys were weighed; the aorta was isolated, mounted in organ chambers and vascular reactivity was tested. Plasma concentration of cholesterol was 58 mg/dL (100%) at the beginning of the study and increased to 102 mg/dL (153%; hypercholesterolemic group) at the end of the treatment. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in all groups treated with garlic; moreover, this effect was higher in rats fed raw garlic fractions and extracts. LDL decreased significantly with respect to the hypercholesterolemic group in all groups treated with garlic fractions and extracts (P: < 0.01); however, an increase in HDL was found in those treated with frozen fractions and extracts. The liver:body weight ratio decreased in all treated groups. The relaxing effect of acetylcholine (ACh) was enhanced in arteries contracted with noradrenaline (NE). These data suggest that garlic fractions could prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and vascular alterations in the endothelium-dependent relaxation associated with atherosclerosis.

  1. Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) extract applied as a therapeutic immersion treatment for Neobenedenia sp. management in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Militz, T A; Southgate, P C; Carton, A G; Hutson, K S

    2014-05-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum L., extract administered as a therapeutic bath was shown to have antiparasitic properties towards Neobenedenia sp. (MacCallum) (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). The effect of garlic extract (active component allicin) immersion on Neobenedenia sp. egg development, hatching success, oncomiracidia (larvae) longevity, infection success and juvenile Neobenedenia survival was examined and compared with freshwater and formalin immersion. Garlic extract was found to significantly impede hatching success (5% ± 5%) and oncomiracidia longevity (<2 h) at allicin concentrations of 15.2 μL L(-1) , while eggs in the seawater control had >95% hatching success and mean oncomiracidia longevity of 37 ± 3 h. At much lower allicin concentrations (0.76 and 1.52 μL L(-1)), garlic extract also significantly reduced Neobenedenia infection success of L. calcarifer to 25% ± 4% and 11% ± 4%, respectively, compared with 55% ± 7% in the seawater control. Juvenile Neobenedenia attached to host fish proved to be highly resistant to allicin with 96% surviving 1-h immersion in 10 mL L(-1) (15.2 μL L(-1) allicin) of garlic extract. Allicin-containing garlic extracts show potential for development as a therapy to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the egg and larval stages.

  2. In Vitro Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Aqueous Garlic Extract and Imipenem against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Akhter, S M; Khatun, S; Islam, M M; Roy, P

    2016-07-01

    An interventional study was performed to determine and compare the MICs of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Imipenem against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 & Eschericha coli ATCC 25922. The study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2015. The MIC of AGE and antibiotic Imipenem were determined with the help of broth dilution method. The MIC of AGE was determined as 400μg/ml and 700μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli respectively and the MIC of Imipenem was 1μg/ml against Staphylococus aureus and 1.5μg/ml against Escherichia coli. The MICs of Imipenem was much lower in comparison to MICs of AGE for the test organisms. The subculture study showed the same results with that of the primary isolates. From the study it was clearly observed that AGE have anti bacterial effect but is not potent like antibiotic Imipenem. In this regard active ingredient present in garlic needs to be separated & purified for further study.

  3. Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lemar, Katey M.; Passa, Ourania; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; Müller, Carsten T.; Plummer, Sue; O’Rourke, Brian; Lloyd, David

    2009-01-01

    Both the growth and respiration of Candida albicans are sensitive to extracts of Allium sativum and investigations into the anticandidal activities are now focussing on the purified constituents to determine the targets of inhibition. Of particular interest is allyl alcohol (AA), a metabolic product that accumulates after trituration of garlic cloves. Putative targets for AA were investigated by monitoring changes in intracellular responses after exposure of C. albicans cells to AA or a commercially available garlic extract. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy and other techniques were used. Changes typical of oxidative stress – NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species – were observed microscopically and by flow cytometry. Known targets for AA are alcohol dehydrogenases Adh1 and 2 (in the cytosol) and Adh3 (mitochondrial), although the significant decrease in NAD(P)H after addition of AA is indicative of another mechanism of action. PMID:16207909

  4. Prevention of bone loss by oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, M; Das, A S; Mitra, S; Mitra, C

    2004-05-01

    The effects of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes were tested in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Experiments were performed on three different rat models: sham-operated control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized supplemented with garlic oil. In ovariectomized group, there has been a significant increase in different relative organ weights compared to sham-operated control, while the uterine weight was found to be decreased. Supplementation with oil extract of garlic could effectively reverse these changes. Also low bone densities that developed in the ovariectomized group were significantly recovered in the garlic oil supplemented group. In our study, the development of high rate of bone turnover and osteoporosis in the ovariectomized animals were confirmed by significant alteration of serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, hydroxyproline and urinary calcium to creatinine ratio, when compared with the sham-operated control group. Garlic oil extract supplementation, apart from its unique influence in lowering blood cholesterol, could also prevent ovariectomy-induced rise in all the above-mentioned marker changes. The results of this study emphasize that oil extract of garlic possibly has a positive role in suppressing ovariectomy-induced bone resorption. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. In vivo and in vitro activity of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linnaeus) against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kang; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Leibo

    2017-01-01

    The activity of garlic oil extract against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae was evaluated. The in vitro and in vivo cercaricidal activities against S. japonicum larvae were determined. Exposure to ≥ 10-6 (v/v) garlic emulsions for 30 min led to 100% cercariae mortality; pre-exposure treatment with ≥ 10-4 (v/v) garlic emulsions showed 100% preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection, while pre-treatment with 10-5 and 10-6 (v/v) emulsions achieved 20%-40% preventive efficacy and 35.2%-63.6% worm burden reduction. Garlic oil extract has activity against S. japonicum larvae and a promising preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection.

  6. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    PubMed

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

    2012-11-01

    Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts' scolicidal effects were examined. Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  7. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  8. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin.

  9. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts’ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Results: Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Conclusion: Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence. PMID:23833573

  10. Comparative evaluation of garlic extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on salivary Streptococcus mutans count - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Sangeeta Devanand; Shetty, Nagesh Lakshminarayan; Kanuri, Muralikrishna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the antibacterial effect of garlic extract with those of chlorhexidine and negative control mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans. The present study was carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the zone of inhibition of various concentrations of garlic extract against S. mutans was determined using the cup and plate method. The minimum concentration at which a zone of inhibition appeared was further employed to prepare a mouthwash that was used in Phase 2. This phase included 45 dental students whose baseline salivary S. mutans level was assessed. They were randomly divided into three groups: '1' representing students using garlic extract mouthwash (garlic extract + water + sorbitol + spearmint oil), '2' representing those using chlorhexidine (0.2%) mouthwash and '3' representing those using a negative control (water + sorbitol + spearmint oil). All of the subjects were advised to use 10 ml of the assigned mouthwash once daily after their last meal for a duration of 7 days. On day 8, the post-treatment salivary S. mutans counts were assessed, and the data were analysed and compared by performing appropriate statistical tests. Phase 1: the 3% concentration was the minimum concentration at which a zone of inhibition was observed. Phase 2: a reduction in post-test S. mutans counts in all three groups was found. The mean difference that was observed in the garlic extract group was 5.23 x 105 CFU/ml, in the chlorhexidine group 2.63 x 105 CFU/ml and in the negative control group 1.18 x 105 CFU/ml. The differences among all three groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05) and that between the negative control and the garlic group was highly significant (P < 0.001). Garlic extract is effective against S. mutans when tested both in vitro and in vivo. As S. mutans is one of the primary aetiological organisms in dental caries development (Loesche, 1986), and in the present study garlic extract has been shown to be

  11. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on the heart rate, rhythm and force of contraction in frog: a dose-dependent study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Verma, Nar Singh

    2004-06-01

    Garlic juice (dose equivalent to 3.3 g to 33 g garlic) mainly caused bradycardia in frog Rana tigerina. The disturbance in ventricular rhythm was observed prior to than that of atria. Rhythm was specially disturbed at higher doses causing bizarre pattern. Force of contraction of the heart also decreased with higher dose of the garlic extract. The results suggest that garlic extract has some beneficial effect on heart rate modulating the rate, rhythm and force of contraction positively but very high doses may exert non-desirable effects as well.

  12. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  13. The field efficacy of garlic extract against Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms of Babol, Iran.

    PubMed

    Faghihzadeh Gorji, Shohreh; Faghihzadeh Gorji, Sina; Rajabloo, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite in layer farms in many countries. The reproduction rate of the parasite is rapid and can be completed in a week under favorable conditions. The parasite has direct and indirect effects on birds. It can also act as a vector for some important pathogens. Many researchers have investigated the effects of essential oils, plant extracts, oriental medicinal plant extracts, and silica against red mite. They can be used as killing agents or repellents. In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract was investigated for controlling red mite infestation in a layer farm in Babol, North of Iran. Our results showed that the extract was effective and we obtained a 96% success after two successive sprays.

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.

    PubMed

    Booyens, J; Labuschagne, M C; Thantsha, M S

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. SEM micrographs revealed unusual morphological changes such as cell elongation, cocci-shaped cells with cross-walls, and distorted cells with bulbous ends. With TEM, observed changes included among others, condensation of cytoplasmic material, disintegration of membranes, and loss of structural integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any differences in whole-cell protein profiles of untreated and garlic clove extract-treated cells. The current study is the first to reveal the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on probiotic Bifidobacterium species. The results indicate that garlic affects these beneficial bacteria in a manner similar to that exhibited in pathogens. These results therefore further highlight that caution should be taken especially when using raw garlic and probiotic bifidobacteria simultaneously as viability of these bacteria could be reduced by allicin released upon crushing of garlic cloves, thereby limiting the health benefits that the consumer anticipate to gain from probiotics.

  15. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P < 0.001) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels, whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were markedly (P < 0.001) decreased. We also observed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ACPtotal and ACPprostatic activities in prostate glands and a concomitant significant (P < 0.001) increase in the plasma. However, treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with onion and/or garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  16. Effects of prickly pear dried leaves, artichoke leaves, turmeric and garlic extracts, and their combinations on preventing dyslipidemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Qinna, Nidal A; Kamona, Basma S; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M; Taha, Hashem; Badwan, Adnan A; Matalka, Khalid Z

    2012-01-01

    The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models. A two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of Pluronic F-127 resulted in decreasing significantly serum LDL levels by garlic and PPL extracts and serum LDL/HDL ratios by turmeric, PPL, combination 1 and 2. In a 10-day high fat diet model, only the combination 1 and 2 lowered serum cholesterol, LDL by 8-12%, decreased significantly triglycerides, LDL/HDL ratio; and increased significantly HDL (P < 0.0001). However, a long term treatment of each natural product for 7 weeks resulted in decreasing significantly serum LDL levels and LDL/HDL ratio (P < 0.05-0.0001). Furthermore, only artichoke and PPL inhibited significantly HMG-CoA reductase activity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short term, as well as long term, treatment using the combination of artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic extract prevents dyslipidemia; partially through inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase.

  17. Effects of Prickly Pear Dried Leaves, Artichoke Leaves, Turmeric and Garlic Extracts, and Their Combinations on Preventing Dyslipidemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Kamona, Basma S.; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Taha, Hashem; Badwan, Adnan A.; Matalka, Khalid Z.

    2012-01-01

    The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models. A two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of Pluronic F-127 resulted in decreasing significantly serum LDL levels by garlic and PPL extracts and serum LDL/HDL ratios by turmeric, PPL, combination 1 and 2. In a 10-day high fat diet model, only the combination 1 and 2 lowered serum cholesterol, LDL by 8–12%, decreased significantly triglycerides, LDL/HDL ratio; and increased significantly HDL (P < 0.0001). However, a long term treatment of each natural product for 7 weeks resulted in decreasing significantly serum LDL levels and LDL/HDL ratio (P < 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, only artichoke and PPL inhibited significantly HMG-CoA reductase activity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short term, as well as long term, treatment using the combination of artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic extract prevents dyslipidemia; partially through inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:22811929

  18. Applications of thin-layer chromatography in extraction and characterisation of ajoene from garlic bulbs.

    PubMed

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Novel and inexpensive methods of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were employed for the extraction, characterisation and mechanism of quorum sensing inhibition by ajoene, a component from toluene garlic bulb (Allium sativum L.) extract (TGE). TLC profiling of TGE was carried out using ethyl acetate as solvent. Out of total spots extracted from TLC, four spots exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential. Among those, spot 5 was identified as Z-ajoene by TLC and confirmed by NMR and MS. HPLC analysis indicated 97.7% purity for purified ajoene. TLC densitometric analysis quantified 221.08 μmol/g of ajoene in TGE and indicated that ajoene is stable at 4°C and at acidic pH. HPTLC profiling showed that ajoene exhibits QSI effect by inhibiting the production of both long-chain acyl homoserine lactones and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) by P. aeruginosa and also by inactivating PQS molecules.

  19. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  20. Fresh Garlic Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Antibiotics on Resistant Strains in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoliang; Ma, Xudong; Deng, Lisha; Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Yuejiao; Gao, Zhongyang; Jia, Jing; Xu, Jiru; Sun, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infections caused by strains with multi-drug resistance are difficult to treat with standard antibiotics. Garlic is a powerful remedy to protect against infections of many bacteria, fungi and viruses. However, little is known about the potentials of fresh garlic extract (FGE) to improve the sensitivity of multi-drug resistant strains to antibiotics. Objectives: In this study, we used the disk diffusion method to investigate the antimicrobial activities of FGE and the combination of antibiotics with FGE, on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, to evaluate the interactions between antibiotics and FGE. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates were isolated from clinical specimens obtained from the inpatients at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center. The isolates consisted of MRSA, (n = 30), C. albicans (n = 30) and P. aeruginosa (n = 30). Quality control for CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) disk diffusion was performed using S. aureus ATCC®25923, C. albicans ATCC®90028 and P. aeruginosa ATCC®27853. The 93 microorganisms were divided into four groups in a factorial design: control (deionized water), FGE, antibiotics without FGE, and antibiotics with FGE. Next, antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter of inhibition zones according to performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS). Results: Fresh garlic extract displayed evident inhibition properties against C. albicans and MRSA, yet weak inhibition properties against P. aeruginosa. Additionally, FGE showed the potential to improve the effect of antibiotics on antibiotic resistant pathogens. The synergism of fluconazole and itraconazole with FGE on C. albicans yielded larger sized inhibition zones compared with fluconazole and itraconazole without FGE (P < 0.01). The

  1. [Radiosensitization effect of black garlic extract on lung cancer cell line Lewis cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-qing; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yi-shan; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Ke

    2013-08-01

    To explore the radiosensitization effect of black garlic extract (BGE) on lung cancer cell line Lewis cells. The inhibition rate of lung cancer cells after BGE action was detected by MTT. Effect of BGE combined radiotherapy on the colony formation rate was observed by cloning formation assay. Changes of the cell morphology were observed by Hoechst staining. Changes of the cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Real time PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of bcl-2 and bax. BGE could have significant inhibitory action on the growth of lung cancer Lewis cells. The combination of BGE and radiotherapy (by 60Co gamma) significantly induced Lewis cells' apoptosis in G2/M stage, obviously decreased the expression of bcl-2, and up-regulated the expression of bax. BGE could sensitize the lung cancer Lewis cells to ionizing irradiation. This effect might be probably caused by changing the cell cycles and affecting expressions of bax and bcl-2.

  2. Effect of Garlic, Gingko and St. John's Wort Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Turkanovic, Jasmina; Gerber, Jacobus P; Ward, Michael B; Milne, Robert W

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of garlic and ginkgo herbal extracts on the pharmacokinetics of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) substrate fexofenadine. Male rats were dosed orally with garlic (120 mg/kg), ginkgo (17 mg/kg), St. John's wort (SJW; 1000 mg/kg; positive control) or milli Q water for 14 days. On day 15, rats were either administered fexofenadine (orally or intravenously), had their livers isolated and perfused with fexofenadine, or the small intestine divided into four segments (SI-SIV) and analysed for P-gp and Oatp1a5. In vivo, SJW increased the CL of fexofenadine by 28%. Garlic increased the AUC0-∞ and Cmax of fexofenadine by 47% and 85%, respectively. Ginkgo and SJW had no effect on the oral absorption of fexofenadine. In the perfused liver, garlic, ginkgo and SJW increased the biliary clearance of fexofenadine with respect to perfusate by 71%, 121% and 234%, respectively. SJW increased the biliary clearance relative to the liver concentration by 64%. The ratio of liver to perfusate concentrations significantly increased in all treated groups. The expression of Oatp1a5 in SI was increased by garlic (88%) and SJW (63%). There were no significant changes in the expression of P-gp. Induction of intestinal Oatp1a5 by garlic may explain the increased absorption of orally administered fexofenadine. Ginkgo had no effect on the expression of intestinal P-gp or Oatp1a5. A dual inductive effect by SJW on opposing intestinal epithelial transport by Oatp1a5 and P-gp remains a possibility.

  3. Effect of garlic extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sher, Alam; Fakhar-ul-Mahmood, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Bukhsh, Sattar; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Comparative hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity of garlic (ethanol) extract and metformin was the aim of the study in 24 normal and diabetic rabbits. In group A of 12 rabbits, the influence of different doses (250, 300 and 350 mg/kg body weight) of garlic extract was evaluated, six of them were kept normal, while six were caused to be diabetic with alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight). In another group B of 12 rabbits, the influence of various doses of metformin (250, 375 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was also assessed in the similar grouping of six normal and six diabetic rabbits. The maximum hypoglycemic response was observed with highest doses of garlic extract (350 mg/kg body weight) in normal rabbits 4 h after garlic extract administration, while in diabetic rabbits, blood glucose level (270.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl) was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered as compared to the control level (303.8 ± 1.8 mg/dl). The levels of triglycerides (44.0 ± 0.9 mg/dl) and cholesterol (32.8 ± 0.7 mg/dl) also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in normal rabbits after 4 h of extract administration as compared to that of 0 h samples (triglycerides 66.0 ± 1.5 mg/dl and cholesterol 47.5 ± 0.5 mg/dl). In diabetic rabbits, 0 h level of triglyceride and cholesterol was found to be 86.5 ± 1.1 mg/dl and 93.8 ± 0.9 mg/dl, respectively and levels seen in 4 h sample were 61.3 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 57.0 ± 1.8 mg/dl, respectively. In normal as well as diabetic rabbits, garlic extract produced hypoglycemia as well as hypolipidaemia like metformin, but the hypoglycemic effect was more pronounced with metformin, whereas garlic extract was more effective in causing hypolipidaemia as compared to metformin.

  4. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by a water-soluble garlic extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R

    1991-08-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes continually synthesize cholesterol form radiolabeled acetate during a 24 h incubation period and export it, presumably as VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) to the culture medium. Mevastatin inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis by 90%. Incubation of the cultures with water-soluble extracts of garlic powder (Kwai, Sapec) diminish cholesterol biosynthesis (20-25%) as well as its export into the medium (30-35%). The IC50-value is 90 micrograms/ml. Between about 0.25 and 10 mg/ml the average maximal inhibition amounts to about 23%. Cytotoxicity of the extracts is apparent at concentrations above 125 mg/ml only. Pure alliin alone, or after incubation with alliinase (conversion to allicin) in concentrations corresponding to its content in the extracts does not exert any inhibition. Replacement of 14C-acetate by 14C-mevalonate omits the inhibitory effect. The activity of HMGCoA (hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA) reductase is significantly reduced by garlic extracts at 50 micrograms/ml. At higher concentrations fatty acid synthetase, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and cholesterol acyltransferase are slightly inhibited. Fatty acid synthetase is the only one of these enzymes which is inhibited by alliin at very high concentrations. These results demonstrate that water-soluble garlic extracts diminish hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, thus contributing to the reduction of blood cholesterol. The main target site seems to be HMGCoA-reductase. The actual active principle(s) is still unknown. Alliin, however, does not seem to be of major significance.

  5. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of garlic extract on Nerium oleander-induced arrhythmia: a new approach to antiarrhythmic therapy in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, M; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Maham, M

    2013-01-01

    Oleander is a potent cardiotoxic plant and is a common cause of poisoning in human and animals. There is no affordable and cost-effective treatment for oleander poisoning. Objective. To evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of garlic extract (Allium sativum) on Nerium oleander (a potent cardiotoxic plant) intoxication in sheep. Eight sheep were intravenously infused with an unsterilized hydro-ethanol extract of garlic (50 mg/kg) before or after receiving a lethal dose of dried leaves (as a powder) of oleander (100 mg/kg, orally). The cardiac rhythm was continuously monitored using biopotential wireless transmitters and telemetry system. For evaluation of therapeutic effects, six sheep received the lethal dose of oleander and were administered with garlic extract after development of cardiac arrhythmias. Subsequently, the survived animals from the therapeutic study (four sheep) were administered with oleander without receiving any medication. Some blood constituents, including total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and troponin I, were compared between treated and untreated animals. Pretreatment with garlic extract reversed the arrhythmia caused by oleander to its previous normal rhythm in seven sheep, but, one sheep died of ventricular fibrillation. On therapeutic treatment, four sheep survived while two died of ventricular fibrillation. Dosing with oleander without receiving garlic extract resulted in death of all sheep due to ventricular fibrillation. Blood constituents did not show any significant changes between treated and untreated sheep, and before and after intoxication. Garlic extract reduced the case fatality from 100% to 12.5% and 33.3% as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent, respectively. Additionally, garlic extract delayed the time of onset of arrhythmias and prolonged the interval between intoxication and death of the animals. Garlic extract could be considered to be a potential and affordable antidote in oleander poisoning. However

  6. Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Avci, Bahattin; Akar, Ayşegül; Bilgici, Birşen; Tunçel, Özgür Korhan

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to study the oxidative damage induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by mobile telephones and the protective effect of garlic extract used as an anti-oxidant against this damage. A total of 66 albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The first group of rats was given 1.8 GHz, 0.4 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) for 1 h a day for three weeks. The second group was given 500 mg/kg garlic extract in addition to RF-EMR. The third group of rats was used as the control group. At the end of the study, blood and brain tissue samples were collected from the rats. After the RF-EMR exposed, the advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels of brain tissue increased compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Garlic administration accompanying the RF-EMR, on the other hand, significantly reduced AOPP levels in brain tissue (p < 0.001). The serum nitric oxide (NO) levels significantly increased both in the first and second group (p < 0.001). However, in the group for which garlic administration accompanied that of RF-EMR, there was no difference in serum NO levels compared with the RF-EMR exposed group (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups with respect to malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain tissue and blood samples (p > 0.05). Similarly, no difference was detected among the groups regarding serum paroxonase (PON) levels (p > 0.05). We did not detect any PON levels in the brain tissue. The exposure of RF-EMR similar to 1.8 GHz Global system for mobile communication (GSM) leads to protein oxidation in brain tissue and an increase in serum NO. We observed that garlic administration reduced protein oxidation in brain tissue and that it did not have any effects on serum NO levels.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  11. Antibacterial Effects of Garlic Extracts and Ziziphora Essential Oil on Bacteria Associated with Peri-Implantitis.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, Farzane; Ghasemi, Shima; Babaloo, Amirreza; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Momeni, Rosa; Ghanizadeh, Milad; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Fathi, Farzad Yeganeh

    2017-04-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process, characterized by loss of bone around implants and bleeding on probing. Colonization of bacteria in the pocket created around the implant is one of the most important aetiologic factors involved. Although antibiotics are routinely used and are effective agents against this bacterial infection, due to the side effects and drug resistance of these medications, researchers are more interested in using herbal derivatives. There are relatively limited number of studies in this respect. To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of the extracts of Allium sativum and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. In this in vitro study conducted at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences between March 2016 and July 2016, aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic and ziziphora essential oil were prepared and then their effects on one standard strain of P. aeruginosa and two standard strains of S. aureus and 18 clinical strains, (nine strains of P. aeruginosa and nine strains of S. aureus) which had been isolated from wound and blood cultures, were evaluated using the reference broth macro dilution method and disk diffusion technique. Data were evaluated with descriptive statistical techniques and t-test for independent groups, using SPSS 17. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic did not exhibit inhibitory effects on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for ziziphora essential oil against S. aureus were 0.25 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. The mean diameter of growth inhibition zone for S. aureus in the ziziphora essential oil group (0.25μg/mL) and Vancomycin group (10 μg/mL) were 26.09±5.8 and 14.63±1.20 mm respectively (p<0.001). Growth inhibition zone for P. aeruginosa were observed in only one (35 mm) and three cases (12.5±3.4 mm) in the ziziphora essential oil group (0.5 μg/mL) and Nalidixic acid group (10

  12. Protective effect of garlic extract against maternal and fetal cerebellar damage induced by lead administration during pregnancy in rats.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Hamid Abdulraouf; Abdel El-Aziz, Gamal Said; Mustafa, Hesham N; Saleh, Asmaa Hamid Abdulraouf; Mal, Ahmed Othman; Deifalla, Abdel Haleem Salem; Abo Rass, Magda

    2017-07-13

    In spite of its indusrial usefulness and varied daily uses, lead (Pb) pollution is a widespread ecological problem that faces the humans in the 21th century. Pb was found to produces a wide range of toxic effects including neurotoxicity especially to the developing and young offspring. Recently, the utilization of herbal plants has received a significant attention where there has been rising awareness in their therapeutic use; among these is the garlic. In light of the above, the current study is designed experimentally in female pregnant rats in order to investigate the beneficial role of garlic extract in the protection from the maternal and fetal cerebellar damage that produced by administration of different doses of Pb during pregnancy. Positively pregnant female rats were divided into five groups; one control group, two Pb-treated groups (exposed to 160 and 320 mg/kg b.wt. of Pb, respectively) and two groups treated with both Pb and garlic (exposed to Pb as previous groups together with 250 mg/ kg b.wt. /day of garlic extract). Treatments started from day 1 till day 20 of pregnancy, where the mother rats of different experimental groups were sacrified to obtain the fetuses. Pb level in the maternal nd fetal blood and cerebellum was estimated by spectrophotometry. Specimens of the cerebellum of different mother and fetal groups were processed to histological and immunohistochemical staining for microscopic examination. The results showed that administration of Pb to pregnant rats resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity for both mothers and fetuses in the form of decrease of maternal weight gain, placental and fetal weights, brain weight and diminished fetal growth parameters, which were prominent in rat's group treated with larger dose of Pb. In Pb-treated rats, Pb level in blood and cerebellum was high when compared to the control. The histopathological examination of the cerebellum of treated dams and fetuses showed marked alterations mainly in the form of

  13. Modulation of histone acetylation by garlic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Latino-Martel, Paule

    2011-03-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that fresh garlic extracts, aged garlic, garlic oil and specific organosulfur compounds generated by processing garlic could alter carcinogen metabolism, inhibit tumor cell growth through induction of cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, or angiogenesis. In particular, recent studies have suggested that anticarcinogenic effects of certain garlic compounds may implicate at least in part a modulation of histone acetylation, a process involved in the regulation of gene expression, resulting from the inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. The aim of this review is to describe available data on sulfur compounds from garlic and histone acetylation and to discuss their potential for cancer prevention. Available data indicate that garlic compounds could inhibit histone deacetylase activity and induce histone hyperacetylation in vitro as well as in vivo. Sparse studies provide evidence of an involvement of histone acetylation in modulation of gene expression by diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan. These effects were observed at high concentrations. Further investigations are needed to determine if the HDAC inhibitory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds might play a role in primary cancer prevention at doses achievable by human diet.

  14. A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition.

    PubMed

    Staba, E J; Lash, L; Staba, J E

    2001-03-01

    The garlic (Allium sativa L.) bulb has been used as a food and condiment for centuries throughout the entire world and in Egypt for perhaps 5000 years. Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 by the U.S. Congress, it has been claimed that garlic dietary supplements possess health benefits. Support for this claim is not the primary objective of this publication. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that the prediction of a potential health benefit(s) from garlic is largely dependent on the process used to produce a product.

  15. Antiinflammatory Effects of Functionally Active Compounds Isolated from Aged Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Gyu; Kang, Min Jung; Hong, Seong Su; Choi, Yun-Hyeok; Shin, Jung Hye

    2017-01-01

    The antiinflammatory effects of functionally active compounds isolated from aged black garlic (AGE-1 and AGE-2) were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response model. To examine the potential antiinflammatory properties of AGE-1 and AGE-2, cell viability as well as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, and IL-1β] levels were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that AGE-1 and AGE-2 were not cytotoxic to macrophages. Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels decreased significantly with increasing concentration of AGE-1 (IC50  = 29.6 and 1.41 µg/mL, respectively), but not AGE-2. The secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β was also suppressed by AGE-1 in a dose-dependent manner, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA, and protein expression decreased with AGE-1 treatment. Furthermore, AGE-1 attenuated the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun terminal kinase in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that compound AGE-1 may have significant effects on inflammatory factors and could potentially be used as an antiinflammatory therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Dentinal tubule disinfection with 2% chlorhexidine, garlic extract, and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Eswar, Kandaswamy; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of garlic extract with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 in disinfection of dentinal tubules contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion test was done to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic extract against E. faecalis. Forty human extracted mandibular premolar teeth were selected for this study, access cavity was prepared and cleaning and shaping was done. Middle third of the root was cut using a rotary diamond disc. The teeth specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into four groups---Group 1: 2% CHX, Group 2: Garlic extract, Group 3: Ca(OH)2, and Group 4: Saline (negative control). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth specimens and incubated for 5 days. The dentinal chips were collected at 400 μm depth using a Gates-Glidden drill, following which DNA isolation was done. The specimens were analyzed using real-time PCR. The results were then statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) multiple comparison of means. Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of 2% CHX was found to be 32.4, garlic extract to be 27.5, and Ca(OH)2 to be 25.6. Conclusion: A total of 2% CHX showed the maximum efficacy against E. faecalis, followed by garlic extract and Ca(OH)2. PMID:23833449

  17. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P < 0.05).In addition,serum levels of LDL-C was lower in the III and IV group than those in the IV group (P < 0.001 for each). However, cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol concentration (P < 0 · 0001). It was also directly correlated with garlic supplementation (P < 0 · 0001). Together Taken, the results are clearly indicative of the beneficial effects of garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  18. Purif ied Protein Fraction of Garlic Extract Modulates Cellular Immune Response against Breast Transplanted Tumors in BALB/c Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mohammad Hassan, Zuhair; Mostafaie, Ali; Zare Mehrjardi, Narges; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum) has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenesis, and immunomodulatory properties that modulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor growth. In this study we have examined the effect of a protein fraction isolated from fresh garlic on anti-tumor response and intra-tumor lymphocyte infiltration. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study a protein fraction was purified from fresh garlic bulbs using ultra-filtration, followed by chromatofocusing, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Anti-tumor activity was assessed by intra-tumor injection of the protein fraction and garlic extract, itself, into groups of 5 mice each. The percentage of peripheral blood and intra-tumor CD4+ and CD8+ cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Unpaired student’s t test using the SPSS program was applied for all statistical analyses. Results: Garlic extract included different type of proteins with different molecular weight. One of protein’s fraction was immunomodeulator and was composed of three single polypeptides, with molecular masses of ~10-13 kDa and different isoelectric points (pI). These molecules augmented the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response compared to the control group. Intra-tumor injection of the fraction provoked a significant increase in the CD8+ subpopulation of T-lymphocytes, as well as a decrease in tumor size. The fraction increased peripheral blood CD8+ T-lymphocytes in treated animals. Conclusion: The data confirms that protein fractions purified from fresh garlic bulbs augment CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor site, inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract. These findings provide a basis for further investigations on the purified polypeptide as a useful candidate for immunomodulation and tumor treatment. PMID:23700562

  19. Garlic extract in bladder cancer prevention: Evidence from T24 bladder cancer cell xenograft model, tissue microarray, and gene network analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Seo, Sung-Pil; Byun, Young Joon; Kang, Ho-Won; Kim, Yong-June; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Jeong, Pildu; Seo, Yoonhee; Choe, Soo Young; Kim, Dong-Joon; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Lee, Geun Taek; Kim, Isaac Yi; Yun, Seok Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally occurring agents in cancer prevention. This study investigated the garlic extract affects in bladder cancer (BC) prevention. The effect of garlic extract in cancer prevention was evaluated using the T24 BC BALB/C-nude mouse xenograft model. Microarray analysis of tissues was performed to identify differences in gene expression between garlic extract intake and control diet, and gene network analysis was performed to assess candidate mechanisms of action. Furthermore, we investigated the expression value of selected genes in the data of 165 BC patients. Compared to the control group, significant differences in tumor volume and tumor weight were observed in the groups fed 20 mg/kg (p<0.05), 200 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg of garlic extract (p<0.01). Genes (645) were identified as cancer prevention-related genes (fold change >2 and p<0.05) by tissue microarray analysis. A gene network analysis of 279 of these genes (p<0.01) was performed using Cytoscape/ClueGo software: 36 genes and 37 gene ontologies were mapped to gene networks. Protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway including AKAP12, RDX, and RAB13 genes were identified as potential mechanisms for the activity of garlic extract in cancer prevention. In BC patients, AKAP12 and RDX were decreased but, RAB13 was increased. Oral garlic extract has strong cancer prevention activity in vivo and an acceptable safety profile. PKA signaling process, especially increasing AKAP12 and RDX and decreasing RAB13, are candidate pathways that may mediate this prevention effect.

  20. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    PubMed

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  1. Composition, stability, and bioavailability of garlic products used in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Larry D; Gardner, Christopher D

    2005-08-10

    In support of a new clinical trial designed to compare the effects of crushed fresh garlic and two types of garlic supplement tablets (enteric-coated dried fresh garlic and dried aged garlic extract) on serum lipids, the three garlic products have been characterized for (a) composition (14 sulfur and 2 non-sulfur compounds), (b) stability of suspected active compounds, and (c) availability of allyl thiosulfinates (mainly allicin) under both simulated gastrointestinal (tablet dissolution) conditions and in vivo. The allyl thiosulfinates of blended fresh garlic were stable for at least 2 years when stored at -80 degrees C. The dissolution release of thiosulfinates from the enteric-coated garlic tablets was found to be >95%. The bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from these tablets, measured as breath allyl methyl sulfide, was found to be complete and equivalent to that of crushed fresh garlic. S-Allylcysteine was stable for 12 months at ambient temperature. The stability of the suspected active compounds under the conditions of the study and the bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from the dried garlic supplement have validated the use of these preparations for comparison in a clinical trial.

  2. Composition, Stability, and Bioavailability of Garlic Products Being Used in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Larry D.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of a new clinical trial designed to compare the effects of crushed fresh garlic and two types of garlic supplement tablets (enteric-coated dried fresh garlic and dried aged garlic extract) on serum lipids, the three garlic products have been characterized for (a) composition (14 sulfur and 2 non-sulfur compounds), (b) stability of suspected active compounds, and (c) availability of allyl thiosulfinates (mainly allicin) under both simulated gastrointestinal (tablet dissolution) conditions and in vivo. The allyl thiosulfinates of blended fresh garlic were stable for at least two years when stored at −80 °C. The dissolution release of thiosulfinates from the enteric-coated garlic tablets was found to be >95%. The bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from these tablets, measured as breath allyl methyl sulfide, was found to be complete and equivalent to that of crushed fresh garlic. S-allylcysteine was stable for 12 months at ambient temperature. The stability of the suspected active compounds under the conditions of the study and the bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from the dried garlic supplement have validated the use of these preparations for comparison in a clinical trial. PMID:16076102

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Lee, Jeung Hee; Han, Jang Il; Kim, Jin Hee; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2011-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic (ABG) against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into three groups: a saline (WT) group, an ethanol (ET) group (15 mL/kg of body weight 20% [wt/vol] ethanol), and an ethanol + ABG (ET+ABG) group (ethanol + 100 mg/kg of body weight ABG). ABG administration led to decreased epididymal and total fat pad (P<.05) and liver weights, ameliorated prominent fatty changes around the portal triad, and reduced fat accumulation in liver. ABG caused a significant decrease of the alcohol-induced increases in hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Cytochrome P450 2E1 activity was reduced by 55%, whereas the activities of glutathione S-transferase and quinine reductase were increased by 1.5-fold (P<.05) and fourfold (P<.05), respectively, in the ET+ABG group compared with the ET group. ABG treatment significantly decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level in liver, heart, and plasma. Glutathione content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in liver were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, the oxidative damage to blood lymphocyte DNA caused by chronic alcohol ingestion was significantly decreased in the ET+ABG group. In conclusion, ABG has strong antioxidative properties and may be a promising agent for protecting against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Garlic A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, BC; Biju, RS

    2008-01-01

    Garlic has been investigated extensively for health benefits, resulting in more than one thousand publications over the last decade alone. It is considered one of the best disease preventive foods, based on its potent and varied effects. Midlife risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as high serum total cholesterol, raised LDL, increased LDL oxidation, increased platelet aggregation, impaired fibrinolysis, hypertension and homocystinemia are important risk factors for dementia in later years. These risk factors play a major role in the genesis of atherosclerosis of vital arteries causing both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Garlic is best known for its lipid lowering and anti-atherogenic effects. Possible mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hepatic activities of lipogenic and cholesterogenic enzymes that are thought to be the genesis for dyslipidemias, increased excretion of cholesterol and suppression of LDL-oxidation. Oxidative stress caused by increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant properties of garlic and its different preparations including Aged Garlic Extract (AGE). AGE and S-allyl-cysteines (SAC), a bioactive and bioavailable component in garlic preparations have been shown in a number of in vitro studies to protect neuronal cells against beta-amyloid (A) toxicity and apoptosis. Thus the broad range of anti-atherogenic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic protection afforded by garlic may be extended to its neuroprotective action, helping to reduce the risk of dementia, including vascular dementia and AD. PMID:21499478

  5. aged black garlic exerts anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing no and proinflammatory cytokine production with less cytoxicity in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septicemia mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Yoo, Yung Choon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Suk Kyung; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Min, A Young; Sung, Nak Yun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antisepticemic activities of a water extract of aged black garlic (AGE), which is not pungent, were compared with those of raw garlic extract (RGE). The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed that AGE was not toxic up to 1000 μg/mL and was at least four times less cytotoxic than RGE. AGE significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of AGE on LPS-induced inflammation was confirmed by downregulation of inducible NO synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The anti-inflammatory activities of AGE were similar to those of RGE at nontoxic concentrations up to 250 μg/mL. Signal transduction pathway studies further indicated that both garlic extracts inhibited activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB induced by LPS stimulation. Treatment with both AGE and RGE in an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia significantly reduced the level of TNF-α and interleukin-6 in serum and completely protected against LPS-induced lethal shock in C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that AGE is a more promising nutraceutical or medicinal agent to prevent or cure inflammation-related diseases for safety aspects compared with RGE.

  6. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients.

  7. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  8. [Effects of garlic oil, age and sex on n-hexane metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Yin, Hong-yin; Liu, Zhong; Chi, De-feng; Li, Yang; Fu, Qiang-qiang; Xie, Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate effects of garlic oil (GO), age and sex on n-hexane metabolism in rats. The Wistar rats were used as experimental animals. (1) Intragastric administration: n-hexane group (3000 mg/kg n-hexane), GO treated group (80 mg/kg GO ig. an hour earlier than 3000 mg/kg n-hexane), then blood was taken from tails of rats at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 h points after n-hexane administration. (2) Intraperitoneal injection: n-hexane group (1000 mg/kg n-hexane), GO treated group (80 mg/kg GO ig. an hour earlier than 1000 mg/kg n-hexane), then took blood was taken from tails of rats at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 h points after n-hexane injection. (3) 7 rats each group of 6, 8, 10 weeks age were administrated by 3000 mg/kg n-hexane intragastrically, then were taken blood from tails at 16, 20, 24 h points after administration. (4) 7 male and 7 female rats of 8 weeks age were administrated by 3000 mg/kg n-hexane intragastrically, then were taken blood from tails at 16, 20, 24, 28 h points after administration. The gas chromatography was used to determine the metabolite 2, 5-hexanedione concentration of n-hexane in serum and 2, 5-hexanedione concentration was compared between GO and no GO treated rats, different ages and different sexes. (1) Intragastric administration: 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations in serum of n-hexane group and GO treated group had the peak 19.2 and 12.3 µg/ml at 20h and 24 h points. Compared with n-hexane group, the serum 2, 5-hexanedione concentration of GO treated group was lower at time points prior to peak and 2, 5-hexanedione eliminating process was slower after peak. (2) Intraperitoneal injection: effects of GO on the serum 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations was very similar to intragastric administration, 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations in serum of n-hexane group and GO treated group had the peak 15.0 and 6.7 µg/ml at 12 h and 16 h points. (3) Comparison of the serum 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations of different weeks age rats: The serum 2, 5

  9. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion.

  10. [Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidant injury].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, T; Lau, B H

    1997-10-01

    Oxygen radical injury and lipid peroxidation have been suggested as major causes of cancer, atherosclerosis and the aging process. We examined in vitro the effect of garlic on H2O2-induced oxidant injury in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). After overnight preincubation with Aged Garlic Extract (AGE, from Wakunaga Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan) or S-allyl cysteine (SAC), PAEC monolayers were exposed to H2O2 for 3 h. Cell viability (MTT assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and lipid peroxidation (TBA-RS) were measured to assess oxidant injury. AGE (1-4 mg/ml) pretreatment significantly reduced the loss of cell viability induced by 50-100 microM of H2O2. AGE and SAC exhibited dose dependent inhibition of both LDH release and TBA-RS production induced by 50 microM of H2O2. The results show that AGE and SAC can protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidant injury. Numerous garlic compounds could be involved in the antioxidant properties of garlic, while there could be some prooxidant compounds derived from garlic. It is important to keep an array of antioxidant compounds to develop good herbal preparation, like AGE.

  11. Garlic in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V; Pal, R; Vaiphei, K; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Ola, R P

    2011-06-01

    The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.

  12. Crude Garlic Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bagul, Mukta; Kakumanu, Srikanth; Wilson, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    Garlic and its lipid-based extracts have played an important medicinal role in humans for centuries that includes antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, and lipid-lowering properties. The present study was to investigate the effects of crude garlic extract (CGE) on the proliferation of human breast, prostate, hepatic, and colon cancer cell lines and mouse macrophageal cells, not previously studied. The human cancer cell lines, such as hepatic (Hep-G2), colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC-3), and breast (MCF-7), were propagated at 37°C; air/CO2 (95:5 v/v) using the ATCC-formulated RPMI-1640 Medium and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while the mouse macrophage cell line (TIB-71) was propagated at 37°C; air/CO2 (95:5 v/v) using the ATCC-formulated DMEM and 10% FBS. All cells were plated at a density of ∼5000 cells/well. After overnight incubation, the cells were treated with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/mL of CGE an additional 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation of 80-90% was observed for Hep-G2, MCF-7, TIB-71, and PC-3 cells, but only 40-55% for the Caco-2 cells when treated with 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/mL. In a coculture study of Caco-2 and TIB-71 cells, inhibition of cell proliferation of 90% was observed for Caco-2 cells compared to the 40-55% when cultured separately. CGE also induced cell cycle arrest and had a fourfold increase in caspase activity (apoptosis) in PC-3 cells when treated at a dose of 0.5 or 1 μg/mL. This investigation of CGE clearly highlights the fact that the lipid bioactive compounds in CGE have the potential as promising anticancer agents.

  13. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition of Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Ra, Chang-Six; Song, Young-Han; Sung, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extract (GE) on growth performance of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). The first experiment was designed to determine the optimum levels of garlic extract as growth promoter during 10 weeks. Three groups (two replicates/group) of 240 fish with mean body weight of 85 g were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 0.5 and 1.0% of GE. The highest weight gain (%) and feed efficiency (%) were found in fish groups fed with diet containing 0.5% GE. Subsequently, the supplemental effects of dietary GE was studied on growth of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) with an average body weight of 59.6 g. Fish cultured in freshwater were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with 0.5% GE or without GE (control), respectively, at the level of 2.0% of fish body weight per day for 5 weeks. Weight gain (51.1%), feed efficiency (79.1%), specific growth rate (1.18%) and protein efficiency ratio (1.50) of fish fed 0.5% GE were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fish fed the control diet. Significantly higher protein (PRE 20.4%) and lipid retention efficiencies (LRE, 74.5%) were also found in 0.5% GE group (p<0.05). The present results suggested that dietary GE could improve growth and feed utilization of juvenile sterlet sturgeons. PMID:25049599

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Nuttakaan; Rattanapanone, Viboon; Chanarat, Nantaya; Gebicki, Janusz M

    2006-03-01

    Shallots and garlic are an important part of the diet of many populations and there is long-held belief in their health enhancing properties. This study tested whether fresh and commercial shallot and garlic preparations have antioxidant properties that might justify such claims. Samples produced by pressing and extraction of bulbs were tested for their ability to decrease free radicals of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and the results were compared with commercial preparations of aged garlic and with trolox, butylated hydroxytoluene, N-acetyl cysteine, and gallic acid. We also measured the phenolic content of the extracts and the amounts of diallyl sulfides present. Antioxidant activities were directly related to the contents of phenolic compounds, with the fresh freeze-dried extracts significantly more potent than commercial preparations. Hexane-extracted shallot and garlic had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by water extracts, bulb pressings, and commercial products. Fresh shallot and garlic preparations inhibited lipid oxidation and accelerated their decomposition but had no effect on protein oxidation. Organic solvent and aqueous extracts of garlic and shallot bulbs had significant antioxidant potential, as measured by decreases in free radicals and an ability to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  15. Preparation of S-Allylcysteine-Enriched Black Garlic Juice and Its Antidiabetic Effects in Streptozotocin-Induced Insulin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Yu, Su Hyun; Cho, Yun Jeong; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Cho, Hyung Taek; Kim, Jeong Ho; Bong, Hyejin; Lee, Yeojin; Chang, Moon Han; Jeong, Ye Jin; Choi, Garam; Kim, Young Jun

    2017-01-18

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC), produced in large amounts during the aging process of garlic via enzymatic hydrolysis, is known as a key compound responsible for the multiple pharmacological activities of aged black garlic. This study investigated the effects of enzyme- and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-assisted extraction on the content of the bioactive compounds, including SAC, in black garlic juice (BGJ) and evaluated the antidiabetic effects of SAC-enriched BGJ in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. The aging process increased the contents of SAC, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids in garlic juice. More importantly, pretreatment of pectinase cocktail with HHP resulted in a greater increase in those compounds during aging. Enzyme-treated BGJ reduced hyperglycemia and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, these effects were more potent than those of BGJ prepared by the conventional aging process. These findings provide useful information for the production of black garlic with improved bioactivities.

  16. Reduction of blood lipid parameters by a 12-wk supplementation of aged black garlic: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Soo; Park, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ryu, Beun-Ho; Park, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Dal-Sik; Kim, Young-Gon; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2014-09-01

    The cholesterol-lowering effects of garlic as part of a healthy diet remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with aged black garlic (ABG) could improve blood lipid profiles in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. We conducted a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive either ABG or placebo twice daily (total 6 g/d) before consumption of a meal every morning and evening for 12 wk. During the study, two participants dropped out of the ABG group, and three participants dropped out of the placebo group. Thus, the effects of AGB on fasting blood levels of lipids were evaluated in 28 participants and compared with the placebo group (n = 27). Among lipid components, no significant differences in triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, or free fatty acid levels were observed between the two groups. However, ABG increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the placebo group at the end of the study. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of alipoprotein B and a significant increase in the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/alipoprotein B were observed in the ABG group. No adverse effects were reported in any of the patients. ABG supplementation reduced atherogenic markers and thus may have a cardioprotective effect beyond the gold standard medication in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of garlic extract on hepatic coccidiosis in infected rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): histological and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Toulah, Fawzia H; Al-Rawi, Maisaa M

    2007-12-01

    The rabbits were divided into three groups, of 12 rabbits each. G1 was the (non-infected non-treated) as control, G2 was the (infected-non treated), and G3 was the (infected and treated) rabbits. Each rabbit in the infected groups were given (10(3)) sporuleted oocysts of Eimeria stiedae per rabbit after forty five days exactly. Faecal sample of rabbits from each group were examined each day post infection till oocysts appeared in faeces. The treatment was given by using suitable dosage of garlic according to body weight. After 15, 21, 28, & 35 days post-treatment faecal oocysts were output. Biochemical parameters as serum liver function (ALT, AST, GGT & ALP) that denoted the he-patic cells injury. The results showed a significant differences in the mean values of oocysts shedding and their mean number in bile ducts between Gs 2 &3 from the 15th day post infection (PI) (mean +/-SD:40.33 +/- 16.72 & 25.17 +/- .56 respectively) till the experimental end on the 35th day (55.75 +/- 19.79 & 0.94 +/- 1.43 respectively). The histopathological alterations were in liver of G2 at the experimental end. Coccidiosis in G2 induced histopathological alterations in liver tissue, marked cytoplasmic vacuolations in hepatocytes with clear signs of karyolysis, and dilatation of sinusoids with increase in Kupffer cells. Leukocytic infiltration around congested blood vessels was noticed. Efficacy of garlic on E. stiedae in infected Gs was resident. The liver of G3 regained almost normal appearance compared to control.

  18. Influence of pH, concentration and light on stability of allicin in garlic (Allium sativum L.) aqueous extract as measured by UPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang; Liu, Xinyan; Shen, Di; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Song, Jiangping

    2015-07-01

    Garlic is one of the most important bulb vegetables and is mainly used as a spice or flavoring agent for foods. It is also cultivated for its medicinal properties, attributable to sulfur compounds, of which allicin is the most important. However, the stability of allicin in garlic extract is not well understood. In this study, using UPLC, the stability of allicin extracted in water from garlic was evaluated in phosphate buffer at different temperatures under light and dark conditions. At room temperature, allicin in aqueous extract was most stable at pH 5-6 but degraded quickly at lower or higher pH. It began to degrade within 0.5 h and was not detectable after 2 h when the pH was higher than 11 or lower than 1.5. It degraded quickly when the temperature was higher than 40 °C and especially higher than 70 °C. At room temperature, allicin in water could be stored for 5 days without obvious degradation. Higher concentrations of allicin in solution were somewhat more stable than low concentrations. Allicin extract was sensitive to pH and temperature of storage but not to light. Higher-concentration allicin solution was more stable. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  20. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  1. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract prevents TNFα-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Young-Whan; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Da-Jung; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2011-07-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product; the reaction occurs during heat-processing and the preparation of many types of foods and beverages. Although 5-HMF has been proposed to have harmful effects, recently, its beneficial effects, including antioxidant, cytoprotective and antitumor effects have become increasingly apparent. It was found recently that a chloroform extract of aged black garlic shows antiinflammatory properties when administered to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigated the antiinflammatory potential of 5-HMF purified from the chloroform extract of aged black garlic in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HMF strongly suppressed TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as their mRNA expression. In addition, 5-HMF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species formation, and markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, 5-HMF significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of 5-HMF in support of its potential therapeutic use for the prevention and management of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  3. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    PubMed

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment.

  4. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and flow cytometric assessment of the antibacterial mechanism of action of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against selected probiotic Bifidobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Booyens, Jemma; Thantsha, Mapitsi Silvester

    2014-08-06

    It is generally reported that garlic (Allium sativum) harms pathogenic but not beneficial bacteria. Although numerous studies supporting the alleged garlic effects on pathogens are available, there are limited studies to prove this claim for beneficial bacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against probiotic bifidobacteria. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract (GCE) on Bifidobacterium bifidum LMG 11041, B. longum LMG 13197 and B. lactis Bb12 using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and flow cytometry. Cultures (1 × 108 CFU ml-1) were individually incubated for 6 h at 37°C in garlic clove extract containing allicin at a corresponding predetermined minimum bactericidal concentration for each strain. For FTIR, an aliquot of each culture was deposited on CaF2 slide and vacuum dried. The slides were immediately viewed using a Bruker Vertex 70 V FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a Hyperion microscope and data analyzed using OPUS software (version 6, Bruker). Spectra were smoothed with a Savitsky-Goly function algorithim, base-line corrected and normalized. Samples for flow cytometry were stained using the Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit L7012. Data compensation and analysis was performed using a BD FACSAria and FlowJo (version 7.6.1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed changes in spectral features of lipids and fatty acids in cell membranes, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Spectral data as per principle component analysis (PCA) revealed segregation of control and GCE-treated cells for all the tested bifidobacteria. Flow cytometry not only showed increase in numbers of membrane damaged and possibly lysed cells after GCE treatment, but also displayed diffuse light scatter patterns for GCE treated cells, which is evidence for changes to the size, granularity and molecular content of the cells. Garlic has multiple target sites in

  5. Chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms of garlic organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; You, Sixiang; He, Xi; He, Jianhua; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used both for culinary and medicinal purposes by many cultures. Population and preclinical investigations have suggested that dietary garlic intake has health benefits, such as lowering the risk of esophageal, stomach and prostate cancers. Extensive studies from laboratory and animal models have revealed that garlic has a wide range of biological activities, and garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are responsible for the biological activities. However, the presence and potency of garlic OSCs vary with respect to the mode of garlic preparation and extraction. Cooked or processed garlic products showed different kinds of garlic OSCs, some of which are highly unstable and instantly decomposed. These facts, possibly gave paradoxical results on the garlic effects. In this review, we first summarized the biotransformation processes of garlic alliin into different garlic OSCs as well as the garlic OSCs compositions from different garlic preparations. Next, we reviewed the chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms focusing on the anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-diabetes and anticancer activity behind different garlic OSCs.

  6. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Smita; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of an oil extract of garlic on the in vivo intestinal transference of calcium, and also to verify its role in maintaining the bone mineral content and bone tensile strength in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The results suggest that, in this experimental model, oil extract of garlic promotes intestinal transference of calcium by modulating the activities of both intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca(2+) activated ATPase. Also the observed low bone mineral content and low bone tensile strength in these rats were significantly restored by garlic oil supplementation. Further, garlic oil supplementation was able to revive partially the bilateral ovariectomy-induced decrease in the serum estrogen titer. The serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was found unaltered in these rats. The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery in serum estrogen titer in bilaterally ovariectomized rat was found to be persistently associated with enhanced calcium transference and better preservation of bone mineral content. The results of this study propose that the phytoestrogenic efficacy of an oil extract of garlic prevents ovarian hormone deficiency induced bone mineral loss possibly by promoting intestinal transference of calcium through the partial revival of the serum estrogen titer. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  8. The “Aged Garlic Extract”(AGE) and One of its Active Ingredients S-Allyl-L-Cysteine (SAC) as Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Agents for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, B.; Chauhan, N.B.; Lahiri, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the older people and 6th leading cause of death in the United States. Deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, hyperphosphorylation of microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), neuroinflammation and cholinergic neuron loss are the major hallmarks of AD. Deposition of Aβ peptides, which takes place years before the clinical onset of the disease can trigger hyperphophorylation of tau proteins and neuroinflammation, and the latter is thought to be primarily involved in neuronal and synaptic damage seen in AD. To date, four cholinesterase inhibitors or ChEI (tacrine, rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine) and a partial NMDA receptor antagonist (memantine) are the only approved treatment options for AD. However, these drugs fail to completely cure the disease, which warrants a search for newer class of targets that would eventually lead to effective drugs for the treatment of AD. In addition to selected pharmacological agents, botanical and medicinal plant extracts are also being investigated. Apart from its culinary use, garlic (Allium sativum) is being used to treat several ailments like cancer and diabetes. Herein we have discussed the effects of a specific ‘Aged Garlic Extract’ (AGE) and one of its active ingredients, S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) in restricting several pathological cascades related to the synaptic degeneration and neuroinflammatory pathways associated with AD. Thus, based on the reported positive preliminary results reviewed herein, further research is required to develop the full potential of AGE and/or SAC into an effective preventative strategy for AD. PMID:21728972

  9. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed.

  10. Effect of garlic extract on some serum biochemical parameters and expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Bazrafshani, Mohamad Reza; Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi

    2013-12-01

    Some compounds in the garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL level. However, the mechanism of this specific effect is not fully understood. In the small intestine, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5, G8 and A1 (ABCG5, ABCG8 and ABCA1), as well as Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein have important roles in cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on lipid profile and also expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of N-Marry mice fed a high cholesterol diet as a possible mechanism of garlic effect. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: hypercholesterolmic (received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); Group 2: garlic (received chow + 4% (w/w) garlic extract + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); and Group 3: received chow only. After one month, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected from their heart. The jejunum was removed, washed with PBS and entrocytes were scraped and used for the experiments. Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and expression of mRNA levels for the above-mentioned proteins was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Garlic extract significantly reduced serum lipids (p < 0.05), compared with the hypercholesterolemic group. Expression of the intestinal npc1l1 was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the garlic group, compared with the chow group, while abcg5 (p < 0.01), abcg8 (p < 0.01) and abca1 (p < 0.05) expressions were significantly increased. In conclusion, this study reveals a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of the garlic in lowering serum lipids by decreasing the intestinal lipid absorption and increasing excretion of cholesterol back into the intestinal lumen.

  11. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mohi El-Din, Mouchira M; Mostafa, Amna M; Abd-Elkader, Aml

    2014-04-16

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to moderate interstitial inflammation in the

  12. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Methods Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Results Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. Conclusions The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to

  13. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  14. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  15. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    PubMed

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation.

  16. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.

  17. Role of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes in the development of hypogonadal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model: possible phytoestrogenic efficacy of oil extract of garlic to preserve skeletal health.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, M; Das, A S; Das, D; Mukherjee, S; Mitra, S; Mitra, C

    2007-11-01

    This study was to examine whether skeletal health deterioration in the hypogonadal situation is a consequence of an alteration in the functional status of peripheral mononuclear cells and its amelioration, if any, by an oil extract of garlic. The results suggest that hypogonadism-induced oxidative stress of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes could be reduced by supplementation with an oil extract of garlic. However, estrogen deficiency did not cause any significant change in DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages. The hypogonadism-induced increase in the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by an oil extract of garlic. Further, such supplementation could revive the hypogonadism-induced decrease in serum estrogen titer and counter-balance the increase in bone turnover as determined by low bone tensile strength and alterations in bone related biochemical variables such as urinary calcium, hydroxyproline, calcium to creatinine ratio and serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity (TRAP). The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery of the serum estrogen titer in hypogonadal rats was found to be persistently associated with reduced oxidative stress of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, reduced serum interleukins and better preservation of bone mass. This study proposes that the hypogonadism-induced bone loss has a direct correlation with the functional status of lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and garlic can prevent this. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. In vitro interactions of water-soluble garlic components with human cytochromes p450.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, David J; Leigh-Pemberton, Richard A; von Moltke, Lisa L

    2006-03-01

    Eight water-soluble components of aged garlic extract were evaluated to assess their potential to inhibit the activity of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes. The in vitro model consisted of human liver microsomes with index reactions chosen to profile the activity of the following six CYP isoforms: CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. With only 2 exceptions, none of the 8 garlic components produced >50% inhibition even at high concentrations (100 micromol/L). S-methyl-L-cysteine and S-allyl-L-cysteine at 100 micromol/L produced modest inhibition of CYP3A, reducing activity to 20-40% of control. However available clinical evidence does not indicate CYP3A inhibition in vivo. The findings suggest that drug interactions involving inhibition of CYP3A enzymes by aged garlic extract are very unlikely.

  19. Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Ningyang; Lu, Xiaoming; Liu, Pengli; Qiao, Xuguang

    2016-05-01

    Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on the market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristics of quality formation of black garlic during processing at various temperatures. In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavour of black garlic varied at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. The sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) compared with that at other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavour of black garlic during processing. Temperature had a remarkable impact on the quality and flavour of black garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  1. Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Betancor-Fernández, Alejandro; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2003-07-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations derived from natural sources such as vegetables often contain compounds that contribute to the antioxidant defence system and apparently play a role in the protection against degenerative diseases. In the present study, commercial preparations containing extracts of turmeric, artichoke, devil's claw and garlic or salmon oil were investigated. The products were divided into fractions of different polarity, and their antioxidant activity was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. This test is based on the efficacy of the test material to scavenge 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) derived radicals. Total phenols were determined in all fractions as well as specific carotenoids in the most lipophilic fraction to assess their contribution to the antioxidant activity. For comparison, the radical scavenging effect of selected constituents of the extracts such as curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, harpagoside, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol was investigated and compared with that of Trolox. Curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid and beta-carotene showed an antioxidant activity superior to Trolox in the TEAC assay; harpagoside was barely active. All fractions of the turmeric extract preparation exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity, which was assigned to the presence of curcumin and other polyphenols. The antioxidant activity corresponding to the artichoke leaf extract was higher in the aqueous fractions than in the lipophilic fractions. Similarly, devil's claw extract was particularly rich in water-soluble antioxidants. Harpagoside, a major compound in devil's claw, did not contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity of the garlic preparation was poor in the TEAC assay. That of salmon oil was mainly attributed to vitamin E, which is added to the product for stabilization. In all test preparations, the antioxidant

  2. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources.

  3. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  4. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four. To determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 4), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965), MEDLINE (January 1966 to November week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1974 to December 2011) and AMED (1985 to December 2011). Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data. Of the six trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and

  5. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2009-07-08

    Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year, and adults have two to four. To determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 1), which includes the Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register; OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March Week 3, 2009); EMBASE (1974 to March 2009); and AMED (1985 to March 2009). Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality, and extracted relevant data. Of the five trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 volunteer participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 65 occurrences of the common cold in the placebo group compared with 24 in the garlic intervention group (P < 0.001). The number of days of illness was lower in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Because only one trial met the inclusion criteria, limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self-reported episodes of the common cold, but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. There is

  6. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gil-Ortiz, Mariana; Albarrán, Gabriela; Barbachano-Esparza, Laura; Menjívar, Marta; Medina-Campos, Omar N

    2004-09-01

    It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37 degrees C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. (a) the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling, microwave or pickling do not affect garlic's ability to

  7. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gil-Ortiz, Mariana; Albarrán, Gabriela; Barbachano-Esparza, Laura; Menjívar, Marta; Medina-Campos, Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a) the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling, microwave or pickling do not

  8. Graphene as dispersive solidphase extraction materials for pesticides LC-MS/MS multi-residue analysis in leek, onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenbi; Li, Changsheng; Liu, Xue; Zhou, Shujing; Ma, Yongqiang

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue analytical method was validated for 24 representative pesticides residues in onion, garlic and leek. The method is based on modified QuEChERS sample preparation with a mixture of graphene, primary secondary amine (PSA), and graphitised carbon black (GCB) as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction (r-DSPE) material and LC-MS/MS. Graphene was first used as an r-DSPE clean-up sorbent in onion, garlic and leek. The results first show that the mixed sorbent of graphene, PSA and GCB has a remarkable ability to clean-up interfering substances in the r-DSPE procedure when compared with the mixture of PSA and GCB. Use of matrix-matched standards provided acceptable results for tested pesticides with overall average recoveries between 70.1% and 109.7% and consistent RSDs <15.6%. In any case, this method still meets the 1-10 μg kg(-1) detection limit needed for pesticide testing and may be used for qualitative screening applications in which any identified pesticides can be quantified and confirmed by a more intensive method that achieves >70% recovery.

  9. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  10. In vivo antiprotozoan effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on experimentally infected mice with Blastocystis spp.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Kamal, Amany M; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Abdelgelil, Noha H

    2015-09-01

    Controversy surrounding the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in humans and lack of well-established diagnostic criteria led to debates concerning the treatment for that organism. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against the recommended drugs. Thus, using natural medicine has many positive aspects to address these points. In an earlier study, we addressed in vitro effect of garlic and ginger on Blastocystis spp. isolates as an alternative treatment. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate in vivo activities of these two herbs on mice infected with Blastocystis spp. Antiprotozoan activities were determined by monitoring Blastocystis shedding in stools and histopathological changes of the intestine of infected mice. Additionally, assessment of the antioxidant effect (via measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production) of these herbs on the treated groups of mice was done. Also, their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed. In this work, treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and nitazoxanide (NTZ) reduced the shedding of cysts significantly compared to the infected untreated group, P value ≤0.001, 0.0001, and 0.0003, respectively. As well, histopathological examination revealed that Blastocystis was frequently observed within the lumen, at the tip of the epithelium, and/ or infiltrated in an enterocyte in the infected group without treatment compared to that of the infected treated ones. Furthermore, mice infected with Blastocystis exhibited increased levels of NO (440.09 ± 3.7 vs. 276.66 ± 0.8, P ≤ 0.001) and MDA production (106.19 ± 0.43 vs. 63.06 ± 0.45, P ≤ 0.0004) compared to that of the uninfected controls. Treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and NTZ reduced NO levels to 54.41 ± 1.2, 47.70 ± 1.2, and 37.43 ± 0.98 and MDA levels to 22.38 ± 0.17, 63.34 ± 3.89, and 66.76 ± 9.1, respectively. We conclude that using ginger and garlic for treatment of blastocystosis is beneficial.

  11. Effect of garlic extract on physical, oxidative and microbial changes during refrigerated storage of restructured product from Thai pangas (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Saha, Apurba; Dhar, Bahni; Maurya, Pradip K; Roy, Deepayan; Shitole, Snehal; Balange, Amjad K

    2015-12-01

    The effect of garlic's aqueous extract (GAE) during refrigerated storage of the restructured products from Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was evaluated. Protein and lipid oxidation, protein pattern on SDS-PAGE, TPC as well as WHC, gelling properties, texture profiles and whiteness of the surimi gel was evaluated periodically during a refrigerated storage period of 20 days. Increase of water holding capacity in GAE added gels indicated stronger protein network formation, whereas, decrease of protein solubility suggested formation of protein aggregates during gelation process. Lipid oxidation decreased in treated samples but the rate of increase varied, depending upon the concentration of GAE. Protein carbonyl content increased during storage, but slow increase in treated samples. Gel strength in treated samples increased and accompanied by thickening of myofibrillar head chain. Hardness, adhesiveness and gumminess parameters affected most due to addition of GAE. Sensory analysis revealed that the RP with 1 % GAE preferred most and control was acceptable upto 12 days.

  12. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews.

    PubMed

    Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent literature on the usage and relevance of garlic and its bioactive components in controlling diabetes and diabetes-associated pathologies; and also updates recent patents on the subject. Antidiabetic effect of garlic is well documented even in ancient medical literature. Garlic and its active ingredients have been extensively studied for their antidiabetic efficacies in either experimentally induced or genetic animal models of diabetes. Human studies are also available where hypoglycemic effect of garlic was reported. The beneficial effects of garlic are mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds like alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine, ajoene and allyl mercaptan. Garlic and garlic extracts have been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance. Therefore, considering the importance of garlic in controlling diabetic complications, several preparations and food processes containing garlic have been patented. This review discusses some of the recent progresses made in this field and consolidates the results.

  13. Anticancer effects of garlic and garlic-derived compounds for breast cancer control.

    PubMed

    Tsubura, Airo; Lai, Yen-Chang; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2011-03-01

    Garlic and garlic-derived compounds reduce the development of mammary cancer in animals and suppress the growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. Oil-soluble compounds derived from garlic, such as diallyl disulfide (DADS), are more effective than water-soluble compounds in suppressing breast cancer. Mechanisms of action include the activation of metabolizing enzymes that detoxify carcinogens, the suppression of DNA adduct formation, the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species, the regulation of cell-cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Selenium-enriched garlic or organoselenium compounds provide more potent protection against mammary carcinogenesis in rats and greater inhibition of breast cancer cells in culture than natural garlic or the respective organosulfur analogues. DADS synergizes the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, a breast cancer suppressor, and antagonizes the effect of linoleic acid, a breast cancer enhancer. Moreover, garlic extract reduces the side effects caused by anti-cancer agents. Thus, garlic and garlic-derived compounds are promising candidates for breast cancer control.

  14. The mechanisms responsible for garlic - drug interactions and their in vivo relevance.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2013-01-01

    Garlic phytochemicals and garlic supplements influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of concomitantly ingested drugs. In this paper we have summarized the mechanisms responsible for first-pass intestinal pharmacokinetic interactions by investigating the intestinal permeability of some cardiovascular, antiviral drugs, their transport with hepatic transporters and CYP3A4 metabolism. Transporter-enzyme interplay was studied with several in vitro models of varying complexity: rat small intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers were used in studies of intestinal processes, and hepatic pharmacokinetics was monitored in HepG2 cells, isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver slices. Garlic phytochemicals from aged garlic extract modified the activities of secretory and absorptive transporters in both intestine and liver and competitively inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme. The increased activities of the most important intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein - Pgp, Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 2 - MRP-2, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein - BCRP) and uptake (MonoCarboxylate Transporter 1 - MCT1, Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide - OATP, Peptide transporter 1 - PepT1) transporters were caused by changes in electrophysiological membrane properties and by allosteric modifications. Because clinical studies investigating interactions between garlic and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir have already been performed, we used these in vivo data to evaluate the in vitro results and the reliability of the models employed as screening tools for forecasting the potential of first-pass intestinal metabolism changes. We also assessed the probability of pharmacokinetic interactions with garlic of the novel drug darunavir and other cardiovascular drugs. Finally, selected garlic phytochemicals were tested for their ability to influence P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 activities.

  15. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  16. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  17. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-07-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

  18. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  19. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    PubMed

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

  20. Effects of chitosan, aqueous extract of ginger, onion and garlic on quality and shelf life of stewed-pork during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yumin; Gu, Weigang; Zhang, Jinjie; Chu, Yin; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Chen, Jianchu

    2013-12-01

    Effects of 1% or 0.5% chitosan (CHI), 10% or 5% aqueous extract of ginger, onion and garlic (GOG) and their composite solutions (1% CHI+10% GOG, 0.5% CHI+5% GOG) on quality and shelf life of stewed-pork were evaluated. Microbiological (total bacterial count), chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (POV), 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA)) and sensory characteristics were analysed periodically during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 12 days. CHI and/or GOG treatments retarded the increases in pH, TVB-N, POV, TBA and total bacterial count. CHI showed better antibacteria but weaker antioxidation than GOG. Composite treatment had possible synergistic effect while the high concentration of composite solution (Mix1) had adverse effect on odour and overall acceptance. Mix2, the diluted solution of Mix1, could be a natural promising preservative for the stewed-pork considering the comprehensive effects of antioxidation, antibacteria and sensory quality, which could extend the shelf life for about 5-6 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Mathematics of Garlic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  2. The Mathematics of Garlic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  3. Garlic Mustard (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    Garlic mustard was used as an edible green in Europe and may have been brought to North America by European settlers. The coarsely toothed leaves give off a garlic-like odor when crushed, accounting for its common name and use in cooking. It is a member of the mustard family.

  4. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  5. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  6. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment.

  7. Garlic extract increases non-clipped kidney tubular natriuresis and diuresis in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model: Significance in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Thomson, Martha; Ali, Muslim

    2017-09-12

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb.wt/0.3ml) was tested on: 1- The ACE dipeptidase activity estimated from a reduction in the vasopressor action of angiotensin I [(AngI, 200ng/0.2ml): the precursor of AngII] in one group (n=5); 2- The non-clipped (left) kidney (LK) clearance function in a second group (n=6). Similar protocols were carried out on two groups of normal rats (Nr: n=5+n=6). In the 2K-1Cr, RGAE partially, however significantly, decreased the vasopressor action of AngI. Furthermore, RGAE had no effect on systolic BP, mean BP, plasma osmolarity, LK cortical circulation or glomerular filtration rate. Alternatively, RGAE significantly increased LK urine volume, fractional excretion of water, sodium clearance and fractional excretion of sodium; while significantly decreasing heart rate and LK urine osmolarity. Our findings suggest that a single i.v. dose of RGAE causes ACE dipeptidase inhibition, thus reducing AngII generation and bioavailability in the 2K-1Cr. This action of RGAE enhances the non-clipped kidney clearance of sodium and water by modulating the tubular handling mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Garlic: empiricism or science?

    PubMed

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  9. Garlic in clinical practice: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Li, Lun; Sun, Tiantian; Tian, Jinhui; Yang, Kehu; Yi, Kang; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Garlic has been widely used in clinical practice, and there were many systematic reviews (SRs) describing its effects. But none reviewed the clinical utility comprehensively, so we aimed to evaluate its effects from every aspect of its effects. We comprehensively searched medical electronic databases, asked the experts in this field, along with reference tracking, and manual searching. We included all kinds of SRs, including Cochrane SRs and non-Cochrane SRs. Two authors independently selected articles for relevant SRs, and extracted data of included SRs, resolved differences by consultation with a third reviewer. We described nine SRs about garlic. Available evidence showed that garlic can reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients and patients with elevated systolic BP (SBP), but not in normotensive subjects. Evidence about the effects of garlic on lipid parameters was contentious, so we cannot make a decision whether garlic is effective enough for reducing total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TAG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). As evidence was very limited and insufficient, relations between garlic intake and reduced risks of all kinds of cancers, antiglycemic and antithrombotic effects of garlic, the effects of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were unclear. Garlic as a preventative or treatment option for the common cold or peripheral arterial occlusive disease or pre-eclampsia and its complications could not be recommended, as only one relatively small trial evaluated the effects separately. Garlic might be effective in some areas of clinical practice, but the evidence levels were low, so further researches should be well designed using rigorous method to avoid potential biases.

  10. Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector for the trace determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil Kumar; Padmaja, P; Pandey, S Y

    2014-06-01

    A fast and an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction technique using a lower density extraction solvent than water was developed for the trace-level determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector (GC-NPD). In this approach, ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of the ethyl acetate in aqueous samples to enhance the extraction efficiency of tebuconazole without requiring extra partitioning or cleaning, and the use of capillary GC-NPD was a more sensitive detection technique for organonitrogen pesticides. The experimental results indicate an excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1-50 μg/kg or μg/L. The limit of detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and limit of quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) were obtained in the range 0.2-3 and 1-10 μg/kg or μg/L. Good spiked recoveries were achieved from ranges 95.55-101.26%, 96.28-99.33% and 95.04-105.15% in garlic, Nanivaliyal soil and Par River water, respectively, at levels 5 and 20 μg/kg or μg/L, and the method precision (% RSD) was ≤5%. Our results demonstrate that the proposed technique is a viable alternative for the determination of tebuconazole in complex samples.

  11. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  12. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Organosulfur Compounds in Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor. PMID:24237225

  14. The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H

    2014-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor.

  15. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    PubMed

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  16. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05) and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  17. Determination and size-fractional distribution of the elements in garlic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Inagaki, Kazumi; Haraguchi, Hiroki; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Thirty elements in garlic sample were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after microwave digestion. The concentrations of K, Ca,Na, Sr, and Hg in the present garlic sample were higher than those in rice and wheat, but the concentration of Se in the garlic sample was relatively lower. The extractability of the elements in the garlic sample was also examined; the results showed that most of the elements could be easily extracted by pure water and/or a 0.1 M HNO(3) solution, except for Hg. Furthermore, the size-fractional distribution of the elements in garlic was investigated by pure water extraction and centrifugal ultrafiltration.

  18. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0

  19. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The raw form of garlic and some of its preparations are widely recognized as antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Herein, we examined the in-vitro antiaggregatory activity (IVAA) of human blood platelets induced by extracts of garlic samples that were ...

  20. Identification of allyl esters in garlic cheese.

    PubMed

    Herbrand, Klaus; Hammerschmidt, Franz J; Brennecke, Stefan; Liebig, Margit; Lösing, Gerd; Schmidt, Claus Oliver; Gatfield, Ian; Krammer, Gerhard; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen

    2007-09-19

    This study describes the identification of six allyl esters in a garlic cheese preparation and in a commercial cream cheese. The extracts were prepared by liquid/liquid extraction and concentrated by the SAFE process. The identification of the allyl esters of acetic, butyric, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids is based on the correlation of their mass spectrometric data and chromatographic retention time data obtained from the extracts with those of authentic standards. In addition to the gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry analysis, the flavor ingredients were characterized by GC sniffing by a trained flavorist. Some of the esters were isolated by preparative GC.

  1. Garlic oil attenuates the cardiac apoptosis in hamster-fed with hypercholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Chang, Mu-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Tung-Sheng; Fan, Chung-Chen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, James A; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-02-15

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for cardiac cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of garlic oil on cardiac apoptosis induced by a hypercholesterol diet. Twenty-four male Golden-Syrian hamsters at 3 months of age were randomly divided into three groups, control, cholesterol and garlic oil groups received a chow diet, chow diet with 2% cholesterol, and chow diet with 2% cholesterol and 1% garlic oil for 8 weeks, respectively. The TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, and several apoptotic proteins were significantly induced in the excised left ventricle in cholesterol group, whereas significant reduction was observed in cholesterol plus garlic oil group. The IGFI receptor dependent survival pathway was inhibited in cholesterol group whereas it was obviously reversed in cholesterol plus garlic oil group. Our results suggest that administration of garlic oil shows protective effects on cardiac apoptosis in rats with high cholesterol intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    PubMed

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (p<0.05) reduced infection prevalence and intensity as compared to the control. Oral treatments using dry garlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) mean prevalence and mean intensity of parasites as compared to the control. Dietary application of garlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (p<0.05) parasite prevalence and mean intensity as compared to the control. Histopathology revealed elevated muscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic

  3. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in garlic bulbs by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mamani Moreno, Claudia; Stadler, Teodoro; da Silva, Antônio Alberto; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R

    2012-01-30

    In recent years, the release of information about the preventative and curative properties of garlic on different diseases and their benefits to human health has led to an increase in the consumption of garlic. To meet the requirements of international markets and reach competitiveness and profitability, farmers seek to extend the offer period of fresh garlic by increasing post-harvest life. As a result, the use of maleic hydrazide (1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione) [MH], a plant growth regulator, has been widespread in various garlic growing regions of the world. The present work was undertaken to develop and validate a new analytical procedure based on MH extraction from garlic previously frozen by liquid nitrogen and submitted to low temperature clean-up. The applicability of the method by analysis of garlic samples from a commercial plantation was also demonstrated. The influence of certain factors on the performance of the analytical methodology were studied and optimized. The approach is an efficient extraction, clean-up and determination alternative for MH residue-quantification due to its specificity and sensitivity. The use of liquid nitrogen during the sample preparation prevents the degradation of the analyte due to oxidation reactions, a major limiting factor. Moreover, the method provides good linearity (r(2): 0.999), good intermediate precision (coefficient of variation (CV): 8.39%), and extracts were not affected by the matrix effect. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) (0.33 mg kg(-1)) was well below the maximum residue level (MRL) set internationally for garlic (15 mg kg(-1)), with excellent rates of recovery (over 95%), good repeatability and acceptable accuracy (CV averaged 5.74%), since garlic is a complex matrix. The analytical performance of the methodology presented was compared with other techniques already reported, with highly satisfactory results, lower LOD and higher recoveries rates. In addition, the extraction

  4. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps.

  5. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  6. Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Ajay A.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K.; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A.; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. Methods We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Results Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39–0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 – 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Impact This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:26809277

  7. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times/week = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times/week = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Garlic Oil against Cytotoxicity Induced by OX-LDL in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Cui, Kai; Diao, Yutao; Du, Min; Wang, Shumei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To detect the effect of selenium-enriched garlic oil (Se-garlic oil) against cytotoxicity induced by ox-LDL in endothelial cells. Methods. Se-garlic oil was extracted by organic solvent extraction. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the content of allicin in the Se-garlic oil. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was used to detect the content of Se in the Se-garlic oil. ECV-304 cells were separated into five groups (blank, ox-LDL, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Se-garlic oil). Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect the cytoactivity of each cell group after culturing for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Flow cytometry (FCM) stained with annexin V-FITC/PI was used to detect the apoptosis of the cells from the blank, Se-garlic oil, ox-LDL, and Se-garlic oil + ox-ldl groups after 48 hours of incubation. Results. The amount of allicin in Se-garlic oil was 142.66 mg/ml, while, in Se, it was 198 mg/kg. When ox-LDL was added to low-, medium-, and high-dose Se-garlic oil, the cell viability rates of ECV-304 cells treated in the three groups were all higher, while the apoptosis rates were significantly lower than those of the ox-LDL group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the apoptosis rates of the blank, Se-garlic oil, and Se-garlic oil + ox-LDL groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Se-garlic oil could inhibit the cytotoxic effect induced by ox-LDL in endothelial cells.

  9. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Garlic Oil against Cytotoxicity Induced by OX-LDL in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Diao, Yutao; Du, Min; Wang, Shumei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To detect the effect of selenium-enriched garlic oil (Se-garlic oil) against cytotoxicity induced by ox-LDL in endothelial cells. Methods. Se-garlic oil was extracted by organic solvent extraction. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the content of allicin in the Se-garlic oil. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was used to detect the content of Se in the Se-garlic oil. ECV-304 cells were separated into five groups (blank, ox-LDL, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Se-garlic oil). Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect the cytoactivity of each cell group after culturing for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Flow cytometry (FCM) stained with annexin V-FITC/PI was used to detect the apoptosis of the cells from the blank, Se-garlic oil, ox-LDL, and Se-garlic oil + ox-ldl groups after 48 hours of incubation. Results. The amount of allicin in Se-garlic oil was 142.66 mg/ml, while, in Se, it was 198 mg/kg. When ox-LDL was added to low-, medium-, and high-dose Se-garlic oil, the cell viability rates of ECV-304 cells treated in the three groups were all higher, while the apoptosis rates were significantly lower than those of the ox-LDL group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the apoptosis rates of the blank, Se-garlic oil, and Se-garlic oil + ox-LDL groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Se-garlic oil could inhibit the cytotoxic effect induced by ox-LDL in endothelial cells. PMID:24987429

  10. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  11. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  12. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  13. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  14. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  15. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  16. Beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) oil in experimental corrosive esophageal burns effects of garlic oil in esophageal burns.

    PubMed

    Şen Tanrıkulu, Ceren; Tanrikulu, Yusuf; Kılınç, Fahriye; Bahadır, Burak; Can, Murat; Köktürk, Füruzan

    2017-05-01

    Corrosive esophageal burns, particularly common in developing countries, lead to different problems in different age groups. The ingestion of corrosive substances can cause such problems as stricture of the esophagus, to acute perforation, and even death. Because stricture formation is related to the severity of the initial injury, the prevention of stricture constitutes a main goal of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum) oil in corrosive esophageal burn. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: group 1 (sham), group 2 (control), group 3 (topical treatment), and group 4 (topical and systemic treatment). In groups 2, 3, and 4, corrosive esophageal burns were generated by applying sodium hydroxide to a 1.5-cm segment of the abdominal esophagus. Normal saline was applied to group 2, topical garlic oil to group 3, and topical and systemic garlic oil were used in group 4. The level of hydroxyproline was lower in the topical treatment groups than in the control group (p=0.023). There was difference in tumor necrosis factor alpha level between the systemic treatment groups and the control group (p=0.044). Treatment with garlic oil decreased stenosis index (SI) and histopathological damage score (HDS) in corrosive esophageal burn rats. The SI in the topical treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p=0.016). The HDS was significantly lower in group 4 when compared with the control group (p=0.019). Garlic oil is an effective agent in promoting the regression of esophageal stenosis and tissue damage caused by corrosive burns. While the protective effect of garlic oil on tissue damage is more significant when applied topically, the anti-inflammatory effect is more pronounced when applied systemically. Therefore, we believe that the application of garlic oil in patients with corrosive esophageal burns can reduce complication rates.

  17. Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Iciek, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Inga; Włodek, Lidia

    2009-04-01

    Medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been widely known and used since ancient times till the present. Garlic enhances immune functions and has antibacterial, antifungal and antivirus activities. It is known to prevent platelet aggregation, and to have hypotensive and cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering properties, although the latter features have been questioned. This review is focused on anticancer efficacy of Allium sativum, and attempts to explain the mechanisms of this action. Medicinal properties of garlic rely upon organosulfur compounds mostly derived from alliin. Organosulfur compounds originating from garlic inhibit carcinogen activation, boost phase 2 detoxifying processes, cause cell cycle arrest mostly in G2/M phase, stimulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, increase acetylation of histones. Garlic-derived sulfur compounds influence also gap-junctional intercellular communication and participate in the development of multidrug resistance. This review presents also other little known aspects of molecular action of garlic-derived compounds, like modulation of cellular redox state, involvement in signal transduction and post-translational modification of proteins by sulfane sulfur or by formation of mixed disulfides (S-thiolation reactions).

  18. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Isaacsohn, J L; Moser, M; Stein, E A; Dudley, K; Davey, J A; Liskov, E; Black, H R

    1998-06-08

    Garlic powder tablets have been reported to lower serum cholesterol levels. There is widespread belief among the general public that garlic powder tablets aid in controlling cholesterol levels. However, much of the prior data demonstrating the cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic tablets involved studies that were inadequately controlled. To determine the lipid-lowering effect of garlic powder tablets in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, parallel treatment study carried out in 2 outpatient lipid clinics. Entry into the study after 8 weeks of diet stabilization required a mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level on 2 visits of 4.1 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) or lower and a triglyceride level of 4.0 mmol/L (350 mg/dL) or lower. The active treatment arm received tablets containing 300 mg of garlic powder (Kwai) 3 times per day, given with meals (total, 900 mg/d). This is equivalent to approximately 2.7 g or approximately 1 clove of fresh garlic per day. The placebo arm received an identical-looking tablet, also given 3 times per day with meals. The main outcome measures included levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 12 weeks of treatment. Twenty-eight patients (43% male; mean +/- SD age, 58 +/- 14 years) received garlic powder treatment and 22 (68% male; mean +/- SD age, 57 +/- 13 years) received placebo treatment. There were no significant lipid or lipoprotein changes in either the placebo- or garlic-treated groups and no significant difference between changes in the placebo-treated group compared with changes in the garlic-treated patients. Garlic powder (900 mg/d) treatment for 12 weeks was ineffective in lowering cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

  19. The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Bostan, Kamil; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Bingöl, Bariş

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (çig köfte), which is a traditional food product eaten raw. Fresh minced ground beef and raw meatball batter prepared with traditional methods were separated into groups. Chopped and crushed garlic was added to each batch in order to reach various concentrations from 0% to 10%. The ground beef samples were stored at refrigerator and ambient temperatures. The raw meatball samples were only stored at room temperature. All samples were analyzed in order to determine the microbial counts at the 2(nd), 6(th), 12(th), and 24(th) hours of storage. Garlic addition decreased the microbial growth in some ground beef samples kept either at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, microbial growth increased in some ground beef samples kept in similar conditions. The difference was found in samples kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform bacteria when garlic used at 10%. The effects of garlic on the microbial growth of both coliforms and Staphylococcus/Micrococcus in the samples kept at room temperature were increased. The yeast and mold counts in ground beef samples kept in any condition were not affected by garlic addition. However, the addition of garlic to the raw meatball mix decreased the microbial count, in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts, when the garlic was added at 5% or 10% (P < .05). The addition of 10% garlic to raw meatball caused a permanent decrease in yeast and mold count, unlike in ground beef. The results of this study indicate that the chopped garlic has a slowing-down effect on microbiological growth in ground meat depending on the garlic concentration, but this effect was not at an expected level even at the highest concentration, because potential antimicrobial agents in chopped garlic were probably insufficiently extracted.

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion.

  1. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  2. Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic compounds.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  3. An evaluation of the side effects of garlic as an antihypertensive agent.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, J; Hunter, S A

    1983-01-01

    Eight spontaneously hypertensive rats representative of a diverse group with regard to age and sex were used to observe possible side effects from the use of garlic as an antihypertensive agent. Doses were administered at 6 h intervals daily for 28 days. Blood pressure, pulse rate and ECG were monitored once every 7 days for 28 days and then again 6 days after the day that the last dose was administered. All of the animals had erratic pulse rates and abnormal ECG. Weight loss occurred in all of the animals receiving the extract two and three times a day. All of the animals tested became lethargic and weak, had soft faeces and showed signs of dehydration. Also, the skin on the hindlimbs and forelimbs became very tender and could be easily torn. These effects were more pronounced in the animals receiving the extract two and three times a day.

  4. Think Yellow and Keep Green-Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J

    2016-12-30

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a "green pesticide".

  5. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”. PMID:28042817

  6. HSPA6 augments garlic extract-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer EJ cells; Implication for cell cycle dysregulation, signaling pathway alteration, and transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung-Shick; Song, Jun-Hui; Hwang, Byungdoo; Noh, Dae-Hwa; Park, Sung Lyea; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Although recent studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of garlic extract (GE), the exact molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism associated with the inhibitory action of GE against bladder cancer EJ cell responses. Treatment with GE significantly inhibited proliferation of EJ cells dose-dependently through G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. This G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest by GE was due to the activation of ATM and CHK2, which appears to inhibit phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15), this in turn was accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin B1 and up-regulation of p21WAF1. Furthermore, GE treatment was also found to induce phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK) and AKT. In addition, GE impeded the migration and invasion of EJ cells via inhibition of MMP-9 expression followed by decreased binding activities of AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB motifs. Based on microarray datasets, we selected Heat shock protein A6 (HSPA6) as the most up-regulated gene responsible for the inhibitory effects of GE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSPA6 gene resulted in an augmentation effect with GE inhibiting proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells. The augmentation effect of HSPA6 was verified by enhancing the induction of G2/M-phase-mediated ATM-CHK2-Cdc25C-p21WAF1-Cdc2 cascade, phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT signaling, and suppression of transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation in response to GE in EJ cells. Overall, our novel results indicate that HSPA6 reinforces the GE-mediated inhibitory effects of proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells and may provide a new approach for therapeutic treatment of malignancies.

  7. HSPA6 augments garlic extract-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer EJ cells; Implication for cell cycle dysregulation, signaling pathway alteration, and transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byungdoo; Noh, Dae-Hwa; Park, Sung Lyea; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Although recent studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of garlic extract (GE), the exact molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism associated with the inhibitory action of GE against bladder cancer EJ cell responses. Treatment with GE significantly inhibited proliferation of EJ cells dose-dependently through G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. This G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest by GE was due to the activation of ATM and CHK2, which appears to inhibit phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15), this in turn was accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin B1 and up-regulation of p21WAF1. Furthermore, GE treatment was also found to induce phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK) and AKT. In addition, GE impeded the migration and invasion of EJ cells via inhibition of MMP-9 expression followed by decreased binding activities of AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB motifs. Based on microarray datasets, we selected Heat shock protein A6 (HSPA6) as the most up-regulated gene responsible for the inhibitory effects of GE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSPA6 gene resulted in an augmentation effect with GE inhibiting proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells. The augmentation effect of HSPA6 was verified by enhancing the induction of G2/M-phase-mediated ATM-CHK2-Cdc25C-p21WAF1-Cdc2 cascade, phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT signaling, and suppression of transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation in response to GE in EJ cells. Overall, our novel results indicate that HSPA6 reinforces the GE-mediated inhibitory effects of proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells and may provide a new approach for therapeutic treatment of malignancies. PMID:28187175

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Elephant Garlic and Its Effect against U2OS Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zehao; Ren, Jianwu

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial function and pharmacological effect of elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) on U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. Materials and Methods: Seven kinds of bacteria were reconstituted, inoculated and tested in this research to evaluate elephant garlic antibacterial activity. By the means of FACS analysis, cell proliferation assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy and Transwell migration assays, the effect of elephant garlic against U2OS human osteosarcoma cells was unveiled. Rerults: The antimicrobial activity of elephant garlic was stronger than ampicillin when used against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus actinomycetes, and gray actinomycetes. Even at a very low concentration (12.5%), elephant garlic still had an antibacterial effect on common bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. The G0/G1 ratio of elephant garlic treated group cells increased while S phase decreased. Elephant garlic extract inhibited the growth of human osteosarcoma cells, U2OS, through preventing the transition from G1 phase to S phase. It reduced osteosarcoma cell, U2OS, invasion ability and significantly increased the proportion of apoptosis. It significantly affected the cytoskeleton generation. Conclusion: Elephant garlic exhibits antibacterial property and has an inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) proliferation and cell activity, suggesting the mechanism of its anticancer effects on U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. PMID:24379966

  9. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for food allergy: a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Almogren, A; Shakoor, Z; Adam, M H

    2013-09-01

    Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients investigated for food allergy. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) results of 108 patients with clinical suspicion of food allergy who were specifically screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2008 and April 2009. This group of patients included 73 males and 35 females with mean age 27+13.2 years. Estimation of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies was performed by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) using Pharmacia ImmunoCAP 250 analyzer. Out of the 108 patients 15 (13.8%) had garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in their sera. Garlic specific IgE antibodies with the RAST scores between one to four were present in 14 and onion specific IgE were detected in 13 patients. For garlic specific IgEs majority of patients (08) had RAST score of one (0.35-0.69 kU/L) and for onion specific IgE antibodies seven patients had RAST score of two (0.70-3.49 kU/L). Among these patients 12 (80%) were found to have coexisting specific IgE antibodies against garlic and onion. The presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in a sizeable number of patients indicate sensitization and allergenic potential of these food materials.

  10. Garlic and its active metabolite allicin produce endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent relaxation in rat pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Ku, David D; Abdel-Razek, Tarek T; Dai, Jun; Kim-Park, SangAe; Fallon, Michael B; Abrams, Gary A

    2002-01-01

    1. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of fresh garlic and one of its active metabolites, allicin, on rat isolated pulmonary arteries (RPA). 2. In endothelium-intact and phenylephrine-precontracted RPA, the addition of a water or a 5% ethanol extract of fresh garlic (1-500 microg/mL) resulted in a dose-dependent relaxation reaching a maximum (mean +/- SEM) of -91 +/- 3 and -93 +/- 2%, respectively, with an ED(50) of 113 +/- 12 and 106 +/- 10 microg/mL, respectively. The vasorelaxation was readily reversible upon washing and no tachyphylaxis was noted. 3. An extract of the external garlic storage leaf produced a significantly greater relaxation than the inner stem. Microfiltration of extracts with a 10,000 molecular sieve did not attenuate relaxation. Inactivation of alliinase and allicin formation, with either boiling of the garlic clove for 30 min or 100% ethanol treatment, completely abolished relaxation. In contrast, similar treatment of crushed garlic with formed allicin retained the relaxation response. 4. Pure allicin produced a similar relaxation as garlic extract, with an EC(50) of approximately 0.8 microg/mL. Disruption of endothelium or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment attenuated the relaxation, whereas indomethacin had no effect. 5. Prior garlic (500 microg/mL) treatment enhanced acetylcholine relaxation by shifting the response curve to the left, but had no effect on nitric oxide (NO) donor-induced responses. 6. These results demonstrate that garlic and the active metabolite allicin are capable of eliciting a NO-dependent relaxation in RPA and that this response is likely to be mediated via garlic activation of NO formation rather than its stabilization.

  11. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  12. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  13. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  14. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  16. Effects of garlic on Schistosoma mansoni harbored in albino mice: molecular characterization of the host and parasite.

    PubMed

    Riad, Nahed H A; Taha, Hoda A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2013-04-15

    Garlic has been used for its health benefits for thousands of years. Modern research confirmed many of the healing properties of garlic, including its antiparasitic activity. This study was designed to evaluate the antischistosomal action of garlic through detecting the changes in DNA profile of Schistosoma mansoni worms and the infected mouse. Forty mice were subcutaneously infected with ~200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae/mouse. Infected mice were divided into four equal groups: non-treated, prophylactic, therapeutic, and continuously-treated. Non-infected control and garlic-treated groups were assigned for the sake of comparison. Garlic extract (50mg/kg bw/mouse) was given orally, day after day, at a fixed daytime. Seven weeks post-infection, adult schistosomes were recovered by perfusion and the livers of the mice were excised out and were processed for DNA extraction and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). The results showed that garlic exerted no major changes in the genome of schistosomes. Nevertheless, that schistosomal infection induced genetic alterations in the DNA of mice, and garlic was able to ameliorate such alterations to a great extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study of adsorption of Pb(II) on native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Tao, Yaqi; Yu, Youjie; Jiang, Hongmei; Lian, Hongzhen

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity.

  18. Freshly crushed garlic is a superior cardioprotective agent than processed garlic.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-08-12

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-a-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all of the rats were sacrificed and isolated the hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both of the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, the freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of antiapoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NFkappaB, Nrf2, and enhanced GLUT 4, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection, the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S.

  19. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P < 0.05 in at least one experiment. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase activity was decreased due to dietary garlic (P = 0.0369), but not by pharmacological levels of dietary copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  20. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Efficiency of sulphur in garlic extract and non-sulphur homeopathy in the control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Furlong, J

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-sulphur-based homeopathic preparation and a sulphur-containing natural product derived from Allium sativum (Linnaeus) against infestation by the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). A total of 24 crossbred calves (7 : 8 Holstein : Zebu), aged 6-8 months and maintained in individual stables under tick-free conditions, were divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) received no treatment; Group 2 was treated with 0.01 g/day of the homeopathic preparation Fator C&MC(®), and Group 3 was treated with 20 g/day of Enxofre-Allium sativum(®). After adaptation to the diet for 1 month, each calf was subjected to artificial infestation with 8000 R. (B.) microplus larvae (aged 7-14 days) twice per week over a 5-month period. Numbers of engorged females were recorded every 14 days and samples of freely released engorged females were collected at 14-day intervals commencing 3 months after the start of the experiment. The engorged females were weighed, incubated for 15 days under biochemical oxygen demand conditions at 27 ± 1 °C and relative humidity >85%, and the weights of the egg masses produced were recorded. Other biological parameters, including reproduction estimate, reduction in oviposition and efficiency of treatment, were determined. A significant reduction in the number of engorged females was detected on animals treated with Enxofre-Allium sativum(®) (Group 3) in comparison with the other two groups. The overall efficiency of the treatment with the sulphur-containing product was 64%, whereas that of the homeopathic preparation was 26%. Under the experimental conditions established, Enxofre-Allium sativum(®) can reduce the intensity of the R. (B.) microplus infestation.

  2. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  3. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  4. [Garlic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Denisov, L N; Andrianova, I V; Timofeeva, S S

    1999-01-01

    To perform of clinical trial of alisate--a garlic preparation produced in Russia. An open controlled trial of alisate enrolled 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 15 patients with RA of varying clinical form, stage and activity were given alisate in a dose 300 mg (1 tablet) twice a day for 4-6 weeks. 15 control RA patients received conventional antirheumatic therapy. The alisate group achieved a good and partial response in 86.5% of cases. The drug was well tolerated and had no side effects. In control group, some parameters changed for the worse. Alisate can be recommended for treatment of RA patients in combined and monotherapy.

  5. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on nickel II or chromium VI induced alterations of glucose homeostasis and hepatic antioxidant status under sub-chronic exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Amrita; Dhara, Prakash C; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a profound effect in reducing plasma glucose and increasing serum insulin in diabetic rats. We studied the effect of a garlic extract on nickel- or chromium-induced alteration of plasma glucose and hepatic glycogen levels and anti-oxidant status in rats. Adult male albino rats (n=36) divided into six groups of six animals each were treated as follows: Group I, untreated controls; Group II, fresh aqueous homogenate of garlic; Group III, nickel sulfate; Group IV, nickel sulfate + garlic; Group V, potassium dichromate; Group VI, potassium dichromate + garlic. In Groups IV and VI, the simultaneous administration of garlic abrogated a significant nickel- or chromium-induced increase in plasma glucose and decrease in liver glycogen. Nickel and chromium alone also increased lipid peroxide (LPO) and decreased glutathione levels, as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Simultaneous garlic administration significantly reduced the LPO level and remarkably improved SOD activity. Hence, we postulate that the administration of garlic can prevent nickel II- or chromium VI-induced alterations in blood glucose homeostasis while exerting a hepatoprotective effect on glycogen levels and antioxidant status in male albino rats.

  6. Garlic and hepatic coccidiosis: prophylaxis or treatment?

    PubMed

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Oda, Samah S; Ashmawy, Karam I

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of crude garlic (Allium sativum) against experimental infection with Eimeria stiedae in rabbits. Forty rabbits were divided into four groups of ten rabbits each: a healthy control group (HC); a challenged-garlic-protected group (CGP) which received a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight (bwt) crude garlic for five successive days before challenge with E. stiedae; a challenged-garlic-treated group (CGT) which was treated with a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg bwt crude garlic for five successive days post-challenge; and an infected control group (IC). The challenge dose was 5 x 10(4) sporulated E. stiedae oocysts per rabbit. Mortality rate, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and faecal oocyst count were evaluated throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, all rabbits were killed and histopathological examination was performed. No mortalities were recorded in the HC and CGP groups, whilst mortality was found to be 20% and 40% in the CGT and IC groups, respectively. CGP rabbits had better body weight gain and lower numbers of oocysts than those in the CGT and IC groups. Hepatic lesions were less severe in the CGP group than in the CGT and IC groups. These results showed that oral administration of crude garlic ameliorated the adverse impacts of hepatic coccidiosis on rabbits when used as a prophylactic, but garlic was less effective as a therapeutic.

  7. Anti-mycobacterial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) against multi-drug resistant and non-multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Abdul; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; Absar, Muhammad; Javed, Khursheed

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB throughout the developing world is very disturbing in the present scenario of TB management. There is a fundamental need to explore alternative anti-TB agents. Hence natural plants should be investigated to understand their antimicrobial properties and safety. Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of natural plant which possesses variety of biological properties like anti-tumor, anti-hyperlipedemic and anti-microbial etc. The present study was evaluated for anti-bacterial activity of garlic against non-MDR and MDR isolates of M. tuberculosis. A total of 20 clinical isolates of MTB including 15 MDR and 5 non-MDR were investigated. Ethanolic extract of garlic was prepared by maceration method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed by using 7H9 middle brook broth dilution technique. MIC of garlic extract was ranged from 1 to 3 mg/ml; showing inhibitory effects of garlic against both non-MDR and MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. Alternate medicine practices with plant extracts including garlic should be considered to decrease the burden of drug resistance and cost in the management of diseases. The use of garlic against MDR-TB may be of great importance regarding public health.

  8. Antibacterial potential of garlic-derived allicin and its cancellation by sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Suma, Kaoru; Origuchi, Kana; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2009-09-01

    Allicin (allyl 2-propenethiosulfinate), an antibacterial principle of garlic, has drawn much attention, since it has potent antimicrobial activity against a range of microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There have been many reports on the antibacterial properties of allicin, but no quantitative comparison of antibacterial activities between freshly prepared garlic extract and clinically useful antibiotics has been performed. To verify the substantial antibacterial effect of aqueous garlic extract, we compared it with those of allicin and several clinically useful antibiotics using two representative bacteria commonly found in the human environment, Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The garlic extract had more potent anti-staphylococcal activity than an equal amount of allicin. In terms of antibiotic potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, authentic allicin had roughly 1-2% of the potency of streptomycin (vs. S. aureus), 8% of that of vancomycin (vs. S. aureus), and only 0.2% of that of colistin (vs. E. coli). The antibacterial activity of allicin was completely abolished by cysteine, glutathione and coenzyme A, but not by non-SH-compounds. The oxygen in the structure (-S(=O)-S-) of allicin therefore functions to liberate the S-allyl moiety, which might be an offensive tool against bacteria.

  9. Evaluating the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw and steamed garlic as well as five organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Su, Min-Sheng

    2014-10-31

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  12. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur species in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and shallot (Allium ascalonicum) by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-(octopole reaction system)-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Iwashita, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2005-11-04

    The simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and a weakly odorous Allium plant, shallot (Allium ascalonicum), was performed by means of a hyphenated technique, a HPLC coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS). The aqueous extracts of them contained the common seleno compound that was identified as gamma-glutamylmethylselenocysteine by an electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Normal garlic contains alliin as the major sulfur-containing compound, which is the biological precursor of the garlic odorant, allicin. Alliin, however, was not detected in the extracts of the selenized odorless garlic. At least, four unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were detected in odorless garlic and shallot. Moreover, these Allium plants showed chemopreventive effects against human leukemia cells.

  13. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic.

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-04-15

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H2S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H2S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30min and the solvent extracts were analyzed by GC-MS/FID and HPLC. A cell-based assay was used to measure the H2S-releasing activity of the extracts. Results showed that the amounts of allyl polysulfides increased in crushed garlic boiled for 6-10min; however, prolonging the thermal treatment to 20 or 30min decreased their concentrations. Data of the H2S-releasing activity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E), parallel this trend, being significantly higher at 6 and 10min boiling. Our results showed enhancement of H2S-releasing activity upon moderate boiling, suggesting that shorter cooking time may maximize its health benefits as a dietary source of natural H2S donors.

  14. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China...

  15. Six plant extracts delay yeast chronological aging through different signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lutchman, Vicky; Dakik, Pamela; McAuley, Mélissa; Cortes, Berly; Ferraye, George; Gontmacher, Leonid; Graziano, David; Moukhariq, Fatima-Zohra; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study has revealed six plant extracts that slow yeast chronological aging more efficiently than any chemical compound yet described. The rate of aging in yeast is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved network of integrated signaling pathways and protein kinases. Here, we assessed how single-gene-deletion mutations eliminating each of these pathways and kinases affect the aging-delaying efficiencies of the six plant extracts. Our findings imply that these extracts slow aging in the following ways: 1) plant extract 4 decreases the efficiency with which the pro-aging TORC1 pathway inhibits the anti-aging SNF1 pathway; 2) plant extract 5 mitigates two different branches of the pro-aging PKA pathway; 3) plant extract 6 coordinates processes that are not assimilated into the network of presently known signaling pathways/protein kinases; 4) plant extract 8 diminishes the inhibitory action of PKA on SNF1; 5) plant extract 12 intensifies the anti-aging protein kinase Rim15; and 6) plant extract 21 inhibits a form of the pro-aging protein kinase Sch9 that is activated by the pro-aging PKH1/2 pathway. PMID:27447556

  16. Garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lau, K-K; Chan, Y-H; Wong, Y-K; Teo, K-C; Yiu, K-H; Liu, S; Li, L S-W; Shu, X-O; Ho, S-L; Chan, K H; Siu, C-W; Tse, H-F

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects of garlic on endothelial function in patients with ischemic stroke (ISS). Cross-sectional study. 125 Chinese patients with prior ISS due to athero-thrombotic disease were recruited from the outpatient clinics during July 2005 to December 2006. Daily allium vegetable intake (including garlic, onions, Chinese chives and shallots) was ascertained by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire for Chinese and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasound in all subjects. The mean age of the study population was 65.9±11.1 years and 69% were males. Mean allium vegetable intake and garlic intake of the study population was 7.5±12.7g/day and 2.9±8.8g/day respectively. Their mean FMD was 2.6±2.3%. Daily intake of total allium vegetable (r=0.36, P<0.01) and garlic (r=0.34, P<0.01) significantly correlated with FMD. Using the median daily allium intake as cut-off (3.37g/day), patients with a low allium intake <3.37g/day was noted to have a lower FMD compared to those with a normal allium intake (2.1±2.1% versus 3.0±2.4%, P<0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, multi-variate analysis identified that daily allium vegetable (B=0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.02, 0.09, P<0.01) and garlic (B=0.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.02, 0.12, P<0.01) intake, but not onions, Chinese chives and shallots were independent predictors for changes in FMD in patients with ISS. Daily garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ISS and may play a role in the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic events.

  17. Resistance of Garlic Cultivars to Bradysia odoriphaga and Its Correlation with Garlic Thiosulfinates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guodong; Luo, Yin; Xue, Ming; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhao, Haipeng; Ji, Guixia; Liu, Fang

    2017-06-12

    Garlic, a widely cultivated global vegetable crop, is threatened by the underground pest Bradysia odoriphaga in China. Previous reports indicated that garlic essential oil, of which the dominant components are sulfides or thiosulfinates, exhibits insecticidal activity against pests. However, it is unclear whether the resistance of garlic to B. odoriphaga is related to thiosulfinates. Here, we compared the resistance of 10 garlic cultivars at various growth stages to B. odoriphaga by field investigation and indoor life-table data collection. Furthermore, the relationship between thiosulfinates content and resistance, as well as the toxicity of garlic oil and allicin against B. odoriphaga larvae was determined. Field surveys demonstrated that the garlic cultivars Qixian and Cangshan possessed the highest resistance, while Siliuban and Yishui were the most sensitive. When reared on Qixian, B. odoriphaga larval survival and fecundity declined by 26.2% and 17.7% respectively, but the development time was prolonged by 2.8 d compared with Siliuban. A positive correlation was detected between thiosulfinates content and resistance. Furthermore, garlic oil and allicin exhibited strong insecticidal activity. We screened out 2 pest-resistant cultivars, for which thiosulfinate content was highest. Additionally, the insecticidal activity displayed by sulfides and allcin suggests their potential for exploitation as botanical insecticides.

  18. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (qe=625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k2=0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Glutathione-garlic sulfur conjugates: slow hydrogen sulfide releasing agents for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Ashif Iqbal; Papajani, Vilma Toska; Paci, Maurizio; Melino, Sonia

    2015-01-20

    Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS) or without (GaWS) glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S), also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST) enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications.

  20. [Clinical effect of garlic plaster on recurrent oral ulcer].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Li; Liu, Bin-Jie; Yuan, Shuo-Hong

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of garlic plaster on the recurrent oral ulcer (ROU). The garlic powder was made by special method and made into garlic plaster including 0.1% garlicin. The plaster was painted on the surface of ROU to examine its clinical effect. The patients were followed up for 1 to 4 years. Of the 30 patients treated with garlic plaster, the complete effective rate was 83.3%, the partial effective rate was 16.7%, and the total effective rate was 100%. Fourteen patients did not recur 4 years after the treatment (46.7%). Garlic has a broad clinical prospect due to its effective treatment on ROU.

  1. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  2. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjay K; Maulik, Subir K

    2002-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficary of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic. PMID:12537594

  3. Disrupted intracellular redox balance of the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens by 5-nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Williams, C F; Lloyd, D; Kolarich, D; Alagesan, K; Duchêne, M; Cable, J; Williams, D; Leitsch, D

    2012-11-23

    The 5-nitroimidazole, metronidazole, has traditionally been employed in veterinary medicine to treat a range of infections including the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus. This study aims to determine the mode of action of metronidazole on Spironucleus vortens, including the specific mechanism of activation of the pro-drug and subsequent cellular targets of the drug metabolites. Due to the ban on use of metronidazole in the treatment of production animals in Europe and USA, garlic-derived compounds were also investigated as natural alternatives to metronidazole chemotherapy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided an overview of gross cellular damage caused by metronidazole and garlic derivatives. Proteomic analyses by 2D gel electrophoresis identified the proteins involved in specific covalent adduct formation with nitroimidazoles. Furthermore, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and non-protein thiol concentration were assayed in extracts of S. vortens before and after treatment with nitroimidazoles and garlic-derivatives. Metronidazole and garlic-derived compounds caused severe damage of trophozoites indicated by membrane blebbing and lysed cell debris. Analysis of the S. vortens proteome identified several proteins capable of specific nitroimidazole binding, including; uridine phosphorylase, enolase, protein disulphide isomerase, aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase and malic enzyme. Of the compounds tested, metronidazole and the garlic-derived compound ajoene were the most effective at inhibiting TrxR activity and depleting non-protein thiols. These data suggest TrxR-mediated activation of nitroimidazoles, leading to depletion of non-protein thiols. Redox imbalance due to antioxidant failure is implicated as the mode of action of nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds, ultimately leading to cell death. Possible synergy between garlic derivatives and metronidazole should be further investigated in vitro in order to determine their theoretical

  4. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sankhadip; Laha, Bibek; Banerjee, Subhasis

    2014-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well.

  5. Plant extracts as phytogenic additives considering intake, digestibility, and feeding behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camila Sousa; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti; Cavalcante, Edwilka Oliveira; de Lima, Ewerton Ivo Martins; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, José Ricardo Coelho; da Silva, Daniel Cézar

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt. As experimental design, we used a 5 × 5 Latin square design (five treatments and five periods). The data were analyzed through the mixed model through the procedure PROC MIXED of software Systems Statistical Analysis version 9.1, with comparation analysis between the treatment without additive (control) with phytogenic additives produced from vegetable extracts of mesquite pod, of coriander seed, the bulb of garlic, and the oregano leaves. There were no significant differences for the nutrient intake and ingestive behavior patterns. However, the additive intake derived from mesquite pods and coriander extracts provided an increase in digestibility. Extracts from garlic, coriander, and mesquite pods can be used as phytogenic additives in feeding sheep.

  6. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Aston, D Eric; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-05-25

    The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of garlics from California, Oregon, Washington, and New York were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The total phenolic content was quantified [Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC)] and three antioxidant activity assays, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were employed for reference measurements. Four independent partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed with spectra from 25 extracts and their corresponding FC, DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP with values for 20 additional extracts predicted (R > 0.95). The standard errors of calibration and standard error of cross-validation were <1.45 (TEAC), 0.36 (FRAP), and 0.33 μmol Trolox/g FW (DPPH) and 0.55 mg gallic acid/g FW (FC). Cluster and dendrogram analyses could segregate garlic grown at different locations. Hydroxyl and phenolic functional groups most closely correlated with garlic antioxidant activity.

  7. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material.

  8. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Alliumsativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  9. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale)

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D.; Dosoky, Noura S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species. PMID:28783070

  10. Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors. A review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G

    1989-01-01

    1. Claims for beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, fibrinolytic activity, and platelet aggregation are attributed both to fresh garlic and onions (or their extracts) and to commercially available preparations. 2. Regarding fresh garlic, the claims have been confirmed, but so far only at very high dosages. 3. For onions and commercially available supplements contradictory results have been reported. 4. All published trials showed severe methodological shortcomings. Some trials were not randomized and/or not blinded whilst this was possible, and in only one of every three studies more than 25 patients participated in each treatment group. In no trial was prognostic comparability of the treatment and the control groups ascertained. At the moment there is inadequate scientific justification for garlic supplementation. PMID:2686739

  11. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanocrystals with tunable surface plasmon resonance using garlic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepthy; Basanth, Amritha; Retnakumari, Archana; Manzoor, K; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles having tunable optical absorbance finds immense use in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Hence, it is imperative to develop environment and bio-friendly green chemical processes that aid in preparing gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties. In the present work, phytochemicals present in the medicinal herb, viz., garlic, were used to provide the dual effects of reduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles as well as stabilization, in a single step process. The optical tunability of nanogold with respect to concentration of precursor and volume of garlic extract, processing conditions of garlic, its differing molecular weight fractions, reaction time and temperature has been demonstrated. The presence of a range of anisotropic nanogold including nanotriangles, nanorods and nanospheres as evident from TEM endows the colloid with a tunable optical absorption, specifically into the near infrared region. In vitro stability studies of the colloidal suspension in various media including saline, BSA, histidine and PBS showed that gold nanoparticles did not aggregate with time or differing pH conditions. The role of the garlic phytochemicals in providing stability against agglomeration was also substantiated by FTIR studies. Cytotoxicity studies performed using spherical and anisotropic gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 and L929 cell lines proved the biocompatibility of the material up to high doses of 500 microg/ml. The present work highlights the role of garlic phytochemicals in preparing biocompatible metallic gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties and good in vitro stability, suggesting its potential use for molecular imaging or therapeutic nanomedicines.

  12. Validated HPLC method and temperature stabilities for oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic macerated oil.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miyoung; Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Shin, Dongbin

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the utilization of garlic macerated oil as functional foods, oil-soluble organosulfur compounds were investigated using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of compounds, it was simply extracted with 98% n-hexane in 2-propanol followed by sensitive and selective determination of all compounds. These method exhibited excellent linearity for oil-soluble organosulfur compounds with good coefficient (r > 0.999). Average recoveries were in the range of 80.23-106.18%. The limits of quantitation of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds ranged from 0.32 to 9.56 μg mL(-1) and the limits of detection were from 0.11 to 3.16 μg mL(-1). Overall, the precision of the results, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.55 to 11.67%. The proposed method was applied to determining the contents of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in commercial garlic macerated oils. Also, the stability of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic macerated oil were evaluated during 3 months of storage at four difference temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 35°C). The results showed the studied oil-soluble compounds in garlic macerated oil were stable at 4°C and relatively unstable at 35°C with varied extents degradation. Therefore, these validation data and temperature stability may be useful for quality evaluation of garlic macerated oils. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of female rats treated with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Iranloye, B O; Oludare, G O

    2011-11-23

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats each were divided into: Group I: (control) received 0.2ml of 0.9% normal saline, group II (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w subcutaneously), group III (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + garlic juice 100mg/kg b.w orally), and group IV (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + Vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w orally). All animals were treated for 21 days. The pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney of the animals were harvested, weighed and homogenized. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were then measured.Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in tissues of nicotine treated rats when compared with the control. In group III and IV, MDA levels were significantly reduced when compared with nicotine group. The activities of SOD and GSH significantly decreased in group II (nicotine only) rat tissues, while it was significantly increased in group III and IV rat tissues. The study showed that garlic juice extract (100mg/kg b.w) and vitamin E (100mg/kg b.w) administration prevented oxidative damage in rat tissues treated with nicotine. The study also showed that vitamin E has a more potent antioxidant activity than garlic juice in preventing nicotine induced oxidative damage in rat.

  14. Speciation and identification of tellurium-containing metabolites in garlic, Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Yoshida, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Saki; Katai, Ryota; Tokumoto, Maki; Ouerdane, Laurent; Łobiński, Ryszard; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-09-01

    Tellurium (Te) is a widely used metalloid in industry because of its unique chemical and physical properties. However, information about the biological and toxicological activities of Te in plants and animals is limited. Although Te is expected to be metabolized in organisms via the same pathway as sulfur and selenium (Se), no precise metabolic pathways are known in organisms, particularly in plants. To reveal the metabolic pathway of Te in plants, garlic, a well-known Se accumulator, was chosen as the model plant. Garlic was hydroponically cultivated and exposed to sodium tellurate, and Te-containing metabolites in the water extract of garlic leaves were identified using HPLC coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). At least three Te-containing metabolites were detected using HPLC-ICP-MS, and two of them were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS for identification. The MS spectra obtained by ESI-MS-MS indicated that the metabolite was Te-methyltellurocysteine oxide (MeTeCysO). Then, MeTeCysO was chemically synthesized and its chromatographic behavior matched with that of the Te-containing metabolite in garlic. The other was assigned as cysteine S-methyltellurosulfide. These results suggest that garlic can assimilate tellurate, an inorganic Te compound, and tellurate is transformed into a Te-containing amino acid, the so-called telluroamino acid. This is the first report addressing that telluroamino acid is de novo synthesized in a higher plant.

  15. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml. Images PMID:3555334

  16. [Analysis of volatile oil of garlic by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofei; Du, Ailing; Guan, Congsheng; Pan, Guangmin; Du, Aiqin; Wang, Weiqiang

    2005-09-01

    The volatile oil of garlic was extracted by hydrodistillation method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to analyse the compounds in the oil. The best extraction conditions for high-content, effective components were obtained through optimization. The capillary column was an HP-5MS column (25 mm x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm); oven temperature increased with a rate of 5 degrees C /min from 80 to 300 degrees C, and then maintained for 20 min; sample size of 1 microL; split ratio of 100:1; carrier gas of helium (1 mL/min). Mass spectra were obtained at 70 eV. The temperatures of injector base, ionization source were maintained at 270 degrees C, 230 degrees C respectively. Under these conditions, twenty compounds in the volatile oil of garlic were isolated and identified, and the content of each was determined. Sulfur-containing compounds were found to be the principal components, of which the major compound was diallyl trisulfide with the content of more than 30%, which is higher than the others in the literature. The experimental results also indicated that hydrodistillation method is an effective method for officinal component extraction. In addition, it was also demonstrated that the garlic volatile oil was stable when stored at 0 degrees C for 6 months.

  17. Aging reversibility: from thymus graft to vegetable extract treatment-- application to cure an age-associated pathology.

    PubMed

    Basso, Andrea; Rossolini, Giuliana; Piantanelli, Anna; Amici, Domenico; Calzuola, Isabella; Mancinelli, Loretta; Marsili, Valeria; Gianfranceschi, Gian Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal thymus graft and thymus calf extract (TME) in vivo treatment exert similar corrective actions on different mouse age-related alterations. The aim of the present paper is to investigate whether a vegetal extract, wheat sprout extract (WESPRE), could mimic the thymus action on recovering age-related alterations and if this extract can cure an age-associated pathology, the cataract in dogs. Present experiments were carried out by using WESPRE and TME in vivo in old mice to check their ability to recover the altered DNA synthesis in hepatocyte primary cultures. Old mice treated with WESPRE and TME showed a recovery of hepatocyte DNA synthesis levels when compared with the old untreated ones. The increase of DNA and protein contents observed in aged animals is reduced by WESPRE treatments to levels observed in young mice hepatocytes. We measured also WESPRE phosphorylation activity by endogenous kinase: it was from 10 to 40 times higher with respect to wheat seeds. Old dogs were orally treated for a month and the lens opacity analysed before and after the treatment. Results showed a reduction from 25 to 40% of lens opacity. The efficacy of wheat sprouts in the recovery of age-related alterations and in treating age-associated pathologies could be due to the contemporary presence of small regulatory acid peptides, a remarkable level of highly energetic phosphoric radicals and antioxidant molecules, peculiarities that may be, to some extent, related to the aging process regulation.

  18. Comparison of Immunomodulatory Effects of Fresh Garlic and Black Garlic Polysaccharides on RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yan, Yi-Xi; Yu, Qing-Tao; Deng, Yong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Wang, Ying; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences. It is demonstrated that the molecular weights of polysaccharides from the 2 sources and molar ratios of monosaccharides after acid hydrolysis are greatly variant. The effects of polysaccharides from 2 sources on RAW 264.7 macrophages functions, including promotion of phagocytosis, release of NO, and expressions of several immune-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma), were different from each other. The results indicated that fresh garlic polysaccharide exhibited stronger immunomodulatory activities than that of black garlic. Moreover, it is revealed that fructan might be the bioactive component in garlic and it is indicated that during the fermentation treatment, fructan constituents of garlic has degraded, and basically no immunomodulatory effect can be found in black garlic polysaccharides.

  19. The effect of garlic powder on human urinary cytokine excretion.

    PubMed

    Alma, Ergun; Eken, Alper; Ercil, Hakan; Yelsel, Kazim; Daglioglu, Nebile

    2014-03-04

    To evaluate the effects of orally administered dehydrated garlic powder on cytokine excretion in the urinary tract. A total of 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into 3 groups, were given a single oral dose of 1 g or 3 g of dehydrated garlic powder or placebo. Urine samples were obtained 6.0 and 24.0 h after garlic intake and assayed for interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin- 12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl sulfide (DAS). Significant increases in IL-12 levels over baseline were noted in urine samples obtained after oral intake of 1 g and 3 g of garlic powder (P < .001). In the 1 g and 3 g garlic powder treatment groups, time-dependent variations in IL-12 levels over the study period were significantly different from the placebo group (P < .001). In both garlic treatment groups, urinary levels of IL-8 and TNF-α were not significantly different from baseline and placebo levels (P > .017). DADS and DAS were not detected in the urine samples at any time after garlic powder intake. Oral intake of doses of garlic traditionally used for daily supplementation increases urinary levels of IL-12, which is a potent stimulator of T helper cell 1 (Th-1) immune responses. This observation encourages further studies investigating the immunostimulatory role of garlic in the urinary tract.

  20. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  1. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  2. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  3. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p < 0.05) after 120 h of exposure. Furthermore, the total APA was significantly decreased by exposure to a high diallyl trisulfide concentration after 24 h exposure. As new algal inhibitors, there are several advantages for their utilization, such as being common, cheap, non-toxic, and with high efficiency. It would be meaningful to further research on garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  4. Assessment of phenanthrene bioavailability in aged and unaged soils by mild extraction.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Shen, Chaofeng; Zhang, Congkai; Tang, Xianjin; Shi, Jiyan; Chen, Xincai; Park, Joonhong; Chen, Yingxu

    2012-01-01

    It has become apparent that the threat of an organic pollutant in soil is directly related to its bioavailable fraction and that the use of total contaminant concentrations as a measure of potential contaminant exposure to plants or soil organisms is inappropriate. In light of this, non-exhaustive extraction techniques are being investigated to assess their appropriateness in determining bioavailability. To find a suitable and rapid extraction method to predict phenanthrene bioavailability, multiple extraction techniques (i.e., mild hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and organic solvents extraction) were investigated in soil spiked to a range of phenanthrene levels (i.e., 1.12, 8.52, 73, 136, and 335 μg g( - 1) dry soil). The bioaccumulation of phenanthrene in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was used as the reference system for bioavailability. Correlation results for phenanthrene suggested that mild HPCD extraction was a better method to predict bioavailability of phenanthrene in soil compared with organic solvents extraction. Aged (i.e., 150 days) and fresh (i.e., 0 day) soil samples were used to evaluate the extraction efficiency and the effect of soil contact time on the availability of phenanthrene. The percentage of phenanthrene accumulated by earthworms and percent recoveries by mild extractants changed significantly with aging time. Thus, aging significantly reduced the earthworm uptake and chemical extractability of phenanthrene. In general, among organic extractants, methanol showed recoveries comparable to those of mild HPCD for both aged and unaged soil matrices. Hence, this extractant can be suitable after HPCD to evaluate risk of contaminated soils.

  5. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  6. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  7. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed.

  8. Does Garlic Supplementation Control Blood Pressure in Patients with Severe Coronary Artery Disease? A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi-Roshan, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad; Mohammad Zadeh, Ali; Zahedmehr, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidities, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Objectives With interest on the important role of hypertension in the progression of CAD, this study was designed to estimate the effect of garlic powder tablets on the blood pressure (BP) in patients with severe CAD. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on 56 CAD patients, aged 25 - 75 years old. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Galois groups (n = 27), receiving garlic powder tablet (400 mg garlic) twice daily and the placebo groups (n = 29), receiving placebo for 3 months. The BP was assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Results During the 3 months study, in the placebo group, systolic BP (SBP) increased with 6.3 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) increased with 4.6 mmHg, changes which were significant. After the 3 months, the effect of garlic on SBP, after adjusting for baseline value, was significant, and this effect was more significant in hypertensive patients. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins did not change significantly in either the garlic or placebo groups, during the study. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all patients. Conclusions These results demonstrate that treatment with garlic-based drugs can be an effective treatment for controlling BP in CAD patients and has no interaction with other drugs that CAD patients take. Therefore, it may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment for this group of patients. PMID:28191330

  9. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. [Does garlic protect against vampires? An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, H; Baerheim, A

    1994-12-10

    Vampires are feared everywhere, but the Balkan region has been especially haunted. Garlic has been regarded as an effective prophylactic against vampires. We wanted to explore this alleged effect experimentally. Owing to the lack of vampires, we used leeches instead. In strictly standardized research surroundings, the leeches were to attach themselves to either a hand smeared with garlic or to a clean hand. The garlic-smeared hand was preferred in two out of three cases (95% confidence interval 50.4% to 80.4%). When they preferred the garlic the leeches used only 14.9 seconds to attach themselves, compared with 44.9 seconds when going to the non-garlic hand (p < 0.05). The traditional belief that garlic has prophylactic properties is probably wrong. The reverse may in fact be true. This study indicates that garlic possibly attracts vampires. Therefore to avoid a Balkan-like development in Norway, restrictions on the use of garlic should be considered.

  11. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  12. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries.

  13. A single N-terminal cysteine in TRPV1 determines activation by pungent compounds from onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Héctor; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; García-Villegas, Refugio; Munari, Mika; Gordon, Sharona E; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2008-03-01

    Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels mediate sensory responses to irritant substances. Although it is well known that TRPA1 channels are activated by pungent compounds found in garlic, onion, mustard and cinnamon extracts, activation of TRPV1 by these extracts remains controversial. Here we establish that TRPV1 is activated by pungent extracts from onion and garlic, as well as by allicin, the active compound in these preparations, and participates together with TRPA1 in the pain-related behavior induced by this compound. We found that in TRPV1 these agents act by covalent modification of cysteine residues. In contrast to TRPA1 channels, modification of a single cysteine located in the N-terminal region of TRPV1 was necessary and sufficient for all the effects we observed. Our findings point to a conserved mechanism of activation in TRP channels, which provides new insights into the molecular basis of noxious stimuli detection.

  14. A single N-terminal cysteine in TRPV1 determines activation by pungent compounds from onion and garlic

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Héctor; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; García-Villegas, Refugio; Munari, Mika; Gordon, Sharona E; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels mediate sensory responses to irritant substances. Although it is well known that TRPA1 channels are activated by pungent compounds found in garlic, onion, mustard and cinnamon extracts, activation of TRPV1 by these extracts remains controversial. Here we establish that TRPV1 is activated by pungent extracts from onion and garlic, as well as by allicin, the active compound in these preparations, and participates together with TRPA1 in the pain-related behavior induced by this compound. We found that in TRPV1 these agents act by covalent modification of cysteine residues. In contrast to TRPA1 channels, modification of a single cysteine located in the N-terminal region of TRPV1 was necessary and sufficient for all the effects we observed. Our findings point to a conserved mechanism of activation in TRP channels, which provides new insights into the molecular basis of noxious stimuli detection. PMID:18297068

  15. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production.

  16. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  17. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  18. Cunaxidae (Acari: Prostigmata) diversity and population dynamics in garlic (Allium sativum) crop fields.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Recamier, B E; Vázquez, I M; Callejas-Chaveros, A; Estrada-Venegas, E G

    2013-10-01

    Agroecosystems are altered systems whose soil structure has changed affecting the dynamics of soil organisms. This paper aims at evaluation of the effects of garlic farming practices on phenology, richness, abundance, composition and diversity of soil-dwelling Cunaxidae. Ten pilot plots in Guanajuato State were sampled from August 2002 to July 2005, every month, 8 months per year. Ten soil samples (1 kg) were taken from each plot and extracted in Berlese-Tullgren funnels. A total of 108 cunaxids were found, belonging to 11 species. Neocunaxoides andrei was the most abundant, and Cunaxa evansi and Armascirus sp. were least abundant. Relative abundance was highest after harvesting and during plant growth, and lowest during planting. Dactyloscirus nicobarensis and D. candylus were present from planting to harvesting. According to Sörensen's similarity coefficient between cultivation stages, Cunaxidae communities were similar during plant growth and harvesting, sharing 80 % of the species. The highest abundance and diversity were found in 2004, during and after harvesting. Cunaxid species increased over 100 % from planting to the harvesting phase, suggesting that they play an important role in the soil agrosystems food web. Species composition and diversity in cunaxid communities present in garlic crop fields varied with agricultural phase, but little change was observed among the years studied. All species found in this study are new records for the state of Guanajuato and for the garlic crop fields.

  19. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 μgmL−1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 μgmL−1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 μgmL−1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin. PMID:24948941

  20. Effect of pH and postmortem aging on protein extraction from broiler breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Eady, M; Samuel, D; Bowker, B

    2014-07-01

    This study determined the effects of extraction buffer pH and postmortem aging on the extraction of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins from broiler pectoralis muscle. Deboned broiler breast fillets were collected at 4 h postmortem, packaged, and then stored at 4°C until 1, 5, or 8 d postmortem. After the designated aging period, salt-soluble and water-soluble protein extractions were performed using buffers at 7 different pH levels (pH 5.4, 6.4, 6.9, 7.2, 7.5, 8.0, 9.0). Protein concentrations of the extracts were measured and SDS-PAGE analysis was performed. Salt-soluble protein concentration increased (P < 0.0001) as buffer pH increased from pH 5.4 to 6.9 and then remained unchanged from pH 6.9 to 9.0. Water-soluble protein concentration increased (P < 0.0001) as buffer pH increased from pH 5.4 to 7.2 and then remained unchanged from pH 7.2 to 9.0. There was not a significant extraction buffer pH by aging treatment interaction for the total protein concentration of either the salt-soluble or water-soluble protein extracts. The protein concentrations of salt-soluble extracts were similar at both 1 and 8 d postmortem but lower (P < 0.0001) at 5 d postmortem. The protein concentrations of water-soluble extracts were similar at both 1 and 5 d postmortem, but higher (P < 0.0001) at 8 d. Both extraction buffer pH and postmortem aging influenced the SDS-PAGE protein profiles of salt-soluble and water-soluble protein extracts from breast muscles. Data demonstrate that postmortem aging and extraction buffer pH influence both the total amount and the composition of the myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins that can be extracted from broiler breast fillets. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture

  2. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that

  3. Fermented garlic protects diabetic, obese mice when fed a high-fat diet by antioxidant effects.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Lee, Seon-Ha; Lee, Dong-Sub; You, Myung-Jin; Chung, In Kwon; Cheon, Woo Hyun; Kwon, Young-Sam; Lee, Young-Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the bioactivity of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)-fermented aged black garlic (FBG) on obese mice supplied a high-fat diet (HFD) and its in vitro antioxidant activity. Aged black garlic (BG) exhibits potent antioxidative effects and has been subjected to extensive research. In addition, the bioactivity of some natural products is increased by fermentation. In a preliminary test, this study found that the antioxidant activity of FBG is stronger than that of BG. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the bioactivity of BG would be increased by yeast fermentation and would be a good candidate as a nutraceutical product for improving the oxidative defense systems in older patients or patients affected by various oxidative stresses, for example, diabetes and diabetic complications. To test this hypothesis, the bioactivities of FBG in diabetic and obese mice as well as the antioxidant activity in vitro were examined. After 91 days of continuous HFD supply, the mice showed marked obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and liver and kidney damages. Black garlic and all 3 different doses of FBG showed favorable hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, and antiobesity effects compared with the HFD control, but no hypoglycemic effects. In particular, more favorable bioactivity against all 4 HFD-induced diabetic complications was detected in the FBG-treated groups compared with the group given equivalent doses of BG. These findings suggest that the bioactivities of BG can be improved by yeast fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome.

    PubMed

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that "seed" bulbs from "Coreano" variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic "seed" cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  5. Effect of aging of chemicals in soil on their biodegradability and extractability

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M.

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the time that a compound remains in a soil affects its biodegradability and the ease of its extraction. Phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol were aged in sterilized loam and muck, and bacteria able to degrade the compounds were then added to the soils. increasingly smaller amounts of phenanthrene in the muck and 4-nitrophenol in both soils were mineralized with increasing duration of aging. Aging also increased the resistance of phenanthrene to biodegradation in nutrient-amended aquifer sand. The rate of miner- alization of the two compounds in both soils declined with increasing periods of aging. The amount of phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol added to sterile soils that was recovered by butanol extraction declined with duration of aging, but subsequent Soxhlet extraction recovered phenanthrene from the loam but not the muck. The extents of mineralization of phenanthrene previously incubated for up to 27 days with soluble or insoluble organic matter from the muck were similar. Less aged than freshly added phenanthrene was biodegraded if aggregates in the muck were sonically disrupted. The data show that phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol added to soil become increasingly more resistant with time to biodegradation and extraction.

  6. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  7. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  8. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Garlic can play an essential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis, but the research addressing the effect of garlic on the concentration of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations through systematic review of literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. The literature search included SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases up to March 10, 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Overall, the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) levels was reported in six trials. Meta-analysis did not suggest a significant alteration in plasma Lp(a) levels after garlic consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 16.86%; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 38.31; P = 0.124). This result was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. When the studies were categorized according to the duration of supplementation, there was no effect in the subgroup of trials lasting ≤12 wk (WMD = 2.01%; 95% CI, -14.67 to 18.68; P = 0.813) but a significant elevation of plasma Lp(a) concentrations was found in trials lasting >12 wk (WMD = 54.59%; 95% CI, 30.47-78.71; P < 0.001). Random-effects meta-regression suggested an inverse association between the changes in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) and duration of supplementation (slope 1.71; 95% CI, 0.46-2.97; P = 0.007). The present meta-analysis did not suggest a significant effect of garlic supplementation on the reduction of Lp(a) levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating yield quality and quantity of garlic as affected by different farming systems and garlic clones.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, R; Liaghati, H; Damghani, A Mahdavi

    2007-07-01

    In order to study the effects of different farming systems and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clones on yield quality and quantity of garlic, an experiment was conducted with split plot arrangement with three completely randomized blockes in the 2005 growing season at the experimental research station of Shahid Beheshti University at Zirab, north of Iran. Two factors were involved in the experiment: farming systems in three levels (intensive, conventional and organic farming), as main plots and garlic clones in three levels (Atoo, Hamedani and Khorassani) as sub-plots. The studied factors in this experiment consisted of leaf number, LAI, stem height and diameter, bulb yield, weight of bulbs, number of cloves, weight of cloves and level of allicin. Results showed that the farming systems had significant effect (p<0.05) on LAI, number of plant and bulb yield, but the effect on the other factors was not significant. The highest and lowest bulb yields were obtained in intensive (9.5 ton ha(-1)) and organic (7.4 ton ha(-1)) systems, respectively. All of the top factors were significantly (p< or =0.01) affected by garlic clones. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from Hamedani, Atoo (9.2 ton ha(-1)) and Virani (7.1 ton ha(-1)) clones, respectively. Level of allicin was not significantly affected by farming systems but, differences among garlic clones were significant. Maximum and minimum allicin yields were obtained from Hamedan (5.96 mg g(-1)) and Virani (4.52 mg g(-1)) clones, respectively. As a result, however, organic farming systems can not influence the yield in short term, but can increase it by applying crop rotation, use of organic fertilizer and cover crops in the long term.

  10. Computer-assisted bone age assessment: image preprocessing and epiphyseal/metaphyseal ROI extraction.

    PubMed

    Pietka, E; Gertych, A; Pospiech, S; Cao, F; Huang, H K; Gilsanz, V

    2001-08-01

    Clinical assessment of skeletal maturity is based on a visual comparison of a left-hand wrist radiograph with atlas patterns. Using a new digital hand atlas an image analysis methodology is being developed. To assist radiologists in bone age estimation. The analysis starts with a preprocessing function yielding epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions of interest (EMROIs). Then, these regions are subjected to a feature extraction function. Accuracy has been measured independently at three stages of the image analysis: detection of phalangeal tip, extraction of the EMROIs, and location of diameters and lower edge of the EMROIs. Extracted features describe the stage of skeletal development more objectively than visual comparison.

  11. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  12. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals in comparison to MCG. In addition, total phenolic content of SCG was significantly elevated (p < 0.001), thereby suggesting that the composition of garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H2O2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG possesses

  13. Anti-inflammatory activities of garlic sprouts, a source of α-linolenic acid and 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Paśko, Paweł; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Kała, Katarzyna; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the indolic, phenolic, and fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of garlic sprouts growing in the dark and in the daylight. The pro- or anti-inflammatory properties of the garlic sprout extract were investigated by evaluating the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), glutathione S transferase (GSTM1), nuclear factor NF-κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein levels in the RAW 264.7 cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The highest amount of total indolic (73.56 mg/100 g f.w.) and phenolic compounds (36.23 mg/100 g f.w.) was detected in garlic sprouts grown in the daylight. Studies on antioxidant activity (the FRAP and DPPH method) of garlic sprouts showed that this activity is significantly higher for sprouts grown in full access to light when compared to those grown in the dark. In garlic sprout extracts, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was found to be in greater amount. COX-2 and cPGES level was lower when compared to LPS alone activated cells. After garlic extract treatment, higher level of GSTM1, PPARΥ, cytosolic p50 and p65 protein, as well as a lower NF-ĸB p50/p65 activity was noted in the RAW 264.7 cells which suggested PPARs and AhR transrepression mechanism of NF-ĸB signalling. The obtained results indicate Allium sativum sprouts are a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, indolic and phenolic compounds characterized by anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity, which may support their high therapeutic and dietary potential.

  14. Anti-aging and tyrosinase inhibition effects of Cassia fistula flower butanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Thippraphan, Pilaiporn; Punfa, Wanisa; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2016-12-03

    Natural products made from plant sources have been used in a variety of cosmetic applications as a source of nutrition and as a whitening agent. The flowers of Cassia fistula L, family Fabaceae, have been used as a traditional medicine for skin diseases and wound healing and have been reported to possess anti-oxidant properties. The anti-aging effect of C. fistula flower extract on human skin fibroblast was investigated. The butanolic extraction of C. fistula flowers was completed and the active compounds were classified. The cytotoxicity of fibroblasts was evaluated by SRB assay for the purposes of selecting non-toxic doses for further experiments. The collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis was then measured using the collagen kit and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity, including collagenase, matrixmelloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tyrosinase, were also evaluated. It was found that the flower extract did not affect skin fibroblast cell growth (IC50 > 200 μg/mL). The results did show that the flower extract significantly increased collagen and HA synthesis in a dose dependent manner. The flower extract (50-200 μg/mL) also significantly inhibited collagenase and MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, this flower extract could inhibit the tyrosinase activity that causes hyperpigmentation, which induces skin aging. The C. fistula flower extract displayed a preventive effect when used for anti-aging purposes in human skin fibroblasts and may be an appropriate choice for cosmetic products that aim to provide whitening effects, and which are designated as anti-aging facial skin care products.

  15. Influence of premolar extractions on long-term adult facial aesthetics and apparent age

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Guilherme; Mendes, Lucas Marzullo; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether non-extraction, two-premolars and four-premolars extraction Class II treatment protocols are different regarding long-term facial aesthetics, age appearance, and soft-tissue measures. Methods: Frontal and lateral photographs of 63 full Class II division 1 patients, treated at least 8 years before, were evaluated by 83 laypeople and 76 orthodontists, who assigned to each one’s attractiveness scores from 1 to 10, and opined about their apparent ages. Patients were divided in three groups: XP0 (non-extraction, n = 20; 30.77 years, 15.63 years post-treatment), XP2 (two-premolars extractions, n = 25; 30.99 years, 15.68 years post-treatment), and XP4 (four-premolar extractions, n = 18; 32.80 years, 18.01 years post-treatment), that were matched by gender, post-treatment occlusal and soft-tissue outcomes, age, and post-treatment time. Soft-tissue measures were obtained with Dolphin Imaging 11.5 software. Results: Two-way analysis of variance revealed that attractiveness and apparent age were not affected by treatment protocols, but laypeople were slightly more critical then orthodontists. Analysis of variance showed more vertical facial pattern in XP4 group. Pearson correlation test revealed no influence of soft-tissue measures on sample’s attractiveness. Conclusions: Treatment of full Class II division 1 malocclusion with and without extractions did not influence facial attractiveness, age appearance, and overall soft-tissue measures in the long-term. PMID:26070924

  16. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review.

    PubMed

    Dini, Catia; Fabbri, Alessia; Geraci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  17. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of the Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic Concentrates and Diallyl Constituents on Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jabal, Jamie M.F.; Aston, D. Eric; Konkel, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 μl/ml) and diallyl sulfide (5, 10 and 20 μM) on Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cultivated in tryptic soy broth at 4, 22 and 35°C for up to 7 days were investigated. L. monocytogenes was more resistant to garlic extract and diallyl compounds treatment than E. coli O157:H7. Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that diallyl constituents contributed more to the antimicrobial effect than phenolic compounds. This effect was verified by Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping on single bacteria. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed cell membrane damage consistent with spectroscopic observation. The degree of bacterial cell injury could be quantified using chemometric methods. PMID:21553849

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of wild garlic Allium ursinum of Bulgarian origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Antoaneta; Mikhova, Bozhanka; Najdenski, Hristo; Tsvetkova, Iva; Kostova, Ivanka

    2009-08-01

    The chemical composition of fresh flowers from Allium ursinum (ramsons, bear's garlic, wild garlic) growing in Bulgaria has been studied. Thymidine (1), adenosine (2), astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-neohesperoside (5), and kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-neohesperoside-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated from the n-butanol extract and identified by different spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. Thymine (7), uridine (8), uracil (9) and 5-chloro-uridine (10) were detected in the same extract by GC-MS. This is the first report of the occurrence of 1, 2, 4, 7 - 10 in the flowers of A. ursinum. GC-MS of the volatile components of fresh flowers and leaves from the same plant revealed a high content of sulfur compounds, some of which are reported for the first time for A. ursinum. The antimicrobial activities of extracts from fresh flowers and leaves of A. ursinum have been tested; some extracts exhibited moderate antifungal properties.

  19. Formulation development of a cream containing fennel extract: in vivo evaluation for anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Rasul, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, B A; Mahmood, T; Uz Zaman, S; Khan, H M Shoaib

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to formulate and evaluate anti-aging effects of a topical cream (w/o emulsion) containig extract of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) versus its base. Formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Foeniculum vulgare was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both the base and formulation were stored under different storage conditions to predict their stability. The formulation and base were evaluated for effect on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The base showed insignificant while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. The parameter volume and surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) parameters SEr, SEsc, SEsm, SEw were also evaluated and showed a significant (p < or = 0.05) decline. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential anti-aging effects.

  20. Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Tung, Yen-Chen; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Su, Nan-Wei; Lai, Ying-Jang; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Black garlic is obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) that has been fermented for a period of time at a controlled high temperature (60-90°C) under controlled high humidity (80-90%). When compared with fresh garlic, black garlic does not release a strong offensive flavor owing to the reduced content of allicin. Enhanced bioactivity of black garlic compared with that of fresh garlic is attributed to its changes in physicochemical properties. Studies concerning the fundamental findings of black garlic, such as its production, bioactivity, and applications, have thus been conducted. Several types of black garlic products are also available in the market with a fair selling volume. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of changes in the components, bioactivity, production, and applications of black garlic, as well as the proposed future prospects on their possible applications as a functional food product. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Comparing the therapeutic effects of garlic tablet and oral metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel's clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel's criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Amsel's criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole.

  2. Dose-dependent influence of commercial garlic (Allium sativum) on rats fed cholesterol-containing diet.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Maria; Leontowicz, Hanna; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Namiesnik, Jacek; Zachwieja, Zofia; Barton, Henryk; Tashma, Zev; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2006-05-31

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the dose-dependent influence of commercial garlic on rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. It was found that commercial garlic contains high concentrations of dietary fibers, microelements, and total polyphenols, and its total antioxidant capacity as determined by two independent assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)] was similar to that of the original garlic samples. Wistar rats (35) were randomly divided into five diet groups, named control, Chol, Garlic500, Garlic750, and Garlic1000. Control rats were fed basal diet (BD), which included wheat starch, casein, soybean oil, and vitamin and mineral mixtures. To the BD of the Chol group was added 1% of cholesterol. To the BD of the other three groups (Garlic500, Garlic750, and Garlic1000) were added 1% of cholesterol and commercial garlic equal to 500, 750, and 1000 mg of raw garlic per kilogram of animal weight. After 4 weeks of the experiment only in rats from the Garlic500 group were a significant hindering in the rise in plasma lipids and also a significant hindering in a decrease of plasma antioxidant activity registered. A significant decrease in plasma circulating fibrinogen and an increase in the clotting time were found in the same group of rats (P < 0.05 in both cases). The fibrinogenolytic effect of garlic diets was visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the fibrinogen fraction of Garlic500 the 66, 24, and 14 kDa protein bands were detected with weaker protein intensity than in the corresponding ones in the Garlic750 and Garlic1000 diet groups. In conclusion, the positive influences of commercial garlic on plasma lipids, proteins, antioxidant activity, and some indices of blood coagulation are dose-dependent. Therefore, commercial garlic (Elena, Zelazków, Poland) could be a valuable component of atherosclerosis-preventing diets only in optimal doses.

  3. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  4. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  5. Effects of Panax ginseng, Turnera diffusa and Heteropterys tomentosa extracts on hippocampal apoptosis of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Smaili, Soraya Soubhi; Lopes, Guiomar Silva; Carlini, Elisaldo Araújo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To verify if the medicinal plants Panax ginseng C.A. Mey, Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., and Heteropterys tomentosa O. Mach., which are amply used by the population as tonics and cognition enhancers, could have a protective effect on cell death by apoptosis, since this could be one of the mechanisms of action of these substances. Methods: Aged male Wistar rats (n=24) were divided into four groups. Over 30 days, three groups received treatments with hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants, and one group received saline solution. A fifth group with young adult male Wistar rats (n=4) received saline solution during the same period. Using the TUNEL technique, the percentage of apoptosis in the hippocampus of these animals was evaluated. Results: No differences were observed between the percentage of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus of aged animals and of young control animals. The percentage of apoptosis in the hippocampus of aged animals treated chronically with the extracts from the three plants also did not differ from the percentage of apoptosis in the hippocampus of the control group of aged animals. Conclusion: Treatment with the hydroalcoholic extracts of Panax ginseng, Turnera diffusa, and Heteropterys tomentosa did not influence the apoptosis of the hippocampal cells of aged rats. PMID:23843055

  6. Identification of a stale-beer-like odorant in extracts of naturally aged beer.

    PubMed

    Callemien, Delphine; Dasnoy, Sébastien; Collin, Sonia

    2006-02-22

    For a long time, beer staling has been a prime concern in brewery research. Yet, to improve flavor stability, better knowledge of all chemicals involved is still needed. From our aroma extract dilu-tion analyses (AEDA) applied to naturally aged lager beers emerged an old-beer-like odorant at RICP-SIL 5 CB = 1532 and RIFFAP = 2809, with a FD value close to that of trans-2-nonenal (the well-known cardboard off-flavor found in aged beers). Specific phenol extraction, GC cold trapping, and mass spectrometry (electron impact and chemical ionization) enabled us to identify it as 4-vinylsyringol. Although already mentioned in some fresh beers, this compound had never been highlighted as involved in the aging process of lager beers.

  7. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr(6+). Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Activities of Garlic Oil, Garlic Powder, and Their Diallyl Constituents against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    O'Gara, E. A.; Hill, D. J.; Maslin, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori disease is reduced with Allium vegetable intake. This study was designed to assess the in vivo anti-H. pylori potential of a variety of garlic substances. The garlic materials all showed substantial but widely differing anti-H. pylori effects against all strains and isolates tested. The MICs (range, 8 to 32 μg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) (range, 16 to 32 μg/ml) of undiluted garlic oil (GO) were smaller than those of garlic powder (GP) (MIC range, 250 to 500 μg/ml; MBC range, 250 to 500 μg/ml) but greater than the MIC of allicin (4.0 μg/ml) (Table 2) present in GP. Allicin (MIC, 6 μg/ml; MBC, 6 μg/ml) was more potent than diallyl disulfide (MIC range, 100 to 200 μg/ml; MBC range, 100 to 200 μg/ml), its corresponding sulfide, but of a strength similar to that of diallyl tetrasulfide (MIC range, 3 to 6 μg/ml; MBC range, 3 to 6 μg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms. Time course viability studies and microscopy showed dose-dependent anti-H. pylori effects with undiluted GO, GP, allicin, and diallyl trisulfide after a lag phase of ca. 1 to 2 h. Substantial in vitro anti-H. pylori effects of pure GO and GP and their diallyl sulfur components exist, suggesting their potential for in vivo clinical use against H. pylori infections. PMID:10788416

  9. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  10. The production of pork with garlic flavour notes using garlic essential oil.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jasmine; Morel, Patrick C H; Purchas, Roger W; Wilkinson, Brian H P

    2010-04-01

    Garlic essential oil (GEO) added directly to pork mince or to the diet of pigs was evaluated for its effectiveness in masking undesirable mutton flavour. Pork was from 31 female pigs (Duroc x (Large White x Landrace)) grown on diets containing either animal-plus-plant products (AP diet) or plant products only (P diet) with four levels of GEO: 0, 0.55, 1.44 and 1.84 g/kg feed and 0, 0.55, 1.44 and 2.15 g/kg feed in the AP and P diet, respectively. Garlic flavour increased and mutton flavour decreased in pork from pigs that consumed more than about 150 g and 220 g of GEO in P and AP diets, respectively over the 57-day feeding period. The garlic flavour was stronger and the mutton flavour less intense for pork from pigs on the P diet. When GEO was added to pork mince at 125 ppm, it significantly reduced mutton flavour. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Garlic and Resveratrol Attenuate Diabetic Complications, Loss of β-Cells, Pancreatic and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Padiya, Raju; Adela, Ramu; Putcha, Uday K.; Reddy, G. S.; Reddy, B. R.; Kumar, K. P.; Chakravarty, Sumana; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at finding the effect of garlic and resveratrol on loss of β-cells and diabetic complication in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type-I diabetic rats. Rats were injected with single dose STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for induction of type 1 diabetes (Dia) and compared with control group. Rats from third (Dia+Gar), fourth (Dia+Resv), and fifth (Dia+Met) groups were fed raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day), resveratrol (25 mg/kg/day), and metformin (500 mg/kg/day) orally, respectively, for a period of 4 weeks. Diabetic group had decreased serum insulin and hydrogen sulfide levels along with increased blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, uric acid, and nitric oxide levels. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in pancreatic and hepatic TBARS, conjugated dienes, nitric oxide, and AGE level and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in SOD, catalase, H2S, GSH level were observed in diabetic group. Administration of garlic, resveratrol, and metformin significantly (p < 0.05) normalized most of the altered metabolic and oxidative stress parameters as well as histopathological changes. Administration of garlic, resveratrol, and metformin in diabetic rat decreases pancreatic β-cell damage and hepatic injury. Our data concluded that administration of garlic showed more promising effect in terms of reducing oxidative stress and pathological changes when compared to resveratrol and metformin groups. PMID:27790139

  12. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  13. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  14. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-06-06

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  15. Effects of garlic oil on pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xy; Sun, Hy; Liu, Jj; Lin, Y; Zhu, Zy; Han, X; Sun, X; Li, Xr; Zhang, Hc; Tang, Zy

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the preventive and therapeutic potential of garlic oil on human pancreatic carcinoma cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to study the effects of garlic oil on three human pancreatic cancer cell lines, AsPC-1, Mia PaCa-2 and PANC-1. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry (FCM), staining with PI and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Morphologic changes of pancreatic cancer cells were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after treatment with garlic oil at low inhibitory concentrations (2.5 μM and 10 μM) for 24 hours. Proliferation of the AsPC-1, PANC-1, and Mia PaCa-2 cells was obviously inhibited in the first 24 hours with the MTT assay. The inhibition effect was more significant after 48 hours. When cells were exposed to garlic oil at higher concentrations, an early change of the apoptotic tendency was detected by FCM and TEM. Garlic oil could inhibit the proliferation of AsPC-1, PANC-1, and Mia PaCa-2 cells in this study. Moreover, due to programmed cell death, cell cycle arrest, or both, pro-apoptosis effects on AsPC-1 cells were induced by garlic oil in a dose and time dependent manner in vitro.

  16. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

    PubMed

    Shouk, Reem; Abdou, Aya; Shetty, Kalidas; Sarkar, Dipayan; Eid, Ali H

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management.

  17. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    PubMed

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  18. Effects of dietary intake of garlic on intestinal trematodes.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Alba; García-Ferrús, Miguel; Sotillo, Javier; Guillermo Esteban, J; Toledo, Rafael; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla

    2017-08-01

    The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.

  19. Standard Extraction Methods May Underestimate Nitrate Stocks Captured by Field-Aged Biochar.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ghulam; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Kammann, Claudia I

    2016-07-01

    Biochar (BC) has been shown to increase the potential for N retention in agricultural soils. However, the form of N retained and its strength of retention are poorly understood. Here, we examined if the N retained could be readily extractable by standard methods and if the amount of N retained varied with BC field ageing. We investigated soil and field-aged BC (BC) particles of a field experiment (sandy soil amended with BC at 0, 15, and 30 t ha) under two watering regimes (irrigated and rain-fed). Throughout the study, greater nitrate than ammonium retention was observed with BC addition in topsoil (0-15 cm). Subsoil (15-30 cm) nitrate concentrations were reduced in BC treatments, indicating reduced nitrate leaching (standard 2 mol L KCl method). The mineral-N release of picked BC particles was examined with different methods: standard 2 mol L KCl extraction; repeated (10×) extraction in 2 mol L KCl at 22 ± 2°C and 80°C (M); electro-ultrafiltration (M); repeated water + KCl long-term shaking (M); and M plus one repeated shaking at 80°C (M). Nitrate amounts captured by BC particles were several-fold greater than those in the BC-amended soil. Compared with M, standard 2 mol L KCl or electro-ultrafiltration extractions retrieved only 13 and 30% of the total extractable nitrates, respectively. Our results suggest that "nitrate capture" by BC may reduce nitrate leaching in the field and that the inefficiency of standard extraction methods deserves closer research attention to decipher mechanisms for reactive N management. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  1. Rice bran extract improves mitochondrial dysfunction in brains of aged NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Hagl, Stephanie; Berressem, Dirk; Grewal, Rehka; Sus, Nadine; Frank, Jan; Eckert, Gunter P

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondria are significantly involved in both the aging process and neurodegeneration. One strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration is a healthy lifestyle including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols. Rice bran extract (RBE) contains various antioxidants including natural vitamin E forms (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol. In this work, we examined the effects of a stabilized RBE on mitochondrial function in 18-month-old Naval Medical Research Institute mice (340 mg/kg body weight/day), which received the extract for 3 weeks via oral gavage. Mitochondrial parameters were measured using high-resolution respirometry (Oroboros Oxygraph-2k), Western blot analysis, and photometric methods in dissociated brain cells, isolated mitochondria, and brain homogenate. Vitamin E concentrations in blood plasma and brain tissue were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Aging leads to decreased mitochondrial function (decreased mitochondrial respiration and ATP production) and decreased protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1alpha). RBE administration increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the brain and compensated for age-related mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, PGC1alpha protein expression, and citrate synthase activity. Furthermore, resistance of brain cells to sodium nitroprusside-induced nitrosative stress was improved. According to these results, RBE is a promising candidate nutraceutical for the prevention of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, E; DeSousa, L; Jorquera, A; Sanchez, J; Lander, A; Rodriguez, E; Jain, M K; Apitz-Castro, R

    1996-01-01

    The present report shows the efficacy of ajoene, a garlic-derived organic trisulphur, for short-term therapy of tinea pedis. The use of ajoene as a 0.4% (w/w) cream resulted in complete clinical and mycological cure in 27 of 34 patients (79%) after 7 days of treatment. The remaining seven patients (21%) achieved complete cure after seven additional days of treatment. All patients were evaluated for recurrence of mycotic infections 90 days after the end of treatment, yielding negative cultures for fungus. These results show that ajoene is an alternative, efficient and low-cost antimycotic drug for short-term therapy of tinea pedis. The fact that ajoene can be easily prepared from an alcoholic extract of garlic may make it suitable for Third World public health care.

  3. 3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a novel nonvolatile water-soluble antimicrobial sulfur compound in heated garlic.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Sik; Lim, Dong Ryul; Kyung, Kyu Hang

    2010-10-01

    A nonvolatile and slightly water-soluble antimicrobial sulfur compound newly isolated from heated garlic extract was characterized. The compound was generated most when heated at 120°C for 30 minutes and completely disappeared after 90 minutes of heating. It has a molecular mass of 225 daltons with an elemental ratio of C₆H₁₁N₁O₂S₃, and the interpretation of ¹H- and ¹³C-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform-infrared data showed that the compound was CH₂=CH-CH₂-S-S-S-CH₂-CH(NH₂)COOH, 3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a derivative of cysteine, presumably derived from alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide). This novel compound has comparatively potent anti-yeast activity and rather weak antibacterial activity, similar to other antimicrobial compounds in garlic.

  4. The Effects of Age and Set Size on the Fast Extraction of Egocentric Distance.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Daniel A; Wallin, Courtney P; Philbeck, John W

    Angular direction is a source of information about the distance to floor-level objects that can be extracted from brief glimpses (near one's threshold for detection). Age and set size are two factors known to impact the viewing time needed to directionally localize an object, and these were posited to similarly govern the extraction of distance. The question here was whether viewing durations sufficient to support object detection (controlled for age and set size) would also be sufficient to support well-constrained judgments of distance. Regardless of viewing duration, distance judgments were more accurate (less biased towards underestimation) when multiple potential targets were presented, suggesting that the relative angular declinations between the objects are an additional source of useful information. Distance judgments were more precise with additional viewing time, but the benefit did not depend on set size and accuracy did not improve with longer viewing durations. The overall pattern suggests that distance can be efficiently derived from direction for floor-level objects. Controlling for age-related differences in the viewing time needed to support detection was sufficient to support distal localization but only when brief and longer glimpse trials were interspersed. Information extracted from longer glimpse trials presumably supported performance on subsequent trials when viewing time was more limited. This outcome suggests a particularly important role for prior visual experience in distance judgments for older observers.

  5. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  6. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31316] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory requirements... INFORMATION: [[Page 344

  7. Biobleaching of industrial important dyes with peroxidase partially purified from garlic.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5-5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  8. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O.; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range. PMID:25401128

  9. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  10. Natural Arctium lappa fruit extract improves the clinical signs of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Knott, Anja; Reuschlein, Katja; Mielke, Heiko; Wensorra, Ursula; Mummert, Christopher; Koop, Urte; Kausch, Martina; Kolbe, Ludger; Peters, Nils; Stäb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    Subclinical, chronic tissue inflammation involving the generation of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) might contribute to the cutaneous aging process. This study aims to screen for an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory (i.e., reduction of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and matrix-stimulating efficacy which improves the clinical signs of skin aging in vivo. In vitro studies with pure Arctiin were performed investigating the inhibition of cytokine induction and stimulation of collagen neo-synthesis. In vivo home-in-use studies using an Arctium lappa fruit extract-containing formulation were carried out to determine procollagen and hyaluronan synthesis, hyaluronan synthase-2 gene expression, and reduction of wrinkle volume after treatment. In vitro studies on human dermal fibroblasts and monocyte-derived dendritic cells supplemented with pure Arctiin showed relative to untreated control cells a stimulation of collagen synthesis and a decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, respectively. In addition, topical in vivo application of an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation for 12 weeks significantly stimulated procollagen synthesis and increased hyaluronan synthase-2 expression as well as hyaluronan levels compared to vehicle-treated control areas. Similarly, after a 4-week treatment with an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation, wrinkle volume in the crow's feet area was significantly reduced as compared to treatment with the vehicle. Our data show that topical treatment with a natural A. lappa fruit extract significantly improves the metabolism of the dermal extracellular matrix and leads to a visible wrinkle reduction in vivo. In conclusion, A. lappa fruit extract represents a targeted means to regenerate dermal structures and, thus, offers an effective treatment option for mature skin.

  11. [Garlic oil inhibits cyclin E expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Jiang; Yan, Xi; Zhang, Wan-Dai; Luo, Rong-Cheng

    2007-08-01

    To explore the inhibitory effect of garlic oil on cyclin E expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells were cultured routinely and the expressions of transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are detected by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. The SGC7901 cells were also cultured with RPMI 1640 without calf serum for 48 h, followed by further culture with RPMI 1640 in the presence of 2.5% calf serum before treatment with TGFalpha, garlic oil, or their combination, and cyclin E expression of the cells was then detected by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. The positivity rates of TGFalpha and EGFR expressions were 46.80% and 57.78 % respectively in SGC7901 cells cultured routinely for 48 h. The positivity rate of cyclin E expression was increased by 7.06% (P<0.001) in SGC7901 cells treated with 30 microg/L TGFalpha for 5 h, decreased by 11.75% (P<0.001) following a 5-hour treatment with 10% garlic oil, and decreased further by 17.11% (Plt;0.001) after treatment with both 30 microg/L TGFalpha and 10% garlic oil for 5 h. The gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells express TGFalpha and EGFR and possess TGFalpha autocrine and paracrine loops to promote cell proliferation. Garlic oil inhibits cyclin E expression in routinely cultured SGC7901 cells and also in TGFalpha-treated ones, suggesting that garlic oil can inhibit the TGFalpha autocrine and paracrine loops, which can be one of the pathways of garlic oil to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

  12. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  13. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... administrative review (AR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the...

  14. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  15. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the...

  16. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994....

  17. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located in... to the manufacture of garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located...

  18. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  19. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  20. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the... published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on November...

  1. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop.

    PubMed

    Hata, Fernando T; Ventura, Maurício U; Carvalho, Mateus G; Miguel, André L A; Souza, Mariana S J; Paula, Maria T; Zawadneak, Maria A C

    2016-07-01

    The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations.

  2. Effects of garlic fractions consumption on male reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Imen; Nahdi, Afef; Atig, Fatma; Kouidhi, Wided; Amri, Mohamed; Mokni, Mehrzia; May, Ahmed El; May, Michèle El

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have focused on the preventive and curative effects of garlic (Allium sativum), particularly on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, its impacts on the male reproductive system have not been clearly defined. In this study, the effect of chronic consumption of two garlic fractions was tested: one soluble in water (aqueous solution obtained by grinding and centrifugation) and the other one precipitated by ethanol (alcoholic precipitate obtained by precipitation of the aqueous solution), on different variables of male rats' reproductive functions. These two fractions were targeted to try to identify the nature of the active garlic compounds responsible for the different modifications observed on testicular parameters. The observation of seminiferous tubules of rats treated with garlic fractions showed an increased number of tubules deprived of spermatozoa. In addition, garlic fractions induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick-end labeling [TUNEL] approach) and a decrease of serum testosterone levels and seminiferous tubule DNA concentrations. In summary, our histological and molecular results suggest that one or several substances, soluble in water and precipitated by alcohol, impaired spermatogenesis.

  3. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-02-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection123

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  5. Extraction and amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from ancient and artificially aged bones.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Harbeck, Michaela; Wiesbrock, Urs; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Oehmichen, Manfred

    2003-03-01

    An experimental design is presented that simulates an accelerated process of DNA degradation in human bone tissues and thus provides a possibility for a systematic investigation of factors hampering DNA extraction and amplification. Equal sized slices of human femoral bones were incubated in 90 degrees C water for 2 h up to 30 days. DNA was extracted and subjected to a human specific Duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and also to a Multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) PCR. Additionally 24 ancient bones representing different age periods were investigated in the same way. The results were compared to those from the artificially aged samples. After just 12 h of incubation, DNA is totally degraded, but still fully typable. After 36 h no reproducible amplification of DNA is possible. Using Multiplex PCR the DNA from artificially aged bones shows the typical STR pattern for ancient samples suggesting that the in vitro approach provides a useful and comparable method to elucidate the DNA degradation process in bones.

  6. Development of Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Garlic Viruses and the Incidence of Garlic Viral Disease in Garlic Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Moon; Lee, Yeong-Hoon; Park, Chung Youl; Lee, Min-A; Bae, Yang-Soo; Lim, Seungmo; Lee, Joong Hwan; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed. To effectively detect the twelve different types of garlic viruses, primer mixtures were tested and divided into two independent sets for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The multiplex PCR assays were able to detect specific targets up to the similar dilution series with monoplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Seventy-two field samples collected by the Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. All seventy two samples were infected with at least one virus, and the coinfection rate was 78%. We conclude that the simultaneous detection system developed in this study can effectively detect and differentiate mixed viral infections in garlic. PMID:25774116

  7. In vitro sensitivity of Blastocystis hominis to garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper used in diet.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Beg, Muhammad Asim; Naz, Shagufta; Awan, Safia; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2011-08-01

    To determine the growth pattern and in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole (MTZ), garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper. Stool specimens were collected from 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 10 controls between July-November 2010. Stool microscopy and culture for B. hominis was performed. Drug susceptibility assays was done using 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml of MTZ, garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper. Effect was assessed on B. hominis culture after 48 h. Stool DNA was extracted using stool DNA extraction kit (Qiagen) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) done using subtype-specific sequence-tagged-site primers. B. hominis genotype 3 and coinfection of 1 and 3 tended to grow well in culture compared to isolated type 1 infection. Exposed to MTZ at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, 38% (6/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in culture compared to 100% (10/10) of B. hominis from control (p = 0.001). When they were exposed to MTZ at 0.1 mg/ml, 56% (9/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in cultures compared to 100% (10/10) from control (p = 0.01). Forty-four percent (7/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in culture compared to 100% (10/10) B. hominis from control when exposed to garlic at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.003) and following exposure to garlic at 0.1 mg/ml, 38% (6/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in cultures compared to 100% (10/10) from control (p = 0.001). B. hominis isolates from IBS had a cell count of 6,625 at a MTZ concentration of 0.01 mg/ml that reduced to 1,250 as MTZ concentration was increased to 0.1 mg/ml (p = 0.08). B. hominis from IBS with a mean cell count of 3 × 10(5) at baseline decreased to 1 × 10(4) when exposed to garlic at 0.01 mg/ml (p < 0.001) and to 1 × 10(3) (p < 0.001) when garlic was 0.1 mg/ml. B. hominis from IBS cell count decreased to 1 × 10(5) when exposed to white cumin at 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.01) and to 1 × 10(5) (p < 0.001) when white cumin was 0.1 mg/ml. Exposed to black

  8. Fifteen-Year Effects of Helicobacter pylori, Garlic, and Vitamin Treatments on Gastric Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lian; Brown, Linda M.; Shen, Lin; Pan, Kai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Han, Zhong-Xiang; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    In the Shandong Intervention Trial, 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori reduced the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions, whereas 7.3 years of oral supplementation with garlic extract and oil (garlic treatment) or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium (vitamin treatment) did not. Here we report 14.7-year follow-up for gastric cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among 3365 randomly assigned subjects in this masked factorial placebo-controlled trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of gastric cancer incidence, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative hazard of cause-specific mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 3.0% of subjects who received H pylori treatment and in 4.6% of those who received placebo (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.96, P = .032). Gastric cancer deaths occurred among 1.5% of subjects assigned H pylori treatment and among 2.1% of those assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.28). Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014). PMID:22271764

  9. Antioxidant and anti-aging effects of acidic-extractable polysaccharides by Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangshang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Wenshuai; Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Jianjun; Jing, Huijuan; Ren, Zhenzhen; Gao, Zheng; Song, Xinling; Jia, Le

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of D-galatose-induced (D-gal-induced) aging mice as well as monosaccharide compositions of acidic-extractable polysaccharides (AcAPS) and its major purified fractions (AcAPS-1, AcAPS-2 and AcAPS-3) from the fruiting body of Agaricus bisporus. In the in vitro assays, AcAPS-2 showed superior scavenging activities on hydroxyl (82.98±4.67%) and DPPH (64.47±4.05%) radicals at the concentration of 1.0mg/mL than AcAPS and other polysaccharides fractions. For in vivo anti-aging analysis, AcAPS-2 showed superior effects on hepatic and nephric protection by improving serum enzyme activities, biochemical levels, lipid contents and antioxidant status, respectively. The monosaccharide analysis showed that rhamnose (Rha) and glucose (Glu) may play vital roles in maintaining the antioxidant and anti-aging activities. The results suggested that both AcAPS and its purified fractions might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs in preventing the acute aging-associated diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora rhizomes dichloromethane extract on vascular functions in middle-aged male rat.

    PubMed

    Yorsin, Somruedee; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Radenahmad, Nisaudah; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2014-10-28

    In Thai traditional medicine, rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) have been used for treating hypertension and for the promotion of longevity with good health and well being. Ageing is one of the most important risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether a 6 weeks oral administration of a dichloromethane extract of fresh rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KPD) had any effects on vascular functions, on the accumulation of lipid, as well as on any signs of gross organ toxicity in middle-aged rats. Fresh rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora were first macerated twice with 95% ethanol to remove the dark color before extracting three times with 100% dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain the dried Kaempferia parviflora dichloromethane extract (KPD). The rats were orally administered with the KPD at a dosage of 100mg/kg body weight, or with the same volume of the vehicle (tween 80, 0.2g: carboxy-methylcellulose sodium, 0.2g: distilled water 10 ml) once or twice a day for 6 weeks. Vascular functions were studied on isolated thoracic aorta and the mesenteric artery. The vascular eNOS enzyme was measured by Western blot analysis. Blood chemistry was measured by enzymatic methods. Liver cell lipid accumulation was measured using oil red O staining. A 6 weeks treatment of KPD once a day had no significant effects on any of the studied parameters. When the KPD was given twice a day, the contractile responses to phenylephrine of the thoracic aorta and mesenteric artery were lower than the vehicle control group, and this effect was abolished by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine or by removal of the vascular endothelium. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine, but not to glyceryl trinitrate, by the thoracic aortic and mesenteric ring precontracted with phenylephrine was higher from the KPD treated rats than those from the vehicle control groups. Western blot analysis showed a higher quantity of thoracic- and

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of garlic, tea tree oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and ultraviolet sanitizing device in the decontamination of toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Chandrdas, Dithi; Jayakumar, H L; Chandra, Mahesh; Katodia, Lavleen; Sreedevi, Athira

    2014-10-01

    To assess and compare the efficacy of 3% garlic extract, 0.2% tea tree oil, 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, and ultravoilet (UV) toothbrush sanitizing device as toothbrush disinfectants against Streptococcus mutans. A double blind randomized controlled parallel study was done on 210 dental students. The subjects were divided into one control group using distilled water and five study groups representing 0.2% tea tree oil, 3% garlic extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and UV toothbrush sanitizing device. Participants were provided with new toothbrushes and toothpastes for both baseline and intervention phases. The toothbrushes were collected after two weeks for microbial analysis in both phases. The data were analysed and compared using appropriate statistical analysis. On comparing pre- and post-intervention, S. mutans colony counts, a highly significant (P < 0.001) difference was observed in all the groups. Differences of 77.74 colony forming units (CFU) in tea tree oil group, 102.87 CFU in garlic group, 68.13 CFU in chlorhexidine group, 82.47 CFU in cetylpyridinium group and 42.67 CFU in UV toothbrush sanitizer group were observed. Garlic group showed the highest reduction (100%) whereas UV toothbrush sanitizer group showed the least reduction (47.4%) in S. mutans colonies. The antimicrobial agents used in this study effectively reduced the S. mutans counts and hence can be considered as toothbrush disinfectants to prevent dental caries. The 3% garlic was the most effective among the antimicrobial agents.

  12. Synergistic antiyeast activity of garlic oil and allyl alcohol derived from alliin in garlic.

    PubMed

    Chung, I; Kwon, S H; Shim, S-T; Kyung, K H

    2007-11-01

    Garlic oil (GO) and allyl alcohol (AA), both derived from alliin in garlic using different preparation methods, cause potent growth inhibition in yeasts. GO and AA inhibited Candida utilis ATCC42416 in different ways: GO has fungistatic activity while AA has fungicidal activity. GO and AA have almost identical antimicrobial potencies against the indicator yeast, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of about 25 ppm when tested individually. When GO and AA were tested in combination, the antimicrobial efficacy significantly increased. Combinations of AA and GO at 1 and 9 ppm, 2 and 7 ppm, 5 and 5 ppm, and 6 and 3 ppm, respectively, inhibited C. utilis completely. The sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) in the 2-component (GO and AA) combination was as low as 0.37 for C. utilis, indicating strong synergism. The sum of the FICs of diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide in combination with AA was larger than that of the GO-AA combination, suggesting that the synergy was lower.

  13. Inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in fried ground beef patties by garlic and selected garlic-related sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Shin, Inn-Seung; Rodgers, W John; Gomaa, Enayat A; Strasburg, Gale M; Gray, J Ian

    2002-11-01

    The effects of garlic and selected organosulfur compounds (diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, cysteine, and cystine) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in fried ground beef patties were evaluated. Minced garlic cloves (ca. 4.8 to 16.7%, wt/wt) or organosulfur compounds (0.67 mmol) were added directly to ground beef. Patties (100 g) were fried at 225 degrees C (surface temperature) for 10 min per side. Two patties were fried for each replication, and five replicates were analyzed for each treatment. For each replicate, four subsamples were analyzed (two unspiked subsamples for concentration and two spiked subsamples for the recovery of HAA standards). The volatile sulfur compounds significantly (P < 0.05) reduced concentrations of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by reductions of 46 to 81%, while average reductions of 35, 22, and 71%, were achieved with cystine, cysteine, and whole garlic, respectively. The volatile sulfur compounds reduced concentrations of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline by 34 to 67%, while reductions of 25, 19, and 63% (P < 0.05) were achieved with cystine, cysteine, and whole garlic, respectively. These studies confirm that garlic and some organosulfur compounds have the potential to reduce HAA formation incooked beef patties.

  14. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    PubMed Central

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  15. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  16. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sankhadip; Laha, Bibek; Banerjee, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well. PMID:24991105

  17. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Lembo, Carina; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant), F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables. PMID:21876795

  18. Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Diana M.; Movahed, Pouya; Hinman, Andrew; Axelsson, Helena E.; Sterner, Olov; Högestätt, Edward D.; Julius, David; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Zygmunt, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Garlic belongs to the Allium family of plants that produce organosulfur compounds, such as allicin and diallyl disulfide (DADS), which account for their pungency and spicy aroma. Many health benefits have been ascribed to Allium extracts, including hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Intriguingly, allicin and DADS share structural similarities with allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in wasabi and other mustard plants that induces pain and inflammation by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway. Here we show that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings. Moreover, allicin and DADS activate the cloned TRPA1 channel when expressed in heterologous systems. These and other results suggest that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1. Thus different plant genera, including Allium and Brassica, have developed evolutionary convergent strategies that target TRPA1 channels on sensory nerve endings to achieve chemical deterrence. PMID:16103371

  19. Pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic and atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, G. Dilip; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, M. Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic with atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats with induced dyslipidemia were divided into five groups of eight rats each. Group 1 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) orally), group 2 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (1% w/w in feed), group 3 was maintained on atorvastatin (5 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (0.5% w/w in feed), group 4 was maintained on atorvastatin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (0.25% w/w in feed), and group 5 was maintained on atorvastatin (2.5 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (0.75% w/w in feed) for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals for kinetic analysis after the first and last oral dosing of atorvastatin for single and multiple dose studies, respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for atorvastatin concentration by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and then the concentration-time data were analyzed. Results: Maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax), half-life, Area Under Plasma Concentration Time Curve (AUC), and Mean Resident Time (MRT) were significantly (P<0.05) increased during multiple dose kinetic study and elimination rate constant was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in comparison with their respective single-dose values, while there was no significant difference in time to achieve maximum concentration (tmax) in all groups during both phases of the study. The highest values for kinetic parameters were observed in group 2 with correspondingly low activity of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450). Conclusion: The study revealed higher values [Cmax, AUC, Area Under The Moment Curve (AUMC), MRT, and half-life] of atorvastatin in garlic-treated groups. PMID:22529485

  20. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway.

  1. DNA extraction from aged skeletal samples for STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huel, René; Amory, Sylvain; Bilić, Ana; Vidović, Stojko; Jasaragić, Edin; Parsons, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    STR analysis of DNA extracted from skeletal samples can play an important role in the identification of missing persons. Here we present a method for the extraction of DNA from skeletal samples involving complete demineralization and digestion of the sample, followed by purification by silica binding. This method, together with the multiplex STR typing approach also presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles from degraded, aged skeletal remains from a wide range of environmental contexts. The methodological steps presented include bone decontamination and grinding, DNA extraction, repurification in the case of highly inhibited samples, quantification, STR multiplex amplification, and profile reporting guidelines. However, the conditions applied for amplification and the criteria for allele calling and profile submission must be based on the results of each laboratory's internal validation experiments involving the type of samples relevant to the project at hand. The methods presented here have permitted large-scale DNA-based identification of persons missing from mass disasters and armed conflict.

  2. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27792185

  3. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-10-26

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effects of extracts of spices on rumen methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feeds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Kamra, Devki Nandan; Agarwal, Neeta

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of boiling water, methanol and ethanol extracts (0, 0.25 and 0.50 mL) of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), bulbs of Allium sativum (garlic), bulbs of Allium cepa (onion) and roots of Zingiber officinalis (ginger) on rumen methanogenesis, fibrolytic enzyme activities and fermentation characteristics in vitro. Ethanol and methanol extracts of fennel, clove and garlic at 0.50 mL and clove at 0.25 mL inhibited (P < 0.05) methane production. Carboxymethylcellulase activity was reduced (P < 0.05) by ethanol and methanol extracts (0.50 mL) of fennel and clove (0.25 and 0.50 mL). The extracts of clove reduced (0.25 and 0.50 mL) xylanase and acetylesterase activities, and the fennel extract (0.50 mL) reduced (P < 0.05) xylanase activity. However, the extracts of garlic (0.50 mL) increased (P < 0.05) acetylesterase activity. Concentrations of volatile fatty acids were reduced (P < 0.05) by the extracts of garlic and onion. The extracts of garlic caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) at 0.50 mL, whereas A:P was increased (P < 0.05) by the inclusion of 0.50 mL extracts of clove. Methanol and ethanol extracts of clove decreased (P < 0.05) in vitro organic matter degradability. Extracts (0.50 mL) of clove decreased (P < 0.05) the numbers of total protozoa, small entodiniomorphs and holotrichs, whereas extracts of onion, ginger and garlic enhanced (P < 0.05) protozoal numbers (both entodiniomorphs and holotrichs). Ethanol and methanol extracts of fennel and garlic have potential to inhibit rumen methanogenesis without adversely affecting rumen fermentation.

  6. Aqueous root extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. Has antioxidant activity in D-galactose-induced aging mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linghua; Chen, Yanhua; Ou, Lijun; Xu, Yinglong; Yu, Xiaoying

    2017-09-25

    Extracts of plants have been considered as sources of natural antioxidant agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous root extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. Using vitamin C (Vc) as a positive control, we analyzed the aqueous root extract of A. cochinchinensis free radical scavenging ability in vitro. We also established a mouse aging model using D-galactose and then treated it with aqueous root extract or Vc. The blood cell count and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents were measured; pathological examination of tissues was performed; and SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and NOS expression levels in the serum, liver, and brain tissues were investigated. In vitro, compared with the antioxidant Vc, the aqueous root extract showed similar 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic·scavenging activities and even significantly increased superoxide anion (p < 0.05) and hydroxyl radical (OH) (p < 0.01) scavenging activities. The aqueous extract significantly increased the white blood cell count as well as enhanced SOD, CAT, and NOS activities (p < 0.01) in aging mice. In addition, the aqueous extract increased the NO content (p < 0.05) and reduced the MDA content (p < 0.05). The aqueous root extract of A. cochinchinensis showed as strong antioxidant ability as Vc and might prevent aging by reducing radicals.

  7. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is impaired by the garlic volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in vitro and in-feed garlic alleviates pleuropneumonia in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Petra M; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Mul, Monique F; Pol, Arjan; Engel, Bas; Wijdenes, Jan W; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Wisselink, Henk J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2012-01-27

    Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32 ± 0.13 μM. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p=0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group.

  8. Allicin from garlic neutralizes the hemolytic activity of intra- and extra-cellular pneumolysin O in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arzanlou, M; Bohlooli, S; Jannati, E; Mirzanejad-Asl, H

    2011-03-15

    Pneumolysin (PLY) is a key virulence factor contributes to the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study we investigated the effect of allicin and aqueous garlic extracts on hemolytic activity of PLY both in prelysed and intact cells. Additionally the antimicrobial activity of allicin was tested against the bacteria. All tested materials potently inhibited the PLY hemolytic activity. Allicin neutralizes PLY in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Twenty five minute incubation of PLY (2 HU/mL) with 0.61 μM/mL concentration of allicin, totally inhibited hemolytic activity of PLY (IC50 = 0.28 μM/mL). The inhibitory activity of old extract of garlic was similar to pure allicin (IC50 = 50.46 μL/mL; 0.31 μM/mL; P < 0.05). In contrast fresh extract of garlic inhibits the PLY hemolytic activity at lower concentrations (IC50 = 13.96 μL/mL; 0.08 μM/mL allicin). Exposure of intact cells to allicin (1.8 μM) completely inhibited hemolytic activity of PLY inside bacterial cells. The inhibitory effect of the allicin was restored by addition of reducing agent DTT at 5 mM, proposing that allicin likely inhibits the PLY by binding to cysteinyl residue in the binding site. The MIC value of allicin was determined to be 512 μg/mL (3.15 μM/mL). These results indicate that PLY is a novel target for allicin and may provide a new line of investigation on pneumococcal diseases in the future.

  9. Changes in blood profile in sheep receiving raw garlic, garlic oil or monensin.

    PubMed

    Anassori, E; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Pirmohammadi, R; Hadian, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing a basal diet (CTR) with raw garlic (GAR) or garlic oil (GAO) on blood profile in sheep. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Four ruminally fistulated rams were used in three experiments each arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Experiments 1 and 2 differed in the dose of GAR (75 vs. 100 g/kg DM) and GAO (500 vs. 750 mg/kg DM), while experiment 3 was designed to compare the two doses of each additive (GAR and GAO). The animals were fed a basal diet as TMR consisting of 77.83% forage (alfalfa hay and corn silage) and 22.17% concentrate, providing 10.50 MJ/kg DM (metabolizable energy) and 16.5% crude protein to cover maintenance energy and protein requirements. Supplementation of monensin decreased (P < 0.05) β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in the blood compared with other treatments. There was no significant effect of additives on serum concentration of glucose, total triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Although the serum insulin concentration was elevated in sheep receiving MON and GAO (P < 0.01), no change was observed in blood glucose concentration. No significant effect of GAO and GAR was observed in key energy and protein-related blood metabolites. However, administration of monensin had a positive influence on energy indices. In conclusion, whereas parameters characterizing the energy balance did not show a significant effect of GAR supplementation, a higher insulin concentration in GAO-treated animals was observed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  11. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  12. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  13. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  15. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184.1317 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  17. Cooked garlic and antioxidant activity: Correlation with organosulfur compound composition.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, D A; Nazareno, M A; Fusari, C M; Camargo, A B

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidant properties and the main beneficial organosulphur compounds of home-cooked garlic samples were studied in order to establish relationships between them. Antioxidant activity was tested by free radical scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(+)), Fe(III) reducing ability (FRAP) and linoleic acid co-oxidation initiated by soybean lipoxygenase in a micelle system. DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed the highest activity for raw garlic samples, while β-carotene bleaching assay yielded the highest activity for stir-fried garlic. Pure organosulphur compounds tested by DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays showed that allicin had an antiradical action mechanism, as well as iron reducing capacity; while antioxidant activity was the main mechanism for ajoenes and 2-VD. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that home-cooked garlic retains its antioxidant activity, and, at the same time, elucidates the mechanisms involved in this activity.

  18. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  19. Endurance training and maximal oxygen consumption with ageing: Role of maximal cardiac output and oxygen extraction.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Díaz-Cañestro, Candela

    2016-05-01

    The increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) with endurance training is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax), but not oxygen extraction, in young individuals. Whether such a relationship is altered with ageing remains unclear. Therefore, we sought systematically to review and determine the effect of endurance training on and the associations among VO2max, Qmax and arteriovenous oxygen difference at maximal exercise (Ca-vO2max) in healthy aged individuals. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science, from their inceptions until May 2015 for articles assessing the effect of endurance training lasting 3 weeks or longer on VO2max and Qmax and/or Ca-vO2max in healthy middle-aged and/or older individuals (mean age ≥40 years). Meta-analyses were performed to determine the standardised mean difference (SMD) in VO2max, Qmax and Ca-vO2max between post and pre-training measurements. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations among SMDs and potential moderating factors. Sixteen studies were included after systematic review, comprising a total of 153 primarily untrained healthy middle-aged and older subjects (mean age 42-71 years). Endurance training programmes ranged from 8 to 52 weeks of duration. After data pooling, VO2max (SMD 0.89; P < 0.0001) and Qmax (SMD 0.61; P < 0.0001) were increased after endurance training; no heterogeneity among studies was detected. Ca-vO2max was only increased with endurance training interventions lasting more than 12 weeks (SMD 0.62; P = 0.001). In meta-regression, the SMD in Qmax was positively associated with the SMD in VO2max (B = 0.79, P = 0.04). The SMD in Ca-vO2max was not associated with the SMD in VO2max (B = 0.09, P = 0.84). The improvement in VO2max following endurance training is a linear function of Qmax, but not Ca-vO2max, through healthy ageing. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. Determination of K-Ar ages in milligram samples using an infrared laser for argon extraction.

    PubMed

    Solé, Jesús

    2009-11-01

    The K-Ar dating method has been used for decades to decipher the ages of terrestrial and extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. The natural radioactive decay of a metal to a rare gas is an advantage that allows the determination of very small amounts of argon by mass spectrometry. Although the Ar-Ar method has superseded K-Ar, the latter is still used and it has room for improvement. One of these is the reduction of the analyzed sample mass, a desideratum of any current analytical technique. I report here our experience in K-Ar geochronology of milligram-sized samples using laser heating and melting for gas extraction. This modification of the classical K-Ar technique has not been, to my knowledge, used in any other laboratory in the world and deserves a detailed description of its advantages and limitations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A postulated role of garlic organosulfur compounds in prevention of valproic acid hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sabayan, Behnam; Foroughinia, Farzaneh; Chohedry, Abdolhamid

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid (2-propyl-pentanoic acid, VPA) is well established as a first-line and widely used antiepileptic agent. VPA is well tolerated in most patients and has an impressive safety profile. VPA induced hepatotoxicity is rare, but often there is fatal complication of this drug and it is more frequent in children under 2 years of age and in those taking multiple drugs. Several findings showed that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) over production and/or compromised antioxidant capacity play an important role in the development of hepatotoxicity in VPA treated patients. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and its related enzymes are important cellular defense against oxidative stress in which VPA induced oxidative stress impairs their function in hepatocytes. Consequently any mechanism which removes ROS or prevents hepatic GSH depletion or induce activation and production of GSH dependent enzymes may provide protection for hepatotoxicity in VPA-treated patient. As garlic organosulfur compounds enhance cellular antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging and augmentation of endogenous antioxidants via prevention of GSH depletion and alteration of GSH dependent enzymes activity and/or their gene expression, we propose the hypothesis that garlic organosulfur compounds can prevent valproic acid hepatotoxicity.

  2. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  3. Comparison of antiplatelet activity of garlic tablets with cardio-protective dose of aspirin in healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Shafiekhani, Mojtaba; Faridi, Pouya; Kojuri, Javad; Namazi, Soha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Some of the adverse effects of aspirin including peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and aspirin resistance compelled researchers to find a suitable alternative with fewer adverse effects. In this clinical trial, we aimed to find the effective antiplatelet dose of garlic. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted on 62 healthy volunteers of 20-50 years old. All volunteers used 80 mg aspirin per day for 1 week and at the end of this time, platelet aggregation (PA) induced by 4 agonists acting in aggregation pathway including adenosinediphosphate (20 μmol/l), epinephrine (20 μmol/l), collagen(0.19 mg/ ml) and arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ ml) was measured by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA) in all participants. After one month washout period, volunteers were randomized into 3 groups and each received 1, 2 or 3 garlic tablets (1250 mg) a day for 1 month. After one month, PA was examined in all groups. Results: The mean ±SD of the age of all volunteers was 28.60 ± 9.00 years. In addition, 52.00 % of our volunteers were male and 48.00% of them were female. Garlic tablet didnot have significant effect on PA at any dose. However, 30% of volunteers in the group that used 3 garlic tablets/day reported adverse effect (i.e. bleeding). No significant association between sex, age and PA was observed. Conclusion: In this study, we were unable to determine the effective anti-platelet dose of garlic which that could be equal to that of aspirin anti-platelet activity, as assessed LTA method. PMID:27761425

  4. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    NAKASONE, YASUSHI; SATO, NORIMASA; AZUMA, TAKAYUKI; HASUMI, KEIJI

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The trial was conducted in subjects aged between 30 and 60 years whose rate of salivary sIgA release was moderately low. Subjects consumed 2.49 g of placebo or black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food (active food) daily for 8 weeks. The data obtained with 54 eligible subjects (n=28 and 26 for placebo and active, respectively) were analyzed for efficacy. The rates of salivary sIgA release in the active food group (35.9±84.6 and 47.9±123.4 µg/min at weeks 4 and 8 of intake; changes from pretrial value) were higher compared to the respective rates in the placebo food group (−12.3±72.1 and −3.2±85.9 µg/min, P=0.028 and 0.082, respectively). These findings indicate that intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food enhanced the intraoral immune response. There was no adverse event associated with the intake of active food. PMID:27347407

  5. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

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