Science.gov

Sample records for garlic extract inhibits

  1. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    SciTech Connect

    Knasmueller, S.; Szakmary, A.; Domjan, G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of {gamma}-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detectedmore » with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells.« less

  2. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  3. Fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Boggian, Marisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-S-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (Voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. Primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium gramineareum, Gliocladium roseum 47, Pythium splendens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium, Trichoderma longibranchiatum, and Botrytis cinerea. Secondary screening was carried out using a lyophilized and a spray-dried preparation at different concentrations against the organisms selected for the high inhibition garlic effect in the primary screening and compared with the commercial fungicides mancozeb and iprodione. The best results were observed for the spray-dried garlic compound that showed a good fungicidal activity at the concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL while lyophilized garlic at the same concentration exhibited less inhibition activity against the four fungi analyzed in the second screening.

  4. Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Ahmed, Nessar

    2007-04-30

    Hyperglycaemia causes increased protein glycation and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts which underlie the complications of diabetes and ageing. Glycation is accompanied by metal-catalysed oxidation of glucose and Amadori products to form free radicals capable of protein fragmentation. Aged garlic extract is a potent antioxidant with established lipid-lowering effects attributed largely to a key ingredient called S-allyl cysteine. This study investigated the ability of aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine to inhibit advanced glycation in vitro. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was glycated in the presence of Cu(2+) ions and different concentrations of aged garlic extract and protein fragmentation was examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Lysozyme was glycated by glucose or methylglyoxal in the presence of different concentrations of aged garlic extract or S-allyl cysteine with subsequent analysis of glycation-derived crosslinking using SDS-PAGE. Amadori-rich protein was prepared by dialysing lysozyme that had been glycated by ribose for 24 h. This ribated lysozyme was reincubated and the effects of aged garlic extract, S-allyl cysteine and pyridoxamine on glycation-induced crosslinking was monitored. Aged garlic extract inhibited metal-catalysed protein fragmentation. Both aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine inhibited formation of glucose and methylglyoxal derived advanced glycation endproducts and showed potent Amadorin activity when compared to pyridoxamine. S-allyl cysteine inhibited formation of carboxymethyllysine (CML), a non-crosslinked advanced glycation endproduct derived from oxidative processes. Further studies are required to assess whether aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine can protect against the harmful effects of glycation and free radicals in diabetes and ageing.

  5. Green tea extract and aged garlic extract inhibit anion transport and sickle cell dehydration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S T; Ohnishi, T; Ogunmola, G B

    2001-01-01

    Both green tea extract (GTE or tea polyphenols) and aged garlic extract (AGE) effectively inhibited in vitro dehydration of sickle red blood cells induced by K-Cl cotransport or red cell storage. For K-Cl cotransport induced by 500 mM urea, 0.3 mg/ml EGCg (epigallocatechin gallate; a major component in GTE) almost completely inhibited dehydration, and 6 mg/ml AGE inhibited dehydration to 30% of the control level. Both vitamins E and C had no effect at the level of 2 mM. Different tea extracts had different degrees of inhibition, but the inhibitory activity increased when the number of hydroxyl groups in the compounds increased. With storage of sickle cells at 4 degrees C for 6 days, the cells started to undergo spontaneous dehydration when incubated at 37 degrees C. Neither inhibitors for Ca-induced K efflux nor K-Cl cotransport could inhibit cell dehydration of stored sickle cells, but both GTE and AGE effectively inhibited it. Chloride efflux measurements using a chloride electrode demonstrated that both GTE and AGE inhibited anion transport in red blood cells. The inhibitory mechanism of these compounds may be related to anion transport inhibition, although involvement of their antioxidant activities can not yet be ruled out. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  7. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells.

  8. Effects of garlic extract on spreading depression: In vitro and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Marschollek, Claudia; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Jafarian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Milad; Mohajeri, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Sadegh; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different types of headaches has been suggested by several medieval literatures. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a propagating wave of neuroglial depolarization, was established as a target for anti-migraine drugs. This study was designed to investigate the effect of garlic extract on CSD in adult rats. CSD was induced by KCl microinjection in the somatosensory cortex. The effects of five different concentrations of garlic oil (1-500 μl/l) were tested on different characteristic features of CSD in necocortical slices. In in vivo experiments, the effects of garlic oil on electrophysiological and morphological changes induced by CSD were investigated. Garlic oil in a dose-dependent manner decreased the amplitude of CSD but not its duration and velocity in neocortical brain slices. Garlic oil at concentration of 500 μl/l reversibly reduced the amplitude of the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation in the third layer of neocortical slices. In in vivo studies, systemic application of garlic oil (1 ml/l) for three consecutive days reduced the amplitude and repetition rate of CSD. Garlic oil also prevented of CSD-induced reactive astrocytosis in the neocortex. Garlic oil suppresses CSD, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity, and prevents its harmful effects on astrocyte. Further studies are required to identify the exact active ingredient(s) of garlic oil that inhibit CSD and may have the potential to use in treatment of CSD-related disorders.

  9. [New pharmacological activities of garlic and its constituents].

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, H

    1997-10-01

    According to the recent pharmacological findings, garlic is a preventive rather than therapeutic. Epidemiological studies in China, Italy and USA showed the inverse relationship between stomach and colon cancer incidences and dietary garlic intake. Anti-carcinogenic activities of garlic and its constituents including sulfides and S-allyl cysteine, have been demonstrated using several animal models. Garlic preparations has been also shown to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which are major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, through inhibition of their bio-synthesis in the liver, and to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that aged garlic extract stimulated immune functions, such as proliferation of lymphocyte, cytokine release, NK activity and phagocytosis. More recently, aged garlic extract has been demonstrated to prolong life span of senescence accelerated mice and prevent brain atrophy. Manufacturing processes significantly affect chemical constituents in garlic preparations. Different forms contain different phytochemicals and may have different effects and toxicities. For example, aged garlic extract inhibited t-BuOOH-induced oxidation, whereas raw garlic stimulated the oxidation. Although garlic has been used as a condiment and folklore for a long time, it has been noted to cause adverse reactions, such as stomach ulcer and anemia. Among the garlic preparations, only aged garlic extract has been proven to be safe through toxicological studies. Thus, aged garlic extract could be the most promising garlic preparation for disease prevention.

  10. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gil-Ortiz, Mariana; Albarrán, Gabriela; Barbachano-Esparza, Laura; Menjívar, Marta; Medina-Campos, Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a) the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling, microwave or pickling do not

  11. Anticancer effects of garlic and garlic-derived compounds for breast cancer control.

    PubMed

    Tsubura, Airo; Lai, Yen-Chang; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2011-03-01

    Garlic and garlic-derived compounds reduce the development of mammary cancer in animals and suppress the growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. Oil-soluble compounds derived from garlic, such as diallyl disulfide (DADS), are more effective than water-soluble compounds in suppressing breast cancer. Mechanisms of action include the activation of metabolizing enzymes that detoxify carcinogens, the suppression of DNA adduct formation, the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species, the regulation of cell-cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Selenium-enriched garlic or organoselenium compounds provide more potent protection against mammary carcinogenesis in rats and greater inhibition of breast cancer cells in culture than natural garlic or the respective organosulfur analogues. DADS synergizes the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, a breast cancer suppressor, and antagonizes the effect of linoleic acid, a breast cancer enhancer. Moreover, garlic extract reduces the side effects caused by anti-cancer agents. Thus, garlic and garlic-derived compounds are promising candidates for breast cancer control.

  12. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  13. Immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of garlic extract on Eimeria vermiformis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Atef Mohammed; Yasuda, Masahiro; Farid, Ayman Samir; Desouky, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohi-Eldin, Mouchira Mohammed; Haridy, Mohie; Horii, Yoichiro

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the immunomodulatory and parasiticidal effects of garlic extract on coccidiosis caused by Eimeria vermiformis infection in male ICR mice. One group received garlic extract daily until the end of the experiment by the oral route from 10 days prior to oral infection with 300 sporulated E. vermiformis oocysts (infected-garlic(+)). The other group served as a control positive with E. vermiformis infection alone (infected-garlic(-)). In the infected-garlic(+) group, garlic extract treatment induced a significant reduction in fecal oocyst output when compared with the infected-garlic(-) group. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analysis for inflammatory cytokines in ileal tissues showed that the garlic extract treatment impaired intracellular development of E. vermiformis during the early stages by increasing the number of intraepithelial CD8(+) T cells and decreasing IL-10 expression. This induced cell cytotoxicity which was reflected by a decrease in oocyst numbers in the intestinal villi and the feces, indicating anticoccidial effects of the garlic extract. However, further studies to explore the precise mechanism of the observed effects of garlic treatment during Eimeria infection are needed to verify our results.

  14. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Falconi, Caterina; Marconi, Ombretta; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid oxidation causes changes in quality attributes of vegetable oils. Synthetic antioxidants have been used to preserve oils; however, there is interest in replacing them with natural ones. Garlic and its thiosulfinate compound allicin are known for their antioxidant activities. This study assesses a novel formulation, the supercritical fluid extract of garlic, on sunflower oil oxidation during an accelerated shelf-life test. Three quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide values, and p-anisidine values) were evaluated in each of the six oil samples. The samples included sunflower oil alone, sunflower oil supplemented with BHT, the undiluted supercritical fluid extract of garlic, and sunflower oils supplemented with three levels of garlic extract. The oils were also investigated for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH and the FRAP assays. The results were compared with the effect of the synthetic BHT. Our results underlined that the highest level of garlic extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving sunflower oil. The oxidative degradation of oily samples can be limited by using supercritical fluid extract of garlic as it is a safe and an effective natural antioxidant formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Purified aged garlic extract modulates allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zare, Ahad; Farzaneh, Parvaneh; Pourpak, Zahra; Zahedi, Fatemeh; Moin, Mostafa; Shahabi, Shahram; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2008-09-01

    Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicinal herb with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer and anticoagulant. Our previous studies have shown some immunoregulatory effects for aged garlic extract, suggesting a key role for 14-kD glycoprotein of garlic in shifting the cytokine pattern to T helper-1. In present study, we investigated the effect of 1, 2, and 3 times intraperitoneal injections of aged garlic extract on an established allergic airway inflammation in murine model (BALB/c mice). The garlic extract, isolated by biochemical method, includes proteins precipitation by ammonium sulfate. After injection of the aged garlic extract, IFN-, anti allergen specific IgE and IgG1 were measured in lavage and serum by ELISA and histological assessment was performed on the lung tissues. The results indicated that three-time intra peritoneal injections of the aged garlic extract caused a significant decrease in the hallmark criteria of allergic airway inflammation levels which included eosinophil percentage in lavage, peribronchial lung eosinophils, IgG1 level in lavage and serum, mucous producing goblet cells grade and peribronchial and perivascular inflammation. Our findings in the present research suggested that aged garlic extract has the potential of attenuation of inflammatory features of allergic airway inflammation in murine model.

  16. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  17. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn; Li, Yu-Feng

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation ofmore » Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.« less

  18. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  19. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Kumar, Vaibhav

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae), commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The efficacy of the extract was compared with standard antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine and imipramine. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated by co-administration of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), baclofen (GABAB agonist) and p-CPA (serotonin antagonist) separately with the extract and by studying the effect of the extract on brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels. Results: Garlic extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o.) and imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o.) in both TST and FST. The extract did not show any significant effect on the locomotor activity of the mice. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Garlic extract (100 mg/kg) administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Garlic extract showed significant antidepressant-like activity probably by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B levels and through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:20040952

  20. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust.

    PubMed

    Añibarro, B; Fontela, J L; De La Hoz, F

    1997-12-01

    Garlic dust has not been a frequently encountered cause of IgE-mediated disease. We report on 12 patients (all of them garlic workers) with the clinical criteria for occupational asthma. Skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE determinations were performed with common inhalants, garlic, and other members of the Liliaceae family (onion, leek, and asparagus). Bronchial challenge test with garlic powder was performed in all patients. Garlic and onion extract proteins were separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot and IgE immunoblot inhibition analyses were performed with patients' sera on extracts of garlic, onion, and pollens of Phleum pratense and Chenopodium album. Garlic sensitization was demonstrated by bronchial challenge test in seven patients (group 1) and ruled out in the remaining five (group 2). Clinical data were similar in both groups. The patients with garlic allergy had a mean age of 27 years, and all of them had pollen allergy; sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family was also common. Electrophoresis of garlic extract revealed two major protein bands at approximately 12 and 54 kd. During IgE immunoblotting, the pool of sera reacted with garlic proteins mainly at 54 kd. Preincubation with onion, Phleum, and Chenopodium partially abolished the IgE binding to several allergens of garlic. We report on seven patients in whom an occupational garlic allergy was demonstrated. Garlic allergy is relatively rare but seems to affect young subjects with pollen allergy, and sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family is common. The results of this study confirm the presence of some structurally similar allergens in garlic, onion, and certain pollens.

  1. Garlic compounds modulate macrophage and T-lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Lau, B H; Yamasaki, T; Gridley, D S

    1991-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds of garlic have been shown to inhibit growth of animal tumors and to modulate the activity of diverse chemical carcinogens. There is also evidence that garlic may modulate antitumor immunity. In this study, we determined the effects of an aqueous garlic extract and a protein fraction isolated from the extract on the chemiluminescent oxidative burst of the murine J774 macrophage cell line and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c mice. T-lymphocyte activity was determined using mouse splenocytes incubated with phytohemagglutinin, labeled with [3H]-thymidine and assayed for lymphoproliferation. Significant dose-related augmentation of oxidative burst was observed with garlic extract and the protein fraction. The protein fraction also enhanced the T-lymphocyte blastogenesis. The data suggest that garlic compounds may serve as biological response modifiers by augmenting macrophage and T-lymphocyte functions.

  2. Individual differences on immunostimulatory activity of raw and black garlic extract in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Purev, Uranchimeg; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-08-01

    The immunostimulatory activities of garlic extract using a cell line or animal models have been reported; however, no previous studies have evaluated individual differences in regards to the immunostimulatory activities. The immunostimulatory activities such as cell proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nitric oxides (NO) production of raw garlic and black garlic extracts on individual primary lymphocytes or macrophages isolated from the blood of 21 volunteers were evaluated. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of raw garlic and black garlic ethanol extract was measured to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The 70% ethanol black garlic extracts at 70°C for 12 h (70% BGE) showed the strongest antioxidant and anticancer activities. Immunostimulatory activities of garlic extracts extracted under optimal condition on primary immune cells obtained from 21 volunteers were analyzed. Results showed that the cell proliferation, TNF-α and NO production of primary immune cells treated with 70% raw garlic extract (70% RGE) were significantly different; however, little difference was observed for the 70% BGE treatment. BGE showed stronger immunostimulatory activities than RGE. These results indicate that the immunostimulatory activities of RGE and BGE can be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and anticancer activities. Determination of immunostimulatory activities of different types of garlic using immune cells isolated from volunteers was dependent on the individual constituents due to changes in the composition of garlic during processing. Individual primary immune cells might be used as important tools to determine individual differences in all food ingredients for the development of personalized immunostimulatory active foods.

  3. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) and selenite (SeO3(2-)) or selenate (SeO4(2-)). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1mg/L of SeO3(2-) or SeO4(2-)) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg(2+) levels are higher than 1mg/L in culture media. SeO3(2-) and SeO4(2-) were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg-S bonding as Hg(GSH)2 and Hg(Met)2. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg-S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH)2, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  5. Immunomodulatory activity of a protein isolated from garlic extract on delayed type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Hassan, Zuhair M; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2002-10-01

    Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicine with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer, and anticoagulant. One major protein has been isolated and purified; it is the 14-kDa glycoprotein. This protein has shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, two sources of garlic (freshly prepared and commercial tablet) were used. Both sources of garlic were augmented delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, the optimum enhancement were detected at 20 mg/kg. Histological studies indicate that 20 mg/kg caused a hyperplasia and hypertrophy of periarteriolar lymphoid sheath of spleen and paracortical zone of lymph nodes. Partial purified fraction could increase the DTH response comparing to garlic extract, and purified protein could highly increase the DTH response comparing to both garlic extract and partial purified fraction. Garlic at all doses employed did not exhibit any effect on enhancement of antibody titer to SRBC.

  6. Aged black garlic extract inhibits HT29 colon cancer cell growth via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    DONG, MENGHUA; YANG, GUIQING; LIU, HANCHEN; LIU, XIAOXU; LIN, SIXIANG; SUN, DONGNING; WANG, YISHAN

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aged black garlic extract (ABGE) may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABGE on the proliferation and apoptosis of HT29 colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ABGE inhibited HT29 cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We further investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal transduction pathway and the molecular mechanisms underlying the ABGE-induced inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation. We observed that ABGE may regulate the function of the PI3K/Akt pathway through upregulating PTEN and downregulating Akt and p-Akt expression, as well as suppressing its downstream target, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway is crucial for the development of colon cancer. ABGE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that ABGE may be effective in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer in humans. PMID:24649105

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kyo, E; Uda, N; Kasuga, S; Itakura, Y

    2001-03-01

    Using various kinds of models, we examined the effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on immune functions. In the immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic mouse model, AGE significantly decreased the antigen-specific ear swelling induced by picryl chloride ointment to the ear and intravenous administration of antitrinitrophenyl antibody. In the transplanted carcinoma cell model, AGE significantly inhibited the growth of Sarcoma-180 (allogenic) and LL/2 lung carcinoma (syngenic) cells transplanted into mice. Concomitantly, increases in natural killer (NK) and killer activities of spleen cells were observed in Sarcoma-180--bearing mice administered AGE. In the psychological stress model, AGE significantly prevented the decrease in spleen weight and restored the reduction of anti-SRBC hemolytic plaque-forming cells caused by the electrical stress. These studies strongly suggest that AGE could be a promising candidate as an immune modifier, which maintains the homeostasis of immune functions; further studies are warranted to determine when it is most beneficial.

  8. Effects of garlic extract on platelet aggregation: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Morris, J; Burke, V; Mori, T A; Vandongen, R; Beilin, L J

    1995-01-01

    1. Studies of the effects of garlic on platelet aggregation have produced inconsistent results possibly related to variations in study design and in the garlic preparations used. 2. The present study examined the effects on platelet aggregation and serum thromboxane and lyso-platelet activating factor, of feeding garlic extract to healthy men using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. The effects of the same garlic preparation on platelet aggregation in vitro were also investigated. 3. There were no significant differences in platelet aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, platelet activating factor (PAF) or collagen according to treatment group. Serum thromboxane and lysoPAF also showed no change related to garlic supplements. 4. In vitro aggregation with collagen decreased linearly with increasing amounts of garlic extract, but concentrations were higher than those attainable in vivo. Gastrointestinal side effects prevented the use of higher doses of garlic which must be considered to be pharmacological as they exceed changes achievable by dietary modification.

  9. Development and characterization of phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles, containing garlic extract, with antilisterial activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Cristian Mauricio Barreto; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h. For free and encapsulated garlic extracts at 5% concentration, a decrease of 4log cycles in viable cell counts was observed at 10h, against four of the five strains of Listeria spp. tested. The results indicate that liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of unstable garlic active compounds and the encapsulation of garlic extract proves to be a promising technology for multiple applications, including antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  11. Performance of crossbred calves with dietary supplementation of garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Mehla, R K; Sirohi, S K; Tomar, S K

    2011-08-01

    Twelve crossbred calves (Holstein cross) in their pre-ruminant stage were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance and they were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups in equal number. Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake [dry matter (DM); total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)], feed conversion efficiency (DM, TDN and CP), fecal score and fecal coliform count. Diets were same for both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW/day/calf. BW measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, fecal scores monitored daily and fecal coliform count done weekly. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in mean BW gain and feed intake and a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in severity of scours as measured by fecal score in the treatment group compared to the control group. The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M.; Morella, Jacob D.; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications. PMID:24683414

  13. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M; Morella, Jacob D; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H 2 O 2 , 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications.

  14. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  15. Modulatory effects of garlic extract against the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, B Lakshmi; Devi, K Rudrama; Madhavi, D

    2009-09-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agent which is used in the treatment of wide range of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Besides that it is a well known carcinogen. In this study by using chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) assays method, the modulatory effects exerted by the extract of garlic against the CP induced genotoxicity in the human lymphocyte cultures in vitro were tested. Three different doses of garlic extract were tested for their modulatory capacity on the mutagenecity exerted by 100 microg ml(-1) of CR The results indicate a significant decrease in the frequency of CA and SCE suggesting that the garlic extract modulates the CP induced genotoxicity in a dose dependent manner. These findings provide the future directions for the research on design and development of possible modulatory drugs containing garlic extract.

  16. Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Ilker; Cetin, Recep; Candir, Ozden; Devrim, Erdinç; Kiliçoğlu, Bülent; Avci, Aslihan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the natural antioxidant foods, dried black grape and garlic, protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given Cyclosporine A (CsA) orally for 10 days, with the antioxidant food supplementation begun 3 days before CsA treatment and continued during the study period (totaling 13 days). In each group (control, CsA alone, CsA plus black grape, CsA plus aqueous garlic extract, aqueous garlic extract alone and black grape alone), there were 7 animals. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed; their kidneys were removed and prepared for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Oxidant (xanthine oxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes) parameters were measured in the kidney tissues of the groups. Histopathological examinations of the tissues were also performed. It has been found that CsA creates oxidant load to the kidneys through both xanthine oxidase activation and impaired antioxidant defense system, which accelerates oxidation reactions in the kidney tissue. Supplementation with either dried black grape or aqueous garlic extract led to reduced malondialdehyde level in the kidney tissue possibly, by preventing oxidant reactions. In conclusion, the results suggest that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance may play part in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, and some foods with high antioxidant power may ameliorate this toxicity, in agreement with studies with antioxidant vitamins.

  17. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  18. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, S; Rao, K S; Nagini, S

    2002-03-01

    Cytokeratins (also known as keratins (K)) are members of the family of intermediate filaments and form major components of the mammalian epithelial cell cytoskeleton. Cytokeratins have emerged as reliable cellular markers of oral cancer development and chemoprevention because of their abundance, stability and high antigenicity. We investigated the effect of aqueous garlic extract on cytokeratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin, on the right buccal pouches, three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals were painted with DMBA as in group 1 and also received 250 mg/kg body weight aqueous garlic extract orally on alternate days to the DMBA application. Group 3 animals received garlic extract only, as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor garlic extract and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Cytokeratin expression was studied using human monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3, which react with type I and II keratins. In DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas, decreased expression of high molecular weight keratins was observed. Administration of garlic extract to animals painted with DMBA suppressed HBP carcinomas and restored normal cytokeratin expression. The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of HBP carcinogenesis by garlic may be due to its regulatory effects on differentiation, tumour invasiveness, migratory and metastatic potential. We suggest that one of the mechanisms of tumour inhibition by garlic is an influence on cellular differentiation.

  19. Protective effect of black garlic extracts on tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced injury in hepatocytes via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Huang, Wen-Shih; Lu, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Tung, Shui-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Black garlic has been reported to show multiple bioactivities against the development of different diseases. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of black garlic on injured liver cells was investigated. Rat clone-9 hepatocytes were used for all experiments; tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used to induce injury of rat clone-9 hepatocytes. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); anti-oxidative enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx); and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in rat clone-9 hepatocytes were determined to evaluate the level of cell damage. Black garlic extracts were demonstrated to significantly attenuate tBHP-induced cell death of rat clone-9 hepatocytes (P<0.05). Pretreatment with black garlic extracts antagonized GSH depletion, tBHP-increased MDA accumulation and the mRNA expression level of IL-6/IL-8, and tBHP-decreased antioxidative enzyme activities (all P<0.05). Moreover, the present study revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling regulated black garlic-inhibited tBHP effects in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that black garlic has the hepatoprotective potential to block tBHP-damaged effects on cell death, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Thus, the present study indicates that black garlic may be an excellent natural candidate in the development of adjuvant therapy and healthy foods for liver protection. PMID:29456651

  20. Identification of the protein components displaying immunomodulatory activity in aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, P M; Venkatesh, Y P

    2009-07-30

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum L.; Alliaceae) has been known to boost the immune system. Aged garlic has more potent immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic. These effects have been attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds; the identity of the immunomodulatory proteins in aged garlic extract (AGE) is not known. The major aims are to examine the changes occurring in the protein fraction during ageing of garlic and to identify the immunomodulatory proteins. Changes occurring in garlic during ageing have been examined by protein quantitation and gel electrophoresis. Purification and identification of the immunomodulatory proteins have been achieved by Q-Sepharose chromatography and mitogenic activity. Only two major proteins (12-14 kDa range by SDS-PAGE) are observed in AGE. The purified protein components QA-1, QA-2, and QA-3 display immunomodulatory and mannose-binding activity; QA-2 shows the highest mitogenic activity. The identity of QA-2 and QA-1 proteins with the garlic lectins ASA I and ASA II, respectively, has been confirmed by hemagglutination analysis. QA-3 exhibits mitogenic activity, but no hemagglutination activity. The immunomodulatory activity of AGE is also contributed by immunomodulatory proteins. The major immunomodulatory proteins have been identified as the well-known garlic lectins.

  1. The Effect of Garlic Extract on Expression of INFγ And Inos Genes in Macrophages Infected with Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Gharavi, MJ; Nobakht, M; Khademvatan, SH; Bandani, E; Bakhshayesh, M; Roozbehani, M

    2011-01-01

    Background The study was aimed to show the effect of molecular mechanism of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) on expression of IFNγ and iNOS genes in Leishmania major. Methods Leishmania major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) were added to the in-vitro cultured J774 cell line, the cells were incubated for 72 hours. Various concentrations of garlic extract (9.25, 18.5, 37, 74, 148 mg/ml) were added to the infected cells. MTT assay was applied for cellular proliferation. After 72 hours of incubation, supernatants were collected and total RNA was extracted from the infected cells. The express of IFNγ and iNOS genes were studied by RT-PCR method. Results The colorimetric MTT assay after 3 days of incubation showed cytotoxic effect of garlic extract with an IC50 of 37 mg/ml. In addition, IFNγ and iNOS genes expression by RT-PCR indicated that garlic extract lead to over expression of these genes in J774 cell line infected with L. major. Conclusion Garlic extract exerts cytotoxic effect on infected J774 cell line. In addition, the hypothesis that garlic can improve cellular immunity with raising the expression of IFNγ and of iNOS genes confirmed. PMID:22347300

  2. Garlic in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far. PMID:25386259

  3. Comparative assessment of onion and garlic extracts on endogenous hepatic and renal antioxidant status in rat.

    PubMed

    Suru, Stephen M; Ugwu, Chidiebere E

    2015-07-01

    Despite growing claims of functional health benefits in folkloric medicine, the safety of chronic/elevated intakes of onion and garlic cannot be assumed. Therefore, this study assesses oral administration of varied doses of onion and garlic on some biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions in rats. Animals were divided into five groups: control group received vehicle and extract-treated groups received varied doses of onion or garlic extract (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL/100 g bwt/day) for 6 weeks. Both doses of onion caused marked (p<0.05) increase in hepatic and renal levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and marked (p<0.05) decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with low dose of garlic elicited similar trend except in hepatic CAT, renal SOD and GST levels. A high dose of garlic only caused marked (p<0.05) increase in hepatic GST, renal GST, and SOD. Both doses of onion and low dose of garlic significantly (p<0.05) enhanced renal Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Only a high dose of onion caused significant (p<0.05) increase in hepatic aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and decrease in plasma AST activities. These findings suggest antioxidant enhancing capability for both doses of onion and low dose of garlic, while high dose of garlic elicited pro-oxidant conditions.

  4. The Antioxidant Mechanisms Underlying the Aged Garlic Extract- and S-Allylcysteine-Induced Protection

    PubMed Central

    Colín-González, Ana L.; Santana, Ricardo A.; Silva-Islas, Carlos A.; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E.; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D.

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo—in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress—and in vitro conditions—using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor—a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels. PMID:22685624

  5. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiju, T. M.; Rajesh, N. G.; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining. Results: The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) constituents such as albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, the serum lipid profile of the diabetic rats were altered significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control rats. However, the diabetic rats supplemented with aged garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney. Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities. PMID:23543654

  6. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  7. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (<3 kDa; LF) fructans were isolated. The structures of purified HF and LF from AGE determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy revealed that both have (2→1) β-D-fructofuranosyl bonds linked to a terminal glucose at the non-reducing end and β-D-fructofuranosyl branching on its backbone. Biological activity of fructans was assessed by immunostimulatory activity using murine lymphocytes and peritoneal exudate cells (source of macrophages). Both HF and LF displayed mitogenic activity and activation of macrophages including phagocytosis. These activities were comparable to that of known polysaccharide immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composition analysis and antioxidant properties of black garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoming; Li, Ningyang; Qiao, Xuguang; Qiu, Zhichang; Liu, Pengli

    2017-04-01

    Black garlic produced from fresh garlic under controlled high temperature and humidity has strong antioxidant properties. To determine these compounds, five fractions (from F1 to F5) were separated and purified by elution with chloroform:methanol at different ratios (8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 0:1; v/v). The antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed. The results showed that F3 and F4 had higher phenolic contents and stronger 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the others. Seven purified individual components were further separated using semipreparation high-performance liquid chromatography from these two intensely antioxidant fractions (F3 and F4), their structures were elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Three compounds including adenosine, uridine, and 2-acetylpyrrole were first identified in black garlic, except for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (1S, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid. The cellular antioxidant activities of uridine, adenosine, carboline alkaloids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ethyl acetate extracts were consistent with the results of in vitro experimental antioxidant properties. The results provide useful information for understanding the health benefits of black garlic products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly ( P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and antioxidant systems in rats fed with black garlic extract were

  10. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUN/OBJECTIVES Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. METHODS/MATERIALS After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. RESULTS Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. CONCLUSIONS The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and

  11. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    PubMed

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  12. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  13. Garlic and associated allyl sulfur components inhibit N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, E M; Liu, J Z; Green, J; Dangler, C A; Milner, J A

    1996-04-19

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary garlic powder supplementation inhibits N-nitrosamine induced DNA alkylation in liver and mammary tissue. The present studies compared the impact of dietary supplementation with garlic powder or two garlic constituents, water-soluble S-allyl cysteine (SAC) and oil-soluble diallyl disulfide (DADS), on the incidence of mammary tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semi-purified casein based diets with or without supplements of garlic powder(20g/kg), SAC (57 micromol/kg) or DADS (57 micromol/kg) for 2 weeks prior to treatment with MNU (15 mg/kg body wt). Garlic powder, SAC and DADS supplementation significantly delayed the onset of mammary tumors compared to rats receiving the unsupplemented diet. Tumor incidence 23 weeks after MNU treatment was reduced by 76, 41 and 53% in rats fed garlic, SAC and DADS, respectively, compared to controls (P<0.05). Total tumor number was reduced 81, 35 and 65% by these supplements, respectively (P<0.05). In a separate study the quantity of mammary DNA alkylation occurring 3 h after MNU treatment was reduced in rats fed garlic, SAC or DADS (P<0.05). Specifically, O(6)-methylguanine adducts were reduced by 27, 18 and 23% in rats fed supplemental garlic, SAC and DADS, respectively, compared to controls. N(7)-Methylguanine adducts decreased by 48, 22 and 21% respectively, compared to rats fed the control diet. These studies demonstrate that garlic and associated allyl sulfur components, SAC and DADS, are effective inhibitors of MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

  14. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  15. Isolation and Identification of Three γ-Glutamyl Tripeptides and Their Putative Production Mechanism in Aged Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masashi; Fujii, Takuto; Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2018-03-21

    We analyzed aged garlic extract (AGE) to understand its complex sulfur chemistry using post-column high-performance liquid chromatography with an iodoplatinate reagent and liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We observed unidentified peaks of putative sulfur compounds. Three compounds were isolated and identified as γ-glutamyl-γ-glutamyl- S-methylcysteine, γ-glutamyl-γ-glutamyl- S-allylcysteine (GGSAC) and γ-glutamyl-γ-glutamyl- S-1-propenyl-cysteine (GGS1PC) by nuclear magnetic resonance and LC-MS analysis based on comparisons with chemically synthesized reference compounds. GGSAC and GGS1PC were novel compounds. Trace amounts of these compounds were detected in raw garlic, but the contents of these compounds increased during the aging process. Production of these compounds was inhibited using a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor in the model reaction mixtures. These findings suggest that γ-glutamyl tripeptides in AGE are produced by GGT during the aging process.

  16. Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2005-01-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves.

  17. Anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of raw garlic.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shikun; Yin, Jia

    2012-08-01

    Patients allergic to garlic often present dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria after ingestion of garlic, contact with garlic, or exposure to garlic dust. Garlic-related anaphylaxis is rare, and the impact of heating on garlic allergens is not very clear. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of raw rather than cooked garlic with manifestations different from previous reports, and we hypothesized that heating could reduce the allergenicity of garlic. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE were tested using the Phadia CAP System FEIA (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden). Protein extracts from raw and cooked garlic were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Serum-specific IgE for garlic was 8.16 kUA/L. IgE banding proteins could only be detected in raw garlic extract, because allergens in garlic were mostly degraded into small fragments after heating, as shown in SDS-PAGE profile. In conclusion, raw garlic could induce life-threatening anaphylaxis. However, most of its allergens are heat labile, and patients allergic to garlic might tolerate the cooked one well.

  18. Prevention of methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by concomitant administration of garlic aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Walaa; Zaki, Amr; Nabil, Taghred

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, but its use has been limited by its nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out to determine whether garlic exerts a protective effect against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats after a single i.p. injection of MTX (20 mg/kg). Garlic extract (1 mL/100 g b.w.) was given orally for 7 days before and after MTX administration. Serum samples were collected to evaluate urea, creatinine, sodium, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium. Reduced glutathione, catalase, adenosine deaminase, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde were measured in renal tissue. Tubular injury was evaluated by histopathological examination. MTX increased urea and creatinine levels and led to imbalances in some electrolytes. It also depleted renal antioxidant enzyme levels and increased malondialdehyde, adenosine deaminase, and nitric oxide levels. Histopathological examination showed glomerular and tubular alterations. Pretreatment with garlic significantly improved renal function and increased renal antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, garlic reduced renal oxidative stress and prevented alterations in renal morphology. Garlic treatment has a reversible biochemical and histological effect upon MTX-induced nephrotoxicity.

  19. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P < 0.001) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels, whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were markedly (P < 0.001) decreased. We also observed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ACPtotal and ACPprostatic activities in prostate glands and a concomitant significant (P < 0.001) increase in the plasma. However, treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with onion and/or garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  1. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion.

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Garlic A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, BC; Biju, RS

    2008-01-01

    Garlic has been investigated extensively for health benefits, resulting in more than one thousand publications over the last decade alone. It is considered one of the best disease preventive foods, based on its potent and varied effects. Midlife risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as high serum total cholesterol, raised LDL, increased LDL oxidation, increased platelet aggregation, impaired fibrinolysis, hypertension and homocystinemia are important risk factors for dementia in later years. These risk factors play a major role in the genesis of atherosclerosis of vital arteries causing both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Garlic is best known for its lipid lowering and anti-atherogenic effects. Possible mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hepatic activities of lipogenic and cholesterogenic enzymes that are thought to be the genesis for dyslipidemias, increased excretion of cholesterol and suppression of LDL-oxidation. Oxidative stress caused by increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant properties of garlic and its different preparations including Aged Garlic Extract (AGE). AGE and S-allyl-cysteines (SAC), a bioactive and bioavailable component in garlic preparations have been shown in a number of in vitro studies to protect neuronal cells against beta-amyloid (A) toxicity and apoptosis. Thus the broad range of anti-atherogenic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic protection afforded by garlic may be extended to its neuroprotective action, helping to reduce the risk of dementia, including vascular dementia and AD. PMID:21499478

  3. Comparison of distillation and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the isolation of sensitive aroma compounds from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Siatis, Nikolaos G; Daferera, Dimitra J; Tarantilis, Petros A; Pappas, Christos S; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of traditional simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), microwave assisted hydrodistillation extraction (MWHD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) is presented, for the extraction of essential oils from fresh garlic (Allium sativum) cloves. Each method is evaluated in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The highly reactive sulfur molecules of the garlic volatile fraction show variable response to the different isolation methods. The application of ultrasound for the extraction of the essential oil is considered to cause a lesser damage of thermal-sensitive molecules, thus, providing a better approach of the compounds primarily responsible for the characteristic odor and taste of freshly chopped garlic. All heat-involving isolation procedures have been shown to differentiate the volatile-fraction profile as analyzed by GC-MS. Especially when grouping the compounds into cyclic and acyclic, the percentage concentrations drop from 77.4% to 8.7% for the acyclic while that of the cyclic compounds increase from 4.7% to 70.8%. The observed fact may be attributed to the effect of the heat applied, which changes from harsh thermal treatment (SDE) to short time thermal (MWHD) and room-temperature isolation (USE). The use of USE proves to be crucial in order to provide reliable insight into garlic's chemistry.

  4. A Classroom Demonstration of Garlic Extract and Conventional Antibiotics' Antimicrobial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekunsanmi, Toye J.

    2005-01-01

    The Kirby-Bauer method is regularly used to test bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and is often employed in the classroom for teaching this concept. In this exercise, additional materials and instructions were given to students for the preparation of garlic extract and loading on blank BBL paper discs. They were further instructed to test…

  5. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil...

  6. Salmonella survival during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Qi, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shaokang; Deng, Xiangyu

    2017-12-18

    Salmonella survival was characterized and modeled during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products. In our experiments that simulated commercial dehydration processing at 80±5°C, moderate level of Salmonella contamination (4-5logCFU/g) on fresh garlic was reduced below the enumeration limit (1.7logCFU/g) after 4.5h of dehydration and not detectable by culture enrichment after 7h. With high level of contamination (7-8logCFU/g), the Salmonella population persisted at 3.6logCFU/g after 8h of processing. By increasing the dehydration temperature to 90±5°C, the moderate and high levels of initial Salmonella load on fresh garlic dropped below the enumeration limit after 1.5 and 3.75h of processing and became undetectable by culture enrichment after 2.5 and 6h, respectively. During the storage of dried garlic products, Salmonella was not able to grow under all tested combinations of temperature (25 and 35°C) and water activity (0.56-0.98) levels, suggesting active inhibition. Storage temperature played a primary role in determining Salmonella survival on dehydrated garlic flakes. Under a typical storage condition at 25°C and ambient relative humidity, Salmonella could persist over months with the population gradually declining (4.3 log reduction over 88days). Granular size of dehydrated garlic had an impact on Salmonella survival, with better survival of the pathogen observed in bigger granules. At the early stage of dehydrated garlic storage (until 7days), rising water activity appeared to initially promote but then inhibited Salmonella survival, resulting in a water activity threshold at 0.73 where Salmonella displayed strongest persistence. However, this phenomenon was less apparent during extended storage (after 14days). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Garlic and Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Ravi; Budoff, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies. Only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. The review of articles and data extraction were performed by 2 independent authors, with any disagreements resolved by consensus. Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses). The most consistent benefits were shown in studies that used aged garlic extract (AGE). A few small studies that used AGE also showed favorable effects on CAC, CRP, and PWV. Although garlic is generally safe, rare adverse reactions have been documented with limited causality established. We conclude that garlic supplementation has the potential for cardiovascular protection based on risk factor reduction (hypertension and total cholesterol) and surrogate markers (CRP, PWV, and CAC) of atherosclerosis. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate these effects further. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  9. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  11. Identification and immunologic characterization of an allergen, alliin lyase, from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Hsu, Ching-Hsian; Su, Song-Nan; Hor, Wei-Ting; Chang T, Wen-Hong; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the most common relishes used in cooking worldwide. Very few garlic allergens have been reported, and garlic allergy has been rarely studied. The aim of the study was to identify allergenic proteins in garlic and to investigate their importance in allergies to other Allium species (leek, shallot, and onion). A crude extract of garlic proteins was separated by SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis; immunoblotting was then performed with the use of individual and pooled sera from patients with garlic allergy, and the major IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The putative allergens were further purified by chromatography; the antigenicity, allergenicity, and IgE-binding cross-reactivity of the purified protein were then studied by immunoblotting, periodate oxidation, skin tests, and IgE-binding inhibition assays. A major allergen, alliin lyase, was identified by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing and purified to homogeneity through the use of a simple 2-step chromatographic method. Skin tests showed that the purified protein elicited IgE-mediated hypersensitive responses in patients with garlic allergy. Periodate oxidation showed that carbohydrate groups were involved in the antigenicity, allergenicity, and cross-reactivity. Garlic alliin lyase showed strong cross-reactivity with alliin lyases from other Allium species, namely leek, shallot, and onion. Alliin lyase was found to be a major garlic allergen in a garlic-allergic group of patients in Taiwan. The wide distribution of alliin lyase in Allium suggests it may be a new cross-reactive allergen.

  12. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  13. Allicin from garlic neutralizes the hemolytic activity of intra- and extra-cellular pneumolysin O in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arzanlou, M; Bohlooli, S; Jannati, E; Mirzanejad-Asl, H

    2011-03-15

    Pneumolysin (PLY) is a key virulence factor contributes to the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study we investigated the effect of allicin and aqueous garlic extracts on hemolytic activity of PLY both in prelysed and intact cells. Additionally the antimicrobial activity of allicin was tested against the bacteria. All tested materials potently inhibited the PLY hemolytic activity. Allicin neutralizes PLY in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Twenty five minute incubation of PLY (2 HU/mL) with 0.61 μM/mL concentration of allicin, totally inhibited hemolytic activity of PLY (IC50 = 0.28 μM/mL). The inhibitory activity of old extract of garlic was similar to pure allicin (IC50 = 50.46 μL/mL; 0.31 μM/mL; P < 0.05). In contrast fresh extract of garlic inhibits the PLY hemolytic activity at lower concentrations (IC50 = 13.96 μL/mL; 0.08 μM/mL allicin). Exposure of intact cells to allicin (1.8 μM) completely inhibited hemolytic activity of PLY inside bacterial cells. The inhibitory effect of the allicin was restored by addition of reducing agent DTT at 5 mM, proposing that allicin likely inhibits the PLY by binding to cysteinyl residue in the binding site. The MIC value of allicin was determined to be 512 μg/mL (3.15 μM/mL). These results indicate that PLY is a novel target for allicin and may provide a new line of investigation on pneumococcal diseases in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  15. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-07-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

  17. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  18. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  19. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtained from Allium sativum, a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil meets the specifications of the...

  20. Lactic acid fermentation and storage of blanched garlic.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A; Montaño, A; Sánchez, A H; Rejano, L

    1998-02-17

    The controlled fermentation of peeled, blanched garlic, using a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum, was studied and compared with that of unblanched garlic. Blanching was carried out in hot water (90 degrees C) for 15 min. The starter grew abundantly in the case of blanched garlic, producing mainly lactic acid and reaching a pH of 3.8 after 7 days, but its growth was inhibited in unblanched garlic. Ethanol and fructose, coming from enzymatic activities of the garlic, and a green pigment were formed during the fermentation of unblanched garlic, but not of blanched garlic. The blanched garlic fermented by L. plantarum, even without a preservation treatment (pasteurization), was microbiologically stable during storage at 30 degrees C in an acidified brine (approximately 3% (w/w) NaCl and pH 3.5 at equilibrium), but fructans were hydrolyzed. The packed fermented product and that obtained by direct packing without fermentation were not significantly different with regard to flavour.

  1. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients. PMID:25838894

  2. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Protective effects of ascorbic acid and garlic extract against lead-induced apoptosis in developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Ali-Reza; Hami, Javad; Alipour, Fatemeh; Haghir, Hossein; Fazel, Ali-Reza; Sadeghi, Akram

    2016-10-01

    Lead exposure has negative effects on developing nervous system and induces apoptosis in newly generated neurons. Natural antioxidants (i.e. Ascorbic acid and Garlic) might protect against lead-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid and Garlic administration during pregnancy and lactation on lead-induced apoptosis in rat developing hippocampus. Timed pregnant Wistar rats were administrated with Lead (1500 ppm) via drinking water (Pb group) or lead plus Ascorbic acid (Pb + AA Group, 500 mg/kg, IP), or lead plus Garlic Extract (Pb + G Group, 1 ml garlic juice/100 g BW, via Gavage) from early gestation (GD 0) until postnatal day 50 (PN 50). At the end of experiments, the pups' brains were carefully dissected. To identify neuronal death, the brain sections were stained with TUNEL assay. Mean of blood and brain lead levels increased significantly in Pb group comparing to other studied groups (P < 0.01). There was significant reduction in blood and brain lead level in Pb + AA and Pb + G groups when compared to those of Pb group (P < 0.01). The mean number of TUNEL positive cells in the CA1, CA3, and DG was significantly lower in the groups treated by either Ascorbic acid or Garlic (P < 0.05). Administration of Ascorbic acid and Garlic during pregnancy and lactation protect against lead-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups partially via the reduction of Pb concentration in the blood and in the brain.

  4. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  5. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  6. Antimutagenic effects of garlic extract on chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-08

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since ancient times, as a spice and also for its medicinal properties. In present set of investigations antimutagenic effect of garlic extract (GE) has been evaluated using 'in vivo chromosomal aberration assay' in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP), a well-known mutagen, was given at a single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. Pretreatment with 1, 2.5 and 5% of freshly prepared GE was given through oral intubation for 5 days prior to CP administration. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24 and 48 h and their bone marrow tissue was analyzed for chromosomal damage. The animals of the positive control group (CP alone) shows a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations both at 24 and 48 h sampling time. GE, alone did not significantly induced aberrations at either sampling time, confirming its non-mutagenicity. However in the GE pre-treated and CP post-treated groups, a dose dependent decrease in cytogenetic damage was recorded. A significant suppression in the chromosomal aberrations was recorded following pretreatment with 2.5 and 5% GE administration. The anticytotoxic effects of GE were also evident, as observed by significant increase in mitotic index, when compared to positive control group. Reduction in CP induced clastogenicity by GE was evident at 24 h and to a much greater extent at 48 h of cell cycle. Thus results of the present investigations revealed that GE has chemopreventive potential against CP induced chromosomal mutations in Swiss albino mice.

  7. Effect of porphobilinogen on the formation of garlic green pigments.

    PubMed

    Mou, Conghua; Hao, Xiaoran; Xu, Zhixiang; Qiao, Xuguang

    2013-08-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb is processed into various forms such as crushed garlic, garlic juice, granules, dehydrated garlic pieces and garlic powder. However, greening is often a major problem when garlic is crushed, since it affects the appearance and quality of the resulting product. Therefore study of the formation mechanism of garlic green pigments is very important for garlic processing. The effect of porphobilinogen (PBG) on the formation of garlic green pigments was investigated in this study. As the storage time increased, there was a significant positive correlation between garlic greening and PBG content at low temperature (4 °C). PBG content decreased significantly during the garlic greening process. When treated with respiration inhibitor, both garlic greening strength and PBG content decreased as the concentration of respiration inhibitor increased. The green colour was generated when extracted PBG and allicin mixed thoroughly. There was a clear relationship between PBG content and garlic greening. As a provider of pyrrolyl compounds, PBG plays an important role in the formation of garlic green pigments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Avci, Bahattin; Akar, Ayşegül; Bilgici, Birşen; Tunçel, Özgür Korhan

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to study the oxidative damage induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by mobile telephones and the protective effect of garlic extract used as an anti-oxidant against this damage. A total of 66 albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The first group of rats was given 1.8 GHz, 0.4 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) for 1 h a day for three weeks. The second group was given 500 mg/kg garlic extract in addition to RF-EMR. The third group of rats was used as the control group. At the end of the study, blood and brain tissue samples were collected from the rats. After the RF-EMR exposed, the advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels of brain tissue increased compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Garlic administration accompanying the RF-EMR, on the other hand, significantly reduced AOPP levels in brain tissue (p < 0.001). The serum nitric oxide (NO) levels significantly increased both in the first and second group (p < 0.001). However, in the group for which garlic administration accompanied that of RF-EMR, there was no difference in serum NO levels compared with the RF-EMR exposed group (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups with respect to malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain tissue and blood samples (p > 0.05). Similarly, no difference was detected among the groups regarding serum paroxonase (PON) levels (p > 0.05). We did not detect any PON levels in the brain tissue. The exposure of RF-EMR similar to 1.8 GHz Global system for mobile communication (GSM) leads to protein oxidation in brain tissue and an increase in serum NO. We observed that garlic administration reduced protein oxidation in brain tissue and that it did not have any effects on serum NO levels.

  9. Aged red garlic extract reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and acute pulmonary inflammation through haeme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Park, H-J; Jeon, B T; Kim, H C; Roh, G S; Shin, J-H; Sung, N-J; Han, J; Kang, D

    2012-05-01

    It is known that garlic has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Aged red garlic (ARG), a novel aged garlic formulation, has higher antioxidant effects than fresh raw garlic. This study was performed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ARG extract (ARGE). The anti-inflammatory effects of ARGE were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 macrophages and acute lung inflammatory mice. NO production was determined by the Griess method, and iNOS, HO-1 and COX-2 expressions were measured using Western blot analysis. Histology and inflammation extent of lung were analysed using haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. ARGE treatment markedly reduced LPS-induced nitrite production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Treatment of cells with ARGE led to a significant increase in haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, which was mediated by stimulating the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Treatment with zinc protoporphyrin, a selective inhibitor of HO-1, significantly reversed the ARGE-mediated inhibition of nitrite production (P < 0.05). In LPS-induced inflammatory mice, ARGE treatment down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expressions, while it up-regulated HO-1 expression. These results show that ARGE reduces LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction and suggest that ARGE may have potential effects on prevention and treatment of acute inflammatory lung injury. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  10. Effect of 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Hajimoradi, Monire; Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Roudbary, Maryam; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2011-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), traditionally being used as a spice worldwide, has different applications and is claimed to possess beneficial effects in several health ailments such as tumor and atherosclerosis. Garlic is also an immunomodulator and its different components are responsible for different properties. The present work aimed to assess the effect of protein fractions of garlic on peritoneal macrophages. 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of garlic were purified. Mice peritoneal macrophages were lavaged and cultured in a microtiter plate and exposed to different concentrations of garlic proteins. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the viability of macrophage. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) was detected in culture supernatants of macrophages by Griess reagent and furthermore, the cytotoxicity study of culture supernatants was carried out on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell line as tumor necrosis factor-α bioassay. MTT assay results for both 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of stimulated macrophages were not significant (P > 0.05). Both 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions significantly suppressed production of NO from macrophages (P = 0.007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cytotoxicity of macrophages' supernatant on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells was not affected by garlic protein fractions (P = 0.066 for 14-kDa and P = 0.085 for 47-kDa fractions). according to our finding, 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions of aged garlic extract are able to suppress NO production from macrophages, which can be used as a biological advantage. These molecules had no cytotoxic effect on macrophages and do not increase tumoricidal property of macrophages.

  11. Anti-allergic action of aged black garlic extract in RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄ at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA₂, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases.

  12. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p < 0.05). MDA, TOS and NO increased (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared with the control group, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p < 0.01). The level of TNF-α mRNA did not differ between groups but the TNF-α protein level in diabetic rats was higher than in the control rats (p < 0.01), whereas after treatment with garlic, it was close to the normal level (p < 0.01). These results indicate that garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  13. Protective effect of aged garlic extract on the small intestinal damage of rats induced by methotrexate administration.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Matsumoto, H; Kasagi, M; Sugiyama, A; Kikuchi, M; Karasawa, C; Awazu, S; Itakura, Y; Fuwa, T

    1999-08-01

    The methotrexate (MTX) administration to rats causes the damage of small intestine. The small intestinal damage was evaluated by measuring the intestinal permeability of the poorly absorbable compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran (average molecular weight, 4,400) (FD-4) using the in vitro everted intestine technique and by determining the FD-4 that appeared in plasma using the in situ closed loop intestine technique. The MTX administration to rats fed with the standard laboratory diet increased the small intestinal permeability of FD-4 due to the damage of the small intestine. Interestingly, the permeability of FD-4, when MTX was administered to rats fed with the aged garlic extract containing diet, was depressed almost to the level of control rats without the MTX treatment. The present study showed that the aged garlic extract protected the small intestine from the damage induced by the action of MTX on the crypt cells.

  14. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-León, M R; Aranda-González, I; Mut-Martín, M; García-Miss, M R; Dumonteil, E

    2007-11-01

    Leishmania mexicana is the main causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico. Control of this disease is associated with a Th1-type immune response and garlic extract has been reported as a Th1 immunomodulator in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. In this study, we investigated the effect of garlic extracts on L. mexicana infection in vivo and in vitro. Garlic extract reduced footpad lesions in L. mexicana-infected BALB/c mice by inducing IFN-gamma production from T cells. In vitro, garlic extract reduced macrophage infection through induction of nitric oxide (NO) production. Garlic extract may thus act on both T cells and macrophages to stimulate IFN-gamma production and NO synthesis for parasite killing. A 10- to 14-kDa fraction was identified as responsible for the in vitro effect of the whole extract and may lead to the identification of novel immunomodulating drugs and therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  15. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  16. Effect of Garlic, Gingko, and St. John's Wort Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Turkanovic, Jasmina; Ward, Michael B; Gerber, Jacobus P; Milne, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of garlic and ginkgo herbal extracts on the pharmacokinetics of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) substrate fexofenadine. Male rats were dosed orally with garlic (120 mg/kg), ginkgo (17 mg/kg), St. John's wort (SJW; 1000 mg/kg; positive control), or Milli-Q water for 14 days. On day 15, rats either were administered fexofenadine (orally or i.v.), had their livers isolated and perfused with fexofenadine, or had their small intestines divided into four segments (SI-SIV) and analyzed for P-gp and Oatp1a5. In vivo, SJW increased the clearance of i.v. administered fexofenadine by 28%. Garlic increased the area under the curve 0-∞ and maximum plasma concentration of orally administered fexofenadine by 47% and 85%, respectively. Ginkgo and SJW had no effect on the oral absorption of fexofenadine. In the perfused liver, garlic, ginkgo, and SJW increased the biliary clearance of fexofenadine with respect to perfusate by 71%, 121%, and 234%, respectively. SJW increased the biliary clearance relative to the liver concentration by 64%. The ratio of liver to perfusate concentrations significantly increased in all treated groups. The expression of Oatp1a5 in SI was increased by garlic (88%) and SJW (63%). There were no significant changes in the expression of P-gp. Induction of intestinal Oatp1a5 by garlic may explain the increased absorption of orally administered fexofenadine. Ginkgo had no effect on the expression of intestinal P-gp or Oatp1a5. A dual inductive effect by SJW on opposing intestinal epithelial transport by Oatp1a5 and P-gp remains a possibility. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P < 0.05).In addition,serum levels of LDL-C was lower in the III and IV group than those in the IV group (P < 0.001 for each). However, cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol concentration (P < 0 · 0001). It was also directly correlated with garlic supplementation (P < 0 · 0001). Together Taken, the results are clearly indicative of the beneficial effects of garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  18. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  19. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    PubMed

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (p<0.05) reduced infection prevalence and intensity as compared to the control. Oral treatments using dry garlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) mean prevalence and mean intensity of parasites as compared to the control. Dietary application of garlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (p<0.05) parasite prevalence and mean intensity as compared to the control. Histopathology revealed elevated muscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic

  20. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p < 0.05) after 120 h of exposure. Furthermore, the total APA was significantly decreased by exposure to a high diallyl trisulfide concentration after 24 h exposure. As new algal inhibitors, there are several advantages for their utilization, such as being common, cheap, non-toxic, and with high efficiency. It would be meaningful to further research on garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  1. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews.

    PubMed

    Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent literature on the usage and relevance of garlic and its bioactive components in controlling diabetes and diabetes-associated pathologies; and also updates recent patents on the subject. Antidiabetic effect of garlic is well documented even in ancient medical literature. Garlic and its active ingredients have been extensively studied for their antidiabetic efficacies in either experimentally induced or genetic animal models of diabetes. Human studies are also available where hypoglycemic effect of garlic was reported. The beneficial effects of garlic are mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds like alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine, ajoene and allyl mercaptan. Garlic and garlic extracts have been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance. Therefore, considering the importance of garlic in controlling diabetic complications, several preparations and food processes containing garlic have been patented. This review discusses some of the recent progresses made in this field and consolidates the results.

  2. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  3. Relationship between gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and garlic greening, as controlled by temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Hu, Dan; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Fang; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Guanghua

    2008-02-13

    It was established that storage at low temperature (less than 10 degrees C) was required for garlic greening occurring either during processing or in the course of "Laba" garlic preparation while storage at high temperature (higher than 20 degrees C) inhibited its occurrence. However, the reason for this observation is unclear. To obtain insights into a tie connected between storage temperature and garlic greening, it was detected if the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity correlated with garlic greening because the activity of this enzyme is very sensitive to storage temperature. Results showed that garlic puree (which was prepared from fresh garlic) turned green upon addition of GGT but the color of garlic puree remained unchanged when either water or heat-treated GGT (which has no activity due to heat treatment) was used, a result giving a positive answer to the above proposal. Subsequently, to further clarify the relationship between the GGT activity and garlic greening, the GGT activity, the degree of garlic greening, and the concentration of total thiosulfinates in garlic bulbs were determined respectively after the garlic bulbs had been stored at 4 degrees C for up to 59 days followed by storage at 35 degrees C for up to 22 days. It was found that cold storage facilitated the GGT activity whereas warm storage inhibited the activity of this enzyme, just like the effect of storage temperature on greening, indicating that the increase of GGT activity could be a direct factor resulting in garlic greening. Consistent with this conclusion, the concentration of total thiosulfinates (the color developers) in garlic purees likewise exhibited a reversible change by moving garlic bulbs from one low storage temperature to a higher one; namely, it increased with increasing storage time during storage at 4 degrees C while decreasing as storage time increased during storage at 35 degrees C. The present study provided direct evidence that the GGT is involved in

  4. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  5. The field efficacy of garlic extract against Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms of Babol, Iran.

    PubMed

    Faghihzadeh Gorji, Shohreh; Faghihzadeh Gorji, Sina; Rajabloo, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite in layer farms in many countries. The reproduction rate of the parasite is rapid and can be completed in a week under favorable conditions. The parasite has direct and indirect effects on birds. It can also act as a vector for some important pathogens. Many researchers have investigated the effects of essential oils, plant extracts, oriental medicinal plant extracts, and silica against red mite. They can be used as killing agents or repellents. In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract was investigated for controlling red mite infestation in a layer farm in Babol, North of Iran. Our results showed that the extract was effective and we obtained a 96% success after two successive sprays.

  6. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection123

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  7. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  8. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four. To determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 4), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965), MEDLINE (January 1966 to November week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1974 to December 2011) and AMED (1985 to December 2011). Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data. Of the six trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and

  9. Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic Oil against Human Enteric Bacteria: Evaluation of Methodologies and Comparisons with Garlic Oil Sulfides and Garlic Powder

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Z. M.; O'Gara, E. A.; Hill, D. J.; Sleightholme, H. V.; Maslin, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous garlic extracts are well established but those of garlic oil (GO) are little known. Methodologies for estimating the antimicrobial activity of GO were assessed and GO, GO sulfide constituents, and garlic powder (GP) were compared in tests against human enteric bacteria. Test methodologies were identified as capable of producing underestimates of GO activity. Antimicrobial activity was greater in media lacking tryptone or cysteine, suggesting that, as for allicin, GO effects may involve sulfhydryl reactivity. All bacteria tested, which included both gram-negative and -positive bacteria and pathogenic forms, were susceptible to garlic materials. On a weight-of-product basis, 24 h MICs for GO (0.02 to 5.5 mg/ml, 62 enteric isolates) and dimethyl trisulfide (0.02 to 0.31 mg/ml, 6 enteric isolates) were lower than those for a mixture of diallyl sulfides (0.63 to 25 mg/ml, 6 enteric isolates) and for GP, which also exhibited a smaller MIC range (6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml, 29 enteric isolates). Viability time studies of GO and GP against Enterobacter aerogenes showed time- and dose-dependent effects. Based upon its thiosulfinate content, GP was more active than GO against most bacteria, although some properties of GO are identified as offering greater therapeutic potential. Further exploration of the potential of GP and GO in enteric disease control appears warranted. PMID:11133485

  10. The Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Organosulfur Compounds in Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor. PMID:24237225

  11. Gamma radiation mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using fermented soybean-garlic aqueous extract and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    El-Batal, Ahmed Ibrahim; Hashem, Abd-Algawad M; Abdelbaky, Noha M

    2013-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was used to enhance the mobilization of antioxidants of soybean matrix along with garlic as a co-substrate by modulating polyphenolic substances during solid-state fermentation. Mobilized polyphenols were used as a green tool for synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The radiation-induced AuNPs synthesis is a simple, clean and inexpensive process which involves radiolysis of aqueous solution that provides an efficient method to reduce metal ions. Gamma irradiated aqueous extract of fermented soybean and garlic was used for rapid preparation of AuNPs combining both effects of radiolytic reactions by radiation and stabilization by bioactive components of fermented extract. The synthesized AuNPs were confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform infra red (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis which revealed morphology of spherical AuNPs with size ranging from 7-12 nm. The synthesized AuNPs exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, as measured by well diffusion assay.

  12. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  13. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  14. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  15. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  16. Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Clement, Fatima; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), an important medicinal spice, displays a plethora of biological effects including immunomodulation. Although some immunomodulatory proteins from garlic have been described, their identities are still unknown. The present study was envisaged to isolate immunomodulatory proteins from raw garlic, and examine their effects on certain cells of the immune system (lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils) in relation to mitogenicity and hypersensitivity. Three protein components of approximately 13 kD (QR-1, QR-2, and QR-3 in the ratio 7:28:1) were separated by Q-Sepharose chromatography of 30 kD ultrafiltrate of raw garlic extract. All the 3 proteins exhibited mitogenic activity towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes, murine splenocytes and thymocytes. The mitogenicity of QR-2 was the highest among the three immunomodulatory proteins. QR-1 and QR-2 displayed hemagglutination and mannose-binding activities; QR-3 showed only mannose-binding activity. Immunoreactivity of rabbit anti-QR-1 and anti-QR-2 polyclonal antisera showed specificity for their respective antigens as well as mutual cross-reactivity; QR-3 was better recognized by anti-QR-2 (82%) than by anti-QR-1 (55%). QR-2 induced a 2-fold higher histamine release in vitro from leukocytes of atopic subjects compared to that of non-atopic subjects. In all functional studies, QR-2 was more potent compared to QR-1. Taken together, all these results indicate that the two major proteins QR-2 and QR-1 present in a ratio of 4:1 in raw garlic contribute to garlic's immunomodulatory activity, and their characteristics are markedly similar to the abundant Allium sativum agglutinins (ASA) I and II, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of S-1-propenylcysteine, a sulfur compound in aged garlic extract, on blood pressure and peripheral circulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Takashima, Miyuki; Kunimura, Kayo; Kodera, Yukihiro; Morihara, Naoaki; Tamura, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of S-1-propenylcysteine, a characteristic sulfur compound in aged garlic extract, using a hypertensive rat model. The blood pressure and tail blood flow of both spontaneously hypertensive rats and control Wistar Kyoto rats were measured by the tail-cuff method and the noncontact laser Doppler method, respectively, at various times after single oral administration of a test compound for 24 h. Treatment with S-1-propenylcysteine (6.5 mg/kg BW) significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rat approximately 10% at 3 h after administration, and thereafter, the systolic blood pressure gradually returned to the baseline level in 24 h. The effect of S-1-propenylcysteine was dose-dependent and was maximal at the dose of 6.5 mg/kg BW at 3 h. However, the other compounds such as S-allylcysteine and S-allylmercaptocysteine in aged garlic extract were ineffective. In addition, S-1-propenylcysteine had no effect on systolic blood pressure of control Wistar Kyoto rats. Furthermore, S-1-propenylcysteine significantly increased the blood flow at 3 h after administration at the dose of 6.5 mg/kg BW. S-1-propenylcysteine is a key constituent of aged garlic extract responsible for its antihypertensive effect, and the effect of S-1-propenylcysteine involves the improvement in peripheral circulation. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Organosulfur compounds and possible mechanism of garlic in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Omar, S.H.; Al-Wabel, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), a member of the family Liliaceae, contains an abundance of chemical compounds that have been shown to possess beneficial effects to protect against several diseases, including cancer. Evidence supports the protective effects of garlic in stomach, colorectal, breast cancer in humans. The protective effects appear to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds, predominantly allyl derivatives, which also have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Organosulfur compounds in garlic are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans. PMID:23960721

  19. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic)

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms “Allium sativum,” “Garlic,” “Allicin,” “Ajoene,” “Leishmania,” “in vitro,” “in vivo,” and “clinical trial,” alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26721553

  20. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  1. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik H; Lobinski, Ryszard; Burger-Meÿer, Karin; Hansen, Marianne; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J; Scholten, Olga; Kik, Chris

    2006-07-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 microg g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  2. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Growth of Clostridium botulinum in media with garlic (Allium sativum)].

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Solanes, R E; Giménez, D F

    1988-01-01

    The effect of garlic on the growth and toxin formation of Clostridium botulinum (GT) was studied in A) crude juice obtained from a pool of cloves by i) crushing, ii) pressing out and iii) filtration, and B) minced garlic (6 to 8 pieces per clove). For both, "white" and "red" garlic varieties were used. The juice (pH 5.7 to 6.0, for different batches) was activated 30 min at 37 degrees C and diluted (log 2) in PGY broth (g%: peptone (Difco) 1.0; glucose 0.5; yeast extract (Difco) 0.5; pH 7.3). A small drop from a 18 h at 37 degrees C chopped meat medium culture of a highly toxigenic autochthonous strain (110) of C. botulinum type A, was transferred to the juice dilutions, incubating anaerobically 15d at 37 degrees C. As a control of the inhibitory effect of the juice, four microorganisms were cultured 48 h at 37 degrees C in the juice dilutions (Table 1). Clove pieces were suspended to 50% (w/v) either in PGY broth or distilled water without pH adjustment. Aliquots were heated in water bath 15 min at 100 degrees C. After seeded with the A 110 strain, duplicate tubes and their controls were incubated 15 d at 37 degrees C in aerated and anaerobic conditions (Table 2). Titers of botulinum toxin were empirically estimated by the time to death of a pair of mice injected with 0.5 ml each, via IP, observed 72 h. Results are shown in tables 1 and 2. Garlic reduces (in undiluted juice, traces or 3 to 5 DL50/ml were recorded in separate experiments) but not inhibit GT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Composition, Stability, and Bioavailability of Garlic Products Being Used in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Larry D.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of a new clinical trial designed to compare the effects of crushed fresh garlic and two types of garlic supplement tablets (enteric-coated dried fresh garlic and dried aged garlic extract) on serum lipids, the three garlic products have been characterized for (a) composition (14 sulfur and 2 non-sulfur compounds), (b) stability of suspected active compounds, and (c) availability of allyl thiosulfinates (mainly allicin) under both simulated gastrointestinal (tablet dissolution) conditions and in vivo. The allyl thiosulfinates of blended fresh garlic were stable for at least two years when stored at −80 °C. The dissolution release of thiosulfinates from the enteric-coated garlic tablets was found to be >95%. The bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from these tablets, measured as breath allyl methyl sulfide, was found to be complete and equivalent to that of crushed fresh garlic. S-allylcysteine was stable for 12 months at ambient temperature. The stability of the suspected active compounds under the conditions of the study and the bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from the dried garlic supplement have validated the use of these preparations for comparison in a clinical trial. PMID:16076102

  6. Cytotoxicity of extracts of spices to cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, M C; Kuttan, R

    1988-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the extracts from eight different spices used in the Indian diet was determined using Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumor cells and human lymphocytes in vitro and Chinese Hamster Ovary cells and Vero cells in tissue culture. Alcoholic extracts of the spices were found to be more cytotoxic to these cells than their aqueous extracts. Alcoholic extracts of several spices inhibited cell growth at concentrations of 0.2-1 mg/ml in vitro and 0.12-0.3 mg/ml in tissue culture. Ginger, pippali (native to India; also called dried catkins), pepper, and garlic showed the highest activity followed by asafetida, mustard, and horse-gram (native to India). These extracts also inhibited the thymidine uptake into DNA.

  7. An exploration of the antioxidant effects of garlic saponins in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Sook; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Cheol Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm the protective effects of garlic saponins against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. Relative cell viability was determined by 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and oxidative stress was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blot analysis and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown were used in order to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results revealed that garlic saponins prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS. We also observed that garlic saponins prevented H2O2-induced comet tail formation and decreased the phosphorylation levels of γH2AX expression, suggesting that they can prevent H2O2-induced DNA damage. In addition, garlic saponins increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol into the nucleus. However, the protective effects of garlic saponins on H2O2-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition were significantly reduced by zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor. In addition, the potential of garlic saponins to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against H2O2‑mediated growth inhibition was adversely affected by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA. Garlic saponins activated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, whereas a specific ERK inhibitor was able to inhibit HO-1 upregulation, as well as Nrf2 induction and phosphorylation. Taken together, the findings of our study suggest that garlic saponins activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by enabling

  8. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  9. Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic compounds.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  10. HSPA6 augments garlic extract-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer EJ cells; Implication for cell cycle dysregulation, signaling pathway alteration, and transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byungdoo; Noh, Dae-Hwa; Park, Sung Lyea; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Although recent studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of garlic extract (GE), the exact molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism associated with the inhibitory action of GE against bladder cancer EJ cell responses. Treatment with GE significantly inhibited proliferation of EJ cells dose-dependently through G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. This G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest by GE was due to the activation of ATM and CHK2, which appears to inhibit phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15), this in turn was accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin B1 and up-regulation of p21WAF1. Furthermore, GE treatment was also found to induce phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK) and AKT. In addition, GE impeded the migration and invasion of EJ cells via inhibition of MMP-9 expression followed by decreased binding activities of AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB motifs. Based on microarray datasets, we selected Heat shock protein A6 (HSPA6) as the most up-regulated gene responsible for the inhibitory effects of GE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSPA6 gene resulted in an augmentation effect with GE inhibiting proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells. The augmentation effect of HSPA6 was verified by enhancing the induction of G2/M-phase-mediated ATM-CHK2-Cdc25C-p21WAF1-Cdc2 cascade, phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT signaling, and suppression of transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation in response to GE in EJ cells. Overall, our novel results indicate that HSPA6 reinforces the GE-mediated inhibitory effects of proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells and may provide a new approach for therapeutic treatment of malignancies. PMID:28187175

  11. Role of precursors on greening in crushed garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs, and its control with freeze-dried onion powder.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo

    2012-01-30

    Lachrymatory factor (LF) synthase in onion bulbs reacts with S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), a key compound in garlic greening. In this study, freeze-dried onion powder containing LF synthase was used in treatments to control garlic greening. Prior to the use of freeze-dried onion powder to treat greening garlic bulbs, model reactions were conducted to confirm the reactivity of 1-PeCSO in onion bulbs to garlic greening. While pink pigments were generated from 1-PeCSO, green pigments were produced from the combination of 1-PeCSO and S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (2-PeCSO). However, pigments were formed in the systems containing 1-PeCSO, amino acid and alliinase. Even non-greening garlic bulbs stored at 20 °C turned green with the reaction of 200 g L(-1) 1-PeCSO; therefore 1-PeCSO isolated from onion bulbs had the same role as 1-PeCSO in garlic bulbs in terms of greening. Onion bulbs turned green after the addition of 600 g L(-1) 2-PeCSO. The addition of freeze-dried onion powder inhibited garlic greening, and treatment with 15 g kg(-1) onion powder gave the best storage stability of crushed garlic bulbs. The addition of freeze-dried onion powder inhibited the greening in crushed garlic bulbs, and treatment with 15 g kg(-1) onion powder gave the best storage stability of crushed garlic bulbs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Prevention of psychological stress-induced immune suppression by aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kyo, E; Uda, N; Ushijima, M; Kasuga, S; Itakura, Y

    1999-11-01

    We determined the effect of Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) on damage caused to immune function by a psychological stress using a communication box. After four days of a psychological stress, a decrease in spleen weight and spleen cells was observed in the psychological stress-exposed mice as compared normal mice (non-stress). AGE significantly prevented the decreases in spleen weight and cells. Additionally, AGE significantly prevented the reduction of hemolytic plaque-forming-cells in spleen cells and anti-SRBC antibody titer in serum caused by this psychological stress. Moreover, a reduction in NK activities was observed in the psychological stress-exposed mice as compared with normal mice (non-stress), whereas NK activities in the AGE administered mice were almost the same as normal mice (non-stress). These results indicate that psychological stress qualitatively and quantitatively impairs immune function, and that AGE is extremely useful for preventing psychologically-induced damage.

  13. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    PubMed

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Inhibition of plant-interacting microbes by Vegelys®, an Allium-based antimicrobial formulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant extracts offer a natural alternative to synthetic chemicals for the control of unwanted microbes. VEG’LYS®, a commercial formulation of three ingredients from garlic and onion, was developed for surface sterilization of seeds. Here, we show that this product inhibited the growth or development...

  15. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic.

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-04-15

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H 2 S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H 2 S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30min and the solvent extracts were analyzed by GC-MS/FID and HPLC. A cell-based assay was used to measure the H 2 S-releasing activity of the extracts. Results showed that the amounts of allyl polysulfides increased in crushed garlic boiled for 6-10min; however, prolonging the thermal treatment to 20 or 30min decreased their concentrations. Data of the H 2 S-releasing activity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E), parallel this trend, being significantly higher at 6 and 10min boiling. Our results showed enhancement of H 2 S-releasing activity upon moderate boiling, suggesting that shorter cooking time may maximize its health benefits as a dietary source of natural H 2 S donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  17. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  18. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  19. GarlicESTdb: an online database and mining tool for garlic EST sequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Won; Jung, Tae-Sung; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kwon, Hyuk-Ryul; Kim, Aeri; Chae, Sung-Hwa; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Ryong Nam; Park, Hong-Seog

    2009-05-18

    Allium sativum., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus (Allium), which is a large and diverse one containing over 1,250 species. Its close relatives include chives, onion, leek and shallot. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for culinary, medicinal use and health benefits. Currently, the interest in garlic is highly increasing due to nutritional and pharmaceutical value including high blood pressure and cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cancer. For all that, there are no comprehensive databases available for Expressed Sequence Tags(EST) of garlic for gene discovery and future efforts of genome annotation. That is why we developed a new garlic database and applications to enable comprehensive analysis of garlic gene expression. GarlicESTdb is an integrated database and mining tool for large-scale garlic (Allium sativum) EST sequencing. A total of 21,595 ESTs collected from an in-house cDNA library were used to construct the database. The analysis pipeline is an automated system written in JAVA and consists of the following components: automatic preprocessing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences, storage of the analyzed information into MySQL databases, and graphic display of all processed data. A web application was implemented with the latest J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) software technology (JSP/EJB/JavaServlet) for browsing and querying the database, for creation of dynamic web pages on the client side, and for mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways, the AJAX framework was also used partially. The online resources, such as putative annotation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and tandem repeat data sets, can be searched by text, explored on the website, searched using BLAST, and downloaded. To archive more significant BLAST results, a curation system was introduced with which biologists can easily edit best-hit annotation information for others to view. The Garlic

  20. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of blue pigments in crushed garlic cloves (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-01-01

    The color-forming ability of amino acids with thiosulfinate in crushed garlic was investigated. We developed reaction systems for generating pure blue pigments using extracted thiosulfinate from crushed garlic and onion and all 22 amino acids. Each amino acid was reacted with thiosulfinate solution and was then incubated at 60 degrees C for 3 h to generate pigments. Unknown blue pigments, responsible for discoloration in crushed garlic cloves (Allium sativum L.), were separated and tentatively characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector ranging between 200 and 700 nm. Blue pigment solutions exhibited 2 maximal absorbance peaks at 440 nm and 580 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue, respectively, with different retention times. Our findings indicated that green discoloration is created by the combination of yellow and blue pigments. Eight naturally occurring blue pigments were separated from discolored garlic extracts using HPLC at 580 nm. This suggests that garlic discoloration is not caused by only 1 blue pigment, as reported earlier, but by as many as 8 pigments. Overall, free amino acids that formed blue pigment when reacted with thiosulfinate were glycine, arginine, lysine, serine, alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine had spectra that were more similar to naturally greened garlic extract.

  1. Aged Garlic Extract Improves Adiponectin Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Lahera, Vicente; Oubiña, Pilar; Valero-Muñoz, Maria; de las Heras, Natalia; Rodríguez, Yudy; García, Ronald Gerardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been shown to have important benefits in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the risk factors that constitute the cluster of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods and Design. Double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of 1.2 g/day of AGE (Kyolic), for 24 weeks of treatment (12 weeks of AGE and 12 weeks of placebo), on subjects with MS. Results. The administration of AGE increased the plasma levels of adiponectin (P = 0.027). No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion. The present results have shown for the first time that the administration of AGE for 12 weeks increased plasma adiponectin levels in patients with MS. This suggests that AGE might be a useful, novel, nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention to increase adiponectin and to prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications in individuals with MS. PMID:23533302

  2. Antifungal Efficacy and the Mechanical Properties of Soft Liners against Candida albicans after the Incorporation of Garlic and Neem: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Seenivasan Madhan; Kumar, V. Anand; Natarajan, Parathasarthy; Sreenivasan, Gayathri

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro growth inhibition of Candida albicans, in the soft-liner material and Shore A hardness from resin-based denture soft lining materials modified by neem or garlic incorporation. Materials and Methods: Resin discs were prepared with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and soft liners incorporated with varying concentrations of neem or garlic. For antifungal activity, resin discs were placed on agar plates inoculated with C. albicans and were evaluated after 2, 4, and 7 days using the streaking method. The hardness of the PMMA was evaluated with the use of Shore A at 2, 4, and 7 days. Data were statistically processed by SPSS software (IBM Company, Chicago, USA) using Kruskal–Wallis test, and post hoc comparisons were done using Dunn's test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Neem and garlic added to PMMA soft liner had an inhibitory effect on C. albicans. Both the neem and garlic when added showed positive results against C. albicans when compared to the control group. The soft liner hardness increased statistically by time but not for the different plant extract concentrations. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was found that neem and garlic can be used as an additive to tissue conditioner to reduce the adherence of C. albicans without significantly affecting the hardness of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin. PMID:29911057

  3. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Nazer, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment for hydatid disease. Recurrence of the infection is one of the end points of surgery in treating the hydatid cyst which results from the dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid. Installation of a scolicidal agent into the cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent recurrence. Many scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of the cyst's content, but most of them are not safe due to their undesired side effects. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum is investigated. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg ml(-1)) of garlic extract were used for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 25 mg ml(-1) killed 87.9, 95.6, 96.8, 98.7, 99.6, and 100% of protoscolices following 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of application, respectively. Moreover, the scolicidal activity of Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) was 100% after 10 min of application. Methanolic extract of Allium sativum had a high scolicidal activity in vitro and thus might be used as a scolicidal agent in the surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst. However, further investigation on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum extract and its possible side effects is proposed.

  4. Adjuvant action of garlic sugar solution in animals immunized with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells attenuated with allicin.

    PubMed

    Nakata, T; Fujiwara, M

    1975-08-01

    Ethanol-insoluble components were extracted from fresh garlic with 0.9% NaCl solution containing streptomycin and penicillin. This extract, containing approximately 10% sugar, 0.3% nitrogen, and 0.4% ash, was termed garlic sugar solution. This garlic sugar solution (Medium 1) was used as the suspending medium for Ehrlich ascites tumor cells attenuated with allicin, the main principle of garlic, and 0.9% NaCl solution containing streptomycin and penicillin (Medium 2) was also used as the suspending medium. Mice of DDD strain were immunized with the attenuated tumor cells suspended in Medium 1 or 2. After immunization, the immunized and control mice were challenged intraperitoneally with viable Ehrlich ascites tumorcells. Animals immunized with the attenuated tumor cells suspended in Medium 1 acquired significantly stronger resistance against the tumor cells than animals immunized with those suspended in Medium 2.

  5. Think Yellow and Keep Green-Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J

    2016-12-30

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a "green pesticide".

  6. Aged garlic extract protects against methotrexate-induced apoptotic cell injury of IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Horie, Toshiharu; Li, Tiesong; Ito, Kousei; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Fuwa, Toru

    2006-03-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects of methotrexate (MTX) treatment. The side effects often disrupt the cancer chemotherapy. We previously reported that aged garlic extract (AGE) protects the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. In this study, the protection of AGE against MTX-induced damage of IEC-6 cells originating from the rat jejunum crypt was investigated. MTX decreased the viability of IEC-6 cells, but this effect was prevented by AGE (0.5%). The MTX-induced apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was depressed by AGE. These results indicated that AGE protects IEC-6 cells from the MTX-induced damage. AGE may be useful in cancer chemotherapy with MTX because it reduces MTX-induced intestinal damage.

  7. Effect of aged garlic extract on immune responses to experimental fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Tabari, M Abouhosseini; Ebrahimpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has many biological activities including radical scavenging, antioxidative and immunomodulative effects. In this research work, the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of AGE against fibrosarcoma implanted tumor were studied. WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into the right flank of 40 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in two separate groups: First received AGE (100 mg/kg, IP), second group as the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Treatments were carried out 3 times/week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flow cytometry. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 cytokines were measured. The mice received AGE had significantly longer survival time compared with the control mice. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in AGE treated mice. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE group. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes from AGE mice was also significantly increased at 25:1 E: T ratio. Administration of AGE resulted in improved immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. AGE showed significant effects on inhibition of tumor growth and longevity of survival times.

  8. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”. PMID:28042817

  10. Comparison of Immunomodulatory Effects of Fresh Garlic and Black Garlic Polysaccharides on RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yan, Yi-Xi; Yu, Qing-Tao; Deng, Yong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Wang, Ying; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences. It is demonstrated that the molecular weights of polysaccharides from the 2 sources and molar ratios of monosaccharides after acid hydrolysis are greatly variant. The effects of polysaccharides from 2 sources on RAW 264.7 macrophages functions, including promotion of phagocytosis, release of NO, and expressions of several immune-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma), were different from each other. The results indicated that fresh garlic polysaccharide exhibited stronger immunomodulatory activities than that of black garlic. Moreover, it is revealed that fructan might be the bioactive component in garlic and it is indicated that during the fermentation treatment, fructan constituents of garlic has degraded, and basically no immunomodulatory effect can be found in black garlic polysaccharides. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Garlic induces a shift in cytokine pattern in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, T; Hassan, Z M; Ebtekar, M; Ahmadiani, A; Naderi, G; Azar, A

    2000-11-01

    The regulation of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type cytokine patterns is important in the final outcome of leishmaniasis in human and murine models. We examined the efficacy of garlic therapy or a combination of garlic and an antimonial drug (glucantime) in promoting healing and regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine patterns in highly susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Separate groups of infected mice received 20 mg/kg/day garlic, 60 mg/kg/day glucantime or a combination of the two, from day 30 after infection for 2 weeks. An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was performed on spleen cell culture supernatants for interferon(IFN)-gamma interleukin(IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10. The results indicate that garlic therapy is more effective than the usual antileishmanial drug in curing the infection. Garlic-treated mice developed Th1-type cytokine responses. In contrast, glucantime therapy led to a Th2-type response in the control group with a lower level of IL-2. However, a combination of garlic and glucantime treatment was more effective than either treatment alone, and resulted in a Th1-type response similar to that which developed with garlic treatment. These results suggest that garlic extract in combination with an antimonial drug, may provide effective therapy against L. major. The immunomodulatory properties of garlic were elucidated in terms of shifting the cytokine response to a Th1-type pattern and therefore causing the protective response.

  12. Histopathological study of the combination of metformin and garlic juice for the attenuation of gentamicin renal toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Azar; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tubular toxicity is one of the most important side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially gentamicin.Objectives: We histopathologically studied the effect of garlic extract and metformin co-administration, in attenuation of genetamicin induced tubular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study seventy rats were divided into seven equal groups and except group 1 (control) were injected 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (GM) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days. Other than GM, group III received 20 mg/kg garlic (i.p.), group IV metformin (MF) (100 mg/kg, orally), group V a combination of MF with garlic juice (100 and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively) and group VI a combination of MF and garlic juice (50 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) for following 10 days. Group VII received a combination of MF and garlic juice (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) along with GM. Animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of the experiment and the kidneys were removed for histological examinations. Results: GM induced nephrotoxicity and garlic or MF alone and a combination of both with high doses (not low doses) significantly abolished the kidney tubular injury induced by GM. In addition, co-administration of GM, MF and garlic (group 7) prevented the GM- induced tissue damage more than the groups in which MF and garlic were injected 10 days post GM administration. Conclusion: Garlic extract and Metformin, alone or in a combination, might be safely used to ameliorate GM induced tubular toxicity. PMID:25340116

  13. Synergistic effect of aged garlic extract and naltrexone on improving immune responses to experimentally induced fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Aghajanzadeh, Hamid; Behzadi, Manijeh Yousefi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Garlic, a medicinal plant, and Naltrexone (NTX), an opioid receptor antagonist, both have immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Current study was designed to evaluate synergistic antitumor effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) and NTX. Materials and Methods: WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into right flank of 80 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in four separate groups: The first group received AGE (100 mg/kg, i.p.), the second group received NTX (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), the third group received both of them, and the fourth group received phosphate buffered saline as control group. Treatments were administered three times per week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flowcytometery. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines were measured. All statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 16 software and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mice who received AGE+NTX had significantly longer survival time compared with the mice treated with AGE or NTX alone. An enhanced inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in combination therapy group. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE+NTX and NTX groups. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes was also significantly increased at 25:1 E:T ratio in AGE+NTX treated mice. Coadministration of AGE with NTX resulted in improvement of immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. Conclusions: AGE showed synergistic effects with NTX on inhibition of tumor growth and increment of survival times. PMID:23901215

  14. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): a powerful combination for selenium speciation in garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Dumont, Emmie; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Vanhaecke, Frank; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Cornelis, Rita

    2006-03-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) hyphenated with both elemental and molecular mass spectrometry has been used for Se speciation in Se-enriched garlic. Different species were separated by ion-pair liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) after hot-water extraction. They were identified by on-line reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Se-methionine and Se-methylselenocysteine were determined by monitoring their product ions. Another compound, gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine, shown to be the most abundant form of Se in the garlic, was determined without any additional sample pre-treatment after extraction and without the need for a synthesized standard. Product ions for this dipeptide were detected by LC-ESI-MS-MS for three isotopes of Se-78 Se, 80Se: and 82Se. The method was extended to the species extracted during in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Because both Se-methylselenocysteine and gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine have anticarcinogenic properties, their extractability and stability during human digestion are very important. Garlic was also treated with saliva, to enable detection and analysis of species extracted during mastication. Detailed information on the extractability of selenium species by both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid are given, and variation of the distribution of Se among the different species with time is discussed. Although the main species in garlic is the dipeptide gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine, Se-methylselenocysteine is the main compound present in the extracts after treatment with gastrointestinal fluids. Two more, so far unknown compounds were observed in the chromatogram. The extracted species and their transformations were analysed by combining LC-ICP-MS and LC-ESI-MS-MS. In both the simulated gastric and intestinal digests, Se-methionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and gamma

  15. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    PubMed

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment.

  16. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, Silje; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-07-01

    The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC(50): 73 microg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 microg/mL, respectively). All IC(50) values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC(50)/IC(25) ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Study on garlic oil combined with 5-FU induced apoptosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line ACC-M].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fayin; Zhou, Hefeng; Fan, Zhiying; Zhu, Yawen; Li, Yongye; Yao, Yukun; Ran, Dan

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of garlic oil combined with 5-FU induced apoptosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line ACC-M. Human salivary in adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line AC-M was cultured, divided into the experimental group (5-FU group, garlic oil group, garlic oil + 5-FU group) and the control group, to observe the growth activity of tumor cells by MTT methods; to analyse the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis rate by flow cytometry. MTT experiments showed that 5-FU, garlic oil, garlic oil and 5-FU on ACC-M cells have inhibition in different concentration, with the increase of concentration and action time of the rise; Cell cycle analysis showed significant changes in flow cytometry. With the increase of concentration and the acting time, the G0/G1, phase of the cell ratio increased, S had no significant change, but G2/M phase cells decreased. Apoptosis rate display showed garlic oil combined with 5-FU induced apoptosis of ACC-M cells was significantly stronger than single group. Garlic oil can effectively induce the apoptosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line ACC-M. The effect of garlic oil combined with 5-FU on ACC-M cells was stronger than the garlic oil, 5-FU used alone.

  18. Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic stalk decomposition for different durations.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2017-07-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilize this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. The effect of garlic stalk decomposed for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoot and root lengths of wheat and lettuce, but it promoted the shoot and root lengths in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weights of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weights; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase in soil where wheat or lettuce was planted. Garlic stalk decomposed for 30 or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-stimulated-J774A.1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Shahrzad Zamani Taghizadeh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Siadat, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Rabe, Shahin Zamani Taghizadeh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Garlic 14-kDa protein is purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is used in traditional medicine and exerts various immunomodulatory activities. The present study investigated the suppressive effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and underlying mechanism in inflammatory macrophages. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 14-kDa protein (5-30 μg/ml) with/without LPS (1 μg/ml) and the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, and IL-1β released were measured using ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess method. The anti-inflammatory activity of 14-kDa protein was examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins using western blot. The expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit was assessed by western blot. Garlic 14-kDa protein significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-related manner without cytotoxic effect. Western blot analysis demonstrated that garlic 14-kDa protein suppressed corresponding inducible NO synthase expression and activated cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by a reduction in the activity and expression of transcription factor NF-κB protein. Our results suggested, for the first time, garlic 14-kDa protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages possibly by suppressing the inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathway. The traditional use of garlic as anti-inflammatory remedy could be ascribed partly to 14-kDa protein content. This protein might be a useful candidate for controlling inflammatory diseases and further investigations in vivo.

  1. [Protective effects of garlic oil on n-hexane-induced neurotoxicity in rats via inhibition of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ye; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yan, Jie; Zeng, Tao; Fu, Qiang-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Xia; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2011-08-01

    To study the protective effects of garlic oil (GO) on the peripheral nerve injuries induced by n-hexane. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats in each group): the control, the n-hexane treatment (2000 mg/kg), the low dose GO, and the high dose GO groups. The rats in the low and high doses of GO groups were pretreated with GO (40 and 80 mg/kg) before exposure to n-hexane (2000 mg/ kg), while the animals of the n-hexane treatment group were given normal saline and then 2000 mg/ kg n-hexane. The rats were exposed to GO and n-hexane 6 times a week for 10 weeks. The gait scores and staying time on the rotating rod for all rats were detected every two weeks. The rats were sacrificed at the end of ten weeks, then the levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), maleic dialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), total antioxidation capacity(T-AOC) and the ability of inhibition of *OH in livers were examined. The gait scores increased significantly and the time staying on the rotating rod obviously decreased in rats of n-hexane treatment group, as compared with control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In the hepatic tissues of n-hexane group, the levels of MDA and ADH significantly increased, the activities of GSH-Px, T-AOC and the ability of inhibition of *OH obviously decreased, as compared to control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In 2 GO groups, the gait scores and the staying time on the rotating rod were significantly improved, the levels of MDA and ADH significantly decreased, the activities of GSH-Px, T-AOC and the ability of inhibition of *OH obviously increased, as compared with n-hexane group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ). ADH could play an important role in the protective effects induced by garlic oil on the peripheral nerve injuries produced by n-hexane.

  2. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  3. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (q e =625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k 2 =0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  6. Garlic extract favorably modifies markers of endothelial function in obese patients -randomized double blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention.

    PubMed

    Szulińska, Monika; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Świątek, Joanna; Styś, Paulina; Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bogdański, Paweł

    2018-06-01

    Garlic exerts a range of effects relevant to human health. However, its influence on the endothelium in obese individuals remains unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of garlic extract (GE) on arterial stiffness and markers of endothelial function. Ninety-two subjects were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of GE or placebo daily for 3 months. The arterial stiffness index (SI) and markers of endothelial function such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL), triglycerides, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) were quantified at baseline and the end of study. At the end of study SI (p = 0.01), hsCRP (p < 0.001, PAI-1 (p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (p < 0.001), and TAS (p < 0.01) were reduced in the GE-supplemented group, but not in the placebo group. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrates that supplementation with GE favorably modifies endothelial biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk and suggests that GE can be used to suppress chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture

  8. Changes in the Aromatic Profile, Sugars, and Bioactive Compounds When Purple Garlic Is Transformed into Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Casas, Lucía; Lage-Yusty, María; López-Hernández, Julia

    2017-12-13

    Black garlic is an elaborated product obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) at a controlled high humidity and temperature, which leads to modifications in color, taste, and texture. To clarify the physicochemical changes that occur during the thermal process, this work aimed to evaluate and contrast the antioxidant capacity and that of other compounds between purple garlic ecotype "Purple from Las Pedroñeras" and its black garlic derivative. Our results showed numerous differences between both, because black garlic presented a significant divergence in its volatile profile, a decreased amount of ascorbic acid, an increment in sugar and polyphenol contents, a greater antioxidant capacity, and a different composition of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  9. Efficacy of Co-administration of Garlic Extract and Metformin for Prevention of Gentamicin–Renal Toxicity in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Baradaran, Azar; Merrikhi, Alireza; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Madihi, Yahya; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity has been related to oxidative stress. Garlic and metformin (MF) have anti-oxadant activity and therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative effects of garlic, MF and their combination on GM indeced tubular toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In a pre-clinical study, 70 male Wistar rats were randomly designated into 7 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group 1: Received saline for 20 days. Group 2: Were injected 100 mg/kg/d of GM intraperitoneally (ip), for 10 days and saline for 10 more days. Group 3: Received GM for 10 days then 20 mg/kg garlic ip for the next 10 days. Group 4: Received GM for 10 days and MF (100 mg/kg) orally for the next 10 days. Group 5: Received GM for 10 days and a combination of MF and garlic for the next 10 days (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Group 6: The same as group 5but with half-doses of MF and Garlic. Group 7: Received GM for 10 days together with a combination ofMF and garlic. On 20th day of the experiment the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured and compared in different groups. Results: GM injection significantly increased the serum BUN and Cr (P < 0.05). Administration of MF, garlic or their combination with or after injection of GM (high doses) could atenuate BUN and Cr. Conclusions: The results indicate that MF and garlic or their combination have curative and protective activity against GM nephrotoxicity. PMID:23626881

  10. Garlic: empiricism or science?

    PubMed

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  11. Speciation and identification of tellurium-containing metabolites in garlic, Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Yoshida, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Saki; Katai, Ryota; Tokumoto, Maki; Ouerdane, Laurent; Łobiński, Ryszard; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-09-01

    Tellurium (Te) is a widely used metalloid in industry because of its unique chemical and physical properties. However, information about the biological and toxicological activities of Te in plants and animals is limited. Although Te is expected to be metabolized in organisms via the same pathway as sulfur and selenium (Se), no precise metabolic pathways are known in organisms, particularly in plants. To reveal the metabolic pathway of Te in plants, garlic, a well-known Se accumulator, was chosen as the model plant. Garlic was hydroponically cultivated and exposed to sodium tellurate, and Te-containing metabolites in the water extract of garlic leaves were identified using HPLC coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). At least three Te-containing metabolites were detected using HPLC-ICP-MS, and two of them were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS for identification. The MS spectra obtained by ESI-MS-MS indicated that the metabolite was Te-methyltellurocysteine oxide (MeTeCysO). Then, MeTeCysO was chemically synthesized and its chromatographic behavior matched with that of the Te-containing metabolite in garlic. The other was assigned as cysteine S-methyltellurosulfide. These results suggest that garlic can assimilate tellurate, an inorganic Te compound, and tellurate is transformed into a Te-containing amino acid, the so-called telluroamino acid. This is the first report addressing that telluroamino acid is de novo synthesized in a higher plant.

  12. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Imen; Amara, Souheila; Benahmed, Mohamed; El May, Michèle V; Mauduit, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Background Garlic or Allium sativum (As) shows therapeutic effects such as reduction of blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia but side-effects on reproductive functions remain poorly investigated. Because of garlic's chemical complexity, the processing methods and yield in preparations differ in efficacy and safety. In this context, we clarify the mechanisms of action of crushed crude garlic on testicular markers. Methods During one month of treatment, 24 male rats were fed 5%, 10% and 15% crude garlic. Results We showed that crude garlic-feeding induced apoptosis in testicular germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids). This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase inhibitors BIRC3 and BIRC2 was increased at all doses of As while expression of XIAP and BIRC5 was unchanged. Moreover, expression of the IAP inhibitor DIABLO was increased at doses 10% and 15% of As. The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b5 and Hsd17b). Evaluation of Sertoli markers showed that TUBB3 and GSTA2 expression was unchanged. In contrast, AMH, RHOX5 and CDKN1B expression was decreased while GATA4 expression was increased. Conclusion In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers. These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells. PMID:19552815

  13. Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Ningyang; Lu, Xiaoming; Liu, Pengli; Qiao, Xuguang

    2016-05-01

    Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on the market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristics of quality formation of black garlic during processing at various temperatures. In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavour of black garlic varied at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. The sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) compared with that at other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavour of black garlic during processing. Temperature had a remarkable impact on the quality and flavour of black garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that

  15. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  16. Effect of garlic powder on acrylamide formation in a low-moisture model system and bread baking.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinwang; Zuo, Jie; Qiao, Xuguang; Zhang, Yongju; Xu, Zhixiang

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is of concern worldwide because of its neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Consequently, methods for minimizing AA formation during food processing are vital. In this study, the formation and elimination of AA in an asparagine/glucose low-moisture model system were investigated by response surface methodology. The effect of garlic powder on the kinetics of AA formation/elimination was also evaluated. The AA content reached a maximum level (674.0 nmol) with 1.2 mmol of glucose and 1.2 mmol of asparagine after heating at 200 °C for 6 min. The AA content was greatly reduced with the addition of garlic powder. Compared to without garlic powder, an AA reduction rate of 43% was obtained with addition of garlic powder at a mass fraction of 0.05 g. Garlic powder inhibited AA formation during the generation-predominant kinetic stage and had no effect on the degradation-predominant kinetic stage. The effect of garlic powder on AA formation in bread and bread quality was also investigated. Adding a garlic powder mass fraction of 15 g to 500 g of dough significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of AA (reduction rate of 46%) and had no obvious effect on the sensory qualities of the bread. This study provides a possible method for reducing the AA content in bread and other heat-treated starch-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. [Does garlic protect against vampires? An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, H; Baerheim, A

    1994-12-10

    Vampires are feared everywhere, but the Balkan region has been especially haunted. Garlic has been regarded as an effective prophylactic against vampires. We wanted to explore this alleged effect experimentally. Owing to the lack of vampires, we used leeches instead. In strictly standardized research surroundings, the leeches were to attach themselves to either a hand smeared with garlic or to a clean hand. The garlic-smeared hand was preferred in two out of three cases (95% confidence interval 50.4% to 80.4%). When they preferred the garlic the leeches used only 14.9 seconds to attach themselves, compared with 44.9 seconds when going to the non-garlic hand (p < 0.05). The traditional belief that garlic has prophylactic properties is probably wrong. The reverse may in fact be true. This study indicates that garlic possibly attracts vampires. Therefore to avoid a Balkan-like development in Norway, restrictions on the use of garlic should be considered.

  18. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  19. Garlic Mustard (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    Garlic mustard was used as an edible green in Europe and may have been brought to North America by European settlers. The coarsely toothed leaves give off a garlic-like odor when crushed, accounting for its common name and use in cooking. It is a member of the mustard family.

  20. The Mathematics of Garlic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  1. Antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Seema; Trivedi, Niyati A.; Bhatt, Jagat D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance has been a global concern. Currently, interest has been focused on exploring antimicrobial properties of plants and herbs. One such botanical is Allium sativum (garlic). Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of fresh juice of garlic. Materials and Methods: Varying concentrations of fresh garlic juice (FGJ) were tested for their antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara, using well diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of FGJ were tested using broth dilution method. Sensitivity pattern of the conventional antimicrobials against common pathogenic bacteria was tested using disc diffusion method. Results: FGJ produced dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition at a concentration of 10% and higher. MIC of FGJ against the pathogens ranged from 4% to 16% v/v whereas MLC value ranged from 4% to 32% v/v with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus spp. showed highest sensitivity. Conclusion: FGJ has definite antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara. Further studies are needed to find out the efficacy, safety, and kinetic data of its active ingredients. PMID:27011724

  2. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  3. Preparation of S-Allylcysteine-Enriched Black Garlic Juice and Its Antidiabetic Effects in Streptozotocin-Induced Insulin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Yu, Su Hyun; Cho, Yun Jeong; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Cho, Hyung Taek; Kim, Jeong Ho; Bong, Hyejin; Lee, Yeojin; Chang, Moon Han; Jeong, Ye Jin; Choi, Garam; Kim, Young Jun

    2017-01-18

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC), produced in large amounts during the aging process of garlic via enzymatic hydrolysis, is known as a key compound responsible for the multiple pharmacological activities of aged black garlic. This study investigated the effects of enzyme- and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-assisted extraction on the content of the bioactive compounds, including SAC, in black garlic juice (BGJ) and evaluated the antidiabetic effects of SAC-enriched BGJ in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. The aging process increased the contents of SAC, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids in garlic juice. More importantly, pretreatment of pectinase cocktail with HHP resulted in a greater increase in those compounds during aging. Enzyme-treated BGJ reduced hyperglycemia and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, these effects were more potent than those of BGJ prepared by the conventional aging process. These findings provide useful information for the production of black garlic with improved bioactivities.

  4. Garlic

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2011;27(4): ... CM, et al. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Nutrition ...

  5. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale)

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D.; Dosoky, Noura S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species. PMID:28783070

  6. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  7. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4℃. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p<0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls. PMID:26761498

  8. Polysulfides as biologically active ingredients of garlic.

    PubMed

    Münchberg, Ute; Anwar, Awais; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Jacob, Claus

    2007-05-21

    Garlic has long been considered as a natural remedy against a range of human illnesses, including various bacterial, viral and fungal infections. This kind of antibiotic activity of garlic has mostly been associated with the thiosulfinate allicin. Even so, recent studies have pointed towards a significant biological activity of trisulfides and tetrasulfides found in various Allium species, including a wide range of antibiotic properties and the ability of polysulfides to cause the death of certain cancer cells. The chemistry underlying the biological activity of these polysulfides is currently emerging. It seems to include a combination of several distinct transformations, such as oxidation reactions, superoxide radical and peroxide generation, decomposition with release of highly electrophilic S(x) species, inhibition of metalloenzymes, disturbance of metal homeostasis and membrane integrity and interference with different cellular signalling pathways. Further research in this area is required to provide a better understanding of polysulfide reactions within a biochemical context. This knowledge may ultimately form the basis for the development of 'green' antibiotics, fungicides and possibly anticancer agents with dramatically reduced side effects in humans.

  9. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjay K; Maulik, Subir K

    2002-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficary of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic. PMID:12537594

  10. Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from several plants on postharvest pathogens of citrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Xu, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    China is one of the most important origin of citrus. Enormous economic losses was caused by fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage every year. The effective antimicrobial substances of garlic, ginger, celery and pepper were extracted by ethanol extraction and water extraction respectively. The inhibitory effects of the crude extract on Penicillium sp. caused fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage were also determined. The results showed that the extracts of garlic, ginger and celery had inhibitory effect on P. sp., but the extracts of pepper had no inhibitory effect on P. sp.. The garlic ethanol extracts had the best inhibitory effect on P. citrinum.

  11. The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Bostan, Kamil; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Bingöl, Bariş

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (çig köfte), which is a traditional food product eaten raw. Fresh minced ground beef and raw meatball batter prepared with traditional methods were separated into groups. Chopped and crushed garlic was added to each batch in order to reach various concentrations from 0% to 10%. The ground beef samples were stored at refrigerator and ambient temperatures. The raw meatball samples were only stored at room temperature. All samples were analyzed in order to determine the microbial counts at the 2(nd), 6(th), 12(th), and 24(th) hours of storage. Garlic addition decreased the microbial growth in some ground beef samples kept either at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, microbial growth increased in some ground beef samples kept in similar conditions. The difference was found in samples kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform bacteria when garlic used at 10%. The effects of garlic on the microbial growth of both coliforms and Staphylococcus/Micrococcus in the samples kept at room temperature were increased. The yeast and mold counts in ground beef samples kept in any condition were not affected by garlic addition. However, the addition of garlic to the raw meatball mix decreased the microbial count, in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts, when the garlic was added at 5% or 10% (P < .05). The addition of 10% garlic to raw meatball caused a permanent decrease in yeast and mold count, unlike in ground beef. The results of this study indicate that the chopped garlic has a slowing-down effect on microbiological growth in ground meat depending on the garlic concentration, but this effect was not at an expected level even at the highest concentration, because potential antimicrobial agents in chopped garlic were probably insufficiently extracted.

  12. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  13. Garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine is a novel in vivo antimetastatic agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Howard, Edward W; Ling, Ming-Tat; Chua, Chee Wai; Cheung, Hiu Wing; Wang, Xianghong; Wong, Yong Chuan

    2007-03-15

    There is epidemiologic evidence that high garlic consumption decreases the incidence of prostate cancer, and compounds isolated from garlic have been shown to have cancer-preventive and tumor-suppressive effects. Recent in vitro studies in our laboratory have shown that garlic-derived organosulfur compound S-allylmercaptocysteine suppresses invasion and cell motility of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via the up-regulation of cell-adhesion molecule E-cadherin. S-allylmercaptocysteine is therefore a potential antimetastatic drug with broad clinical applications that we tested in vivo for the first time in this study. We used a newly established fluorescent orthotopic androgen-independent prostate cancer mouse model to assess the ability of S-allylmercaptocysteine to inhibit tumor growth and dissemination. We showed that oral S-allylmercaptocysteine not only inhibited the growth of primary tumors by up to 71% (P < 0.001) but also reduced the number of lung and adrenal metastases by as much as 85.5% (P = 0.001) without causing notable toxicity. This metastatic suppression was accompanied by a 91% reduction of viable circulating tumor cells (P = 0.041), suggesting that S-allylmercaptocysteine prevents dissemination by decreasing tumor cell intravasation. Our results provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of S-allylmercaptocysteine as an E-cadherin up-regulating antimetastatic agent for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer. This is the first report of the in vivo antimetastatic properties of garlic, which may also apply to other cancer types.

  14. Effects of a garlic-derived principle (ajoene) on aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K C; Tyagi, O D

    1993-08-01

    When garlic cloves are chopped or crushed several dialkyl thiosulfinates are rapidly formed by the action of the enzyme alliin lyase or alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) on S(+)-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides. Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate or allyl 2-propene thiosulfinate) is the dominant thiosulfinate released. A variety of sulfur containing compounds are formed from allicin and other thiosulfinates depending on the way in which garlic is handled. One such compound identified recently is ajoene which has been reported to possess antithrombotic properties. We present here data on the antiplatelet properties of ajoene together with its effects on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in intact platelets. Thus, ajoene was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by AA, adrenaline, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187; the nature of the inhibition was irreversible. In washed platelets stimulated by labelled arachidonate, ajoene inhibited the formation of thromboxane A2; 12-lipoxygenase product(s) were reduced at higher ajoene concentrations. This garlic-derived substance inhibited the incorporation of labelled AA into platelet phospholipids at higher concentration. In labelled platelets, on stimulation with either calcium ionophore A23187 or collagen, reduced amounts of thromboxane and 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) were produced in ajoene-treated platelets compared to control platelets. This substance had no effect on the deacylation of platelet phospholipids. The results suggest that at least one of the mechanisms by which ajoene shows antiplatelet effects could be related to altered metabolism of AA.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activities of garlic sprouts, a source of α-linolenic acid and 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Paśko, Paweł; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Kała, Katarzyna; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the indolic, phenolic, and fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of garlic sprouts growing in the dark and in the daylight. The pro- or anti-inflammatory properties of the garlic sprout extract were investigated by evaluating the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), glutathione S transferase (GSTM1), nuclear factor NF-κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein levels in the RAW 264.7 cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The highest amount of total indolic (73.56 mg/100 g f.w.) and phenolic compounds (36.23 mg/100 g f.w.) was detected in garlic sprouts grown in the daylight. Studies on antioxidant activity (the FRAP and DPPH method) of garlic sprouts showed that this activity is significantly higher for sprouts grown in full access to light when compared to those grown in the dark. In garlic sprout extracts, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was found to be in greater amount. COX-2 and cPGES level was lower when compared to LPS alone activated cells. After garlic extract treatment, higher level of GSTM1, PPARΥ, cytosolic p50 and p65 protein, as well as a lower NF-ĸB p50/p65 activity was noted in the RAW 264.7 cells which suggested PPARs and AhR transrepression mechanism of NF-ĸB signalling. The obtained results indicate Allium sativum sprouts are a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, indolic and phenolic compounds characterized by anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity, which may support their high therapeutic and dietary potential.

  16. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  17. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Jin, Wenjie; Park, Junghyuck; Yoon, Wonjin; Lee, Yunyeol; Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Shin, Dongbin; Yoo, Miyoung

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.

  18. Fresh Garlic Extract Induces Growth Arrest and Morphological Differentiation of MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.; Reddy, Thipparthi R.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is often associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer, particularly breast cancer. Considering that 1 in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in the course of her lifetime, dietary manipulation could have a major impact on the incidence of breast cancer. We report here that fresh extracts of garlic (not boiled) arrested the growth and altered the morphology of MCF7 breast cancer cells. Deregulated levels of E-cadherin, cytokeratin8/18, and β-catenin correlated with the altered phenotype. We propose that early down-regulation of cyclin D1, reduced phosphorylation of ERK1, and increased phosphorylation of eIF2-α triggered the phenotypical changes. Reduced expression of hsp27 and sam68 and elevated levels of Rb and p21 further contributed to the sustained growth reduction. These findings provide a better understanding of the cellular responses to dietary supplements and provide potential options to treat breast cancer. PMID:23050048

  19. Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum Extracts Exhibit Anti-Parasitic and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Krstin, Sonja; Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Wink, Michael

    2018-02-02

    Garlic has played an important role in culinary arts and remedies in the traditional medicine throughout human history. Parasitic infections represent a burden in the society of especially poor countries, causing more than 1 billion infections every year and leading to around one million deaths. In this study, we investigated the mode of anti-parasitic activity of "wild garlics" Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum dichloromethane extracts against parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae with regard to their already known antimicrobial activity. We also evaluated their cytotoxic potential against human cells. Both extracts showed a relevant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity, although L. tarentolae was less sensitive. We determined that the probable mode of action of both extracts is the irreversible inhibition of the activity of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase enzyme. The extracts showed a mild cytotoxic activity against human keratinocytes. They also exhibited weak-in most cases comparable-antibacterial and antifungal activity. HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that both extracts are abundant in sulfur compounds. Thus, for the first time, the ability of Allium ursinum and Tulbaghia violacea to kill Trypanosoma sp. and Leishmania sp. parasites, probably by binding to and inactivating sulfur-containing compounds essential for the survival of the parasite, is shown.

  20. Effect of garlic and garlic-green tea mixture on serum lipids in MNNG-induced experimental gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesion.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Luo, Zhao-Yang; Teng, Hua; Yun, Wei-Dong; Li, Yi-Qing; He, Xin-E

    1998-02-01

    INTRODUCTION:To study effect of garlic and garlic-green tea mixture on serum contents of Tch,LDL and HDL in MNNG induced gastric carcinoma (GC) and precancerous lesion (PL) in Wistar rats.METHODS:Serum contents of Tch,LDL and HDL in normal control group (n=10,NG),MNNG group (n=30,MG),prevention group (n=30,PG),treatment group I (n=20,TG I) and treatment group II(n=20,TG II) were detected by PGE 6000/COD.RESULTS:Serum Tch and LDL of rats of MG (6.86±1.39 3.72±1.10) and its GC(6.95±1.37 3.77±1.08) and PL(6.42±1.04 3.56±0.74) were lower than that of NG (8.74±1.89 5.89±1.61) PG(7.73±3.18 4.96±2.89) and its GC(8.36±3.41 5.93±3.31) and PL(7.45±3.16 4.55±2.71),TGI(8.86±1.75 5.38±1.76) and its GC (9.10±2.27 5.55±2.51) and PL (8.61±1.17 5.22±0.55) and TG II (8.16±0.76 5.32±0.72) and its GC(8.52±0.67 5.96±0.48) and PL (8.02±0.79 5.09±0.65),respectively (P <0.01-0.05).Serum HDL of MG rats (2.76±0.48) and its GC(2.79±0.48) were remarkably higher than that of MG (2.20±0.85) and GC of PG (2.24±0.38) (P <0.05).CONCLUSION:Experimental gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesion were associated with hypocholesterolaemia,LDL and HDL.Garlic and garlic-green tea mixture can inhibit and reverse MNNG-induced gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesion in Wistar rats.

  1. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  2. Enhancement of the neuroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus mycelium co-cultivated with Allium sativum extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong Ki; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enriched with garlic extract (HGE) on rat pheochromocytoma nerve cells (PC12). The survival rates of the PC12 nerve cells and the neurite-bearing cells after the addition of HGE were estimated as 3.5 × 10(3) viable cells/ml and 2.3 × 10(3) viable cells/ml, respectively, which were 50% and 30% higher, respectively, compared with the untreated group. For the in vivo ischemia experiments, after treatment with the HGE extract, the hippocampal CA1 region was more strongly stained (>20%) than the control group, and the HGE extract also promoted higher staining levels than HFB, HM and HGEF, and even the garlic extract. This result indicates that HGE must have neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, HGE greatly decreased p21 gene expression to approximately 70% of the control and decreased p21 gene expression to even lower levels compared with HM, HGEF and the garlic extract. This work suggests that a synergistic effect of the H. erinaceus mycelium and the garlic extract (mainly allicin) exist because the amount of allicin in HGE (5.81 µg/ml) was lower than the garlic extract itself (6.89 µg/ml).

  3. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Tung, Yen-Chen; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Su, Nan-Wei; Lai, Ying-Jang; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Black garlic is obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) that has been fermented for a period of time at a controlled high temperature (60-90°C) under controlled high humidity (80-90%). When compared with fresh garlic, black garlic does not release a strong offensive flavor owing to the reduced content of allicin. Enhanced bioactivity of black garlic compared with that of fresh garlic is attributed to its changes in physicochemical properties. Studies concerning the fundamental findings of black garlic, such as its production, bioactivity, and applications, have thus been conducted. Several types of black garlic products are also available in the market with a fair selling volume. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of changes in the components, bioactivity, production, and applications of black garlic, as well as the proposed future prospects on their possible applications as a functional food product. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The role of diallyl sulfides and dipropyl sulfides in the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L.

    PubMed

    Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Melai, Bernardo; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from fresh bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L. ( Alliaceae), was studied. A. sativum (garlic) EO showed a good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone 14.8 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 21.1 mm), and Escherichia coli (inhibition zone 11.0 mm), whereas the EO of A. porrum (leek) had no antimicrobial activity. The main constituents of the garlic EO were diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide. The EO of A. porrum was characterized by the presence of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), dipropyl trisulfide, and dipropyl tetrasulfide. The antimicrobial activities of the DADS and DPDS were also studied. The results obtained suggest that the presence of the allyl group is fundamental for the antimicrobial activity of these sulfide derivatives when they are present in Allium or in other species (DADS inhibition zone on S. aureus 15.9 mm, P. aeruginosa 21.9 mm, E. coli 11.4 mm). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  7. Seasonal population of Acarus siro mites and effects of their faeces on allergenic immunological disorder modulated by garlic in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa K A

    2012-01-01

    Mites are the main factor involved in respiratory disorder. Acarus siro is the most allergenic species of mite detected in the samples collected from flour mills. This work aimed to ameliorate the A. siro faeces allergenic disorder by garlic extract. Albino experimental rats were classified into three groups (native, inhaled and treated). Mites extract, ELISA and leukocytes differential counts techniques were used. The data obtained showed that the highest densities of A. siro in the samples collected from flour mills in El-Minia governorate during the period of February 2009 to January 2010 were recorded during the spring and autumn seasons. In addition, significantly higher serum levels of INF-γ and IgE were found in rats treated with faeces than the other groups, especially the garlic-treated group. In contrast, IL-4 was lower in faeces-treated rats than the others; however, the native group had the highest level of IL-4. The leukocytes differential count showed that eosinophil and basophil percentages in faeces-inhaled group are higher than both the native group and the garlic-treated group. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between garlic-treated group and either control or faeces-treated group (P<0.05). The population of A. siro mites peaked in spring and autumn. The immunological disorder caused by repeated exposure to A. siro faeces might be modulated by garlic. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Gruner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates. In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were 25 times higher than in leaves of young Arabidopsis thaliana plants and over 150 times higher than in leaves of young Brassica kaber, B. rapa, and B. napus. In first-year plants, cyanide levels were highest in young leaves of seedlings and declined with leaf age on individual plants. Leaves of young plants infested with green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) produced just over half as much cyanide as leaves of healthy plants, suggesting that aphid feeding led to loss of cyanide from intact tissues before analysis, or that aphid feeding inhibited cyanide precursor production. In a developmental study, levels of cyanide in the youngest and oldest leaf of young garlic mustard plants were four times lower than in the youngest and oldest leaf of young Sorghum sudanense (cv. Cadan 97) plants, but cyanide levels did not decline in these leaves with plant age as in S. sudanense. Different populations of garlic mustard varied moderately in the constitutive and inducible expression of cyanide in leaves, but no populations studied were acyanogenic. Although cyanide production could result from breakdown products of glucosinolates, no cyanide was detected in vitro from decomposition of sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of garlic mustard. These studies indicate that cyanide produced from an as yet unidentified cyanogenic compound is a part of the battery of chemical defenses expressed by garlic mustard.

  9. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by vanilla extract.

    PubMed

    Choo, J H; Rukayadi, Y; Hwang, J-K

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for a novel quorum sensing inhibitor and analyse its inhibitory activity. Quorum sensing inhibition was monitored using the Tn-5 mutant, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) were extracted using 75% (v/v) aqueous methanol and added to C. violaceum CV026 cultures. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a spectrophotometer. The results have revealed that vanilla extract significantly reduced violacein production in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating inhibition of quorum sensing. Vanilla, a widely used spice and flavour, can inhibit bacterial quorum sensing. The results suggest that the intake of vanilla-containing food materials might promote human health by inhibiting quorum sensing and preventing bacterial pathogenesis. Further studies are required to isolate specific substances from vanilla extract acting as quorum sensing inhibitors.

  10. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanocrystals with tunable surface plasmon resonance using garlic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepthy; Basanth, Amritha; Retnakumari, Archana; Manzoor, K; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles having tunable optical absorbance finds immense use in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Hence, it is imperative to develop environment and bio-friendly green chemical processes that aid in preparing gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties. In the present work, phytochemicals present in the medicinal herb, viz., garlic, were used to provide the dual effects of reduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles as well as stabilization, in a single step process. The optical tunability of nanogold with respect to concentration of precursor and volume of garlic extract, processing conditions of garlic, its differing molecular weight fractions, reaction time and temperature has been demonstrated. The presence of a range of anisotropic nanogold including nanotriangles, nanorods and nanospheres as evident from TEM endows the colloid with a tunable optical absorption, specifically into the near infrared region. In vitro stability studies of the colloidal suspension in various media including saline, BSA, histidine and PBS showed that gold nanoparticles did not aggregate with time or differing pH conditions. The role of the garlic phytochemicals in providing stability against agglomeration was also substantiated by FTIR studies. Cytotoxicity studies performed using spherical and anisotropic gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 and L929 cell lines proved the biocompatibility of the material up to high doses of 500 microg/ml. The present work highlights the role of garlic phytochemicals in preparing biocompatible metallic gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties and good in vitro stability, suggesting its potential use for molecular imaging or therapeutic nanomedicines.

  11. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Naz, Nosheen; Khaliq, Saima; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is regarded as both a food and a medicinal herb. Increasing attention has focused on the biological functions and health benefits of garlic as a potentially major dietary component. Chronic garlic administration has been shown to enhance memory function. Evidence also shows that garlic administration in rats affects brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) levels. 5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological functions, is also known to enhance cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the probable neurochemical mechanism responsible for the enhancement of memory following garlic administration. Sixteen adult locally bred male albino Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and test (n = 8) groups. The test group was orally administered 250 mg/kg fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), while control animals received an equal amount of water daily for 21 days. Estimation of plasma free and total tryptophan (TRP) and whole brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For assessment of memory, a step-through passive avoidance paradigm (electric shock avoidance) was used. The results showed that the levels of plasma free TRP significantly increased (P < .01) and plasma total TRP significantly decreased (P < .01) in garlic-treated rats. Brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA levels were also significantly increased following garlic administration. A significant improvement in memory function was exhibited by garlic-treated rats in the passive avoidance test. Increased brain 5-HT levels were associated with improved cognitive performance. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.

  13. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    PubMed

    Ghehdarijani, Mahbubeh Salmanian; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasol; Roohi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Condition factor was not significantly affected by garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P < 0.05). In salinity stress experiment, no differences were observed for survival rate among the experimental diets. No mortality was recorded during the feeding trial. These results indicated that dietary garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of garlic and synergistic effect between garlic and ciprofloxacin in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dong Wan; Han, Chang Hee; Jung, Yun Seok; Kim, Sung In; Kim, Sae Woong; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2009-09-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), which is characterised by recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and persistence of pathogenic bacteria and evidence of inflammation in the prostatic secretions, is one of the most common causes of relapsing UTI in men. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic as well as the synergistic effect of garlic with ciprofloxacin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model. An experimental CBP model was induced in 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by instillation of 0.2 mL of bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP was demonstrated in 68.3% (41/60) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control; garlic; ciprofloxacin; and garlic plus ciprofloxacin. After 3 weeks of treatment, microbiological cultures of the urine and prostate samples as well as histological findings of the prostate were analysed. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The garlic group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The garlic plus ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group. These results suggest that garlic may have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects as well as a synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin. We therefore suggest that the combination of garlic and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.

  15. A review of studies of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure before and after 1994: does the amount of allicin released from garlic powder tablets play a role?

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify studies measuring garlic powder tablets effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to investigate if studies published prior to January 1994 would perform better than those published later. Methods Using MEDLINE (January 1966 through December 2004) studies involving human subjects that examined the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure were obtained. Studies that were conducted using garlic in the form of garlic powder tablets were included in the data extraction. Correlation coefficients were calculated for total serum cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure with respect to date of publication. Trials published prior to January 1994 were placed into an “earlier” group and compared to the “latter” group of studies published from January 1994 onward. Results Eighteen trials were identified whereupon the inverse associations between total serum cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures with respect to time of publication were correlated (−0.614, −0.627, and −0.587 respectively, p < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure with respect to total serum cholesterol (0.388 and 0.431 respectively). The following differences between the earlier and later groups were observed for total serum cholesterol (31.4 ± 19.0 vs. 3.5 ± 5.8 mg/dl, p = .004); systolic blood pressure (11.0 ± 9.2 vs. 2.0 ± 4.4 mmHg, p = .133) and diastolic blood pressure (5.8 ± 3.4 vs. 0.9 ± 2.4 mmHg, p = .018). Conclusions Publications published prior to January 1994 performed better than those published after January 1994, suggesting that allicin may be responsible for the antihypertensive effects of garlic powder tablets. However, a lack of correlation between changes in total serum cholesterol and blood pressure suggests that other organo-sulfur compounds may also play a role in the antihyper-tensive mechanisms of garlic. PMID:19674660

  16. Development of an Analytic Method for Sulfur Compounds in Aged Garlic Extract with the Use of a Postcolumn High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Sulfur-Specific Detection.

    PubMed

    Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Garlic and its processed preparations contain numerous sulfur compounds that are difficult to analyze in a single run using HPLC. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and convenient sulfur-specific HPLC method to analyze sulfur compounds in aged garlic extract (AGE). We modified a conventional postcolumn HPLC method by employing a hexaiodoplatinate reagent. Identification and structural analysis of sulfur compounds were conducted by LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance. The production mechanisms of cis-S-1-propenylcysteine (cis-S1PC) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) were examined by model reactions. Our method has the following advantages: less interference from nonsulfur compounds, high sensitivity, good correlation coefficients (r > 0.98), and high resolution that can separate >20 sulfur compounds, including several isomers, in garlic preparations in a single run. This method was adapted for LC-MS analysis. We identified cis-S1PC and γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-mercaptocysteine in AGE. The results of model reactions suggest that cis-S1PC is produced from trans-S1PC through an isomerization reaction and that SAMC is produced by a reaction involving S-allylcysteine/S1PC and diallyldisulfide during the aging period. We developed a rapid postcolumn HPLC method for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of sulfur compounds, and this method helped elucidate a potential mechanism of cis-S1PC and SAMC action in AGE. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Occupational tellurium exposure and garlic odour.

    PubMed

    Berriault, C J; Lightfoot, N E

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have considered garlic odour as a socially important outcome of occupational tellurium (Te) exposure or concurrent exposures, and most known guidelines focus on other signs and symptoms (e.g. weight loss and somnolence). This study considers workers exposed to tellurium and selenium (Se) at an Ontario, Canada silver refinery. To establish the relation of urinary tellurium concentrations to reporting garlic odour, while considering other work-related factors such as concurrent urinary selenium concentrations. Historical surveillance records of urinary analyses for tellurium and selenium concentrations (μmol Te or Se/mol creatinine in urine) and symptom self-reports were used. Records were available from December 1986 to June 2002. Logistic regression models were fitted using age at sampling, tellurium and selenium urine concentration and duration of employment. Individual main effects were age adjusted and the final model was fitted for tellurium and selenium urine concentration and duration of employment. Urinary tellurium concentration was significantly associated with garlic odour reporting (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.97, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the likelihood of reporting garlic odour rose as workers reached urinary tellurium concentrations >1 μmol/mol creatinine. Tellurium urinary concentrations of <1 μmol/mol creatinine appear to limit, but not eliminate, the likelihood of reporting garlic odour. Future studies should consider the effect of concurrent selenium exposure as well as other workplace factors and hygiene.

  18. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals in comparison to MCG. In addition, total phenolic content of SCG was significantly elevated (p < 0.001), thereby suggesting that the composition of garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG

  19. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  20. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alleviation by garlic of antitumor drug-induced damage to the intestine.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Awazu, S; Itakura, Y; Fuwa, T

    2001-03-01

    Antitumour drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induce intestinal damage. This is a serious side effect of cancer chemotherapy. The present studies examined whether or not aged garlic extract (AGE) protects against damage from these antitumor drugs. Both drugs were administered orally for 4 or 5 d to rats fed a standard laboratory diet with and without 2% AGE. The small intestinal absorption of the poorly absorbable compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate--labeled dextran (FD-4; average molecular weight, 4400) was used to evaluate the damage to the intestine using the in vitro everted intestine technique and the in situ intestinal loop technique. FD-4 absorption increased in the antitumour drug-treated rats fed the diet without garlic. Interestingly, FD-4 absorption was depressed in rats fed the diet containing AGE. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from antitumour drug-induced damage.

  2. Effect of cobalt-60 gamma rays on the storage behaviour of garlic bulbs at room temperature and in cold storage

    SciTech Connect

    Habibunnisa; Mathur, P.B.; Bano, Z.

    1971-11-01

    Effect of cobalt-60 gamma rays at a dose-rate of 6 krad on the storage behavior of garlic bulbs packaged individually and in lots of eight in perforated polyethylene bags of 200 gauge was investigated at room temperature (75 to 90 deg F) and cold temperature (32 to 35 deg F) under relative humidity 85 to 90%. Irradiation was immediately followed by an increase in the rate of respiration in the garlic bulbs followed by a decrease in the rate of respiration towards the later part of the storage period. At room temperature, sprouting was inhibited to a considerable extent, whilemore » in cold storage after a storage period of 9 months sprouting was completely prevented. The percentage sprouting was more in large size garlic bulbs than in small sized ones. For extension of storage life, packaging singly in polyethylene bags, selection of small sized garlic bulbs, storage at 32 to 35 deg F and irradiation with 6 krad of cobalt 60 gamma rays are recommended. (INIS)« less

  3. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  4. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  5. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets. PMID:25140210

  6. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

  7. High hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic increases the HDL cholesterol level via up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. Results In the HEG group, the plasma triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased in comparison with the CON group (P < 0.05). Dietary HEG also lowered the hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to the CON group. While the plasma HDL-C level and mRNA level of hepatic apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle, were significantly increased in the HEG group compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. Conclusions These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet. PMID:22713542

  8. High hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic increases the HDL cholesterol level via up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seohyun; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2012-06-19

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. In the HEG group, the plasma triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased in comparison with the CON group (P < 0.05). Dietary HEG also lowered the hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to the CON group. While the plasma HDL-C level and mRNA level of hepatic apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle, were significantly increased in the HEG group compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  9. Garlic, green tea and turmeric extracts-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Arumai Selvan, D; Mahendiran, D; Senthil Kumar, R; Kalilur Rahiman, A

    2018-03-01

    Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved using aqueous garlic, green tea and turmeric extracts, and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of rich amount of biochemicals in these extracts, which serve as reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into AgNPs. FT IR spectroscopy confirmed the role of biomolecules in the bioreduction and efficient stabilization of AgNPs. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed a band around 450 nm characteristics of AgNPs. XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of the synthesized AgNPs with fcc structure. SEM and TEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the synthesized AgNPs with an average particle size of 8 nm. EDX analysis confirmed the purity of the synthesized AgNPs with a strong signal at 3.2 keV. The antioxidant activity was assessed by ABTS, DPPH, p-NDA, H 2 O 2 and DMSO scavenging assays, in which the AgNPs synthesized using green method showed remarkable activity with respect to the standard antioxidants ascorbic acid and rutin. In vitro cytotoxicity activity was tested on four cancer cell lines such as human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), cervical (HeLa), epithelioma (Hep-2) and lung (A549) along with one normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cell line. The AgNPs synthesized using turmeric extract exhibits excellent antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity compared to that synthesized using other extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of dietary intake of garlic on intestinal trematodes.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Alba; García-Ferrús, Miguel; Sotillo, Javier; Guillermo Esteban, J; Toledo, Rafael; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla

    2017-08-01

    The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.

  11. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    PubMed

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  12. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  13. Does regular garlic intake affect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic subjects?

    PubMed

    Salih, Barik A; Abasiyanik, Fatih M

    2003-08-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of garlic against Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is well documented and the potential for its use in vivo was suggested. Garlic intake, a traditional habit by the Taskopru population in Turkey for decades, was examined for its effect on the prevalence of H. pylori and compared with the non garlic consuming group. Eighty-one garlic consuming asymptomatic subjects in Kastamonu province in Turkey (68 males, 13 females) of 23-82 years of age (average 46) were selected on a very restricted bases in regards to the garlic intake (raw or cooked, or both), amount, duration and other criteria. Control group (non-garlic consuming) of 81 asymptomatic subjects (66 males, 15 females) of 23-90 years of age (average 43) were enrolled for comparison with the garlic consuming group. Serum samples were collected from both groups during the period from September 2001 through to April 2002 and examined by the enzyme linked immunoassay test for anti H.pylori antibodies. An overall H.pylori prevalence of 79% and 81% was detected in the garlic and non garlic consuming groups. A significantly lower average antibody titer was detected in the garlic consuming group than that of the control group and similarly in those who consumed mixture of raw plus cooked garlic as compared to those who consumed raw or cooked garlic alone. Garlic intake for long durations (years) did not appear to have an effect on the prevalence of H.pylori infection. Garlic consuming subjects had a significantly lower average antibody titer than non garlic consuming groups, which might suggest an indirect inhibitory effect on the reproduction of H.pylori and possibly progression to more serious peptic ulcer diseases.

  14. Antischistosomal and anti-inflammatory activity of garlic and allicin compared with that of praziquantel in vivo.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Dina M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Alanazi, Mohammad; Alzahrany, Sanaa B; Semlali, Abdelhabib

    2018-04-27

    Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by trematode worms. The host inflammatory response to schistosome eggs leads to perioval granulomata formation, mainly in the liver and intestine. This study investigated the potential antischistosomal and anti-inflammatory activity of both garlic extract and allicin on liver fibrotic markers in BALB/c mice with schistosomiasis (S. mansoni infection) compared with that of the commonly used drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In this study, 140 female BALB/c mice (7-weeks old) were divided into seven groups with 20 mice each. Six groups were infected with S. mansoni cercariae and treated with garlic, allicin, or PZQ. The seventh group was the negative control. Twenty-four hours after the final treatment, the mice were euthanised and perfused for worm recovery. The liver and intestines were harvested for parasitological and histological assessment and to analyse the proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression. Prophylactic administration of garlic and allicin to the infected mice significantly reduced the worm burden. Serum concentrations of liver fibrosis markers and proinflammatory cytokines were also reduced. PZQ was the most efficacious for reduction in the number of worms. These results are similar to those normally obtained using PZQ. Crushed garlic homogenate and allicin are potential complementary treatments that may be used with PZQ.

  15. Modulatory effects of several herbal extracts on avian peripheral blood cell immune responses.

    PubMed

    Dorhoi, A; Dobrean, V; Zăhan, M; Virag, P

    2006-05-01

    Standardized ethanol extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Plantago major (plantain) and Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) were assessed for their effects on cellular immunity in laying hens. Birds (n = 25) had blood samples taken and both specific and non-specific immune cell responsiveness were evaluated by a leukocyte proliferation assay, carbon clearance test and SRBC phagocytosis in monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. Licorice and sea buckthorn (50 microg/mL) clearly enhanced the macrophage membrane function (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Dual effects on circulating phagocytes were revealed for plantain and sea buckthorn, while garlic at 200 microg/mL impaired the phagocytic capacity of blood cells. None of the tested extracts showed mitogenic properties, but high concentrations of sea buckthorn (400 microg/mL) inhibited leukocyte proliferation. Small concentrations (20 microg/mL) of licorice proved the co-mitogenic potential for both T and B avian lymphocytes (p < 0.05). Certain extracts definitely enhanced the fowl innate and/or specific cell immunity and may therefore improve host resistance in poultry. Considering the chicken as an important non-mammalian model that also serves as an available laboratory approach for some human diseases, herbs exerting immunomodulatory properties may find relevant clinical applications. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Anti-Parasitic Activities of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Trypanosoma b. brucei and Leishmania tarentolae.

    PubMed

    Krstin, Sonja; Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Wink, Michael

    2018-04-21

    Background: Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. Methods: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae were used to investigate the anti-parasitic effects of dichloromethane extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) bulbs. As a confirmation of known antimicrobial activities, they were studied against a selection of G-negative, G-positive bacteria and two fungi. Chemical analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Results: Chemical analyses confirmed the abundance of several sulfur secondary metabolites in garlic and one (zwiebelane) in the onion extract. Both extracts killed both types of parasites efficiently and inhibited the Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase irreversibly. In addition, garlic extract decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in trypanosomes. Garlic killed the fungi C. albicans and C. parapsilosis more effectively than the positive control. The combinations of garlic and onion with common trypanocidal and leishmanicidal drugs resulted in a synergistic or additive effect in 50% of cases. Conclusion: The mechanism for biological activity of garlic and onion appears to be related to the amount and the profile of sulfur-containing compounds. It is most likely that vital substances inside the parasitic cell, like trypanothione reductase, are inhibited through disulfide bond formation between SH groups of vital redox compounds and sulfur-containing secondary metabolites.

  17. In Vitro Efficacy of Diallyl Sulfides against the Periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshnarayan, Krishnaraj; Velusamy, Senthil Kumar; Fine, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) against the Gram-negative periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, the key etiologic agent of the severe form of localized aggressive periodontitis and other nonoral infections, were studied. A. actinomycetemcomitans was treated with garlic extract, allicin, or DAS, and the anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans effects of the treatment were evaluated. Garlic extract, allicin, and DAS significantly inhibited the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans (greater than 3 log; P < 0.01) compared to control cells. Heat inactivation of the garlic extracts significantly reduced the protein concentration; however, the antimicrobial effect was retained. Purified proteins from garlic extract did not exhibit antimicrobial activity. Allicin lost all its antimicrobial effect when it was subjected to heat treatment, whereas DAS demonstrated an antimicrobial effect similar to that of the garlic extract, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of garlic extract is mainly due to DAS. An A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm-killing assay performed with DAS showed a significant reduction in biofilm cell numbers, as evidenced by both confocal microscopy and culture. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of DAS-treated A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms showed alterations of colony architecture indicating severe stress. Flow cytometry analysis of OBA9 cells did not demonstrate apoptosis or cell cycle arrest at therapeutic concentrations of DAS (0.01 and 0.1 μg/ml). DAS-treated A. actinomycetemcomitans cells demonstrated complete inhibition of glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) activity. However, OBA9 cells, when exposed to DAS at similar concentrations, showed no significant differences in GST activity, suggesting that DAS-induced GST inhibition might be involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans cell death. These findings demonstrate that DAS exhibits significant antibacterial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans and

  18. Inhibition of MAO by fractions and constituents of hypericum extract.

    PubMed

    Bladt, S; Wagner, H

    1994-10-01

    The inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by six fractions from hypericum extract and three characteristic constituents (as pure substances) were analyzed in vitro and ex vivo to study the antidepressive mechanism of action. Rat brain homogenates were used as the in vitro model, while the ex vivo analysis was performed after intraperitoneal application of the test substances to albino rats. Massive inhibition of MAO-A could be shown with the total extract and all fractions only at the concentration of 10(-3) mol/L. At 10(-4) mol/L, one fraction rich in flavonoides showed an inhibition of 39%, and all other fractions demonstrated less than 25% inhibition. Using pure hypericin as well as in all ex vivo experiments, no relevant inhibiting effects could be shown. From the results it can be concluded that the clinically proven antidepressive effect of hypericum extract cannot be explained in terms of MAO inhibition.

  19. Screening of plant extracts for human tyrosinase inhibiting effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Park, J; Song, K; Kim, H G; Koh, J-S; Boo, Y C

    2012-04-01

    Screening for tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitors potentially useful for control of skin pigmentation has been hampered by the limited availability of human TYR. To overcome this hurdle, we have established human embryonic kidney (HEK293)-TYR cells that constitutively express human TYR. In the current study, we assayed human TYR inhibition activities of 50 plant extracts using the lysates of transformed HEK293-TYR cells. The strongest inhibition of human TYR was shown by the extract of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunberg, followed by the extract of Morus bombycis Koidzumi. The former extract did not inhibit mushroom TYR activity whereas significant inhibition was observed with the latter extract, demonstrating the importance of using human TYR in the screening for human TYR inhibitors. Upon liquid-liquid partitioning of the extract from V. bracteatum, the active constituents were enriched in the ethyl acetate fraction, and the subsequent preparatory thin-layer chromatography identified p-coumaric acid (PCA) as the main active constituent. The hypo-pigmentation of PCA was verified in the MelanoDerm™ Skin Model. This study demonstrates that transformed HEK293-TYR cells could expedite the discovery of human TYR-specific inhibitors from natural sources which might be useful in the control of skin pigmentation. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of the Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic Concentrates and Diallyl Constituents on Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jabal, Jamie M.F.; Aston, D. Eric; Konkel, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 μl/ml) and diallyl sulfide (5, 10 and 20 μM) on Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cultivated in tryptic soy broth at 4, 22 and 35°C for up to 7 days were investigated. L. monocytogenes was more resistant to garlic extract and diallyl compounds treatment than E. coli O157:H7. Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that diallyl constituents contributed more to the antimicrobial effect than phenolic compounds. This effect was verified by Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping on single bacteria. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed cell membrane damage consistent with spectroscopic observation. The degree of bacterial cell injury could be quantified using chemometric methods. PMID:21553849

  1. Anti-Wrinkle and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Active Garlic Components and the Inhibition of MMPs via NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Jung, Yu Ri; An, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Ja; Moon, Kyoung Mi; Park, Min Hi; Park, Chan Hum; Chung, Ki Wung; Bae, Ha Ram; Choi, Yung Whan; Kim, Nam Deuk; Chung, Hae Young

    2013-01-01

    Skin aging is a multisystem degenerative process caused by several factors, such as, UV irradiation, stress, and smoke. Furthermore, wrinkle formation is a striking feature of photoaging and is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil, which were isolated from garlic, modulate UVB-induced wrinkle formation and effect the expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and NF-κB signaling. The results obtained showed that all three compounds significantly inhibited the degradation of type І procollagen and the expressions of MMPs in vivo and attenuated the histological collagen fiber disorder and oxidative stress in vivo. Furthermore, caffeic acid and S-allyl cysteine were found to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating the activities of NF-κB and AP-1, and uracil exhibited an indirect anti-oxidant effect by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions levels and downregulating transcriptional factors. These results suggest that the anti-wrinkle effects of caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil are due to anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Summarizing, caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation by modulating MMP via NF-κB signaling. PMID:24066081

  2. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  3. Garlic oil suppressed the hematological disorders induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cui-Li; Yu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Zhen-Ping; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-06-01

    Although the anticancer effects of garlic and its products have been demonstrated by a variety of studies; however, few studies were conducted to investigate the effects of garlic on the adverse effects of chemo/radiotherapy. In order to clarify the above question and make a more comprehensive understanding of the anticancer effects of garlic, tumor xenograft mice model was established by subcutaneous injection of H22 tumor cells, and was used for the investigation of effects of garlic oil (GO) on the chemo/radiotherapy. In the chemotherapy test, tumor-bearing mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) or CTX plus GO (25 or 50 mg/kg bw) for 14 d, while the mice received a single 5 Gy total body radiation or radiation plus GO (25 or 50 mg/kg bw) in radiotherapy test. The results showed that GO did not increase the tumor inhibitory rate of CTX/radiation, which indicated that GO could not enhance the chemo/radiosensitivity of cancer cells. However, the decrease of the peripheral total white blood cells (WBCs) count induced by CTX/radiation was significantly suppressed by GO cotreatment. Furthermore, GO cotreatment significantly inhibited the decrease of the DNA contents and the micronuclei ratio of the bone marrow. Lastly, the reduction of the endogenous spleen colonies induced by CTX/radiation was significantly suppressed by GO cotreatment. These findings support the idea that GO consumption may benefit for the cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a potential antidote for cadmium and lead intoxication: cadmium and lead distribution and analysis in different mice organs.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, A M; Al-Safi, S A; Momani, I F; Alomary, A A; Jaradat, Q M; AlKofahi, A S

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and distribution of Pb and Cd in different mice organs including liver, kidney, spleen, heart and blood were evaluated after treatment with different aqueous concentrations of garlic (12.5-100 mg/l). Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for analysis of Pb and Cd in these organs. Treatment of Cd-Pb exposed mice with garlic (12.5-100 mg/l) reduced Pb concentrations by 44.65, 42.61, 38.4, 47.56, and 66.62% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. Moreover, garlic reduced Cd levels by 72.5, 87.7, 92.6, 95.6, and 71.7% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. The suppressed immune responses in mice pretreated with Cd-Pb mixture were reversed by 48.85, 55.82, 81.4 and 90.7 in the presence of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml of garlic extract.

  5. Effect of milk on the deodorization of malodorous breath after garlic ingestion.

    PubMed

    Hansanugrum, Areerat; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2010-08-01

    The effect of milk and milk components on the deodorization of diallyl disulfide (DADS), allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS), allyl mercaptan (AM), allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), and methyl mercaptan (MM) in the headspace of garlic as well as in the mouth- and nose-space after garlic ingestion was investigated using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Fat-free and whole milk significantly reduced the head-, mouth-, and nose-space concentrations of all volatiles. Water was the major component in milk responsible for the deodorization of volatiles. Due to its higher fat content, whole milk was more effective than fat-free milk in the deodorization of the more hydrophobic volatiles diallyl disulfide and allyl methyl disulfide. Milk was more effective than water and 10% sodium caseinate in the deodorization of allyl methyl sulfide, a persistent garlic odor, in the mouth after garlic ingestion. Addition of milk to garlic before ingestion had a higher deodorizing effect on the volatiles in the mouth than drinking milk after consuming garlic. Practical Application: Ingesting beverages or foods with high water and/or fat content such as milk may help reduce the malodorous odor in breath after garlic ingestion and mask the garlic flavor during eating. To enhance the deodorizing effect, deodorant foods should be mixed with garlic before ingestion.

  6. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  7. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  8. Improving knowledge of garlic paste greening through the design of an experimental strategy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Miguel; Rincón, Francisco

    2007-12-12

    The furthering of scientific knowledge depends in part upon the reproducibility of experimental results. When experimental conditions are not set with sufficient precision, the resulting background noise often leads to poorly reproduced and even faulty experiments. An example of the catastrophic consequences of this background noise can be found in the design of strategies for the development of solutions aimed at preventing garlic paste greening, where reported results are contradictory. To avoid such consequences, this paper presents a two-step strategy based on the concept of experimental design. In the first step, the critical factors inherent to the problem are identified, using a 2(III)(7-4) Plackett-Burman experimental design, from a list of seven apparent critical factors (ACF); subsequently, the critical factors thus identified are considered as the factors to be optimized (FO), and optimization is performed using a Box and Wilson experimental design to identify the stationary point of the system. Optimal conditions for preventing garlic greening are examined after analysis of the complex process of green-pigment development, which involves both chemical and enzymatic reactions and is strongly influenced by pH, with an overall pH optimum of 4.5. The critical step in the greening process is the synthesis of thiosulfinates (allicin) from cysteine sulfoxides (alliin). Cysteine inhibits the greening process at this critical stage; no greening precursors are formed in the presence of around 1% cysteine. However, the optimal conditions for greening prevention are very sensitive both to the type of garlic and to manufacturing conditions. This suggests that optimal solutions for garlic greening prevention should be sought on a case-by-case basis, using the strategy presented here.

  9. Garlic-in-oil associated botulism: episode leads to product modification.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, D L; Pickard, L K; Guzewich, J J; Devine, B D; Shayegani, M

    1990-01-01

    In February 1989, three cases of botulism occurred in persons who consumed garlic bread made from a garlic-in-oil product. Testing of leftover garlic-in-oil showed it to have a pH of 5.7 and to contain high concentrations of Clostridium botulinum organisms and toxin. This was the second episode of botulism associated with a low acid garlic-in-oil product which needs constant refrigeration. In response, the Food and Drug Administration has taken steps to prevent a recurrence by requiring that microbial inhibitors or acidifying agents be added to such products. PMID:2240308

  10. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Garlic can play an essential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis, but the research addressing the effect of garlic on the concentration of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations through systematic review of literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. The literature search included SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases up to March 10, 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Overall, the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) levels was reported in six trials. Meta-analysis did not suggest a significant alteration in plasma Lp(a) levels after garlic consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 16.86%; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 38.31; P = 0.124). This result was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. When the studies were categorized according to the duration of supplementation, there was no effect in the subgroup of trials lasting ≤12 wk (WMD = 2.01%; 95% CI, -14.67 to 18.68; P = 0.813) but a significant elevation of plasma Lp(a) concentrations was found in trials lasting >12 wk (WMD = 54.59%; 95% CI, 30.47-78.71; P < 0.001). Random-effects meta-regression suggested an inverse association between the changes in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) and duration of supplementation (slope 1.71; 95% CI, 0.46-2.97; P = 0.007). The present meta-analysis did not suggest a significant effect of garlic supplementation on the reduction of Lp(a) levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Ajay A.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K.; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A.; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. Methods We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Results Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39–0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 – 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Impact This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:26809277

  12. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times/week = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times/week = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  14. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes.

  15. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  16. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Sliutz, G; Speiser, P; Schultz, A M; Spona, J; Zeillinger, R

    1993-05-01

    In our studies on prolactin inhibition by plant extracts we focused on the effects of extracts of Vitex agnus castus and its preparations on rat pituitary cells under basal and stimulated conditions in primary cell culture. Both extracts from Vitex agnus castus as well as synthetic dopamine agonists (Lisuride) significantly inhibit basal as well as TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells in vitro and as a consequence inhibition of prolactin secretion could be blocked by adding a dopamine receptor blocker. Therefore because of its dopaminergic effect Agnus castus could be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic drug in the treatment of slight hyperprolactinaemia.

  17. Oral Administration of (S)-Allyl-l-Cysteine and Aged Garlic Extract to Rats: Determination of Metabolites and Their Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehoon; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Lee, Young-Joo

    2017-11-01

    ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is the major bioactive compound in garlic. ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is metabolized to ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide after oral administration. An accurate LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma, and the feasibility of using it in pharmacokinetic studies was tested. The analytes were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. Because significant quantitative interference was observed between ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine as a result of the decomposition of N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine at the detector source, chromatographic separation was required to discriminate ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites on a reversed-phase C 18 analytical column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The calibration curves of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were linear over each concentration range, and the lower limits of quantification were 0.1 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine] and 0.25 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide]. Acceptable intraday and inter-day precisions and accuracies were obtained at three concentration levels. The method satisfied the regulatory requirements for matrix effects, recovery, and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine the concentration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma samples after the administration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine or aged garlic extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Stimulation of IFN-γ production by garlic lectin in mouse spleen cells: involvement of IL-12 via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Toyohira, Yumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Karasaki, Yuji

    2011-02-15

    Several lectins, present in beans and edible plant products, have immuno-potentiating and anti-tumor activities. We here report the effects of garlic lectin purified from garlic bulbs on the production of cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the mouse. Garlic lectin induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in a bell-shaped time (24-60 h)- and concentration (0.25-2.0 mg/ml)-dependent manner. The maximal enhancement was observed at 36 h with 0.5 mg/ml of garlic lectin. The stimulatory effect of garlic lectin on IFN-γ production was completely inhibited by both actinomycin D and cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively, and was associated with an increase in IFN-γ mRNA level. Garlic lectin also induced IL-12 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages in a concentration (0.25-1.0 mg/ml)- and bell-shaped time (3-24 h)-dependent manner. The lectin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in macrophages. Furthermore, specific pharmacological inhibitors of ERK kinase (U0126) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) also suppressed the production of IL-12 induced by garlic lectin. The present findings suggest that garlic lectin induces IL-12 production via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in mouse macrophages, which, in turn, stimulates IFN-γ production through an increase in IFN-γ mRNA in the spleen cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L

    2008-06-01

    We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices.

  20. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O.; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range. PMID:25401128

  1. Biobleaching of industrial important dyes with peroxidase partially purified from garlic.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5-5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  2. Inhibition of urease by extracts derived from 15 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.

  3. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Abbas; Argani, Hassan; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Mahdavi, Reza

    2005-05-19

    Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr) by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from 138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased from 2.4 to 1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009) by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03), triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008), MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03) by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed) had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed) reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic.

  4. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum) in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2), confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet. PMID:27916960

  5. An umbrella review of garlic intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Missbach, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Georg

    2016-10-15

    To gain further insight into the strength of evidence and extent of possible biases in the scope of studies investigating the impact of garlic and garlic supplement intake on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, we performed an umbrella review of all published meta-analyses synthesizing data from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Electronic database PubMed (between 1966 and June 2015) was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses using following search terms: ("garlic" OR "allium sativum" OR "allicin" OR "organosulfur") AND ("cardiovascular" OR "coronary" OR "cholesterol" OR "triglyceride" OR "atherosclerosis" OR "blood pressure" OR "hypertension" OR "blood glucose") AND ("systematic review" OR "meta-analysis"), with no restriction to calendar data and language. Hand-search of reference lists and relevant clinical guidelines was performed as well. Nine systematic reviews investigated the effects of garlic on lipid parameters and eight systematic reviews analyzed the effects on blood pressure parameters were identified. Eight of nine meta-analyses synthesizing the effect of garlic on blood lipids reported significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. Inconsistent results could be detected for HDL-cholestrol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. The effect of garlic on systolic blood pressure showed consistent results across publications with 7 out of 8 meta-analyses demonstrating a substantial decrease in systolic blood pressure. Similar results could be reported regarding the effect of garlic on diastolic blood pressure, i.e. 6 out of 8 meta-analyses detected significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure levels following interventions with garlic. According to the data summarized in the present umbrella review, garlic preparations as well as garlic exerted some positive effects on indicators and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, typically without causing any serious side effects. However, with regard to the

  6. Tropical green leafy vegetables prevent garlic-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is popularly consumed because of its role in the treatment and management of several diseases. However, unregulated and chronic intake of garlic can cause damage to cells through the production of free radicals. This study was carried out in order to assess the ability of some tropical green leafy vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis, Solanum macrocapon, Corchorus olitorius, Baselia alba, Cnidoscolus acontifolus, Amarantus cruentus, and Ocimum gratissimum) to prevent garlic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Wistar strain albino rats were fed diet containing 4% garlic along with or without 40% green leafy vegetable supplement for 14 days. Thereafter, the feeding trial was terminated, the serum of the blood was prepared, and the liver, spleen, intestine, and organ were isolated for gross pathological investigation. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant increase (P < .05) in serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) of the albino rats fed diet containing 4% garlic supplement when compared with the rats fed the basal diet without garlic and vegetable (40%) supplement. However, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the serum total protein and albumin levels in those rats. Conversely, there was a consistent significant decrease (P < .05) in the SGOT and SGPT of the rats fed diet containing garlic (4%) and T. occidentalis (40%) and C. acontifolus (40%) supplement compared with those rats fed diet containing garlic (4%) supplement, while there were no consistent significant decrease in those rats fed diet with garlic (4%) alongside with 40% of other leafy vegetables (S. macrocanum, C. olitorius, B. alba, A. cruentus, and O. gratissimum). An increase in serum level of total protein and albumin was also observed in the rats fed T. occidentalis and C. acontifolus. Thus, T. occidentalis and C. acontifolus proved to be better vegetables in preventing garlic

  7. Prevention of garlic-induced hemolytic anemia using some tropical green leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is popularly consumed in Nigeria because of its health benefit in treatment and management of several disease conditions. However, excessive intake of garlic may cause hemolytic anemia. This project sought to investigate the ability of some commonly consumed tropical green leafy vegetables-namely, Amaranthus cruentus, Baselia alba, Solanum macrocarpon, Ocimum gratissimum, and Corchorus olitorius-to prevent garlic-induced hemolytic anemia. Wister strain albino rats were fed diet containing 4% garlic with or without 40% vegetable supplement. The study showed that there was a decrease in daily feed intake (6.7-7.2 g/rat/day), daily weight gain (0.7-1.5 g/rat/day), and digestibility (70.4-91.5%) of rats fed diet with garlic (4%), with or without vegetable (40%) supplement, compared with those rats fed the basal diet without garlic (4%) and vegetable (40%) supplement (digestibility, 95.5%; daily feed intake, 7.5 g/rat/day; and daily weight gain, 2.0 g/rat/day). However, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the packed cell volume (PCV) (31.0%), hemoglobin (Hb) (10.2 g/dL), red blood cells (RBCs) (4.3 x 10(6)/microL), and white blood cells (WBCs) (3.5 x 10(6)/microL) of rats fed diet with garlic (4%) but without vegetable compared with those rats fed diet without garlic (4%) and vegetable (40%) supplements (PCV, 38.2%; Hb, 13.0 g/dL; RBCs, 5.5 x 10(6)/microL; and WBCs, 4.0 x 10(6)/microL). Conversely, there was a significant increase in the PCV (33.5-35.6%), Hb (12.0-12.5 g/dL), and RBCs (4.9-5.3 x 10(6)/microL) of rats fed diet with garlic (4%) and vegetable (40%) supplement compared with rats fed diet with 4% garlic supplement (except S. macrocarpon and C. olitorius). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in mean corpuscular volume (69.2-72.0 fL) of rats fed the basal and those fed diet with garlic and vegetable (except C. olitorus and S. macrocarpon) supplement compared with the rats fed diet with garlic but without

  8. Systemic production of IFN-alpha by garlic (Allium sativum) in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Mau; Girish, G V; Karmohapatra, Soumendra K; Samad, S A; Sinha, Asru K

    2007-05-01

    The effect of foods on the production of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is currently unknown. Garlic (Allium sativum) used as a folk medicine is reported to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. We investigated the systemic increase of NO due to the ingestion of garlic on the plasma IFN-alpha level in normal volunteers. Normal volunteers (10 groups, 10 in each group) ate 2 g fresh garlic, and plasma NO and IFN-alpha levels were determined after 2 and 4 h. The participants were also asked to eat garlic for various periods of time, and plasma NO and IFN-alpha were similarly assayed. Ingestion of 2 g fresh, but not boiled, garlic was found to increase the basal plasma level of NO from 2.7 +/- 0.1 microM to 8.76 +/- 0.21 microM at 2 and 4 h, respectively. The basal plasma IFN-alpha level increased from 9.51 +/- 0.26 nM to 46.3 +/- 1.2 nM in normal volunteers (n = 10) at the same time. The chronic eating of garlic was found to maintain IFN-alpha at high levels for at least 7 days. The exposure of neutrophils to garlic in vivo or in vitro, which also stimulated synthesis of NO in these cells, was found to stimulate IFN-alpha synthesis as measured by the stimulation of IFN-alpha mRNA synthesis. Thus, consumption of garlic resulted in stimulated synthesis of NO and, in turn, IFN-alpha in humans, which could be beneficial in viral or proliferative diseases.

  9. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms.

  10. Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Diana M.; Movahed, Pouya; Hinman, Andrew; Axelsson, Helena E.; Sterner, Olov; Högestätt, Edward D.; Julius, David; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Zygmunt, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Garlic belongs to the Allium family of plants that produce organosulfur compounds, such as allicin and diallyl disulfide (DADS), which account for their pungency and spicy aroma. Many health benefits have been ascribed to Allium extracts, including hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Intriguingly, allicin and DADS share structural similarities with allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in wasabi and other mustard plants that induces pain and inflammation by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway. Here we show that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings. Moreover, allicin and DADS activate the cloned TRPA1 channel when expressed in heterologous systems. These and other results suggest that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1. Thus different plant genera, including Allium and Brassica, have developed evolutionary convergent strategies that target TRPA1 channels on sensory nerve endings to achieve chemical deterrence. PMID:16103371

  11. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  12. Influence of steeping solution and storage temperature on the color change of garlic.

    PubMed

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Seog-Won; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the browning of garlic under different steeping conditions and storage temperatures. The brown indices of steeped garlics showed lowest values (7.3 and 7) in 25% and 50% EtOH at 7 d of storage. The degree of browning of steeped garlics was lowest (10.2 in 25% EtOH and 10.4 in 50% EtOH) in the samples soaked for 8 h at 13 d of storage. As the storage temperature was increased from 10 to 40 degrees C, the brown indices of garlics revealed an increasing trend relative to storage time regardless of steeping treatment. Overall, the kinetic parameters showed relatively low R(2) and irregular reaction constants, but the k(o) values showed an increasing trend with temperature under a zero-order model. The highest polyphenol content within the garlic bulbs was seen in controls (without steeping treatment, 588.9 microg/g), than 0% EtOH (water, 392.5 microg/g), than 25% EtOH (211.3 microg/g), and finally 50% EtOH (155.6 microg/g). The polyphenol oxidase activity of garlic showed a similar trend to that of polyphenol content. However, the texture properties of garlics steeped with 25% and 50% did not change. The garlic color preferred by consumers is a creamy-white, but this is susceptible to enzymatic browning when pre-peeled and chopped. When garlic was steeped in the 25% and 50% alcohol, the browning of garlic was prevented during storage.

  13. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of cadmium stress on physiological characteristics of garlic seedlings and the alleviation effects of exogenous calcium].

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lian, Hai-feng; Liu, Shi-qi; Yu, Xin-hui; Sun, Ya-li; Guo, Hui-ping

    2015-04-01

    In the experiment, the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd2+) and calcium (Ca2+) in nutrient solution on growth, photosynthetic characteristics, enzymes activities, main mineral elements absorption of garlic seedlings were studied. The results showed that cadmium could obviously inhibit the growth of garlic seedlings, decrease the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves, reduced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and increase the MDA content of leaves, and also could reduce the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and increase the Cd content of roots. The growth was promoted after adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress, which reflected that the morphological indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous calcium concentrations, and were maximized when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). At the same time, the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves showed a similar tendency with the morphological indexes, and they were the highest when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). In addition, adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress enhanced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and decreased the MDA content of leaves, also added the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and reduced the Cd content of roots, and the effect was best when the exogenous calcium concentration was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1).

  15. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  16. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on garlic (Allium sativum L.): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Shaymurat, Talgar; Gu, Jianxiu; Xu, Changshan; Yang, Zhikun; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Yuxue; Liu, Yichun

    2012-05-01

    The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the root growth, root apical meristem mitosis and mitotic aberrations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. ZnO NPs caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of root length. When treated with 50 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24 h, the root growth of garlic was completely blocked. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was estimated to be 15 mg/L. The mitosis index was also decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ZnO NPs also induced several kinds of mitotic aberrations, mainly consisted of chromosome stickiness, bridges, breakages and laggings. The total percentage of abnormal cells increased with the increase of ZnO NPs concentration and the prolongation of treatment time. The investigation provided new information for the possible genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on plants.

  17. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  18. Identification and HPLC quantitation of the sulfides and dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates in commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Wang, Z J; Hughes, B G

    1991-08-01

    The content of dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates, including allicin, and their degradation products has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using the respective determined extinction coefficients, for a number of commercially available garlic products. Quantitation has been achieved for the thiosulfinates; diallyl, methyl allyl, and diethyl mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexasulfides; the vinyldithiins; and (E)- and (Z)-ajoene. The thiosulfinates were found to be released only from garlic cloves and garlic powder products. The vinyldithiins and ajoenes were found only in products containing garlic macerated in vegetable oil. The diallyl, methyl allyl, and dimethyl sulfide series were the exclusive constituents found in products containing the oil of steam-distilled garlic. Typical steam-distilled garlic oil products contained about the same amount of total sulfur compounds as total thiosulfinates released from freshly homogenized garlic cloves; however, oil-macerated products contained only 20% of that amount, while garlic powder products varied from 0 to 100%. Products containing garlic powder suspended in a a gel or garlic aged in aqueous alcohol did not contain detectable amounts of these non-ionic sulfur compounds. A comparison of several brands of each type of garlic product revealed a large range in content (4-fold for oil-macerates and 33-fold for steam-distilled garlic oils), indicating the importance of analysis before garlic products are used for clinical investigations or commercial distribution.

  19. Inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus by some herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Yin, M C; Cheng, W S

    1998-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts of garlic bulbs, green garlic, green onions, hot peppers, ginger, Chinese parsley, and basil on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was examined. Garlic bulbs, green garlic, and green onions showed an inhibitory effect against these two fungi. The influence of heat, acid, and salt upon the inhibitory effect of these three herbs was further studied. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 100 degrees C resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the inhibitory effect of garlic bulbs against the fungi tested. Green garlic and green onion lost their antifungal activity against A. niger after being treated at 80 and 60 degrees, respectively. For A. flavus, the inhibitory effect of green garlic declined significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in temperature. However, the antifungal activity of green onions against A. flavus was heat stable. For both fungi tested in this study, the antifungal activity of these spice plants was not affected by acid treatments at pH values 2, 4, or 6, or salt by treatments at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M (P > 0.05).

  20. Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

  1. Effects of Adaptation of In vitro Rumen Culture to Garlic Oil, Nitrate, and Saponin and Their Combinations on Methanogenesis, Fermentation, and Abundances and Diversity of Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of garlic oil (0.25 g/L), nitrate (5 mM), and quillaja saponin (0.6 g/L), alone and in binary or ternary combinations, on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and abundances of select microbial populations using in vitro rumen cultures. Potential adaptation to these compounds was also examined by repeated transfers of the cultures on alternate days until day 18. All treatments except saponin alone significantly decreased methanogenesis. Ternary combinations of garlic oil, nitrate, and saponin additively/synergistically suppressed methane production by 65% at day 2 and by 40% at day 18. Feed digestion was not adversely affected by any of the treatments at day 2, but was decreased by the combinations (binary and ternary) of garlic oil with the other inhibitors at days 10 and 18. Saponin, alone or in combinations, and garlic oil alone lowered ammonia concentration at day 2, while nitrate increased ammonia concentration at days 10 and 18. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was decreased by garlic oil alone or garlic oil-saponin combination. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate were affected to different extents by the different treatments. The abundances of methanogens were similar among treatments at day 2; however, garlic oil and its combination with saponin and/or nitrate at day 10 and all treatments except saponin at day 18 significantly decreased the abundances of methanogens. All the inhibitors, either alone or in combinations, did not adversely affect the abundances of total bacteria or Ruminococcus flavefaciens. However, at day 18 the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were lowered in the presence of garlic oil and saponin, respectively. The results suggest that garlic oil-nitrate-saponin combination (at the doses used in this study) can effectively decreases methanogenesis in the rumen, but its efficacy may decrease while inhibition to feed digestion can increase over time. PMID:26733975

  2. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  3. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical localization of two major proteins in garlic bulb.

    PubMed

    Wen, G Y; Mato, A; Wisniewski, H M; Malik, M N; Jenkins, E C; Sheikh, A M; Kim, K S

    1995-08-01

    Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicine with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer, antidiabetic, and anticoagulant. Two major proteins of 40 KD and 14 KD constituting approximately 96% of total garlic proteins have been recently purified at our Institute. This immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study revealed that the 40 KD protein was localized in the parenchyma sheath cells (PSC) of garlic bulbs, whereas the 14 KD protein was present in the cortical cells (CC). Immunogold electron microscopy study indicated that the 40 KD protein was specifically localized in the globular granules of the cytoplasmic area of PSC. Each globular granule was amorphous and homogenous with membrane limiting its outermost layer. The yellowish color of PSC in freshly cut slices of garlic bulb suggested that PSC may have sulfur-containing compounds such as allicin, the primary contributor of the pungency and medicinal properties of garlic. Ellman's reagent test quantitatively revealed that there were 17.8 n moles sulfhydryl (SH)/ml of 40 KD garlic protein. Microtubule tubulin in mitotic figures from PHA-stimulated human short-term whole blood cultures reacted strongly with antitubulin antibody but reacted negatively with anti-40 KD garlic protein antibodies and therefore was not related to the 40 KD garlic protein immunocytochemically.

  4. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Ayalogu, E O

    2007-02-15

    The hepatoprotective effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg(-1) body weight) was administered after 28 days of feeding animals with diets containing ginger, garlic, vitamin E and various mixtures of ginger and garlic. Serum alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration, decreased significantly (p < or = 0.05) in rats pre-treated with garlic, ginger, vitamin E and various mixtures of garlic and ginger than in CCl4-treated rats only. Lipid peroxidation expressed by serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was assayed to assess the extent of liver damage by CCl4; including the extent of hepatoprotection by garlic, ginger and vitamin E. MDA concentration was significantly decreased (p < or = 0.05) in rats pretreated with garlic, ginger, vitamin E and various mixtures of garlic and ginger than in rats administered CCl4-alone. Histological examination of the liver revealed severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats treated with CCl4 alone. However, the observed alteration in the normal architecture of the hepatic cells decreased remarkably in pre-treated rats.

  5. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mohi El-Din, Mouchira M; Mostafa, Amna M; Abd-Elkader, Aml

    2014-04-16

    Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to moderate interstitial inflammation in the

  6. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Methods Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Results Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. Conclusions The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to

  7. Identification of aster yellows phytoplasma in garlic and green onion by PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Khadhair, A H; Evans, I R; Choban, B

    2002-01-01

    In the summer of 1999, typical yellows-type symptoms were observed on garlic and green onion plants in a number of gardens and plots around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of evidently healthy and infected plants. DNA amplifications were conducted on these samples, using two primer pairs, R16F2n/R2 and R16(1)F1/R1, derived from phytoplasma rDNA sequences. DNA samples of aster yellows (AY), lime witches'-broom (LWB) and potato witches'-broom (PWB) phytoplasmas served as controls and were used to determine group relatedness. In a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, DNA amplification with universal primer pair R16F2n/R2 gave the expected amplified products of 1.2 kb. Dilution (1/40) of each of the latter products were used as template and nested with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1. An expected PCR product of 1.1 kb was obtained from each phytoplasma-infected garlic and green onion samples, LWB and AY phytoplasmas but not from PWB phytoplasma. An aliquot from each amplification product (1.2 kb) with universal primers was subjected to PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify phytoplasma isolates, using four restriction endonucleases (AluI, KpnI, MseI and RsaI). DNA amplification with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1 and RFLP analysis indicated the presence of AY phytoplasma in the infected garlic and green onion samples. These results suggest that AY phytoplasma in garlic and green onion samples belong to the subgroup 16Sr1-A.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging for predicting the allicin and soluble solid content of garlic with variable selection algorithms and chemometric models.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Faqeerzada, Mohammad A; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-14

    Allicin and soluble solid content (SSC) in garlic is the responsible for its pungent flavor and odor. However, current conventional methods such as the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography and a refractometer have critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to predict allicin and SSC in garlic using hyperspectral imaging in combination with variable selection algorithms and calibration models. Hyperspectral images of 100 garlic cloves were acquired that covered two spectral ranges, from which the mean spectra of each clove were extracted. The calibration models included partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression, as well as different spectral pre-processing techniques, from which the highest performing spectral preprocessing technique and spectral range were selected. Then, variable selection methods, such as regression coefficients, variable importance in projection (VIP) and the successive projections algorithm (SPA), were evaluated for the selection of effective wavelengths (EWs). Furthermore, PLS and LS-SVM regression methods were applied to quantitatively predict the quality attributes of garlic using the selected EWs. Of the established models, the SPA-LS-SVM model obtained an Rpred2 of 0.90 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.01% for SSC prediction, whereas the VIP-LS-SVM model produced the best result with an Rpred2 of 0.83 and SEP of 0.19 mg g -1 for allicin prediction in the range 1000-1700 nm. Furthermore, chemical images of garlic were developed using the best predictive model to facilitate visualization of the spatial distributions of allicin and SSC. The present study clearly demonstrates that hyperspectral imaging combined with an appropriate chemometrics method can potentially be employed as a fast, non-invasive method to predict the allicin and SSC in garlic. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018

  9. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Inhibition of platelet activation by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS)-silenced (tearless) onion juice.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Susan J; Rippon, Paula; Butts, Chrissie; Olsen, Sarah; Shaw, Martin; Joyce, Nigel I; Eady, Colin C

    2013-11-06

    Onion and garlic are renowned for their roles as functional foods. The health benefits of garlic are attributed to di-2-propenyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a sulfur compound found in disrupted garlic but not found in disrupted onion. Recently, onions have been grown with repressed lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) activity, which causes these onions to produce increased amounts of di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate, an isomer of allicin. This investigation into the key health attributes of LFS-silenced (tearless) onions demonstrates that they have some attributes more similar to garlic and that this is likely due to the production of novel thiosulfinate or metabolites. The key finding was that collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by tearless onion extract over normal onion extract. Thiosulfinate or derived compounds were shown not to be responsible for the observed changes in the inflammatory response of AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma) cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) when pretreated with model onion juices. A preliminary rat feeding trial indicated that the tearless onions may also play a key role in reducing weight gain.

  11. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  12. Development and evaluation of garlic incorporated ready-to-eat extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Haritha, D; Vijayalakshmi, V; Gulla, S

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate ready to eat extruded snacks incorporated with garlic powder at various levels (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %). The organoleptic evaluation was conducted for the developed products and the well accepted products were selected for further studies like physical properties and shelf life (stored at room temperature for 2 months). The organoleptic evaluation of the developed snacks revealed that 15 % and 20 % garlic incorporated snacks were not acceptable due to strong garlic flavor, therefore T1 (control), T2 (5 % garlic) and T3 ( 10 % garlic) were selected for further studies. The physical properties showed significant changes with incorporation of garlic powder at 0 %-10 % level. There was an increase in mass flow rate, tap density and bulk density but decrease in the water holding capacity, oil absorption capacity and expansion ratio. The water soluble index and moisture retention of the products showed the same values for all the three selected treatments. The products were packed by ordinary, nitrogen and vacuum packing and stored for 2 months. It was found that there was an increase in moisture content and microbial load, however the increase was within limits. The increase in the moisture content was low in nitrogen packed products where as the microbial load decreased with increase in the percentage of garlic incorporation. The nitrogen and vacuum packed products showed less microbial load than the ordinary packed products. Garlic powder can be incorporated at 5 and 10 % levels in ready-to-eat extruded snacks with well acceptability and can be stored for a period of 2 months with nitrogen packing as an effective packaging.

  13. Inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in beef patties by ethanolic extracts of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Smith, J Scott

    2010-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed during cooking muscle foods at high temperature. Inhibition of HCAs by rosemary extracts were evaluated with beef patties cooked at 191 degrees C (375 degrees F) for 6 min each side and 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side. Five rosemary extracts extracted with different solvents were used in this study: extract 100W (100% water), 10E (10% ethanol), 20E (20% ethanol), 30E (30% ethanol), and 40E (40% ethanol). The 5 extracts were directly added to beef patties at 3 levels (0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5%) before cooking and HCA contents were extracted and quantified. All of the patties contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). There was no statistical difference in the inhibition of HCAs in the 0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5% rosemary extracts. All rosemary extracts significantly decreased the levels of MeIQx and PhIP at both cooking conditions. When cooking at 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side, rosemary extracts 10E and 20E were superior to rosemary extracts 100W, 30E, and 40E in inhibiting HCA formation. Rosemary extract 20E showed the greatest inhibition of MeIQx (up to 91.7%) and PhIP (up to 85.3%). The inhibiting effect of rosemary extracts on HCA formation corresponded to their antioxidant activity based on a DPPH scavenging assay. Rosemary extract 10E and 20E contain a mixture of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid. It is possible that these compounds might act synergistically in inhibiting the formation of HCAs.

  14. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khatua, Tarak N.; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mohammed, Soheb A.; Dinda, Amit K.; Srinivas, R.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na+/K+-ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28194108

  15. Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Kłębukowska, Lucyna; Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic mayonnaise sauce. The authors decided to undertake studies following a report from one of the manufacturers of garlic sauces on product defects which originated in dried garlic used in the production process. Samples of garlic (n = 26) were examinated using standard cultural methods (counts of fungi, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, spore-producing Bacillus sp. and the presence of anaerobic saccharolytic and proteolytic clostridia), automated system TEMPO (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae), immunoenzymatic method using VIDAS tests (occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes). The number of total viable count was ranged from 3.51 to 6.85 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in one sample. Comparably low values were recorded for fungi (1.30 to 3.47 log CFU/g). The number of LAB was ranged from 2.34 to 5.49 log CFU/g. Clostridium sp. were detected in 22 samples. Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. It was found that garlic, regardless of th preservation procedure, might be a source of contamination of garlic mayonnaise sauce especially with lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. spores.

  16. The effect of garlic supplements and phytochemicals on the ADMET properties of drugs.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2012-03-01

    Garlic supplements have received wide public attention because of their health-beneficial effects. Although these products are considered as innocuous, several case reports and studies have shown the capacity of individual garlic phytochemicals/supplements to interfere with drug pharmacokinetics. This review covers recently published literature on garlic chemistry and composition, and provides a thorough review of published studies evaluating drug-garlic interactions. The authors illustrate the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic interactions, which could serve as important highlights in further research to explain results for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices or for drugs, utilizing multiple absorption, distribution and metabolism pathways. To increase the relevance of further research on safety and efficacy of garlic supplements and phytochemicals, their composition should be addressed before conducting in vitro or in vivo research. It is also strongly recommended to characterize in vitro formulation performance to assess the rate and extent of garlic phytochemical release in order to anticipate the in vivo impact on the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly consumed drugs. The main conclusion of this review is that the impact of garlic on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism, is drug specific and dependent on the type/quality of utilized supplement.

  17. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. Objectives: The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. Results: The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Conclusions: Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms. PMID:26464762

  18. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  19. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P < 0.05 in at least one experiment. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase activity was decreased due to dietary garlic (P = 0.0369), but not by pharmacological levels of dietary copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  20. In vitro assessment of oxidative stress and apoptotic mechanisms of garlic extract in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Garlic supplementation in diet has been shown to be beneficial to cancer patients. Recently, its pharmacological role in the prevention and treatment of cancer has received increasing attention. However, the mechanisms by which garlic extract (GE) induces cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in cancer cells remain largely unknown. Objective The present study was designed to use HL-60 cells as a test model to evaluate whether or not GE-induced cytotoxicty and apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells is mediated through oxidative stress. Methods Human leukemia (HL-60) cells were treated with different concentrations of GE for 12 hr. Cell survival was determined by MTT assay. The extent of oxidative cell/tissue damage was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation biomarker) concentrations by spectrophotometry. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V and caspase-3 assays) and agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA laddering assay). Results Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that GE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the viability of HL-60 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. We detected a significant (p < 0.05) increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in GE-treated HL-60 cells compared to the control. Flow cytometry data showed a strong concentration-response relationship between GE exposure and Annexin-V positive HL-60 cells. Similarly, a statistically significant and concentration-dependent increase (p <0.05) were recorded with regard to caspase-3 activity in HL-60 cells undergoing late apoptosis. These results were confirmed by data of DNA laddering assay showing a clear evidence of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in GE-treated cells. Conclusion Our finding indicates that GE-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HL-60 cells involve phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 activation, and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation associated with the formation of MDA, a by-product of lipid

  1. Inhibition of aldose reductase by Gentiana lutea extracts.

    PubMed

    Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  2. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance.

  3. Inhibition of melanin production by a combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to find botanicals containing polyphenolic compounds with the capacity to inhibit melanin biosynthesis, we identified a novel combination of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) extract, standardized to 80% taxifolin, and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract, containing 20% punicalagins, that demonstrates a synergistic reduction of melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells. The combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts (1:1) produced a 2-fold reduction in melanin content compared to Siberian larch or pomegranate extracts alone with no corresponding effect on cell viability. Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts inhibited expression of melanocyte specific genes, tyrosinase (Tyr), microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), and melanosome structural proteins (Pmel17 and Mart1) but did not inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts, alone and in combination, is through downregulation of melanocyte specific genes and not due to inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of virulence potential of Vibrio cholerae by natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Shinji; Asakura, Masahiro; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    The rise in multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae strains is a big problem in treatment of patients suffering from severe cholera. Only a few studies have evaluated the potential of natural compounds against V. cholerae. Extracts from plants like ‘neem’, ‘guazuma’, ‘daio’, apple, hop, green tea and elephant garlic have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth or the secreted cholera toxin (CT). However, inhibiting bacterial growth like common antimicrobial agents may also impose selective pressure facilitating development of resistant strains. A natural compound that can inhibit virulence in V. cholerae is an alternative choice for remedy. Recently, some common spices were examined to check their inhibitory capacity against virulence expression of V. cholerae. Among them methanol extracts of red chili, sweet fennel and white pepper could substantially inhibit CT production. Fractionation of red chili methanol extracts indicated a hydrophobic nature of the inhibitory compound(s), and the n-hexane and 90 per cent methanol fractions could inhibit >90 per cent of CT production. Purification and further fractionation revealed that capsaicin is one of the major components among these red chili fractions. Indeed, capsaicin inhibited the production of CT in various V. cholerae strains regardless of serogroups and biotypes. The quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR assay revealed that capsaicin dramatically reduced the expression of major virulence-related genes such as ctxA, tcpA and toxT but enhanced the expression of hns gene that transcribes a global prokaryotic gene regulator (H-NS). This indicates that the repression of CT production by capsaicin or red chili might be due to the repression of virulence genes transcription by H-NS. Regular intake of spices like red chili might be a good approach to fight against devastating cholera. PMID:21415500

  5. Inhibition of virulence potential of Vibrio cholerae by natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Shinji; Asakura, Masahiro; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji

    2011-02-01

    The rise in multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae strains is a big problem in treatment of patients suffering from severe cholera. Only a few studies have evaluated the potential of natural compounds against V. cholerae. Extracts from plants like 'neem', 'guazuma', 'daio', apple, hop, green tea and elephant garlic have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth or the secreted cholera toxin (CT). However, inhibiting bacterial growth like common antimicrobial agents may also impose selective pressure facilitating development of resistant strains. A natural compound that can inhibit virulence in V. cholerae is an alternative choice for remedy. Recently, some common spices were examined to check their inhibitory capacity against virulence expression of V. cholerae. Among them methanol extracts of red chili, sweet fennel and white pepper could substantially inhibit CT production. Fractionation of red chili methanol extracts indicated a hydrophobic nature of the inhibitory compound(s), and the n-hexane and 90 per cent methanol fractions could inhibit >90 per cent of CT production. Purification and further fractionation revealed that capsaicin is one of the major components among these red chili fractions. Indeed, capsaicin inhibited the production of CT in various V. cholerae strains regardless of serogroups and biotypes. The quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR assay revealed that capsaicin dramatically reduced the expression of major virulence-related genes such as ctxA, tcpA and toxT but enhanced the expression of hns gene that transcribes a global prokaryotic gene regulator (H-NS). This indicates that the repression of CT production by capsaicin or red chili might be due to the repression of virulence genes transcription by H-NS. Regular intake of spices like red chili might be a good approach to fight against devastating cholera.

  6. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  7. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Kamuthachad, Ludthawun; Anthapanya, Methinee; Samakchan, Natthapon; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Potup, Pachuen; Ferrante, Antonio; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2016-04-01

    Although kaffir lime has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antileukemic activity, little is known about the antimicrobial effect of kaffir lime extract. Because Streptococcus mutans has been known to cause biofilm formation, it has been considered the most important causative pathogen of dental caries. Thus, the effective control of its effects on the oral biofilm is the key to the prevention of dental caries. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on biofilm formation and its antibacterial activity on S. mutans. We examined the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. For the investigation we used a kaffir lime extract with high phenolic content. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was determined by broth microdilution assay. The inhibitory effect of the test substances on biofilm formation was also investigated by biofilm formation assay and qRT-PCR of biofilm formation-associated genes. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits the growth of S. mutans, corresponding to the activity of an antibiotic, ampicillin. Formation of biofilm by S. mutans was also inhibited by the extract. These results were confirmed by the down-regulation of genes associated with the biofilm formation. The findings highlight the ability of kaffir lime leaves extract to inhibit S. mutans activity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of biofilm formation on dental surface, reducing dental plaque and decreasing the chance of dental carries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deodorization of Garlic Breath by Foods, and the Role of Polyphenol Oxidase and Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2016-10-01

    Garlic causes a strong garlic breath that may persist for almost a day. Therefore, it is important to study deodorization techniques for garlic breath. The volatiles responsible for garlic breath include diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl sulfide. After eating garlic, water (control), raw, juiced or heated apple, raw or heated lettuce, raw or juiced mint leaves, or green tea were consumed immediately. The levels of the garlic volatiles on the breath were analyzed from 1 to 60 min by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Garlic was also blended with water (control), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), rosemarinic acid, quercetin or catechin, and the volatiles in the headspace analyzed from 3 to 40 min by SIFT-MS. Raw apple, raw lettuce, and mint leaves significantly decreased all of the garlic breath volatiles in vivo. The proposed mechanism is enzymatic deodorization where volatiles react with phenolic compounds. Apple juice and mint juice also had a deodorizing effect on most of the garlic volatiles but were generally not as effective as the raw food, probably because the juice had enzymatic activity but the phenolic compounds had already polymerized. Both heated apple and heated lettuce produced a significant reduction of diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan. The presence of phenolic compounds that react with the volatile compounds even in the absence of enzymes is the most likely mechanism. Green tea had no deodorizing effect on the garlic volatile compounds. Rosmarinic acid, catechin, quercetin, and PPO significantly decreased all garlic breath volatiles in vitro. Rosmarinic acid was the most effective at deodorization. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL). Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L), being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine). L. meyenii root (maca) extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2). PMID:29568754

  10. An analysis of the changes on intermediate products during the thermal processing of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-15

    The thermal processing of black garlic was simulated. Fresh garlic was incubated at 55°C with 80% humidity and sampled every 5 or 10days. The changes in relevant products were as follows: the fructan content was decreased by 84.79%, and the fructose content was increased by 508.11%. The contents of Maillard reaction intermediate products were first increased and then decreased. The colour of garlic gradually became dark and the pH decreased from 6.13 to 4.00. By analyzing these changes, the mechanism of black garlic formation and the changes on the Maillard reaction were revealed. The sweetness of black garlic resulted mainly from the fructose that was produced, and the black colour was largely due to the Maillard reaction between fructose/glucose and amino acids. An understanding of this process is useful to explain the formation mechanism of black garlic and could lead to better control of the quality of black garlic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  12. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (P<0.05). Increasing the level of garlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (P<0.05). Dietary supplementation with garlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (P<0.05). Sensory panelists recorded greater hardness and flavor scores to the samples with garlic dietary supplementation (P<0.05). These data suggest that supplementing broiler chicken diets with garlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  13. Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji-Yi; Hu, Yi-Wang; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Meng-Wen; Li, Dan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-11-07

    To conduct an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies addressing the association between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer. Eligible cohort studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and screening the references of related articles published up to October 2013. Meta-analyses were conducted for colorectal cancer in relation to consumption of raw and cooked (RC) garlic and garlic supplements, separately. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95%CI were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity among studies. A total of 5 prospective cohort studies were identified. In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, no significant associations were found between consumption of RC garlic (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.95-1.19) or garlic supplements (RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.96-1.31) and risk of colorectal cancer. A non-significant protective effect of garlic supplement intake against colorectal cancer was observed in females (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.64-1.11), but the opposite was the case in males (RR: 1.24; 95%CI: 0.96-1.59). Consumption of RC garlic or garlic supplements is not significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk.

  14. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p < .05), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < .001), triglycerides (p < .01), fasting blood glucose (p < .0001) and significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < .0001). There was no significant difference found in body mass index (p > .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  15. Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, X J; Wang, P Q; Li, S J; Li, X K; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J

    2015-03-15

    In the past decade, garlic has become one of the most popular complementary therapies for blood pressure (BP) control used by hypertensive patients. Numerous clinical studies have focused on the BP-lowering effect of garlic, but results have been inconsistent. Overall, there is a dearth of information available to guide the clinical community on the efficacy of garlic in hypertensive patients. To systematically review the medical literature to investigate the current evidence of garlic for the treatment of hypertension. PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for appropriate articles from their respective inceptions until August 2014. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing garlic vs. a placebo in patients with hypertension were considered. Papers were independently reviewed by two reviewers and were analyzed using Cochrane software Revman 5.2. A total of seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified. Compared with the placebo, this meta-analysis revealed a significant lowering effect of garlic on both systolic BP (WMD: -6.71 mmHg; 95% CI: -12.44 to -0.99; P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (WMD: -4.79 mmHg; 95% CI: -6.60 to -2.99; P < 0.00001). No serious adverse events were reported in any of the trials. The present review suggests that garlic is an effective and safe approach for hypertension. However, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials focusing on primary endpoints with long-term follow-up are still warranted before garlic can be recommended to treat hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Yüncü, Mehmet; Eralp, Ayhan; Celik, Ahmet

    2006-06-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy is often accompanied by side effects such as gastrointestinal ulceration and diarrhea. The aim of this study was to examine histologically whether an aged garlic extract (AGE) had a protective effect on the small intestine of rats with MTX-induced damage. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into experimental and control groups and divided into four groups of ten animals. To the first group, MTX was applied as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. To the second group, in addition to MTX application, AGE (250 mg/kg) was administered orally every day at the same time by intragastric intubation until the rats were killed. To the third group, AGE only was given. The fourth group was the control. All animals were killed 4 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathologic analysis and tissue MDA levels. Before killing, intracardiac blood was obtained from each animal to perform biochemical analysis (plasma lactate level). MTX was found to lead to damage in the jejunal tissues and to increase the MDA and lactate levels in the plasma. Administration of the AGE decreased the severity of jejunal damage, but increased MDA and lactate levels caused by MTX treatment on the other hand. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. Thus this study substantiated the thought that the protective effect of AGE is derived from the manner in which it interacts with crypt cells.

  17. Korean red ginseng extract exhibits neuroprotective effects through inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Youngmoon; Cho, Jungsook

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng has long been used as a traditional medicine in many East Asian countries including Korea. It is known to exhibit various pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-stress and anti-diabetes activities. To further explore its actions, the present study evaluated effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract on neuronal injury induced by various types of insults using primary cultured rat cortical cells. KRG extract inhibited neuronal damage and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), or by Aβ(25-35). To elucidate possible mechanism(s) by which KRG extract exerts neuroprotective action, its effects on apoptosis and apoptosis-related signaling molecules in neurons were assessed. KRG extract markedly increased phosphorylation of Bad at Ser 112 and inhibited Bax expression and caspase 3 activity. It also inhibited DNA fragmentation induced by NMDA or Aβ(25-35). These results indicate that KRG extract protects cultured neurons from excitotoxicity and Aβ(25-35)-induced toxicity through inhibition of ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. In addition, KRG extract inhibited β-secretase activity, implying that it may reduce Aβ peptide formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that KRG extract may be beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease.

  18. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  19. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J. Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications. PMID:22844269

  20. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to... submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its individual members Christopher Ranch L.L.C., The...

  1. Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this review is to update and assess the clinical evidence based on rigorous trials of the effectiveness of garlic (A. sativum). Systematic searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Amed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Natural Standard, and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (search date December 2006). Our own files, the bibliographies of relevant papers and the contents pages of all issues of the review journal FACT were searched for further studies. No language restrictions were imposed. To be included, trials were required to state that they were randomized and double blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of garlic were included if based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. The literature searches identified six relevant systematic reviews and meta-analysis and double-blind randomized trials (RCT) that were published subsequently. These relate to cancer, common cold, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and pre-eclampsia. The evidence based on rigorous clinical trials of garlic is not convincing. For hypercholesterolemia, the reported effects are small and may therefore not be of clinical relevance. For reducing blood pressure, few studies are available and the reported effects are too small to be clinically meaningful. For all other conditions not enough data are available for clinical recommendations.

  2. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  3. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  4. Garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) is active against anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line 8305C (HPACC).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuexin; Yan, Jinyin; Han, Xiaochen; Hu, Wanning

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental carcinogenesis studies provide evidence that components of garlic have anticancer activity. In this study, the apoptotic effects of Garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) were investigated in 8305C human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. The cell line 8305C (HPACC) were treated with SAMC and the MTT assay, flow cytometry (FCM), electron microscope method were used to test cell cycle, inhibitory rate and morphologic changes respectively. HPACC-8305C cells were suppressed after exposure to SAMC of 0.02 mg/ml, 0.06 mg/ml, and 0.1 mg/ml for 48 h. Compared with the control, the difference was significant (P< 0.05). SAMC could induce apoptosis of the cells in a dose-dependent and non-linear manner and increase the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase. Compared with the control, the difference was significant in terms of the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase (P< 0.05). After exposure to SAMC at 0.02 mg/ml for 24 hours, HPACC-8305C cells showed typical morphologic change. SAMC inhibits the growth of HPACC-8305C cells by induction of apoptotic cell death and inhibit telomerase activity, which appears to account for its anti-cancer activity.

  5. Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: An updated meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ji-Yi; Hu, Yi-Wang; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Meng-Wen; Li, Dan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies addressing the association between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer. METHODS: Eligible cohort studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and screening the references of related articles published up to October 2013. Meta-analyses were conducted for colorectal cancer in relation to consumption of raw and cooked (RC) garlic and garlic supplements, separately. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95%CI were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: A total of 5 prospective cohort studies were identified. In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, no significant associations were found between consumption of RC garlic (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.95-1.19) or garlic supplements (RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.96-1.31) and risk of colorectal cancer. A non-significant protective effect of garlic supplement intake against colorectal cancer was observed in females (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.64-1.11), but the opposite was the case in males (RR: 1.24; 95%CI: 0.96-1.59). CONCLUSION: Consumption of RC garlic or garlic supplements is not significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk. PMID:25386091

  6. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome.

    PubMed

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that "seed" bulbs from "Coreano" variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic "seed" cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  8. Plant extracts as phytogenic additives considering intake, digestibility, and feeding behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camila Sousa; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti; Cavalcante, Edwilka Oliveira; de Lima, Ewerton Ivo Martins; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, José Ricardo Coelho; da Silva, Daniel Cézar

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt. As experimental design, we used a 5 × 5 Latin square design (five treatments and five periods). The data were analyzed through the mixed model through the procedure PROC MIXED of software Systems Statistical Analysis version 9.1, with comparation analysis between the treatment without additive (control) with phytogenic additives produced from vegetable extracts of mesquite pod, of coriander seed, the bulb of garlic, and the oregano leaves. There were no significant differences for the nutrient intake and ingestive behavior patterns. However, the additive intake derived from mesquite pods and coriander extracts provided an increase in digestibility. Extracts from garlic, coriander, and mesquite pods can be used as phytogenic additives in feeding sheep.

  9. Inhibition properties of propolis extracts to some clinically important enzymes.

    PubMed

    Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to envisage inhibition effects of propolis on the crucial enzymes, urease, xanthine oxidase (XO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Some of the antioxidant properties of the propolis samples were determined using the total phenolic content (TPE) and total flavonoids in the eight different ethanolic propolis extracts (EPE) samples. Inhibition values of the enzymes were expressed as inhibition concentration (IC 50 ; mg/mL or μg/mL) causing 50% inhibition of the enzymes with donepezil, acetohydroxamic acid and allopurinol as reference inhibitors. All the propolis extracts exhibited variable inhibition effects on these enzymes, but the higher the phenolic contents the lower the inhibitions values (IC 50 = 0.074 to 1.560 mg/mL). IC 50 values of the P5 propolis sample having the highest TPE, obtained from Zonguldak, for AChE, urease and XO were 0.081 ± 0.009, 0.080 ± 0.006 and 0.074 ± 0.011 μg/mL, respectively. The EPE proved to be a good source of inhibitor agents that can be used as natural inhibitors to serve human health.

  10. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue–gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead-exposed mice were significantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days), the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight) and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate-exposed group and treatment with garlic improved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate. PMID:21483544

  11. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect.

  12. Investigation of the use of various plant extracts activity in ruminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüca, Songül; Gül, Mehmet; Ćaǧlayan, Alper

    2016-04-01

    The prohibition of the use of antibiotics and as a result of the adverse effect on health of synthetic products, research has focused on natural feed additives. In recent years, the diet of farm animals many feed additives have been used for various purposes or continues. These include as used in ruminant rations as plant extract thyme, anise, pepper, mint, garlic, rosemary, cinnamon, parsley, bay leaf, coconut, like used herbal extracts and their effects on the performance of ruminants was investigated. Antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflamaotry is known to have effects of plant extract. By stimulating the digestive system of ruminants, they increase the activity of digestive enzymes, to prevent environmental pollution caused by manure, regulations rumen fermentation, inhibition of methane formation and protein degradability in the rumen as well as the animal is known to have many benefits. The structure of essential oils and plant extracts in this collection, examining the use of ruminant livestock events and the importance of the use in animal nutrition into practice will be discussed.

  13. Antiproliferative activity of guava leaf extract via inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yuki; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hosokawa, Tomoko; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kimoto, Masumi; Tsuji, Hideaki; Yoshida, Hideki; Hada, Takahiko; Takahashi, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) is a key enzyme for the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) which play important roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Because the extract from Psidium guajava is known to have a variety of beneficial effects on our body including the anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiproliferative activities, we investigated whether the extract inhibited the catalytic activity of the two PGHS isoforms using linoleic acid as an alternative substrate. The guava leaf extract inhibited the cyclooxygenase reaction of recombinant human PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 as assessed by conversion of linoleic acid to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs). The guava leaf extract also inhibited the PG hydroperoxidase activity of PGHS-1, which was not affected by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Quercetin which was one of the major components not only inhibited the cyclooxygenase activity of both isoforms but also partially inhibited the PG hydroperoxidase activity. Overexpression of human PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 in the human colon carcinoma cells increased the DNA synthesis rate as compared with mock-transfected cells which did not express any isoforms. The guava leaf extract not only inhibited the PGE(2) synthesis but also suppressed the DNA synthesis rate in the PGHS-1- and PGHS-2-expressing cells to the same level as mock-transfected cells. These results demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of the guava leaf extract which is at least in part caused by inhibition of the catalytic activity of PGHS isoforms.

  14. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  15. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, A; Moorthy, M; Chitra, R; Prabakar, G

    2016-05-01

    To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers' body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Broiler's weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  16. Recombinant expression of Garlic virus C (GARV-C) capsid protein in insect cells and its potential for the production of specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Alves-Júnior, Miguel; Menezes Marraccini, Fernanda; Melo Filho, Péricles de Albuquerque; Nepomuceno Dusi, André; Pio-Ribeiro, Gilvan; Morais Ribeiro, Bergmann

    2008-01-01

    Garlic cultivars in Brazil are infected by a complex of viruses and for some virus species, such as the allexivirus, purification of the virions is sometimes cumbersume. To overcome this problem, recombinant expression of viral proteins in heterologous systems is an alternative method for producing antibodies. The capsid gene from Garlic virus C (GarV-C), an Allexivirus, was inserted into the genome of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) generating the recombinant virus vSynGarV-C. The recombinant protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western-blot of extracts from recombinant virus infected insect cells, where a protein band of approximately 32KDa was observed only in extracts from recombinant infected cells. This protein corresponded to the predicted size of the capsid protein of the GarV-C. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against this protein, shown to be specific for the GarV-C protein in western-blot and dot-Elisa, however with a low titer.

  17. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for food allergy: a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Almogren, A; Shakoor, Z; Adam, M H

    2013-09-01

    Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients investigated for food allergy. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) results of 108 patients with clinical suspicion of food allergy who were specifically screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2008 and April 2009. This group of patients included 73 males and 35 females with mean age 27+13.2 years. Estimation of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies was performed by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) using Pharmacia ImmunoCAP 250 analyzer. Out of the 108 patients 15 (13.8%) had garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in their sera. Garlic specific IgE antibodies with the RAST scores between one to four were present in 14 and onion specific IgE were detected in 13 patients. For garlic specific IgEs majority of patients (08) had RAST score of one (0.35-0.69 kU/L) and for onion specific IgE antibodies seven patients had RAST score of two (0.70-3.49 kU/L). Among these patients 12 (80%) were found to have coexisting specific IgE antibodies against garlic and onion. The presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in a sizeable number of patients indicate sensitization and allergenic potential of these food materials.

  18. Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Kim, C. -H.; Min, K. -S.; Lee, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community

  19. Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, E T; Kim, C-H; Min, K-S; Lee, S S

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community

  20. Garlic activates SIRT-3 to prevent cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Md Razia; Bagul, Pankaj K; Katare, Parameshwar B; Anwar Mohammed, Soheb; Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl). Garlic was administered at a dose of 250mg/kg/day, orally for four weeks. An additional group was maintained to evaluate the effect of raw garlic administration on control rat heart. We have observed altered functioning of cardiac mitochondrial enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, and increased levels of cardiac ROS with decreased activity of catalase and SOD in diabetic rats. Cardiac mRNA expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, and CO1 was also altered in diabetes. In addition, reduced levels of electron transport chain complexes that observed in Dia group were normalized with garlic administration. This indicates the presence of increased oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunctioning in diabetic heart. We have observed reduced activity of SIRT3 and increased acetylation of MnSOD. Silencing SIRT-3 in cells also revealed the same. However, administration of garlic improved the SIRT-3 and MnSOD activity, by deacetylating MnSOD. Increased SOD activity was correlated with reduced levels of ROS in garlic-administered rat hearts. Collectively, our results provide an insight into garlic's protection to T1DM heart through activation of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Snow Mountain Garlic.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an important medicinal herb of culinary value by imparting its flavors and odors to the food. Allicin, a notable flavonoid in garlic, is a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound. Due to poor bioavailability, garlic is of limited use for oral human consumption. Being sexually sterile, propagation of garlic is done by individual cloves from a bulb which increases the chances of transfer of viral diseases. In this chapter, an efficient and improved regeneration protocol for explant establishment and shoot multiplication under in vitro conditions is described. A high rate of shoot multiplication is obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l KN, and 2.0 mg/l GA3. Addition of 1.0 mg/l NAA to MS medium resulted in rooting at the shoot bases. A detailed method for encapsulation of explant in sodium alginate beads and their cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration is also described.

  2. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  3. Discrimination of Geographical Origin of Asian Garlic Using Isotopic and Chemical Datasets under Stepwise Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lin, Jhen-Nan; Peng, Tsung-Ren

    2018-01-16

    Isotopic compositions of δ 2 H, δ 18 O, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N and concentrations of 22 trace elements from garlic samples were analyzed and processed with stepwise principal component analysis (PCA) to discriminate garlic's country of origin among Asian regions including South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, and China. Results indicate that there is no single trace-element concentration or isotopic composition that can accomplish the study's purpose and the stepwise PCA approach proposed does allow for discrimination between countries on a regional basis. Sequentially, Step-1 PCA distinguishes garlic's country of origin among Taiwanese, South Korean, and Vietnamese samples; Step-2 PCA discriminates Chinese garlic from South Korean garlic; and Step-3 and Step-4 PCA, Chinese garlic from Vietnamese garlic. In model tests, countries of origin of all audit samples were correctly discriminated by stepwise PCA. Consequently, this study demonstrates that stepwise PCA as applied is a simple and effective approach to discriminating country of origin among Asian garlics. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum L bulbs offer nephroprotection by attenuating vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shiju, T M; Rajkumar, R; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.

  5. 2-(1H-pyrrolyl)carboxylic acids as pigment precursors in garlic greening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Nanding, Husile; Han, Na; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Guanghua

    2008-02-27

    Six model compounds having a 2-(1 H-pyrrolyl)carboxylic acid moiety and a hydrophobic R group were synthesized to study their effects on garlic greening, the structures of which are similar to that of 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1 H-pyrrolyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (PP-Val) (a possible pigment precursor for garlic greening). The puree of freshly harvested garlic bulbs turned green after being soaked in solutions of all these compounds, and with both increasing concentrations and incubation time the green color of the puree became deeper. In contrast, neither pyrrole alone nor pyrrole combined with free amino acids had the ability to discolor the puree. The compounds exhibited a good relationship between structure and activity of garlic greening, namely, the smaller the size of the R group, the larger the contribution. Also, it was found that the unidentified yellow species can be produced by reacting the model compounds with pyruvic acid at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). Moreover, blue species were formed by incubation of the model compounds with di(2-propenyl) thiosulfinate at room temperature. On the basis of these observations, a pathway for garlic greening was proposed.

  6. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of garlic preparation in freeze injury model of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sobenin, Igor A; Andrianova, Irina V; Lakunin, Konstantin Y; Karagodin, Vasilii P; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-10-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most popular substances used to reduce various risks associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known on the direct effects of garlic on atherosclerosis. In the present study we have examined the effect of per oral administration of the time-released garlic herbal preparation on serum atherogenicity and formation of intimal thickening after freeze injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Group 1 rabbits maintained on the standard cholesterol-rich diet served as the control. Group 2 rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet and treated with garlic preparation containing 300 mg garlic powder. Local thickening of the aortic media (i.e., the neointima formation) in the freeze injury zone was observed in all the rabbits. Regular garlic preparation therapy prevented the neointima formation and the accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and collagen in the neointima, the effects being statistically significant. Garlic preparation also decreased serum lipid content by 1.5-fold and lowered atherogenic activity of blood serum (ability to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells) induced by cholesterol-rich diet. The results obtained indicate that garlic preparation prevents the development of cholesterol-induced experimental atherosclerosis and possesses the direct anti-atherogenic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  9. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    PubMed Central

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  10. Effect of garlic and allium-derived products on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Millet, Coralie O M; Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin; Williams, David; Evans, Gareth; Saunders, Robert A; Cable, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    Spironucleus is a genus of small, flagellated parasites, many of which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and are a significant problem in aquaculture. Following the ban on the use of metronidazole in food fish due to toxicity problems, no satisfactory chemotherapies for the treatment of spironucleosis are currently available. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and automated optical density monitoring of growth, we investigated in vitro the effect of Allium sativum (garlic), a herbal remedy known for its antimicrobial properties, on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens, a parasite of tropical fish and putative agent of hole-in-the-head disease. The allium-derived thiosulfinate compounds allicin and ajoene, as well as an ajoene-free mixture of thiosulfinates and vinyl-dithiins were also tested. Whole, freeze-dried garlic and allium-derived compounds had an inhibitory effect on gas metabolism, exponential growth rate and final growth yield of S. vortens in Keister's modified, TY-I-S33 culture medium. Of all the allium-derived compounds tested, the ajoene-free mixture of dithiins and thiosulfinates was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 107 μg ml(-1) and an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC(50%)) of 58 μg ml(-1). It was followed by ajoene (MIC = 83 μg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 56 μg ml(-1)) and raw garlic (MIC >20 mg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 7.9 mg ml(-1)); allicin being significantly less potent with an MIC and IC(50%) above 160 μg ml(-1). All these concentrations are much higher than those reported to be required for the inhibition of most bacteria, protozoa and fungi previously investigated, indicating an unusual level of tolerance for allium-derived products in S. vortens. However, chemically synthesized derivatives of garlic constituents might prove a useful avenue for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HS-GC/MS volatile profile of different varieties of garlic and their behavior under heating.

    PubMed

    Molina-Calle, María; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; de Castro, María D Luque

    2016-05-01

    Garlic is one of the most used seasonings in the world whose beneficial health effects, mainly ascribed to organosulfur compounds, are shared with the rest of the Allium family. The fact that many of these compounds are volatile makes the evaluation of the volatile profile of garlic interesting. For this purpose, three garlic varieties-White, Purple, and Chinese-cultivated in the South of Spain were analyzed by a method based on a headspace (HS) device coupled to a gas chromatograph and mass detector (HS-GC/MS). The main temperatures in the HS were optimized to achieve the highest concentration of volatiles. A total number of 45 volatiles were tentatively identified (among them 17 were identified for the first time in garlic); then, all were classified, also for the first time, and their relative concentration in three garlic varieties was used to evaluate differences among them and to study their profiles according to the heating time. Chinese garlic was found to be the richest variety in sulfur volatiles, while the three varieties presented a similar trend under preset heating times allowing differentiation between varieties and heating time using principal component analysis. Graphical Abstract HS-GC/MS analysis of the volatile profile of garlic.

  12. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  13. Role of Garlic Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Tabinda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Rapidly growing prevalence of cardiovascular disease is a major threat for the developed as well as developing world warranting urgent need of intervention. Complementary and alternative medicines are gaining popularity among general population because of their safety profile and easy administration. Garlic, in particular, is considered to be one of the best disease-preventive foods because of its potent and widespread effects. This study was done to find out the role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention. Methodology. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for the literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Results. Various clinical trials and meta-analyses conducted have shown positive impact of garlic in cardiovascular-disease prevention especially its effects on lipid levels; however, some contradictory results are also reported. Similarly, its effects on hypertension control, and platelet are also mild with limited data availability. The possible reason for these inconsistent results is the difference in preparations with diverse composition, variations in sulphur content present in different garlic preparations used, and methodological variations in subject recruitment, duration of study, dietary control and so forth. Conclusion. Garlic can be used as an adjuvant with lipid-lowering drugs for control of lipids, however, its role as a main therapeutic agent cannot be recommended and it is suggested that more meta-analyses using standardized preparations with a close watch on methodological shortfalls should be conducted to prove its role. PMID:23690831

  14. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  15. Optimization of in vitro inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by Solanum tuberosum L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Holm, D; Byrne, P; Ducreux, L; Taylor, M; Kaiser, M; Stushnoff, C

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites in potato have been reported to possess bioactive properties, including growth inhibition of cancer cells. Because potatoes are widely consumed globally, potential health benefits may have broad application. Thus we investigated growth inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by extracts from 13 diverse genetic breeding clones. Extracts from three pigmented selections (CO97226-2R/R, CO97216-1P/P, CO04058-3RW/RW) inhibited growth of in vitro HT-29 cell cultures more effectively than other clones tested. While inhibition was highest from pigmented selections and pigmented tuber tissue sectors, not all pigmented breeding lines tested had appreciable inhibitory properties. Thus, inhibition was not uniquely linked to pigmentation. Immature tubers had the highest inhibitory properties, and in most cases mature tubers retained very low inhibition properties. Flowers and skins inhibited strongly at lower extract concentrations. An extract consisting of 7.2 mg mL⁻¹ cell culture medium was the lowest effective concentration. While raw tuber extracts inhibited most effectively, a few clones at higher concentrations retained inhibition after cooking. Heated whole tubers retained higher inhibition than heated aqueous extracts. While all aqueous extracts from the two tuber selections (CO97216-1P/P and CO97226-2R/R) inhibited HT-29 cell cultures, inhibition was significantly enhanced in purple pigmented tubers of CO97216-1P/P prepared cryogenically as liquid nitrogen powders compared to extracts from freeze dried samples. Upregulation of caspase-3 protease activity, indicative of apoptosis, was highest among the most inhibitory clone samples. The unique sectorial red pigment expressing selection (CO04058-3RW/RW) provided a model system that isolated expression in pigmented sectors, and thus eliminated developmental, environmental and genetic confounding.

  16. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05) and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  17. Investigating the protective effects of aged garlic extract on cyclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wongmekiat, Orawan; Thamprasert, Kamthorn

    2005-10-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has been described in solid organ recipients and in the patients who were treated for autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidations are implicated in the pathophysiology of CsA-induced renal injury. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to exhibit potent antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities in various disease conditions. The present study was designed to investigate whether AGE could possibly have a protective effect against nephrotoxicity induced by CsA. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with CsA (50 mg/kg/day), CsA + AGE (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg/day started 3 days before the first dose of CsA), or the vehicle of CsA for a period of 10 days. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and renal histopathological changes were evaluated after 24 h of the last treatment. CsA caused an increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine by 117 and 100%, respectively, whereas it decreased creatinine clearance by 78% compared with the vehicle-treated rats (all P < 0.001). AGE treatment (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg) significantly protected animals against CsA-induced biochemical changes, albeit blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance in the 0.5 g/kg AGE treated-animals were only partially restored. Kidney sections taken from CsA-treated rats showed severe vacuolations and tubular necrosis. These histopathological changes were markedly improved by pretreatment of rats with AGE at the dose of 0.5--2 g/kg. The results indicate that AGE ameliorates renal dysfunction and morphological changes induced by CsA, and imply that it could be a beneficial remedy for attenuating the CsA nephrotoxicity.

  18. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  19. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under..., has made application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the garlic... garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located in Baltimore, Maryland (Subzone 74C...

  20. [Allelopathy of garlic root exudates on different receiver vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-li; Cheng, Zhi-hui; Meng, Huan-wen

    2007-01-01

    By the method of tissue culture under sterilized condition, this paper studied the allelopathy of garlic root exudates on lettuce, hot pepper, radish, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and tomato. The results showed that garlic root exudates had no evident effects on the germination rate, germination index, shoot height, and protective enzyme system of test crops, but significantly increased the root length, aboveground fresh mass, and root fresh mass of lettuce, with the RIs being +0.163, +0.106, +0.318, respectively. The exudates also increased the root length of Chinese cabbage, with a RI of +0.120. For other test crops, no significant difference was observed between the treatments and the control. Garlic root exudates significantly increased the chlorophyll content and root activity of the receiver vegetables. The strongest promotion effects were found on chlorophyll content in radish, with RI being +0.282, and on root activity of cucumber, with RI being +0.184. The exudates promoted the nutrient absorption of all the receiver vegetables.

  1. Anti-hyperlipidemia of garlic by reducing the level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-E; Wang, Weidong; Qin, Jie

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the impact of garlic on improving blood lipids using a meta-analysis. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed using keywords such as "garlic" and "hypercholesterolemia," and the deadline "July 14 (th), 2017." After extracting relevant details, each selected literature was evaluated for quality according to the quality evaluation criteria of bias risk recommended by Cochrane Collaboration recommendations and heterogeneity tests were performed. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated using R 3.12 software. The publication bias was assessed using Egger method. A total of 14 eligible papers published from 1981 to 2016 were included. The quality of the literatures was of moderate to high qualities. The values of TC (SMD = -1.26, 95% CI, -1.86 to -0.66), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (SMD = -1.07, 95% CI, -1.67 to -0.47), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.06-0.94) after taking garlic in the experimental group and the control group have statistical significance, while there was no significant difference of TG in the 2 groups (SMD = -0.16, 95% CI, -0.87-0.55). However, the result of HDL was reversed when removed some of the literatures. No significant publication bias among the eligible studies with values of TC (P = .0625), LDL (P = .0770), HDL (P = .2293), and TG (P = .3436). Garlic can reduce the level of TC and LDL instead of HDL and TG, indicating the ability of anti-hyperlipidemia.

  2. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Eric R.; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. PMID:27101293

  3. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Eric R; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn; Olson, Kenneth R

    2016-06-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period of review (POR... the AR for 100 companies for whom requests for review were withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People...

  5. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Shivayogi; M Patel, Punit; Nagmoti, Jyoti; Uppin, Chaitanya; Mistry, Laresh; Dhariwal, Neha

    2017-01-01

    To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting ability of garlic oil, neem oil, clove oil, and tulsi oil with autoclaving on endodontic K files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Fifty endodontic K files were exposed to the test micro-organism and checked for its disinfecting ability using three different methods. Garlic oil, clove oil, tulsi oil and autoclave showed considerable effectiveness against E. faecalis except neem oil. Garlic oil, clove oil and tulsi oil are an effective disinfectant and can be used as an alternative to autoclaving against the test micro-organism. Herbs and herbal extracts are a natural and harmless way of controlling infection. These products are readily available and comparable to gold standard, thus can have its applications in rural India. Hugar S, Patel PM, Nagmoti J, Uppin C, Mistry L, Dhariwal N. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):283-288.

  6. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  7. Inhibition of microglial activation by elderberry extracts and its phenolic components

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406

  8. Apple peel bioactive rich extracts effectively inhibit in vitro human LDL cholesterol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Needs, Paul W

    2013-05-01

    Apple peels are rich in antioxidant bioactives and hence can possess the ability to inhibit human low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation. LDL-C oxidation is known to initiate atherosclerotic plaque formation. Unique quercetin-rich (QAE) and triterpene-rich (TAE) apple peel extracts, their constituent compounds and three in vivo quercetin metabolites were investigated for in vitro LDL-C oxidation inhibition. Both extracts effectively inhibited Cu(2+)-induced LDL-C oxidation. IC(50) of QAE and TAE for LDL-C oxidation products were 0.06-8.29 mg/L and 29.58-95.49 mg/L, respectively. Quercetin compounds, chlorogenic acid and phloridzin could contribute more to the effectiveness of QAE at physiological concentrations. The three in vivo quercetin metabolites; quercetin-3'-sulfate, quercetin-3-glucuronic acid and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronic acid were effective at physiological concentrations and therefore, QAE can be effective in LDL-C oxidation inhibition under physiological conditions. Constituent TAE compounds did not perform well under Cu(2+)-induction. Overall, both extracts effectively inhibited LDL-C oxidation in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce antimicrobial secondary compounds, which may be a source for novel anti-viral drugs. Non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea roots, Nigella sativa seeds, and Sambucus nigra fruit were tested for anti-IBV activity, since these safe, widely used plant tissues contain polyphenol derivatives that inhibit other viruses. Results Dose–response cytotoxicity curves on Vero cells using trypan blue staining determined the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of each plant extract. To screen for IBV inhibition, cells and virus were pretreated with extracts, followed by infection in the presence of extract. Viral cytopathic effect was assessed visually following an additional 24 h incubation with extract. Cells and supernatants were harvested separately and virus titers were quantified by plaque assay. Variations of this screening protocol determined the effects of a number of shortened S. nigra extract treatments. Finally, S. nigra extract-treated virions were visualized by transmission electron microscopy with negative staining. Virus titers from infected cells treated with R. rosea and N. sativa extracts were not substantially different from infected cells treated with solvent alone. However, treatment with S. nigra extracts reduced virus titers by four orders of magnitude at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 in a dose-responsive manner. Infection at a low MOI reduced viral titers by six orders of magnitude and pretreatment of virus was necessary, but not sufficient, for full virus inhibition. Electron microscopy of virions treated with S. nigra extract showed compromised envelopes and the presence of membrane vesicles, which suggested a mechanism of action. Conclusions These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at

  10. Selected Phytochemicals and Culinary Plant Extracts Inhibit Fructose Uptake in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yurim; Lim, Yeni; Kwon, Oran

    2015-09-18

    This study compared the ability of nine culinary plant extracts containing a wide array of phytochemicals to inhibit fructose uptake and then explored the involvement of intestinal fructose transporters and phytochemicals for selected samples. The chemical signature was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Inhibition of [(14)C]-fructose uptake was tested by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Then, the relative contribution of the two apical-facing intestinal fructose transporters, GLUT2 and GLUT5, and the signature components for fructose uptake inhibition was confirmed in naive, phloretin-treated and forskolin-treated Caco-2 cells. HPLC/MS analysis of the chemical signature revealed that guava leaf contained quercetin and catechin, and turmeric contained curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin. Similar inhibition of fructose uptake (by ~50%) was observed with guava leaf and turmeric in Caco-2 cells, but with a higher contribution of GLUT2 for turmeric and that of GLUT5 for guava leaf. The data suggested that, in turmeric, demethoxycurcumin specifically contributed to GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, and curcumin did the same to GLUT5-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, but GLUT2 inhibition was more potent. By contrast, in guava leaf, catechin specifically contributed to GLUT5-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, and quercetin affected both GLUT5- and GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, resulting in the higher contribution of GLUT5. These results suggest that demethoxycurcumin is an important contributor to GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition for turmeric extract, and catechin is the same to GLUT5-mediated fructose uptake inhibition for guava leaf extract. Quercetin, curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin contributed to both GLUT5- and GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, but the contribution to GLUT5 inhibition was higher than the contribution to GLUT2 inhibition.

  11. Ovicidal and Larvicidal Effects of Garlic and Asafoetida Essential Oils Against West Nile Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Zilkowski, Bruce; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). The effect of the two essential oils on egg hatch was also examined. Ten and 12 compounds, respectively, were identified in garlic and asafoetida essential oils. Allyl disulfide (49.13%) and diallyl trisulfide (31.08%) were the most abundant compounds in garlic essential oil accounting for 80.2% of the total oil. In contrast, (E)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (30.03%), (Z)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (24.32%), and disulfide, methyl 1-(methylthio)propyl (21.87%) were the most abundant compounds in asafoetida essential oil. Allyl disulfide accounted for 7.38% of the total oil in asafoetida essential oil and was one of only three compounds found in both oils. For both mosquito species, garlic essential oil was more toxic than asafoetida essential oil with Cx. restuans (LC50: garlic = 2.7 ppm; asafoetida = 10.1 ppm) being more sensitive than Cx. pipiens (LC50: garlic = 7.5 ppm; asafoetida = 13.5 ppm). When combined, the two essential oils had antagonistic effects. The majority of Culex egg rafts exposed to garlic (73.1%) or asafoetida (55.8%) essential oils failed to hatch and larvae of the few that did hatch mostly died as first instars. Allyl disulfide exhibited strong ovicidal and larvicidal activity suggesting its important contribution to the overall toxicity of the two essential oils. Thus, garlic and asafoetida essential oils are potent mosquito ovicides and larvicides but if used jointly, they could undermine vector control programs. PMID:29718505

  12. Mechanism of the greening color formation of "laba" garlic, a traditional homemade chinese food product.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhao, Guanghua; Hu, Xiaosong

    2005-09-07

    While green discoloration during garlic processing is of a major concern, this greening is desirable and required for the traditional homemade Chinese "Laba" garlic. To obtain insights into the mechanism of color formation, simulation of the greening of "Laba" garlic was carried out in the laboratory by soaking aged garlic in 5% (v/v, pH 2.33) acetic acid solution. After 2 days, the garlic cloves turned green. Up to 4 days, pigment(s) diffused from garlic cloves to the pickling solution. The solution exhibits two maximal absorbances at approximately 440 and approximately 590 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue species, respectively, the combination of which creates the green coloration. With increasing time from 4 to 25 days, the concentration of both yellow and blue species increases at nearly the same rate, while after 25 days, the concentration of the yellow species increases faster than that of the blue species. Interestingly, most thiosulfinates ( approximately 85%) in garlic cloves were converted within 4 days, suggesting that thiosulfinate conversion is proportional to the formation of the pigments. Consistent with this conclusion, alliinase and acetic acid were required for the color formation. UV-vis spectral measurements and pH results suggest that the color formation occurs by two kinds of processes: one enzymatic and the other nonenzymatic. Low pH (2.0-3.0) favors nonenzymatic reactions, while high pH (6.0 or above) is conducive to enzymatic reactions. Thus, the ideal pH for the entire process of garlic greening is between 4.0 and 5.0, which is a compromise of the optimal pH of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions.

  13. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EXTENSION OF STORAGE LIFE OF GARLIC BULBS BY $gamma$-IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, P.B.

    1963-12-01

    Garlic bulbs were packaged in polyethylene bags and irradiated with 5 krad of Co/sup 60/ gamma rays. Irradiated and control bulbs were stored at 11- 12 deg C. Weight loss, number of bulbs sprouted, and number of bulbs decayed were greater in the control group than in the irradiated group. No adverse effect on the taste, flavor, texture, or pungency of irradiated garlic bulbs was determined organo-leptically at the end of seven months storage. (H.M.G.)

  15. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stachytarpheta cayennensis extract inhibits promastigote and amastigote growth in Leishmania amazonensis via parasite arginase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Maquiaveli, Claudia do Carmo; Oliveira E Sá, Amanda Maria; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; da Silva, Edson Roberto

    2016-11-04

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis is a plant that is traditionally used to treat tegumentary leishmaniasis and as an anti-inflammatory agent. This study aimed to evaluate the action of S. cayennensis extracts on the Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis arginase enzyme. S. cayennensis was collected from the Brazilian Amazon region. Aqueous extracts were fractionated with n-butanol. The leishmanicidal effects of the n-butanolic fraction (BUF) were evaluated in L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes. BUF was tested against recombinant arginase from both L. (L.) amazonensis and macrophage arginase. Promastigote cultures and infected macrophage cultures were supplemented with L-ornithine to verify arginase inhibition. NMR analysis was used to identify the major components of BUF. BUF showed an EC 50 of 51 and 32µg/mL against promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis, respectively. BUF contains a mixture of verbascoside and isoverbascoside (7:3 ratio) and is a potent L. (L.) amazonensis arginase inhibitor (IC 50 =1.2µg/mL), while macrophage arginase was weakly inhibited (IC 50 >1000µg/mL). The inhibition of arginase by BUF in promastigotes and amastigotes could be demonstrated by culture media supplementation with L-ornithine, a product of the hydrolysis of L-arginine by arginase. Leishmanicidal effects of the S. cayennensis BUF fraction on L. (L.) amazonensis are associated with selective parasite arginase inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña, Javier; Castillo, Purificación; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-08-20

    This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients.

  18. Cloning and expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and its relationship to greening in crushed garlic (Allium sativum) cloves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lee, Seung Koo

    2012-01-30

    Garlic greening occurs when garlic cloves are stored at low temperature, increasing 1-propenyl cysteine sulfoxide, which is induced by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Although the metabolism of the γ-glutamyl peptide is important for the biosynthesis of green pigments in crushed garlic cloves, garlic GGT is poorly characterised. For the analysis of GGT at the gene level, the garlic GGT sequence was partially cloned using an onion GGT sequence. The relationship between garlic greening and related gene expressions, depending on storage condition, was investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for garlic GGT and alliinase. Three storage conditions were set: A, storage at a constant temperature of 20 °C; B, storage at 20 °C for 3 months and then transfer to 0 °C for an additional 3 months; C, storage at 0 °C for 3 months and then transfer to 20 °C for an additional 3 months. GGT expression increased under storage condition B and decreased under storage condition C. However, alliinase expression was not affected by storage condition. Greening in crushed garlic cloves increases with increasing GGT expression at low temperature, while alliinase expression is not affected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Hang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic (Dà Suàn; Allium sativum), is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients. PMID:24716172

  20. Autophagy therapeutic potential of garlic in human cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Hang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-07-01

    Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic (Dà Suàn; Allium sativum), is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  1. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1... rescinding the NSRs of both Fuyi and Maycarrier. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  3. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Ranch L.L.C., the Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and Company, Inc. (collectively, Petitioners... reconsideration of its valuation of the labor wage rate for this review. The Department gave interested parties... Valuation of Garlic Bulbs Issue 3: Use of India Wholesale Price Index as Inflator for Surrogate Values Issue...

  4. Alliinase and cysteine synthase transcription in developing garlic (Allium sativum L.) over time.

    PubMed

    Mitrová, Katarina; Svoboda, Pavel; Milella, Luigi; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2018-06-15

    Garlic is a valuable source of healthy compounds, including secondary metabolites rich in sulphur such as cysteine sulphoxides (CSOs). Here, we present new qRT-PCR assays analysing the transcription of two genes encoding key enzymes in CSO biosynthetic pathways (cysteine synthase and alliinase) in developing garlic. We also identified a set of genes (ACT I, GAPDH, and TUB) to use as transcription normalisation controls. We showed that the (normalised) transcription of both enzymes was highest during sprouting and decreased significantly in fully developed leaves, which are the major CSO-producing organs. Transcriptional activity further declined at the end of the growing season. Different cultivars show similar sulphur metabolism gene expression when European garlics were compared to Chinese and American genotypes. The qRT-PCR assays presented are also suitable for investigating the effects of agricultural practices on CSO formation in garlic to satisfy consumer demands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Diallylthiosulfinate (Allicin), a Volatile Antimicrobial from Garlic (Allium sativum), Kills Human Lung Pathogenic Bacteria, Including MDR Strains, as a Vapor.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Jana; Levina, Natalja; van der Linden, Mark; Gruhlke, Martin; Martin, Christian; Slusarenko, Alan J

    2017-10-12

    Garlic ( Allium sativum ) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas , Streptococcus , and Staphylococcus , including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined and compared to clinical antibiotics using standard European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) procedures. The cytotoxicity of allicin to human lung and colon epithelial and murine fibroblast cells was tested in vitro and shown to be ameliorated by glutathione (GSH). Similarly, the sensitivity of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) to allicin was decreased by raising the [GSH] to the approximate blood plasma level of 1 mM. Because allicin inhibited bacterial growth as a vapor, it could be used to combat bacterial lung infections via direct inhalation. Since there are no volatile antibiotics available to treat pulmonary infections, allicin, particularly at sublethal doses in combination with oral antibiotics, could make a valuable addition to currently available treatments.

  6. Effect of different light spectra on the pigmentation of stored elephant garlic.

    PubMed

    Comparini, Diego; Nguyen, Hieu Th; Ueda, Kota; Moritaka, Kyoshi; Kihara, Toshihiko; Kawano, Tomonori

    2018-05-01

    In the present study high-brightness light-emitting diodes were used to investigate the influence of different light spectra on garlic discoloration at different humidity levels and temperature. Many processes involved in the discoloration process of garlic/leek during storage under different conditions remain unanswered. For this reason in this study the ability of specific light spectra to enhance the production of desirable pigments has been evaluated in elephant garlic. It is well known that the pigments involved in the discoloration reaction are of great interest because of their potential ability to increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the food. In the present study, we show how the chlorophyll content of the sprout increases directly proportionally to the wavelength of the light tested; green/blue light delays the greening process of garlic young shoots whilst red/infra-red light irradiance conditions increase the greening process at different storage temperatures and humidity. Moreover different lights in the visible spectrum have been observed to stimulate and enhance the outer layer purple coloration. The use of different lights to modulate garlic pigmentation has been demonstrated and, in particular, the utilisation of red/green/blue lights and lower temperature resulted in higher red/pink pigments production supporting the hypothesis that this process involves more than one light to be fully performed and the low temperature is a condition that influences the formation of these products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant properties of Asphodelus microcarpus extracts.

    PubMed

    Di Petrillo, Amalia; González-Paramás, Ana Maria; Era, Benedetta; Medda, Rosaria; Pintus, Francesca; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Fais, Antonella

    2016-11-09

    Asphodelus microcarpus belongs to the family Liliaceae that include several medicinal plants. In the traditional medicine plants of the genus Asphodelus are used to treat skin disorders such as ectodermal parasites, psoriasis, microbial infection and for lightening freckles. In order to find novel skin depigmenting agents, the present work was carry out to evaluate antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of leaves, flowers and tubers extracts of A. microcarpus. The phytochemical composition of the active extract was also evaluated. Three different extracts (water, methanol and ethanol) from leaves, flowers and tubers of A. microcarpus were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrate. Inhibition of cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin production was also investigated in melanoma B16F10 cells. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using standard in vitro methods. HPLC-DAD-MS was used to identify phenolic profile of the active extract. The results showed that all extracts have a direct inhibitory anti-tyrosinase activity, with ethanolic extract from flowers (FEE) exhibiting the stronger effect. Kinetic analysis revealed that FEE acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.19 mg/mL. The same effect was observed in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as melanin content were reduced in FEE-treated cells. The results were comparable to that of the standard tyrosinase inhibitor (kojic acid). Furthermore, the same extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and an elevated levels of total phenolics and flavonoid content. Eleven phenolic components were identified as chlorogenic acid, luteolin derivates, naringenin and apigenin. Our findings showed that FEE from A. microcarpus inhibits tyrosinase and exerted antimelanogenesis effect in B16F10 cells. This extract also showed the highest scavenging

  9. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol

  10. The plant extract Isatis tinctoria L. extract (ITE) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brattström, A; Schapowal, A; Kamal, M A; Maillet, I; Ryffel, B; Moser, R

    2010-07-01

    The herbal Isatis tinctoria extract (ITE) inhibits the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) as well as lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and therefore possesses anti-inflammatory properties. The extract might also be useful in allergic airway diseases which are characterized by chronic inflammation. ITE obtained from leaves by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was investigated in ovalbumin (OVA) immunised BALB/c mice given intranasally together with antigen challenge in the murine model of allergic airway disease (asthma) with the analysis of the inflammatory and immune parameters in the lung. ITE given with the antigen challenge inhibited in a dose related manner the allergic response. ITE diminished airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid upon allergen challenge, but had no effect in the saline control mice. Eosinophil recruitment was further assessed in the lung by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity at a dose of 30 microg ITE per mouse. Microscopic investigations revealed less inflammation, eosinophil recruitment and mucus hyperproduction in the lung in a dose related manner. Diminution of AHR and inflammation was associated with reduced IL-4, IL-5, and RANTES production in the BAL fluid at the 30 microg ITE dose, while OVA specific IgE and eotaxin serum levels remained unchanged. ITE, which has been reported inhibiting COX-2 and 5-LOX, reduced allergic airway inflammation and AHR by inhibiting the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, and RANTES. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hugar, Shivayogi; Nagmoti, Jyoti; Uppin, Chaitanya; Mistry, Laresh; Dhariwal, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Aim To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting ability of garlic oil, neem oil, clove oil, and tulsi oil with autoclaving on endodontic K files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods Fifty endodontic K files were exposed to the test micro-organism and checked for its disinfecting ability using three different methods. Result Garlic oil, clove oil, tulsi oil and autoclave showed considerable effectiveness against E. faecalis except neem oil. Conclusion Garlic oil, clove oil and tulsi oil are an effective disinfectant and can be used as an alternative to autoclaving against the test micro-organism. Clinical Significance Herbs and herbal extracts are a natural and harmless way of controlling infection. These products are readily available and comparable to gold standard, thus can have its applications in rural India. How to cite this article Hugar S, Patel PM, Nagmoti J, Uppin C, Mistry L, Dhariwal N. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):283-288. PMID:29104390

  12. Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt M; Coleman, Craig I; Teevan, Colleen; Vachhani, Payal; White, C Michael

    2008-12-01

    Garlic has been suggested to lower blood pressure; however, studies evaluating this parameter have provided conflicting results. To examine the effect of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without elevated systolic blood pressure (SPB) through meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials in humans evaluating garlic's effect on blood pressure. All databases were searched from their inception through June 26, 2008, using the key words garlic, Allium sativum, and allicin. A manual search of published literature was used to identify additional relevant studies. To be included in the analysis, studies must have been written in English or German and reported endpoints of SBP or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Studies whose population had a mean baseline SBP greater than 140 mm Hg were evaluated separately from those whose population had lower baseline blood pressures. Garlic's effect on SBP and DBP was treated as a continuous variable and weighted mean differences were calculated using a random-effects model. Ten trials were included in the analysis; 3 of these had patients with elevated SBP. Garlic reduced SBP by 16.3 mm Hg (95% CI 6.2 to 26.5) and DBP by 9.3 mm Hg (95% CI 5.3 to 13.3) compared with placebo in patients with elevated SBP. However, the use of garlic did not reduce SBP or DBP in patients without elevated SBP. There was only a minor degree of heterogeneity in the analyses and publication bias did not appear to influence the results. This meta-analysis suggests that garlic is associated with blood pressure reductions in patients with an elevated SBP although not in those without elevated SBP. Future research should focus on the impact of garlic on clinical events and the assessment of the long-term risk of harm.

  13. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Garlic Revisited: Therapeutic for the Major Diseases of Our Times?

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Tariq H.; Kandil, O.; Elkadi, A.; Carter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Garlic may play an invaluable role in the prevention and therapy of the major causes of death. Anecdotal, basic, and clinical research data are confirming the efficacy of this herb in the treatment of hyperlipemia, cancer, heavy-metal intoxication, infectious diseases, hypertension, free-radical damage, and immune deficiency states. Garlic's broad antimicrobial spectra and its ability to modulate immunity may play a strategic role in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic. A review of the literature supports a greater scrutiny of this herb's therapeutic potential. PMID:3290502

  15. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and constituents.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Seetha; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2014-02-24

    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  16. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  17. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of low Molecular Weight Compounds in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Target.

    PubMed

    Misiorek, Maria; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous beneficial properties. Although compounds of garlic have been studied by various analytical methods, their tissue distributions are still unclear. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) appears to be a very powerful tool for the identification of the localisation of compounds within a garlic clove. Visualisation of the spatial distribution of garlic low-molecular weight compounds with nanoparticle-based MSI. Compounds occurring on the cross-section of sprouted garlic has been transferred to gold-nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) by imprinting. The imprint was then subjected to MSI analysis. The results suggest that low molecular weight compounds, such as amino acids, dipeptides, fatty acids, organosulphur and organoselenium compounds are distributed within the garlic clove in a characteristic manner. It can be connected with their biological functions and metabolic properties in the plant. New methodology for the visualisation of low molecular weight compounds allowed a correlation to be made between their spatial distribution within a sprouted garlic clove and their biological function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2013-12-11

    Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than α-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake.

  19. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively

  20. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage.

  1. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd.), Justin Neuman (Shenzhen Bainong Co... Department published the initiation of the new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic...

  2. Garlic extract diallyl sulfide (DAS) activates nuclear receptor CAR to induce the Sult1e1 gene in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Green, William D; Vinal, Kellie; Woodrum, Tyler S; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Constituent chemicals in garlic extract are known to induce phase I and phase II enzymes in rodent livers. Here we have utilized Car(+/+) and Car(-/-) mice to demonstrate that the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR regulated the induction of the estrogen sulfotransferase Sult1e1 gene by diallyl sulfide (DAS) treatment in mouse liver. DAS treatment caused CAR accumulation in the nucleus, resulting in a remarkable increase of SULT1E1 mRNA (3,200 fold) and protein in the livers of Car(+/+) females but not of Car(-/-) female mice. DAS also induced other CAR-regulated genes such as Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11 and Gadd45β. Compared with the rapid increase of these mRNA levels, which began as early as 6 hours after DAS treatment, the levels of SULT1E1 mRNA began increasing after 24 hours. This slow response to DAS suggested that CAR required an additional factor to activate the Sult1e1 gene or that this activation was indirect. Despite the remarkable induction of SULT1E1, there was no decrease in the serum levels of endogenous E2 or increase of estrone sulfate while the clearance of exogenously administrated E2 was accelerated in DAS treated mice.

  3. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC 50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC 50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  4. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated. PMID:26788112

  5. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  6. Influence of garlic, synthetic 1,2,4-triasole derivative and herbal preparation echinovit C on selected indices of turkey-hens non-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Truchliński, J; Krauze, M; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Modzelewska-Banachiewicz, B

    2006-01-01

    Successful results of earlier studies on testing the immune-modulating and anti-microbial properties of 1,2,4-triasole derivative as well as benefitial application of natural bio-stimulators in animal's prophylaxis and treatment inspired us to undertake further investigations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the prophylaxis effects of two natural immune-modulating agents, garlic (Allium sativum) extract and Echinovit C preparation and synthetic derivative of 1,2,4-triasole on non-specific immunity indices in slaughter turkey-hens. The results obtained suggest that the strongest stimulatory effect is exerted by garlic followed by 1,2,4-triasole derivative and Echinacea juice. Immune-modulating action of the substances applied was manifested by an increase in cellular immune parameters: the percentage of phagocyting cells, NBT-positive granulocytes and lysozyme level.

  7. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Results: Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect. PMID:26609039

  8. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect.

  9. Nelumbo nucifera leaves extracts inhibit mouse airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Xue, Lu; Zhao, Qingyang; Cai, Congli; Liu, Qing-Hua; Shen, Jinhua

    2017-03-20

    Alkaloids extracted from lotus leaves (AELL) can relax vascular smooth muscle. However, whether AELL has a similar relaxant role on airway smooth muscle (ASM) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relaxant property of AELL on ASM and the underlying mechanism. Alkaloids were extracted from dried lotus leaves using the high temperature rotary evaporation extraction method. The effects of AELL on mouse ASM tension were studied using force measuring and patch-clamp techniques. It was found that AELL inhibited the high K + or acetylcholine chloride (ACh)-induced precontraction of mouse tracheal rings by 64.8 ± 2.9%, or 48.8 ± 4.7%, respectively. The inhibition was statistically significant and performed in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AELL-induced smooth muscle relaxation was partially mediated by blocking voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (VDCC) and non-selective cation channels (NSCC). AELL, which plays a relaxant role in ASM, might be a new complementary treatment to treat abnormal contractions of the trachea and asthma.

  10. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

  11. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  12. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, fluoride with essential oils, alum, green tea, and garlic with lime mouth rinses on cariogenic microbes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ann; Thakur, Sneha; Mhambrey, Sanjana

    2015-01-01

    A number of natural mouth rinse formulations are being proposed as an alternative to the widely used chemical mouth rinses. To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.2%), sodium fluoride (0.05%), fluoride with essential oils (0.05%), alum (0.02 M), green tea, and garlic with lime mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, and Candida albicans. The three microbes were isolated from the saliva samples collected from children with severe early childhood caries. The zone of minimum inhibition was assessed using agar diffusion method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Against S. mutans and lactobacilli, chlorhexidine mouth rinse was found to be the most effective as compared to sodium fluoride (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), green tea (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and garlic with lime (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) mouth rinses, respectively. But against C. albicans, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be the most effective as compared to chlorhexidine (P < 0.001), sodium fluoride (P < 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001), and green tea (P < 0.001) mouth rinses. Against S. mutans and lactobacilli, after chlorhexidine mouth rinse, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be significantly more effective than sodium fluoride (P = 0.053, P = 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and green tea (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) mouth rinses. As a natural mouth rinse, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be the most promising. However, further studies are needed in this field.

  13. Application of ultrasound for enhanced extraction of prebiotic oligosaccharides from selected fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract oligosaccharides from selected fruits (blueberry, nectarine, raspberry, watermelon) and vegetables (garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, leek, scallion, spring garlic and white onion). The individual fractions of the oligosaccharides were analyzed: 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1F-β-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) from the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), and raffinose and stachyose from the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO). Extraction parameters including solvent concentration (35-85% v/v), extraction temperature (25-50°C) and sonication time (5-15min) were examined using response surface methodology (RSM). Ethanol concentration of 63% v/v, temperature of 40°C and extraction time of 10min gave maximal concentration of the extracted oligosaccharides. The experimental values under optimal conditions were consistent with the predicted values. UAE increased the concentration of extracted oligosaccharides in all fruits and vegetables from 2 to 4-fold compared to conventional extraction. The highest increase of total oligosaccharides extracted by UAE was detected in Jerusalem artichoke, 7.17±0.348g/100gFW, compared to 1.62±0.094g/100gFW with conventional method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  15. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  16. Potential of Piper betle extracts on inhibition of oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Phumat, Pimpak; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, antimicrobial activity of Piper betle crude ethanol extract against 4 strains of oral pathogens; Candida albicans DMST 8684, C. albicans DMST 5815, Streptococcus gordonii DMST 38731 and Streptococcus mutans DMST 18777 was compared with other medicinal plants. P. betle showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Fractionated extracts of P. betle using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, respectively, were subjected to antimicrobial assay. The result revealed that the fractionated extract from ethyl acetate (F-EtOAc) possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Its inhibition zones against those pathogens were 23.00 ± 0.00, 24.33 ± 0.58, 12.50 ± 0.70 and 11.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively and its minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.50, 1.00, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the minimum concentration to completely kill those pathogens was the same for all strains and found to be 2.00 mg/mL. Killing kinetic study revealed that the activity of F-EtOAc was dose dependent. HPLC chromatograms of P. betle extracts were compared with its antimicrobial activity. An obvious peak at a retention time of 4.11 min was found to be a major component of F-EtOAc whereas it was a minor compound in the other extracts. This peak was considered to be an active compound of P. betle as it was consistent with the antimicrobial activity of F-EtOAc, the most potential extract against the tested pathogens. It is suggested that F-EtOAc is a promising extract of P. betle for inhibition of oral pathogens. Separation and structure elucidation of the active compound of this extract will be further investigated.

  17. Chinese chives and garlic in intercropping in strawberry high tunnels for Neopamera bilobata Say (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) control.

    PubMed

    Hata, F T; Ventura, M U; Béga, V L; Camacho, I M; de Paula, M T

    2018-05-08

    Strawberry is affected by several pests and diseases. Neopamera bilobata is an emerging pest that has been reported by several strawberry growers, usually associated with catfacing symptoms in fruits. We evaluated intercropping garlic or Chinese chives on N. bilobata populations on strawberry crops grown in high tunnels in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated N. bilobata populations on strawberry intercropping with garlic plants (three densities: 8, 16, 24 GP - garlic plant per plot) on the bags by taking 12 samples from December 2015 to April 2017. N. bilobata populations on strawberry were also assessed when Chinese chives were grown under the suspended wooden structures in which strawberry plants are grown ('undercropping') (14 samples), in two high tunnels, from November 2016 to March 2017. The number of nymphs and adults on 14 randomly selected fruits per plot were assessed. During the garlic intercropping experiment, the treatments of three densities of garlic reduced N. bilobata populations; however, the 24 GP treatment caused a greater reduction than the 8 GP treatment. Garlic densities reduced N. bilobata populations by 35, 50, and 64% for the 8, 16, and 24 GP treatments, respectively. Chinese chives cultivated under the structures reduced N. bilobata populations by 47%. The results suggest that intercropping garlic or undercropping Chinese chives are suitable tools to be tested in integrated pest management in strawberry crops.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Garlic and its derivatives are used...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Garlic and its derivatives are used...

  20. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See Initiation of Antidumping and... duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  1. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (Department) published the initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  2. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of garlic against ethanol-induced liver injury: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Min-Jie; Zhao, Ning; Xie, Ke-Qin; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a progressively aggravated liver disease with a diverse spectrum from steatosis to hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Epidemiological studies reveal that alcohol is one of the major causes of advanced liver disease in Europe, United States, and China. Despite the considerable harm, progression in ALD research is slow and the current therapies for ALD have less efficient. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a flavoring agent and also a folk medicine since ancient time. Along with the prosperity in the use of herbal medicines for the treatment of human diseases in recent decades, a series of studies have focused on the beneficial effects of garlic against ALD. This mini-review highlighted the protective roles of garlic against ALD and the potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Model studies on precursor system generating blue pigment in onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinsuke; Akita, Kaori; Tomotake, Muneaki; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2006-02-08

    Reactions involved in blue-green discoloration in a mixture of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. Vivid-blue color was successfully reproduced by using a defined model reaction system comprising only trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO) from onion, S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (2-PeCSO) from garlic, purified alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4), and glycine (or some other amino acids). Four reaction steps identified and factors affecting the blue color formation were in good agreement with those suggested by earlier investigators. When crude onion alliinase was used in place of garlic alliinase, less pigment was formed. This result was explained by a difference in the amount of thiosulfinates, colorless intermediates termed color developers, yielded from 1-PeCSO by these enzymes.

  5. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22672352

  6. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Niu, Yu-Lin; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-06-06

    Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC(50) = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS(+) free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  7. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  8. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  9. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M.; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  10. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2007 through... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  11. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

  12. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of oral administration of Allium sativum extracts on lead nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Arti; Kansal, Leena

    2010-03-01

    Lead is a common environmental occupational toxic metal, known to have indirect oxidative effects. Considering the antioxidant properties of garlic, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of garlic extracts in terms of normalization of altered hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters, and depletion of inorganic lead burden in blood, kidney and brain tissues. Chronic lead nitrate ingestion showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte and monocyte content, while neutrophil content increased in lead nitrate treated group. Pb(NO(3))(2) exposure elicited a significant escalation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and depletion in reduced glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase and catalase in kidney and brain. Activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase augmented significantly in kidney and brain of lead exposed mice. Lead nitrate treatment decreased protein content while cholesterol and lead burden increased significantly. A decrease in viability of macrophage, phagocytic index, immunoglobulin level and plaque count were the salient features observed in lead exposed animals. However, oral administration of garlic extracts to Pb(NO(3))(2) treated groups attenuated the deranged parameters to some extent. This indicates that garlic can be a protective regimen for lead toxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC.... 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

  15. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Commerce (the Department) issued the preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd. and Shenzhen Bainong Co...

  16. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Goepel, M; Hecker, U; Krege, S; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    1999-02-15

    We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained from several pharmaceutical companies. They were tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]tamsulosin binding to human prostatic alpha1-adrenoceptors and [3H]prazosin binding to cloned human alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation by cloned receptors was also investigated. Up to the highest concentration which could be tested, preparations of beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and medicinal pumpkin were without consistent inhibitory effect in all assays. In contrast, all tested saw palmetto extracts inhibited radioligand binding to human alpha1-adrenoceptors and agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate formation. Saturation binding experiments in the presence of a single saw palmetto extract concentration indicated a noncompetitive antagonism. The relationship between active concentrations in vitro and recommended therapeutic doses for the saw palmetto extracts was slightly lower than that for several chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saw palmetto extracts have alpha1-adrenoceptor-inhibitory properties. If bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties of these ingredients are similar to those of the chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism might be involved in the therapeutic effects of these extracts in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction.

  17. [Inhibition effects of black rice pericarp extracts on cell proliferation of PC-3 cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiwei; Yu, Xudong; Ren, Guofeng

    2013-05-01

    To observe the inhibitive effects of black rice pericarp extracts on cell proliferation of human prostate cancer cell PC-3 and to explore its effecting mechanism. The black rice pericarp extract was used to treat the PC-3 cells. The inhibitory effect of black rice pericarp extract on cells proliferation of PC-3 was tested by MTT method. Cell apoptosis rates and cell cycle were measured by flow cytometric assay (FCM). Western blot was used to study the protein expression levels of p38, p-p38, JNK, p-JNK. A dose-dependent and time-dependent proliferation inhibition of black rice pericarp extract was demonstrated in PC-3. The most prominent experiment condition was inhibitory concentration with 300microg/ml and treated for 72 h. The experiment result of flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that the apoptosis rate of PC-3 cells increased along with the increasing of black rice pericarp extract concentration, and a G1-S cell cycle arrest was induced in a dose-dependent manner. After PC-3 cell was treated with black rice pericarp extract for 72 h, the expressions of p-p38, p-JNK protein increased. Black rice pericarp extract could inhibit proliferation, change the cell cycle distributions and induce apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cell PC-3. Its inhibitory effect may be through promoting activation of the JNK, p38 signaling pathway. These results suggest that black rice pericarp extract maybe has an inhibitory effect on prostatic cancer.

  18. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... of the administrative review are currently due no later than April 5, 2012. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From... Part, the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic From...

  19. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (the Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the... the period of review of November 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009. See Fresh Garlic from the People's...

  20. [Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic].

    PubMed

    Montalti, M; Lucadei, P; Fioriti, M; Luchetti, E; Sanchez, M A; Filippousi, M; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2007-01-01

    We want to evaluate the incidence of allergic problems in a population of catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course. We enrolled in the study 601 students of a professional catering school: 412 in the first year and 189 in the fifth years. We used two questionnaires to investigate respiratory problems and dermatological ones. All the subjects were also patch tested with 10 aptens. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. We can observe a rising in positive reaction between the two group of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic. In particular we found an higher incidence of positive patch reaction in female population. On the contrary the rising in positive reaction to Garlic is higher in male. About two third of the subjects positive to garlic present a sensitization to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. The higher incidence of allergic pathology between students during fifth year of school and students at first year is probably due to scholastic practical activity.

  1. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-08-27

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following starch challenge. This is the

  2. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following

  3. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  4. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide < diallyl disulfide < diallyl trisulfide). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that organosulfur compounds are responsible for the substantial antimicrobial activity of garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spect