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Sample records for garnet crystal doped

  1. Single crystal Ce doped scintillator material with garnet structure sensitive to gamma ray and neutron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodovnikov, D.; Weber, M. H.; Haven, D. T.; Lynn, K. G.

    2012-08-01

    A mixed garnet scintillator host material is obtained from the melt—Yttrium Gadolinium Gallium Aluminum Garnet (YGGAG). In addition to the high thermal and chemical stability and radiation hardness found in garnet crystals, it offers sensitivity to neutrons due to the presence of Gd atoms, has lower melting temperature than yttrium aluminum garnet, and similar crystallization behavior suitable for growth of large volume crystals. Crystals of YGGAG doped with Ce of 10×10×10 mm3 have already demonstrated energy resolution of 10% at 662 keV.

  2. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  3. Growth of rare-earth doped single crystal yttrium aluminum garnet fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Subhabrata; Nie, Craig D.; Harrington, James A.; Cheng, Long; Rand, Stephen C.; Li, Yuan; Johnson, Eric G.

    2018-02-01

    Rare-earth doped single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fibers have great potential as high-power laser gain media. SC fibers combine the superior material properties of crystals with the advantages of a fiber geometry. Improving processing techniques, growth of low-loss YAG SC fibers have been reported. A low-cost technique that allows for the growth of optical quality Ho:YAG single crystal (SC) fibers with different dopant concentrations have been developed and discussed. This technique is a low-cost sol-gel based method which offers greater flexibility in terms of dopant concentration. Self-segregation of Nd ions in YAG SC fibers have been observed. Such a phenomenon can be utilized to fabricate monolithic SC fibers with graded index.

  4. Efficient eye-safe neodymium doped composite yttrium gallium garnet crystal laser.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haohai; Wang, Shuxian; Han, Shuo; Wu, Kui; Su, Liangbi; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-03-15

    We report a laser-diode pumped continuous-wave (cw) and passively Q-switched eye-safe laser at about 1.42 μm with the neodymium-doped yttrium gallium garnet (Nd:YGG) crystal for the first time to our knowledge. The composite Nd:YGG crystal was developed originally. A systematic comparison of laser performance between the homogeneously doped and composite Nd:YGG crystal was made, which showed that the composite Nd:YGG manifested less thermally induced effects. Cw output power of 2.06 W was obtained with the slope efficiency of 20.7%. With a V:YAG as a saturable absorber, the passive Q-switching at 1.42 μm was gotten with the pulse width, pulse energy, and peak power of 34 ns, 46.7 μJ, and 1.4 kW, respectively. The present work should provide a potential candidate for the generation of eye-safe lasers.

  5. Magnetic and fluorescence properties of cerium-doped yttrium gadolinium aluminum iron garnet crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Daichi; Shima, Mutsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic and fluorescence properties of chemically synthesized Ce:Gd-YAIG (Ce0.05GdxY2.95-xAl5-yFeyO12) nanocrystals have been investigated. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that a garnet phase has been identified in samples with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.95 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 3.0. When y = 0, only garnet peaks are observed for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5, while both garnet and perovskite phases are present for x > 2.5. It is found from XRD Rietveld analyses that the site occupancy of Fe3+ at the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the garnet is independent of the amount of Y3+ substituted by Ce3+ and Gd3+ at the dodecahedral sites. The saturation magnetization for the sample with x = 0 and y = 3.0 is 4.35 emu/g, while that with x = 2.5 and y = 3.0 is 87.5 emu/g. When the Fe3+ composition y is varied from 0 to 3.0 at x = 2.5, the intensity of fluorescence at the emission wavelength ˜570 nm significantly decreases presumably due to absorption by Fe3+ that is increased in the crystal.

  6. Rare Earth Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie T.; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study presents a spectral emittance model for films and cylinders of rare earth doped yttrium aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical film spectral emittances was found for erbium and holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. For operating conditions of interest, the film emitter experiences a linear temperature variation whereas the cylinder emitter has a more advantageous uniform temperature. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For holminum aluminum garnet film the efficiency is 0.35 at 1446K but only 0.27 at 1270 K.

  7. Ce3+-Doped garnet phosphors: composition modification, luminescence properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiguo; Meijerink, Andries

    2017-01-03

    Garnets have the general formula of A 3 B 2 C 3 O 12 and form a wide range of inorganic compounds, occurring both naturally (gemstones) and synthetically. Their physical and chemical properties are closely related to the structure and composition. In particular, Ce 3+ -doped garnet phosphors have a long history and are widely applied, ranging from flying spot cameras, lasers and phosphors in fluorescent tubes to more recent applications in white light LEDs, as afterglow materials and scintillators for medical imaging. Garnet phosphors are unique in their tunability of the luminescence properties through variations in the {A}, [B] and (C) cation sublattice. The flexibility in phosphor composition and the tunable luminescence properties rely on design and synthesis strategies for new garnet compositions with tailor-made luminescence properties. It is the aim of this review to discuss the variation in luminescence properties of Ce 3+ -doped garnet materials in relation to the applications. This review will provide insight into the relation between crystal chemistry and luminescence for the important class of Ce 3+ -doped garnet phosphors. It will summarize previous research on the structural design and optical properties of garnet phosphors and also discuss future research opportunities in this field.

  8. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  9. Timing capabilities of garnet crystals for detection of high energy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M. T.; Gundacker, S.; Lecoq, P.; Benaglia, A.; Nikl, M.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2017-04-01

    Particle detectors at future collider experiments will operate at high collision rates and thus will have to face high pile up and a harsh radiation environment. Precision timing capabilities can help in the reconstruction of physics events by mitigating pile up effects. In this context, radiation tolerant, scintillating crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) can provide a flexible and compact option for the implementation of a precision timing layer inside large particle detectors. In this paper, we compare the timing performance of aluminum garnet crystals (YAG: Ce, LuAG: Ce, GAGG: Ce) and the improvements of their time resolution by means of codoping with Mg2+ ions. The crystals were read out using SiPMs from Hamamatsu glued to the rear end of the scintillator and their timing performance was evaluated by measuring the coincidence time resolution (CTR) of 150 GeV charged pions traversing a pair of crystals. The influence of crystal properties, such as density, light yield and decay kinetics on the timing performance is discussed. The best single detector time resolutions are in the range of 23-30 ps (sigma) and only achieved by codoping the garnet crystals with divalent ions, such as Mg2+. The much faster scintillation decay in the co-doped samples as compared to non co-doped garnets explains the higher timing performance. Samples of LSO: Ce, Ca and LYSO:Ce crystals have also been used as reference time device and showed a time resolution at the level of 17 ps, in agreement with previous results.

  10. Optical and scintillation properties of Nd-doped complex garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Sato, Hiroki

    2014-12-01

    Nd 1% doped complex garnet scintillators were prepared by Furukawa and their optical and scintillation properties were investigated on a comparison with previously reported Nd-doped YAG. Chemical compositions of newly developed complex garnets were Lu2Y1Al5O12, Lu2Y1Ga3Al2O12, Lu2Gd1Al5O12, Lu2Gd1Ga3Al2O12, Gd1Y2Al5O12, Gd1Y2Ga3Al2O12, and Gd3Ga3Al2O12. They all showed 50-80% transmittance from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths with several absorption bands due to Gd3+ or Nd3+ 4f-4f transition. In X-ray induced radioluminescence spectra, all samples exhibited intense lines at 310 nm due to Gd3+ or 400 nm due to Nd3+ depending on their chemical composition. Among them, the highest scintillation light yield was achieved by Lu2Y1Al5O12. Typical scintillation decay times of them resulted 1.5-3 μs. Thermally stimulated glow curve after 1 Gy exposure and X-ray induced afterglow were also investigated.

  11. Origin of high Li⁺ conduction in doped Li₇La₃Zr₂O₁₂ garnets

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yan; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liang, Chengdu; ...

    2015-08-06

    Substitution of a native ion in the crystals with a foreign ion that differs in valence ( aliovalent doping) has been widely attempted to upgrade solid-state ionic conductors for various charge carriers including O²⁻, H⁺, Li⁺, Na⁺, etc. The doping helps promote the high-conductive framework and dredge the tunnel for fast ion transport. The garnet-type Li₇La₃Zr₂O₁₂ (LLZO) is a fast Li⁺ solid conductor, which received much attention as an electrolyte candidate for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries, showing great potential to offer high energy density and minimize battery safety concerns to meet extensive applications in large energy storage systems such asmore » those for electric vehicles and aerospace. In the Li-stuffed garnet framework of LLZO, the 3D pathway formed by the incompletely occupied tetrahedral sites bridged by a single octahedron enables the superior Li⁺ conductivity. For optimal performance, many aliovalent-doping efforts have been made throughout metal elements (Al³⁺, Ta⁵⁺) and metalloid elements (Ga³⁺, Te⁶⁺) in the periodic table with various valences to stabilize the high-conductive phase and increase the Li vacancy concentration.« less

  12. The duration of prograde garnet crystallization in the UHP eclogites at Lago di Cignana, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skora, Susanne; Lapen, Thomas J.; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Johnson, Clark M.; Hellebrand, Eric; Mahlen, Nancy J.

    2009-10-01

    The distinct core-to-rim zonation of different REEs in garnet in metamorphic rocks, specifically Sm relative to Lu, suggests that Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isochron ages will record different times along a prograde garnet growth history. Therefore, REE zonations in garnet must be measured in order to correctly interpret the isochron ages in terms of the garnet growth interval, which could span several m.y. New REE profiles, garnet crystal size distributions, and garnet growth modeling, combined with previously published Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf geochronology on a UHP eclogite of the Zermatt-Saas Fee (ZSF) ophiolite, Lago di Cignana (Italy), demonstrate that prograde garnet growth of this sample occurred over a ~ 30 to 40 m.y. interval. Relative to peak metamorphism at 38 to 40 Ma, garnet growth is estimated to have begun at ~ 11 to 14 kbar pressure at ~ 70 to 80 Ma. Although such a protracted garnet growth interval is surprising, this is supported by plate tectonic reconstructions which suggest that subduction of the Liguro-Piemont ocean occurred through slow and oblique convergence. These results demonstrate that REE zonations in garnet, coupled to crystal size distributions, provide a powerful means for understanding prograde metamorphic paths when combined with Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf geochronology.

  13. Low temperature Voigt effect in the terbium gallium garnet crystal.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Ali; Khalid, Muhammad Waleed; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2017-11-27

    Magnetic linear birefringence and dichroism are investigated for the paramagnetic terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal in the temperature range 8-100 K. The reciprocal nature is confirmed for the linear birefringence. Furthermore a theoretical model is validated that describes the intermixing of linear and circular birefringence. The ellipticity and rotation of the polarization ellipse are investigated in the light of these measurements. These otherwise minuscule magnetically induced effects are amplified at cryogenic temperatures and are determined by a phase-sensitive technique based on the Fourier decomposition of detected signal intensities. The correspondent measurements also allow us to determine the Curie-Weiss constant corroborating the presence of a magnetically frustrated spin system. Additionally we show how the Voigt geometry enables determining the direction of a magnetic field.

  14. High-resolution structural characterization and magnetic properties of epitaxial Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Vikram Singh, Amit; Rastogi, Ankur; Gazquez, Jaume; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Mishra, Rohan; Gupta, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    Thin films of magnetic garnet materials, e.g. yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG), are useful for a variety of applications including microwave integrated circuits and spintronics. Substitution of rare earth ions, such as cerium, is known to enhance the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) as compared to pure YIG. Thin films of Ce0.75Y2.25Fe5O12 (Ce:YIG) have been grown using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and their crystal structure examined using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous substitution of Ce in YIG, without oxidation to form a separate CeO2 phase, can be realized in a narrow process window with resulting enhancement of the MOKE signal. The thermally generated signal due to spin Seebeck effect for the optimally doped Ce:YIG films has also been investigated.

  15. Band-gap modulation via gallium substitution in cerium doped gadolinium aluminum garnet using a mixed fuel combustion approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Mohit; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Ghosh, Manoranjan

    2014-04-24

    Cerium doped Gadolinium garnets (Gd{sub 3}Al{sub x}Ga{sub 5−x}O{sub 12} where 0≤x≤5) are synthesized via combustion synthesis using mixture of urea and glycine fuels. A 4h Post annealing at 1400 oC is found to be necessary for pure phase formation. Lattice spacing variation as a result of partial or total Ga substitution at Al site was mapped by X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission of Ce shifts as a consequence of Ga substitution and therefore suggests a local re-adjustment of crystal field around activator site.

  16. Band-gap modulation via gallium substitution in cerium doped gadolinium aluminum garnet using a mixed fuel combustion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Mohit; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Shinde, Seema

    2014-04-01

    Cerium doped Gadolinium garnets (Gd3AlxGa5-xO12 where 0≤x≤5) are synthesized via combustion synthesis using mixture of urea and glycine fuels. A 4h Post annealing at 1400 oC is found to be necessary for pure phase formation. Lattice spacing variation as a result of partial or total Ga substitution at Al site was mapped by X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission of Ce shifts as a consequence of Ga substitution and therefore suggests a local re-adjustment of crystal field around activator site.

  17. Luminescence properties and electronic structure of Ce{sup 3+}-doped gadolinium aluminum garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Dotsenko, V.P., E-mail: ssclab@ukr.net; Berezovskaya, I.V.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} ions in (Y, Gd){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} are analyzed. • The Gd{sup 3+} → Y{sup 3+} substitution leads to increasing of Ce{sup 3+} noncubic crystal field splitting parameter. • The excitation spectra for the Ce{sup 3+} emission in GdAG contain bands at 6.67, 7.75, and 9.76 eV. • These features are due to the Ce{sup 3+}-bound exciton formation and O 2p → Al 3s, 3p transitions. • Contributions from Al atoms to the conduction-band density of states are quite essential. - Abstract: Yttrium-gadolinium aluminum garnets (YGdAG) doped with Ce{sup 3+} ions havemore » been prepared by co-precipitation method. The luminescent properties of Ce{sup 3+} ions in Gd{sub 3(1−x)}Ce{sub 3x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x = 0.01) have been studied upon excitation in the 2–20 eV region. The substitution of Gd{sup 3+} for Y{sup 3+} in the garnet structure results in broadening the emission band and shifting its maximum towards the longer wavelengths. It was found that in addition to the 4f → 5d excitation bands of Ce{sup 3+} ions, the excitation spectra for the Ce{sup 3+} emission contain bands at 6.67, 7.75, and 9.76 eV. These bands are attributed to the Ce{sup 3+}-bound exciton formation and O 2p → Al 3s, 3p transitions, respectively. Although gadolinium states dominate near the bottom of the conduction band of Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, contributions from Al{sub tetr} and Al{sub oct} atoms to the conduction-band density of states are evaluated as quite essential.« less

  18. Crystallization of high-Ca chromium garnet upon interaction of serpentine, chromite, and Ca-bearing hydrous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurov, A. A.; Turkin, A. I.; Pokhilenko, N. P.

    2017-10-01

    The results of experimental modeling of the conditions of crystallization of high-Ca chromium garnets in the system serpentine-chromite-Ca-Cr-bearing hydrous fluid at a pressure of 5 GPa and temperature of 1300°C are reported. The mineral association including quantitatively predominant high-Mg olivine and diopside-rich clinopyroxene, bright-green garnet, and newly formed chrome spinel was formed. Garnet mostly crystallized around primary chromite grains and was characterized by a high concentration of CaO and Cr2O3. According to the chemical composition, garnets obtained are close to the uvarovite-pyrope varieties, which enter the composition of relatively rare natural paragenesis of garnet wehrlite. The experimental data obtained clearly show that high-Ca chromium garnets are formed in the reaction of chromite-bearing peridotite and Ca-rich fluid at high P-T parameters.

  19. Effect of the Pr3+ → Gd3+ energy transfer in multicomponent garnet single crystal scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Nikl, M.; Kamada, K.; Beitlerova, A.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2013-09-01

    Luminescence processes in the undoped and Pr3+-doped (Gd,RE)3(Ga,Al)5O12, RE = Lu,Y, multicomponent garnets are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Energy transfer processes between Pr3+ and Gd3+ causing significant deterioration of the scintillation performance are considered in detail. As is shown in current work, an overlap of the 5d1-3H4 emission transition of Pr3+ and 8S-6Px absorption transition of Gd3+ results in unwanted depletion of Pr3+ 5d1 excited state and is further intensified by the concentration quenching in the Gd3+-sublattice. This process explains a drastic decrease of light yield in Pr3+-doped Gd3+-containing multicomponent garnets observed in a previous work.

  20. Thermal, spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal produced by optical floating zone method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Shuxian; Wu, Kui; Wang, Baolin; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Cai, Huaqiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    A neodymium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:GSGG) single crystal with dimensions of Φ 5 × 20 mm2 has been grown by means of optical floating zone (OFZ). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) result shows that the as-grown Nd:GSGG crystal possesses a cubic structure with space group Ia3d and a cell parameter of a = 1.2561 nm. Effective elemental segregation coefficients of the Nd:GSGG as-grown crystal were calculated by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The thermal properties of the Nd:GSGG crystal were systematically studied by measuring the specific heat, thermal expansion and thermal diffusion coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of this crystal was calculated. The absorption and luminescence spectra of Nd:GSGG were measured at room temperature (RT). By using the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, the theoretical radiative lifetime was calculated and compared with the experimental result. Continuous wave (CW) laser performance was achieved with the Nd:GSGG at the wavelength of 1062 nm when it was pumped by a laser diode (LD). A maximum output power of 0.792 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 11.89% under a pump power of 7.36 W, and an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 11.72%.

  1. Laser ceramic materials for subpicosecond solid-state lasers using Nd3+-doped mixed scandium garnets.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hajime; Tanaka, Momoko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Nakai, Yoshiki; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Toyoaki; Yanagitani, Takagimi; Yagi, Hideki; Meichin, Noriyuki

    2010-09-15

    We have successfully developed and demonstrated broadband emission Nd-doped mixed scandium garnets based on laser ceramic technology. The inhomogeneous broadening of Nd(3+) fluorescence lines results in a bandwidth above 5 nm that is significantly broader than that for Nd:YAG and enables subpicosecond mode-locked pulse durations. We have also found the emission cross section of 7.8 × 10(-20) cm(2) to be adequate for efficient energy extraction and thermal conductivity of 4.7 W/mK from these new Nd-doped laser ceramics. The new laser ceramics are good candidates for laser host material in a diode-pumped subpicosecond laser system with high efficiency and high repetition rate.

  2. Magneto-optic garnet and liquid crystal optical switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krawczak, J. A.; Torok, E. J.; Harvey, W. A.; Hewitt, F. G.; Nelson, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic stripe domain and liquid crystal devices are being developed and evaluated as fiber optic switches that can be utilized for nonblocking type nxm optical matrix switches in networking and optical processing. Liquid crystal switches are characterized by very low insertion loss and crosstalk, while stripe domain switches commutate in less than one microsecond. Both switches operate on multimode, randomly polarized fiber light with potentially large values for (n,m). The applications of these magnetic stripe domain and liquid crystal devices are discussed.

  3. Fluid-induced Crystallization of Majoritic Garnet During Deep Continental Subduction (Western Gneiss Region, Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, M.; Pettke, T.; van Roermund, H. L.

    2008-12-01

    In ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks, garnet containing pyroxene exsolutions derives from breakdown of majorite crystallized at depths > 200 km. Presence of microdiamonds in some of these rocks [1], including those of the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway [2], may suggest a fluid-bearing environment for the genesis of majorite. The WGR UHP gneisses host garnet peridotite and websterite recording uplift from extraordinary depths prior to uptake in a subducting slab [2]. These ultramafic rocks (islands of Otrøy and Bardane) derive from depleted Archean transition-zone mantle (350 km depth) upwelled and accreted to a cratonic lithosphere (M2 stage). Evidence for this are decimetric garnets (grt) preserved in Otrøy, hosting up to 20 volume% orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) exsolved from precursor majoritic garnet (M1 stage). The pyroxene lamellae (20-30 ¥ìm thick, hundreds of ¥ìm long) [3] were exsolved under high-T, as shown by the garnet/cpx REE distribution [4]. This Archean-mid Proterozoic record is overprinted by the 425- 390 Ma Scandian continental subduction (M3 stage), forming new grt + cpx + opx + phlogopite (phl) + spinel (sp) that contain diamond-bearing micro-inclusions witnessing deep COH subduction fluids [2]. Here we document formation of new majoritic garnet in the M3 assemblage and in veins at Bardane [5]. Textural characteristics, together with the LREE and LILE enrichments of the M3 minerals, indicate that the new majorite is linked to infiltration of subduction fluids during renewed burial towards sub-lithospheric depths. It represents the deepest occurrence of fluid-related microstructures in mantle rocks. The new majoritic garnet crystallized at grain boundaries and in micro-veins at 7 Gpa and 900-1000 °C. It hosts thin pyroxene needles (5 mm thick, 100 mm long) exsolved under comparatively low-T, as indicated by the garnet/cpx REE distribution. The trace element signature of the majorite-bearing subduction assemblage is LREE

  4. Single-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction of Pyrope Garnet to 84 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Dera, P. K.; Duffy, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Garnets are characteristic minerals of many metamorphic and igneous rocks, and are also important upper-mantle constituents. Mg-rich (pyrope) garnets occur in both peridotite and eclogite compositions in the upper mantle. At high temperatures and pressures above 25 GPa, garnets transform to the perovskite structure. The post-garnet transition kinetics are sluggish, and in cold subducting slabs garnets could persist metastably at temperatures as high as 1700 K on geological timescales. These phases could add positive buoyancy to a subducting slab, inhibiting subduction. There has been minimal previous work on the 300 K compression behavior of aluminosilicate garnets at pressures higher than 10 GPa. In this work, we have collected single-crystal X-ray diffraction data on near end-member natural pyrope (Dora Maira pyrope) to 84 GPa. By extending the compression of pyrope to much higher pressures, we can better constrain the equation of state while also characterizing the structural response to such extreme pressures for the first time. Crystals were polished to ~5-10 μm in thickness, and loaded in a diamond anvil cell with gold foil and ruby balls as pressure calibrants. Helium was used as a pressure-transmitting medium. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were performed at the GSECARS 13-ID-D beamline of the Advanced Photon Source and the 12.2.2 beamline of the Advanced Light Source. Structure refinements were carried out successfully to the highest pressure using Shelx-97, extending the range over which the compression behavior of this material has been characterized by a factor of nearly three. Pyrope exhibits smooth compression behavior and no phase transitions over the investigated pressure range. A preliminary 3rd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was successfully fit to data up to 52 GPa. If the bulk modulus is fixed to 170 GPa, a value consistent with previous Brillouin and Ultrasonic studies, our data yields a pressure derivative

  5. Modification of the crystal structure of gadolinium gallium garnet by helium ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ostafiychuk, B. K.; Yaremiy, I. P., E-mail: yaremiy@rambler.ru; Yaremiy, S. I.

    2013-12-15

    The structure of gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) single crystals before and after implantation by He{sup +} ions has been investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods and the generalized dynamic theory of X-ray scattering. The main types of growth defects in GGG single crystals and radiation-induced defects in the ion-implanted layer have been determined. It is established that the concentration of dislocation loops in the GGG surface layer modified by ion implantation increases and their radius decreases with an increase in the implantation dose.

  6. Luminescent down shifting effect of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films on solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guojian; Lou, Chaogang; Kang, Jian

    2015-12-21

    Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) thin films as luminescent down shifting (LDS) materials are introduced into the module of crystalline silicon solar cells. The films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the lower surface of the quartz glass. They convert ultraviolet and blue light into yellow light. Experiments show that the introduction of YAG:Ce films improves the conversion efficiency from 18.45% of the cells to 19.27% of the module. The increasing efficiency is attributed to LDS effect of YAG:Ce films and the reduced reflection of short wavelength photons. Two intentionally selected samples with similar reflectivities are used to evaluatemore » roughly the effect of LDS alone on the solar cells, which leads to a relative increase by 2.68% in the conversion efficiency.« less

  7. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  8. Pressure-induced nano-crystallization of silicate garnets from glass

    PubMed Central

    Irifune, T.; Kawakami, K.; Arimoto, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Kunimoto, T.; Shinmei, T.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are important for scientific and industrial applications because of the superior optical and mechanical properties. It has been suggested that optical transparency and mechanical strength are substantially enhanced if transparent ceramics with nano-crystals are available. However, synthesis of the highly transparent nano-crystalline ceramics has been difficult using conventional sintering techniques at relatively low pressures. Here we show direct conversion from bulk glass starting material in mutianvil high-pressure apparatus leads to pore-free nano-polycrystalline silicate garnet at pressures above ∼10 GPa in a limited temperature range around 1,400 °C. The synthesized nano-polycrystalline garnet is optically as transparent as the single crystal for almost the entire visible light range and harder than the single crystal by ∼30%. The ultrahigh-pressure conversion technique should provide novel functional ceramics having various crystal structures, including those of high-pressure phases, as well as ideal specimens for some mineral physics applications. PMID:27924866

  9. Optical signal inverter of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with red shift of laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-08-10

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated in a simple structure that combined a laser diode with Er-doped YAG crystal. The optical signal inversion occurred at a response time of 7 ns and was caused by the decrease of transmission of Er:YAG against the red shift of the wavelength of the laser diode.

  10. [Optical and spectral parameters in Ce3+ -doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet glass-ceramics].

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Xiao-bo; Setsuhisa, Tanabe; Lin, Hai

    2010-01-01

    The crystalline phases of Ce3+ -doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG) glass-ceramics were investigated by X-ray diffraction, and the fluorescence spectra were recorded under the pumping of blue light-emitting diode (LED) using an integrating sphere of 10-inch in diameter, which connected to a CCD detector. The spectral power distribution of the glass-ceramics was obtained from the measured spectra first, and then the quantum yield was derived based on the photon distribution. The quantum yield of Ce3+ emission in GGAG glass-ceramics is 29.2%, meanwhile, the color coordinates and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of combined white light were proved to be x = 0.319, y = 0.349 and 6086 K, respectively. Although the quantum yield is a little smaller than the value in Ce3+ -doped YAG glass-ceramics, the CCT of the combined white light is much smaller than that in the latter. The optical behavior of GGAG glass-ceramics provides new vision for developing comfortable LED lighting devices.

  11. Scintillation properties of Pr 3+-doped lutetium and yttrium aluminum garnets: Comparison with Ce 3+-doped ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Jiri A.; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerova, Alena; Blazek, Karel; Horodysky, Petr; Nejezchleb, Karel; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo

    2011-12-01

    Scintillation properties of Pr 3+-doped LuAG and YAG crystals were investigated and compared with those of Ce 3+-doped ones. The highest L.Y.'s were observed with the longest shaping time 10 μs. They can reach up to ˜16,000 ph/MeV or ˜23,500 ph/MeV for LuAG:Pr and LuAG:Ce, respectively. Energy resolutions (FWHM) are a bit better with LuAG:Pr than those of LuAG:Ce, e.g. at 662 keV FWHM are around 6% and between 8-12%, respectively. There were observed no large changes in proportionality of Pr 3+- or Ce 3+-doped LuAG or YAG crystals but the best proportionality has YAP:Ce crystal. Pr 3+- or Ce 3+-doped LuAG crystals exhibit slow decay components in the time range 1.5-3.5 μs while those of YAG ones have shorter decay components between 0.3-1.7 μs.

  12. Evidence of dilute ferromagnetism in rare-earth doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; Le Floch, Jean-Michel

    This work demonstrates strong coupling regime between an erbium ion spin ensemble and microwave hybrid cavity-whispering gallery modes in a yttrium aluminium garnet dielectric crystal. Coupling strengths of 220 MHz and mode quality factors in excess of 10{sup 6} are demonstrated. Moreover, the magnetic response of high-Q modes demonstrates behaviour which is unusual for paramagnetic systems. This behaviour includes hysteresis and memory effects. Such qualitative change of the system's magnetic field response is interpreted as a phase transition of rare earth ion impurities. This phenomenon is similar to the phenomenon of dilute ferromagnetism in semiconductors. The clear temperature dependence of themore » phenomenon is demonstrated.« less

  13. Single crystal and optical ceramic multicomponent garnet scintillators: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Luo, Zhaohua; Jiang, Haochuan; Meng, Fang; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent garnet materials can be made in optical ceramic as well as single crystal form due to their cubic crystal structure. In this work, high-quality Gd3Ga3Al2O12:0.2 at% Ce (GGAG:Ce) single crystal and (Gd,Lu)3Ga3Al2O12:1 at% Ce (GLuGAG:Ce) optical ceramics were fabricated by the Czochralski method and a combination of hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and annealing treatment, respectively. Under optical and X-ray excitation, the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic exhibits a broad Ce3+ transition emission centered at 550 nm, while the emission peak of the GGAG:Ce single crystal is centered at 540 nm. A self-absorption effect in GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic results in this red-shift of the Ce3+ emission peak compared to that in the GGAG:Ce single crystal. The light yield under 662 keV γ-ray excitation was 45,000±2500 photons/MeV and 48,200±2410 photons/MeV for the GGAG:Ce single crystal and GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic, respectively. An energy resolution of 7.1% for 662 keV γ-rays was achieved in the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic with a Hamamatsu R6231 PMT, which is superior to the value of 7.6% for a GGAG:Ce single crystal. Scintillation decay time measurements under 137Cs irradiation show two exponential decay components of 58 ns (47%) and 504 ns (53%) for the GGAG:Ce single crystal, and 84 ns (76%) and 148 ns (24%) for the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic. The afterglow level after X-ray cutoff in the GLuGAG:Ce optical ceramic is at least one order of magnitude lower than in the GGAG:Ce single crystal.

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr to Tm energy transfer in Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibartolo, B.

    1988-01-01

    New and interesting schemes have recently been considered for the efficient operation of solid-state ionic laser systems. Often the available data on these systems were obtained only because they seemed directly related to the laser performance and provide no insight into the physical processes. A more systematic approach is desirable, where more attention is devoted to the elementary basic processes and to the nature of the mechanisms at work. It is with this aim that we have undertaken the present study. Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Y4Al5O12), called YAG, has two desirable properties as host for rare earth impurities: (1) trivalent rare earth ions can replace the yttrium without any charge compensation problem, and (2) YAG crystals have high cutoff energies. The results of measurements and calculations indicate that the Cr(3+) ion in YAG can be used to sensitize efficiently the Tm(3+) ion.

  15. Highly transparent cerium doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet ceramic prepared with precursors fabricated by ultrasonic enhanced chemical co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Yun; Luo, Zhao-Hua; Jiang, Hao-Chuan; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Gui, Zhen-Zhen; Xiao, Na

    2017-11-01

    Cerium doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG:Ce) ceramic precursors have been synthesized with an ultrasonic chemical co-precipitation method (UCC) and for comparison with a traditional chemical co-precipitation method (TCC). The effect of ultra-sonication on the morphology of powders and the transmittance of GGAG:Ce ceramics are studied. The results indicate that the UCC method can effectively improve the homogenization and sinterability of GGAG:Ce powders, which contribute to obtain high transparent GGAG ceramic with the highest transmittance of 81%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of doping on thermal diffusivity of single crystals used in photonics: measurements based on thermal wave methods.

    PubMed

    Bodzenta, Jerzy; Kaźmierczak-Bałata, Anna; Wokulska, Krystyna B; Kucytowski, Jacek; Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Hofman, Władysław

    2009-03-01

    Three crystals used in solid-state lasers, namely, yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), yttrium orthovanadate (YVO(4)), and gadolinium calcium oxoborate (GdCOB), were investigated to determine the influence of dopants on their thermal diffusivity. The thermal diffusivity was measured by thermal wave method with a signal detection based on mirage effect. The YAG crystals were doped with Yb or V, the YVO(4) with Nd or Ca and Tm, and the GdCOB crystals contained Nd or Yb. In all cases, the doping caused a decrease in thermal diffusivity. The analysis of complementary measurements of ultrasound velocity changes caused by dopants leads to the conclusion that impurities create phonon scattering centers. This additional scattering reduces the phonon mean free path and accordingly results in the decrease of the thermal diffusivity of the crystal. The influence of doping on lattice parameters was investigated, additionally.

  17. Thermal effects from modified endodontic laser tips used in the apical third of root canals with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers.

    PubMed

    George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the temperature changes occurring on the apical third of root surfaces when erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser energy was delivered with a tube etched, laterally emitting conical tip and a conventional bare design optical fiber tip. Thermal effects of root canal laser treatments on periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone are of concern in terms of safety. A total of 64 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared 1 mm short of the working length using rotary nickel-titanium Pro-Taper files to an apical size corresponding to a F5 Pro-Taper instrument. A thermocouple located 2 mm from the apex was used to record temperature changes arising from delivery of laser energy through laterally emitting conical tips or plain tips, using an Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. For the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG systems, conical fibers showed greater lateral emissions (452 + 69% and 443 + 64%) and corresponding lower forward emissions (48 + 5% and 49 + 5%) than conventional plain-fiber tips. All four combinations of laser system and fiber design elicited temperature increases less than 2.5 degrees C during lasing. The use of water irrigation attenuated completely the thermal effects of individual lasing cycles. Laterally emitting conical fiber tips can be used safely under defined conditions for intracanal irradiation without harmful thermal effects on the periodontal apparatus.

  18. Evaluation of stability region for scandium-containing rare-earth garnet single crystals and their congruent-melting compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaurova, I. A.; Domoroshchina, E. N.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Rybakov, V. B.

    2017-06-01

    Single crystals of scandium-containing rare-earth garnets in system R-Sc-C-O (R3+=Y, Gd; C3+=Al, Ga) have been grown by the Czochralski technique. X-ray diffraction analysis has been used to refine crystal compositions. The fundamental difference between the melt compositions and compositions of grown crystals has been found (except for compositions of congruent-melting compounds, CMC). The specific features of garnet solid solution formation have been established and the ternary diagrams with real or hypothetical phases have been built. The dinamics of coordination polyhedra changes with the formation of substitutional solid solutions have been proposed based on the mathematical modeling and experimental data. Possible existence of CMC with garnet structure in different systems as well as limit content of Sc ions in dodecahedral and octahedral sites prior to their partial substitution of ions, located in other sites, have been evaluated. It was established that the redistribution of cations over crystallographic sites (antistructural point defects) due to system self-organization to maintain its stability may be accompanied by cation ordering and the symmetry change of individual polyhedrons and/or the whole crystal.

  19. Characterizations of Pr-doped Yb3Al5O12 single crystals for scintillator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuki; Shinozaki, Kenji; Igashira, Takuya; Kawano, Naoki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) single crystals doped with different concentrations of Pr were synthesized by the Floating Zone (FZ) method. Then, we evaluated their basic optical and scintillation properties. All the samples showed photoluminescence (PL) with two emission bands appeared approximately 300-500 nm and 550-600 nm due to the charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+ and intrinsic luminescence of the garnet structure, respectively. A PL decay profile of each sample was approximated by a sum of two exponential decay functions, and the obtained decay times were 1 ns and 3-4 ns. In the scintillation spectra, we observed emission peaks in the ranges from 300 to 400 nm and from 450 to 550 nm for all the samples. The origins of these emissions were attributed to charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+ and intrinsic luminescence of the garnet structure, respectively. The scintillation decay times became longer with increasing the Pr concentrations. Among the present samples, the 0.1% Pr-doped sample showed the lowest scintillation afterglow level. In addition, pulse height spectrum of 5.5 MeV α-rays was demonstrated using the Pr-doped YbAG, and we confirmed that all the samples showed a full energy deposited peak. Above all, the 0.1% Pr-doped sample showed the highest light yield with a value of 14 ph/MeV under α-rays excitation.

  20. Crystal structure refinements of tetragonal (OH,F)-rich spessartine and henritermierite garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Cruickshank, Laura A.

    Cubic garnet (space group Ia\\overline 3 d) has the general formulaX 3Y 2Z 3O 12, whereX,YandZare cation sites. In the tetragonal garnet (space groupI4 1/acd), the corresponding cation sites areX1 andX2,Y, andZ1 andZ2. In both space groups only theYsite is the same. The crystal chemistry of a tetragonal (OH,F)-rich spessartine sample from Tongbei, near Yunxiao, Fujian Province, China, with composition X(Mn 2.82Fe^{2+}_{0.14}Ca 0.04) Σ3 Y{Al 1.95Fe^{3+}_{0.05}} Σ2 Z[(SiO 4) 2.61(O 4H 4) 0.28(F 4) 0.11] Σ3(Sps 94Alm 5Grs 1) was studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction and space groupI4 1/acd. The deviation of the unit-cell parameters from cubic symmetry is smallmore » [a= 11.64463(1),c= 11.65481 (2) Å,c/a= 1.0009]. Point analyses and back-scattered electron images, obtained by electron-probe microanalysis, indicate a homogeneous composition. TheZ2 site is fully occupied, but theZ1 site contains vacancies. The occupiedZ1 andZ2 sites with Si atoms are surrounded by four O atoms, as in anhydrous cubic garnets. Pairs of split sites are O1 with F11 and O2 with O22. When theZ1 site is vacant, a larger [(O 2H 2)F 2] tetrahedron is formed by two OH and two F anions in the O22 and F11 sites, respectively. This [(O 2H 2)F 2] tetrahedron is similar to the O 4H 4tetrahedron in hydrogarnets. These results indicate ^{X}{{\\rm Mn}^ {2+}_{3}}\\,^{Y}{\\rm Al}_{2}^{Z}[({\\rm SiO}_{4})_{2}({\\rm O}_{2}{\\rm H}_{2})_{0.5}({\\rm F}_{2})_{0.5}]_{\\Sigma3} as a possible end member, which is yet unknown. The H atom that is bonded to the O22 site is not located because of the small number of OH groups. In contrast, tetragonal henritermierite, ideally ^{X}{\\rm Ca}_{3}\\,^{Y}{\\rm Mn}^{3+}_{2}\\,^{Z}[({\\rm SiO}_{4})_{2}({\\rm O}_{4}{\\rm H}_{4})_1]_{\\Sigma3}, has a vacantZ2 site that contains the O 4H 4tetrahedron. The H atom is bonded to an O3 atom [O3—H3 = 0.73 (2) Å]. Because of O2—Mn 3+—O2 Jahn–Teller elongation of the Mn 3+O 6octahedron, a weak hydrogen bond is

  1. Growth and luminescent properties of Yb:YAG and Ca co-doped Yb:YAG ultrafast scintillation crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Maodong; Qi, Hongji; Pan, Mingyan; Hou, Qing; Jiang, Benxue; Jin, Yaxue; Han, Hetong; Song, Zhaohui; Zhang, Hui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, Yb-doped Y3Al5O12 [yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] crystals and Ca co-doped Yb:YAG crystals were grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method. The chemical formulas of the two crystals are (Yb0.1Y0.9)3Al5O12 and (Ca0.001Yb0.1Y0.899)3Al5O12, respectively. The structural, optical and luminescent properties of the Yb:YAG and Ca, Yb:YAG crystals were investigated by X-ray rocking curve, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, UV-Visble-NIR absorption spectra and X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence spectrum with two emission peaks at 330 nm and 490 nm were observed in the two kinds of crystals, which would increase slightly after the annealing. Comparing to the Yb:YAG crystal, Ca co-doped Yb:YAG crystal behaved the better luminescent intensity without changing the crystal structure and vibrational modes. This indicates that by doping Ca2+ in Yb:YAG crystal may be an appropriate way to enhance the luminescent property of the scintillation crystal.

  2. Development of scintillating screens based on the single crystalline films of Ce doped (Gd,Y)3(Al,Ga,Sc)5O12 multi-component garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yuriy; Gorbenko, Vitaliy; Savchyn, Volodymyr; Zorenko, Tanya; Fedorov, Alexander; Sidletskiy, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to development of scintillators based on single crystalline films of Ce doped (Gd,Y)3(Al,Ga,Sc)5O12 multi-component garnets onto Gd3Ga5O12 substrates using the liquid phase epitaxy method.

  3. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{submore » 12}, Bi{sub 2.5}Gd{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 3.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} and Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO{sub 2} films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO{sub 2} films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).« less

  4. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  5. Transparent ceramic garnet scintillator optimization via composition and co-doping for high-energy resolution gamma spectrometers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Beck, Patrick R.; Swanberg, Erik L.; Hunter, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Breakthrough energy resolution, R(662keV) <4%, has been achieved with an oxide scintillator, Cerium-doped Gadolinium Yttrium Gallium Aluminum Garnet, or GYGAG(Ce), by optimizing fabrication conditions. Here we describe the dependence of scintillation light yield and energy resolution on several variables: (1) Stoichiometry, in particular Gd/Y and Ga/Al ratios which modify the bandgap energy, (2) Processing methods, including vacuum vs. oxygen sintering, and (3) Trace co-dopants that influence the formation of Ce4+ and modify the intra-bandgap trap distribution. To learn about how chemical composition influences the scintillation properties of transparent ceramic garnet scintillators, we have measured: scintillation decay component amplitudes; intensity and duration of afterglow; thermoluminescence glow curve peak positions and amplitudes; integrated light yield; light yield non-proportionality, as measured in the Scintillator Light Yield Non-Proportionality Characterization Instrument (SLYNCI); and energy resolution for gamma spectroscopy. Optimized GYGAG(Ce) provides R(662 keV) =3.0%, for 0.05 cm3 size ceramics with Silicon photodiode readout, and R(662 keV) =4.6%, at 2 in3 size with PMT readout.

  6. High-pressure crystallization vs. recrystallization origin of garnet pyroxenite-eclogite within subduction related lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faryad, S. W.; Jedlicka, R.; Hauzenberger, C.; Racek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mafic layers displaying transition between clinopyroxenite and eclogite within peridotite from felsic granulite in the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria) have been investigated. The mafic-ultramafic bodies shared a common granulite facies metamorphism with its hosting felsic rocks, but they still preserve evidence of eclogite facies metamorphism. The selected mafic layer for this study is represented by garnet with omphacite in the core of coarse-grained clinopyroxene, while fine-grained clinopyroxene in the matrix is diopside. In addition, garnet contains inclusions of omphacite, alkali feldspars, hydrous and other phases with halogens and/or CO2. Textural relations along with compositional zoning in garnet from the clinopyroxenite-eclogite layers favour solid-state recrystallization of the precursor minerals in the inclusions and formation of garnet and omphacite during subduction. Textures and major and trace element distribution in garnet indicate two stages of garnet growth that record eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies overprint. The possible model explaining the textural and compositional changes of minerals is that the granulite facies overprint occurred after formation and exhumation of the eclogite facies rocks.

  7. Radiation stability of visible and near-infrared optical and magneto-optical properties of terbium gallium garnet crystals.

    PubMed

    Geist, Brian; Ronningen, Reginald; Stolz, Andreas; Bollen, Georg; Kochergin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Perspectives of terbium gallium garnet, Tb₃Ga₅O₁₂ (TGG), for the use of radiation-resistant high magnetic field sensing are studied. Long-term radiation stability of the TGG crystals was analyzed by comparing the optical and magneto-optical properties of a radiation-exposed TGG crystal (equivalent neutron dose 6.3×10¹³ n/cm²) to the properties of TGG control samples. Simulations were also performed to predict radiation damage mechanisms in the TGG crystal. Radiation-induced increase in the absorbance at shorter wavelengths was observed as well as a reduction in the Faraday effect while no degradation of magneto-optical effect was observed when at wavelengths above 600 nm. This suggests that TGG crystal would be a good candidate for use in magneto-optical radiation-resistant magnetic field sensors.

  8. Scintillation properties of the Ce-doped multicomponent garnet epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusa, P.; Kucera, M.; Mares, J. A.; Hanus, M.; Beitlerova, A.; Onderisinova, Z.; Nikl, M.

    2013-10-01

    (Lu,Y,Gd)3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce garnet scintillator single crystalline films were grown onto LuAG, YAG and GGG substrates by liquid phase epitaxy method. Absorption, radioluminescence spectra and photoluminescence excitation, emission spectra, and decay kinetics were measured. Photoelectron yield, its dependence on amplifier shaping time and energy resolution were determined to evaluate scintillation performance. Most of the samples exhibited strong UV emission caused by trapped excitons and/or Gd3+ 4f-4f transition. However, emission spectrum of the best performing Gd2YAl5O12:Ce is dominated by the Ce3+ fast 5d-4f luminescence. This sample has outperformed photoelectron yield of all the garnet films studied so far.

  9. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryshtal, R. G.; Medved, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW - magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW - magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW - magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range.

  10. Magmatic garnet in the Cordilleran-type Galiléia granitoids of the Araçuaí belt (Brazil): Evidence for crystallization in the lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narduzzi, F.; Farina, F.; Stevens, G.; Lana, C.; Nalini, H. A.

    2017-06-01

    Magmatic garnet, together with epidote, is a rare mineral association in cordilleran-I-type granitoids and of special petrogenetic significance. The metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (ASI = 0.97-1.07) Galiléia batholith (Brazil) is a large (ca. 30,000 km2), Neoproterozoic (ca. 632-570 Ma) weakly foliated calc-alkaline granitoid body, characterized by the widespread occurrence of garnet (grossular 25-43 mol%) and epidote (pistacite 9.3-22.7 mol%). Field, petrographic and mineral chemical evidence indicates that garnet, epidote, biotite as well as white mica crystals (low-Si phengite), are magmatic. There is no difference in bulk rock major and trace element composition between the Galiléia granitoids and other garnet-free cordilleran-type granitoids worldwide. This evidence strongly suggests that the origin of the uncommon garnet + epidote parageneses is related to the conditions of magma crystallization, such as pressure, temperature and water content. Comparison between the mineral assemblages and mineral compositions from this study and those recorded in crystallization experiments on metaluminous calc-alkaline magmas, as well as within garnet-bearing metaluminous volcanic rocks and granitoids, indicates that the supersolidus coexistence of grossular-rich garnet, epidote and white mica is consistent with magma crystallization at pressures greater than 0.8 GPa (above 25 km depth) and at temperatures below 700 °C, i.e. near the water saturated solidus. Furthermore, resorption textures around garnet (plagioclase ± quartz coronas) and epidote suggest that these minerals have been partially consumed prior to complete crystallization. These findings demonstrate that at 630 Ma the crust underneath the Araçuaí Orogen was already at least 25-30 km thick and relatively cool. However, this contrasts with the marked high heat flow registered from the neighbour Carlos Chagas Batholith located 50 km to the east. In fact such granitoids record granulite

  11. Timescales between mantle metasomatism and kimberlite ascent indicated by diffusion profiles in garnet crystals from peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollands, Michael C.; Hanger, Brendan J.; Yaxley, Gregory M.; Hermann, Jörg; Kilburn, Matthew R.

    2018-01-01

    Rare garnet crystals from a peridotite xenolith from the Wesselton kimberlite, South Africa, have distinct zones related to two separate episodes of mantle metasomatism. The garnet cores were firstly depleted through melt extraction, then equilibrated during metasomatism by a potentially diamond-forming carbonate-bearing or proto-kimberlitic fluid at 1100-1300 °C and 4.5-5.5 GPa. The garnet rim chemistry, in contrast, is consistent with later overgrowth in equilibrium with a kimberlite at around 1025 ± 25 °C and 4.2 ± 0.5 GPa. This suggests that the rock was physically moved upwards by up to tens of kilometres between the two metasomatic episodes. Preserved high Ca, Al and Cr contents in orthopyroxenes suggest this uplift was tectonic, rather than magmatic. Diffusion profiles were measured over the transitions between garnet cores and rims using electron microprobe (Mg, Ca, Fe for modelling, plus Cr, Mn, Ti, Na, Al) and nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS; 89Y, along with 23Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ti) analyses. The short profile lengths (generally <10 μm) and low Y concentrations (0.2-60 ppm) make the NanoSIMS approach preferable. Diffusion profiles at the interface between the zones yield constraints on the timescale between the second metasomatic event and eruption of the kimberlite magma that brought the xenolith to the surface. The time taken to form the diffusion profiles is on the order of 25 days to 400 yr, primarily based on modelling of Y diffusion along with Ca, Fe and Mg (multicomponent diffusion) profiles. These timescales are too long to be produced by the interaction of the mantle xenolith with the host kimberlite magma during a single-stage ascent to the crust (hours to days). The samples offer a rare opportunity to study metasomatic processes associated with failed eruption attempts in the cratonic lithosphere.

  12. Magnetophotonic crystals based on yttrium-iron-garnet infiltrated opals: Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzina, T. V.; Kim, E. M.; Kapra, R. V.; Moshnina, I. V.; Aktsipetrov, O. A.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Kaplan, S. F.; Golubev, V. G.; Bader, M. A.; Marowsky, G.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) based on artificial opals infiltrated by yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are fabricated and their structural, optical, and nonlinear optical properties are studied. The formation of the crystalline YIG inside the opal matrix is checked by x-ray analysis. Two templates are used for the infiltration by YIG: bare opals and those covered by a thin platinum film. Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique is used to study the magnetization-induced nonlinear-optical properties of the composed MPCs. A high nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect in the SHG intensity is observed at the edge of the photonic band gap of the MPCs.

  13. Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm 3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Taiju; Tanigawa, Masayuki; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2000-12-01

    Absorption spectra of Tm 3+ ions in Ca 3Nb 1.6875Ga 3.1875O 12 (CNGG) crystal have been investigated at various temperatures between 15 and 296 K. Luminescence spectra in a spectral region of 400-1750 nm are investigated under excitation into various excited states of Tm 3+ and the conduction band of CNGG at room temperature. The absorption and emission bands of Tm 3+ in CNGG are observed to be broader than those observed in other Tm 3+-doped crystals such as LiNbO 3. This is due to the disordered structure of CNGG. From the temperature dependence of absorption spectra, five Stark levels are derived for the 3H 6 ground state. The highest Stark level is found to be 351 cm -1 above the ground level. It is suggested that the low efficiency of the 2.02 μm lasing at room temperature is due to the narrow splitting of the Stark levels.

  14. Solid-State Laser Cooling of Ytterbium-Doped Tungstate Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    namely the heavy metal fluoride glass ZBLAN and yttrium aluminum garnet . Favorable properties of the ytterbium-tungstates include exceptionally high...Optical refrigeration in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1172 (1968). 2M.S. Chang, S.S. Elliott, T.K. Gustafson, C. Hu, and...idea gained experimental feasibility. Even with this tool, early failures to optically cool condensed media such as Nd3+ doped in yttrium aluminum

  15. Complete Stokes polarimetry of magneto-optical Faraday effect in a terbium gallium garnet crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Hassaan; Shaheen, Amrozia; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2013-10-21

    We report the complete determination of the polarization changes caused in linearly polarized incident light due to propagation in a magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal, at temperatures ranging from 6.3 to 300 K. A 28-fold increase in the Verdet constant of the TGG crystal is seen as its temperature decreases to 6.3 K. In contrast with polarimetry of light emerging from a Faraday material at room temperature, polarimetry at cryogenic temperatures cannot be carried out using the conventional fixed polarizer-analyzer technique because the assumption that ellipticity is negligible becomes increasingly invalid as temperature is lowered. It is shown that complete determination of light polarization in such a case requires the determination of its Stokes parameters, otherwise inaccurate measurements will result with negative implications for practical devices.

  16. Crystal growth of HVPE-GaN doped with germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwinska, M.; Takekawa, N.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Amilusik, M.; Kruszewski, P.; Piotrzkowski, R.; Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Sochacki, T.; Teisseyre, H.; Murakami, H.; Bockowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Crystallization by hydride vapor phase epitaxy method of gallium nitride single crystals doped with germanium and properties of the obtained material are described in this paper. Growth was performed in hydrogen and nitrogen carrier gas. The results were studied and compared. Influence of different flows of germanium tetrachloride, precursor of germanium, on the grown crystals was investigated. Ammonothermal GaN substrates were used as seeds for crystallization. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of HVPE-GaN doped with germanium are presented and discussed in detail. They were compared to properties of HVPE-GaN doped with silicon and also grown on native seeds of high quality.

  17. Efficacy and safety of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet fractional resurfacing laser for treatment of facial acne scars.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Balakrishnan; Pai, Sathish B; Sripathi, Handattu; Rao, Raghavendra; Prabhu, Smitha; Kudur, Mohan H; Nayak, Sudhir U K

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of acne scars with ablative fractional laser resurfacing has given good improvement. But, data on Indian skin are limited. A study comparing qualitative, quantitative, and subjective assessments is also lacking. Our aim was to assess the improvement of facial acne scars with Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) 2940 nm fractional laser resurfacing and its adverse effects in 25 patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All 25 patients received four treatment sessions with Er:YAG fractional laser at 1-month interval. The laser parameters were kept constant for each of the four sittings in all patients. Qualitative and quantitative assessments were done using Goodman and Barron grading. Subjective assessment in percentage of improvement was also documented 1 month after each session. Photographs were taken before each treatment session and 1 month after the final session. Two unbiased dermatologists performed independent clinical assessments by comparing the photographs. The kappa statistics was used to monitor the agreement between the dermatologists and patients. Most patients (96%) showed atleast fair improvement. Rolling and superficial box scars showed higher significant improvement when compared with ice pick and deep box scars. Patient's satisfaction of improvement was higher when compared to physician's observations. No serious adverse effects were noted with exacerbation of acne lesions forming the majority. Ablative fractional photothermolysis is both effective and safe treatment for atrophic acne scars in Indian skin.Precise evaluation of acne scar treatment can be done by taking consistent digital photographs.

  18. Fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted drug delivery of hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Ashraf M; Osman, Mai Abdelraouf

    2018-01-01

    Background Melasma is a difficult-to-treat hyperpigmentary disorder. Ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted delivery of topically applied drugs to varied targets in the skin has been an area of ongoing study and research. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser as an assisted drug delivery for enhancing topical hydroquinone (HQ) permeation into the skin of melasma patients. Patients and methods Thirty female patients with bilateral melasma were randomly treated in a split-face controlled manner with a fractional Er:YAG laser followed by 4% HQ cream on one side and 4% HQ cream alone on the other side. All patients received six laser sessions with a 2-week interval. The efficacy of treatments was determined through photographs, dermoscopic photomicrographs and Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) score, all performed at baseline and at 12 weeks of starting therapy. The patient’s level of satisfaction was also recorded. Results Er:YAG laser + HQ showed significantly better results (p<0.005) with regard to decrease in the degree of pigmentation as assessed on the 4-point scale than HQ alone. There was a significant decrease in MASI scores on Er:YAG laser + HQ side vs HQ side. Minor reversible side effects were observed on both sides. Conclusion AFL-assisted delivery of HQ is a safe and effective method for the treatment of melasma. PMID:29379308

  19. Investigations on the Crystal-Chemical Behavior of Transition-Metal-Bearing Aluminosilicate Garnet Solid Solutions Using 27Al and 29Si NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palke, A. C.; Geiger, C. A.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The petrological importance of silicate garnet is derived from the presence of three distinct cation sites of varying size and coordination number. This allows for a wide range of trace, minor, and major element substitutions. However, a full and precise crystal-chemical understanding of the nature of transition metals in garnet is not at hand. Possible mechanisms of various charge-balanced substitutions (e.g. octahedral Ti4+ or tetrahedral Al3+) and the structural state of solid solutions (i.e. short- to long-range ordering) need study. We report on ongoing efforts in these directions using 27Al and 29Si Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. Early work on synthetic and natural Fe- and Mn-bearing pyrope- and grossular-rich garnets focused on the effect these paramagnetic transition metals have in measuring and interpreting NMR spectra. These results have been expanded with NMR measurements on synthetic pyrope-rich garnets containing other paramagnetic transition metals including Cr3+, V3+, Co2+, and Ni2+ as well as diamagnetic Ti4+. NMR peaks are severely broadened in the presence of even small concentrations of Cr3+, Mn2+, and Fe3+ leading to a loss of spectral resolution. On the other hand, the spectra of garnet containing V3+, Fe2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ have better resolution and show separate paramagnetically shifted NMR peaks. In some cases, crystal-chemical information can be obtained because of the large frequency separations between the NMR peaks that can be assigned to various local atomic configurations around Al and Si. Furthermore, the 27Al NMR spectrum of a synthetic pyrope garnet with about 2% diamagnetic Ti4+ on the octahedral site showed the absence of any tetrahedral Al3+, which rules out the substitution mechanism VITi + IVAl = VIAl + IVSi in the solid solution. Our NMR investigations on garnet are now being made at the exploratory level. We think that NMR spectra of diamagnetic garnet can provide information on a

  20. High-quality single-crystal thulium iron garnet films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by off-axis sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. N.; Tseng, C. C.; Lin, K. Y.; Cheng, C. K.; Yeh, S. L.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2018-05-01

    High-quality single-crystal thulium iron garnet (TmIG) films of 10-30 nm thick were grown by off-axis sputtering at room temperature (RT) followed by post-annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the TmIG film composition to optimize the growth conditions, along with the aid of x-ray diffraction (XRD) structural analysis and atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface morphology. The optimized films exhibited perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the saturation magnetization at RT was ˜99 emu/cm3, close to the RT bulk value ˜110 emu/cm3 with a very low coercive field of ˜2.4 Oe. We extracted the H⊥ of 1734 Oe and the peak-to-peak linewidth ΔH of ferromagnetic resonance are only about 99 Oe, significantly lower than that of PLD grown TmIG film and bulk single crystals. The high-quality sputtered single-crystal TmIG films show great potential to be integrated with topological insulators or heavy metals with strong spin-orbit coupling for spintronic applications.

  1. A study of suppressed formation of low-conductivity phases in doped Li 7La 3Zr 2O 12 garnets by in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yan; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; dela Cruz, Clarina R.; ...

    2015-09-28

    Doped Li 7La 3Zr 2O 12 garnets, oxide-based solids with good Li + conductivity and compatibility, show great potential as leading electrolyte material candidates for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. Still yet, the conductive bulk usually suffers from the presence of secondary phases and the transition towards a low-conductivity tetragonal phase during synthesis. Dopants are designed to stabilize the high-conductive cubic phase and suppress the formation of the low-conductivity phases. In situ neutron diffraction enables a direct observation of the doping effects by monitoring the phase evolutions during garnet synthesis. It reveals the reaction mechanism involving the temporary presence of intermediatemore » phases. The off-stoichiometry due to the liquid Li 2CO 3 evaporation leads to the residual of the low-conductivity intermediate phase in the as-synthesized bulk. Appropriate doping of an active element may alter the component of the intermediate phases and promote the completion of the reaction. While the dopants aid to stabilize most of the cubic phase, a small amount of tetragonal phase tends to form under a diffusion process. Lastly, the in situ observations provide the guideline of process optimization to suppress the formation of unwanted low-conductivity phases.« less

  2. Growth and properties of benzil doped benzimidazole (BMZ) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in; Crystal Growth and Crystallography Section, National Physical Laboratory, Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012; Sukumar, M.

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, we have made an attempt to study the effect of benzil doping on the properties of benzimidazole single crystals. For this purpose we have grown pure and benzil doped benzimidazole single crystals by vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystals were characterized by various characterization techniques. The presence of dopants confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystalline perfection of the grown crystals has been analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The transmittance, electrical property and mechanical strength have been analysed using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopic, dielectric and Vicker's hardness studies. The relative second harmonic generation efficiency of pure andmore » doped benzimidazole crystals measured using Kurtz powder test.« less

  3. Highly efficient passive mode locking of Nd:Lu2.9Gd0.1Al5O12 garnet crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Xia, C. T.; Tan, W. D.; Zhang, J.; Tang, D. Y.; Li, D. Z.; Zhou, D. H.; Wu, F.; Xu, J.

    2013-05-01

    Passive mode locking of Nd:Lu2.9Gd0.1Al5O12 (Nd:LuGdAG) crystal lasers was experimentally investigated. Stable mode-locked pulses with pulse widths as short as 9.7 ps were obtained for the Nd:LuGdAG crystal; the corresponding maximum output powers were 0.93 W while the mode-locked slope efficiencies were 43%, among the highest efficiencies ever reported for Nd3+ ps lasers. The results demonstrate that Nd:LuGdAG garnet crystal is a promising gain medium for efficient picosecond laser use.

  4. Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Schaffers, Kathleen I.; DeLoach, Laura D.; Payne, Stephen A.; Keszler, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM'(BO.sub.3)F, where M, M' are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO.sub.3 F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator.

  5. Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Schaffers, K.I.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.; Keszler, D.A.

    1997-10-14

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM{prime}(BO{sub 3})F, where M, M{prime} are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO{sub 3}F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator. 6 figs.

  6. Photorefractivity in a Titanium Doped ZnCdTe Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M.; Collins, L.; Dyer, K.; Tong, J.; Ueda, A.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.-T.; Burger, A.; Pan, Z.; Morgan, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Single crystals of Zn(.04)Cd(.96)Te was grown by horizontal physical vapor transport (PVT) method and doped by annealing with TiTe2 powder at 600 C for six days. Photorefractive two-beam coupling, along with photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy, were used to characterize the ZnCdTe:Ti crystal. At 1.32 micrometers, the photorefractive gain has been measured as a function of the grating period. A gain of about 0.16/cm was obtained at an intensity of about 0.1 W/sq cm. The results of this titanium doped ZnCdTe crystal are compared to that of vanadium-doped CdTe crystals reported previously.

  7. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness, and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  8. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  9. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, U.S. production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was estimated to be 56.5 kt (62,300 st), valued at about $8.85 million. This was a 10-percent decrease in quantity compared with 2008 production. Refined garnet material sold or used was 28 kt (31,000 st) valued at $7.96 million.

  10. Harmonic technology versus neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser and electrocautery for lung metastasectomy: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Accardo, Marina; Carelli, Emanuele; Del Prete, Assunta; Messina, Gaetana; Reginelli, Alfonso; Berritto, Daniela; Papale, Ferdinando; Armenia, Emilia; Chiodini, Paolo; Grassi, Roberto; Santini, Mario

    2016-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of non-anatomical lung resections with that of three other techniques: monopolar electrocautery; neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser and harmonic technology. We hypothesized that the thermal damage with harmonic technology could be reduced because of the lower temperatures generated by harmonic technology compared with that of other devices. Initial studies were performed in 13 isolated pig lungs for each group. A 1.5-cm capsule was inserted within the lung to mimic a tumour and a total of 25 non-anatomical resections were performed with each device. The damage of the resected lung surface and of the tumour border were evaluated according to the colour (ranging from 0-pink colour to 4-black colour), histological (ranging from Score 0-no changes to Score 3-presence of necrotic tissue) and radiological (ranging from Score 0-isointense T2 signal at magnetic resonance imaging to Score 3-hyperintense T2 signal) criteria. A total of seven non-anatomical resections with harmonic technology were also performed in two live pigs to assess if ex vivo results could be reproducible in live pigs with particular attention to haemostatic and air-tightness properties. In the ex vivo lung, there was a statistical significant difference between depth of thermal damage (P < 0.0001) in electrocautery (1.3 [1.2-1.4]), laser (0.9 [0.6-0.9]) and harmonic (0.4 [0.3-0.5]) groups. Electrocautery had a higher depth of thermal damage compared with that of the laser (P = 0.01) and harmonic groups (P = 0.0005). The harmonic group had a less depth of thermal damage than that of the laser group (P = 0.01). Also, histological damages of tumour borders (P < 0.001) and resected lung surface (P < 0.001), radiological damage of tumour borders (P < 0.001) and resected lung surface (P < 0.001) and colour changes (P < 0.001) were statistically different between three study groups. Resections of in vivo pig lungs showed no bleeding; 2 of 7 cases of low air leaks were

  11. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, US production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was 28.4 kt valued at $3.05 million. Refined garnet material sold or used was 30.4 kt valued at $10 million. For the year, the US was one of the world's leading consumers of industrial garnet. Domestic values for crude concentrates for different applications ranged from about $53 to $120/t. In the short term, excess production capacity, combined with suppliers that vary in quality, grain size and mineral type, will keep prices down.

  12. Nanoparticles Doped Liquid Crystal Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders

    2008-10-01

    We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum to the one achieved with undoped liquid crystals. New interesting features such as frequency dependent behavior and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the bandgap suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter. The tunability of the device is demonstrated by changing the temperature of the liquid crystal and by varying both the amplitude and the frequency of the applied external electric field.

  13. Crystal Growth of Undoped and Doped ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Swanson L.; Chen, K.-T.; George, M. A.; Shi, D. T.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The surface morphology of freshly cleaved ZnSe single crystal grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and the results were correlated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. Selenium precipitates have been revealed in undoped doped ZnSe crystals having a size of about 50 nm. A transition temperature around 221 C in the DSC measurements is interpreted as the eutectic temperature of Se-saturated ZnSe. The AFM images of doped ZnSe also show that possible Cr clusters are uniformly distributed and they have an estimated size of about 6 nm.

  14. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  15. Protective Effect of Adhesive Systems associated with Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser on Enamel Erosive/Abrasive Wear.

    PubMed

    Crastechini, Erica; Borges, Alessandra B; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas; Torres, Carlos Rg

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of self-etching adhesive systems associated or not associated with the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on the protection against enamel erosive/abrasive wear. Bovine enamel specimens were demineralized with 0.3% citric acid (5 minutes). The samples were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 20): SB - Single Bond Universal (3M/ESPE); SB+L - Single Bond Universal + laser (80 mJ/10 Hz); FB - Futurabond U (Voco); FB+L -Futurabond U + laser; GEN - G-aenial bond (GC); GEN+L -G-aenial bond + laser; L - laser irradiation; and C - no treatment. The laser was applied before light curing. The samples were subjected to erosive/abrasive challenges (0.3% citric acid - 2 minutes and tooth brushing four times daily for 5 days). Enamel surface loss was recovered profilometrically by comparison of baseline and final profiles. The adhesive layer thickness, retention percentage of the protective layer, and microhardness of cured adhesive were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%). There were significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.0001). Mean values ± SD and results of the Tukey's test were: Surface wear: GEN - 4.88 (±1.09)a, L - 5.04 ± 0.99)a, FB - 5.32 (±0.93)ab, GEN + L - 5.46 (±1.27)abc, SB + L - 5.78 (±1.12)abc, FB + L - 6.23 (±1.25)bc, SB - 6.35 (±1.11)c, and C - 6.46 (±0.61)c; layer thickness: GEN - 15.2 (±8.63)c, FB - 5.06 (±1.96)a, GEN + L - 13.96 (±7.07)bc, SB + L - 4.24 (±2.68)a, FB + L - 9.03 (±13.02)abc, and SB - 7.49 (±2.80)ab; retention: GEN - 68.89 (±20.62)c, FB - 54.53 (±24.80)abc, GEN + L - 59.90 (±19.79)abc, SB + L - 63.37 (±19.30)bc, FB + L - 42.23 (±17.68) a, and SB - 47.78 (±18.29)ab; microhardness: GEN - 9.27 (±1.75)c; FB - 6.99 (±0.89)b; GEN + L - 6.22 (±0.87)ab; SB + L - 15.48 (±2.51)d; FB + L - 10.67 (±1.58)c; SB - 5.00 (±1.60)a. The application of Futurabond U and G-aenial bond on enamel surface, as well as the Nd

  16. Optical transmission damage of undoped and Ce doped Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystals under 24 GeV protons high fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffray, E.; Fedorov, A.; Dormenev, V.; Houžvička, J.; Korjik, M.; Lucchini, M. T.; Mechinsky, V.; Ochesanu, S.

    2017-06-01

    This report presents results on the optical transmission damage of undoped and Ce doped Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystals under high fluence of 24 GeV protons. We observed that, similarly to other middle heavy scintillators, it possesses the unique radiation hardness at fluence values as high as 5×1014 p/cm2 and it is thus promising for the application in the detectors at High Luminosity LHC. The crystalline structure of the garnet scintillator allows to control and further optimize its scintillation parameters, such as scintillation decay time and emission wavelength, and shows a limited set of the radioisotopes after the irradiation with protons.

  17. Infrared photorefractive effect in doped KNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, C.; Zgonik, M.; Liakatas, I.; Günter, P.

    1996-11-01

    The photorefractive sensitivity of potassium niobate crystals doped with Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Rh and double-doped with Mn and Rh is investigated over an extended spectral range. We present experimental evidence on extrinsic properties important for the photorefractive effect, such as absorption and effective trap density. Photorefractive gratings are investigated with two-wave mixing experiments. Results on exponential gain, response time, and photorefractive sensitivity at near-infrared wavelengths are reported. The best photorefractive sensitivities at 860 and 1064 nm were obtained in crystals doped with Rh, Fe, Mn, and Mn-Rh. This makes them suitable for applications at laser-diode wavelengths; at 1064 nm, however, Rh:KNbO3 shows a better photorefractive sensitivity than the others. .

  18. Thermal effects on cavity stability of chromium- and neodymium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet laser under solar-simulator pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyong H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Brown, Lamarr A.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on testing a Cr- and Nd-codoped Gd-Sc-Ga-garnet (Cr:Nd:GSGG) crystal and a Nd:YAG crystal (both of 3.2 mm diam and 76-mm long) for pulsed and CW laser operations using a flashlamp and solar simulator as pumping sources. Results from experiments with the flashlamp show that, at pulse lengths of 0.11, 0.28, and 0.90 ms, the slope efficiency of the Cd:Nd:GSGG crystal was higher than that of the Nd:YAG crystal and increased with pulse width. With the solar simulator, however, the CW laser operation of the Cr:Nd:GSGG crystal was limited to intensities not greater than 1500 solar constants, while the Nd:YAG laser successfully performed for all pump beam intensities available. It was found that the exposure for several minutes of the Cr:Nd:GSGG crystal to pump beam intensity of 3000 solar constants led to its damage by thermal cracking, indicating that a better solar-pumped CW laser performance may be difficult to realize with rod geometry.

  19. Revised calibration of the Sm:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} pressure sensor using the Sm-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet primary pressure scale

    SciTech Connect

    Rashchenko, Sergey V., E-mail: rashchenko@igm.nsc.ru; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk

    2015-04-14

    The pressure-induced shift of Sm:SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} fluorescence was calibrated in a quasi-hydrostatic helium medium up to 60 GPa using the recent Sm-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet primary pressure scale as a reference. The resulting calibration can be written as P = −2836/14.3 [(1 + Δλ/685.51){sup −14.3 }− 1]. Previous calibrations based on the internally inconsistent primary scales are revised, and, after appropriate correction, found to agree with the proposed one. The calibration extended to 120 GPa was also performed using corrected previous data and can be written as P = 4.20 Δλ (1 + 0.020 Δλ)/(1 + 0.036 Δλ)

  20. Optimization of Sm3+ fluorescence in Sm-doped yttrium aluminum garnet: Application to pressure calibration in diamond-anvil cell at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Daniel, Isabelle; Reynard, Bruno; Abraham, Robert; Goutaudier, Christelle

    2002-10-01

    Sm3+ concentration in Sm-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Sm3+):YAG has been optimized for fluorescence yield and synthesis procedure for the production of strain-free small grain-size powder established. Concentration of 0.5 wt % Sm3+ displays an optimal fluorescence signal, three to five times stronger than the generally proposed concentration (4 wt %). The fluorescence of the samples has been studied as a function of temperature (300-873 K) and pressure (0-15 GPa). A comparison with standard pressure scales shows that the pressure evolution of Sm3+:YAG fluorescence is insensitive to the doping rate, and that temperature has only a limited effect on the pressure scale established at 300 K. The present results indicate that pressure can be determined from the Y1 line of 0.5 wt % Sm-doped YAG, with temperature correction for pi at room pressure and constant pressure shift, within the 300-873 K and 10-4-15 GPa pressure-temperature range, through the linear relation: P (GPa)=0.127 x([pi0-0.018 xDelta]T)-[pi] where pi0 corresponds to the Y1 frequency value at ambient conditions (16 185 cm-1).

  1. Fabrication and microstructure of cerium doped lutetium aluminum garnet (Ce:LuAG) transparent ceramics by solid-state reaction method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junlang, E-mail: lijunlangx@163.com; Xu, Jian, E-mail: xu.jian.57z@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Division of Materials Function, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We fabricate Ce doped lutetium aluminum garnet ceramics by solid-state method. • The raw materials include Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized by co-precipitation method. • The density of the transparent ceramics reach 99.7% of the theoretical value. • The optical transmittance of the bulk ceramic at 550 nm was 57.48%. • Some scattering centers decrease the optical characteristic of the ceramic. - Abstract: Polycrystalline Ce{sup 3+} doped lutetium aluminum garnet (Ce:LuAG) transparent ceramics fabricated by one step solid-state reaction method using synthetic nano-sized Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, commercial α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} powders were investigated in thismore » paper. The green compacts shaped by the mixed powders were successfully densified into Ce:LuAG transparent ceramics after vacuum sintering at 1750 °C for 10 h. The in-line optical transmittance of the Ce:LuAG ceramic made by home-made Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders could reach 57.48% at 550 nm, which was higher than that of the ceramic made by commercial Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders (22.96%). The microstructure observation showed that light scattering centers caused by micro-pores, aluminum segregation and refraction index inhomogeneities induced the decrease of optical transparency of the Ce:LuAG ceramics, which should be removed and optimized in the future work.« less

  2. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    impurities, in the development of solid state laser crystals. Doping, dependent on the particular ion and crystal structure, may be as high as 100 at. % (complete substitution of yttrium ion with the rare earth ion). These materials have high melting points, 1940 C for YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet), and low emissivity in the near infrared making them excellent candidates for a thin film selective emitter. As previously stated, the spectral emittance of a rare earth emitter is characterized by one or more well defined emission bands. Outside the emission band the emittance(absorptance) is much lower. Therefore, it is expected that emission outside the band for a thin film selective emitter will be dominated by the emitter substrate. For an efficient emitter (power in the emission band/total emitted power) the substrate must have low emittance, epsilon(sub S). This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium(Ho) and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at (1500 K), and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  3. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  4. Ultraviolet photorefraction at 325 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Feifei; Zhang, Guoquan; Bo, Fang; Sun, Haifeng; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun; Volk, Tatyana; Rubinina, Natalia M.

    2010-02-01

    We studied the photorefractive effect of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) doped with Mg, Zn, In, Hf, or codoped with Mg and Fe at an ultraviolet (UV) wavelength down to 325 nm. It is found that the UV photorefraction of LiNbO3 doped with Mg, Zn, In, or Hf was enhanced significantly as compared to that of the nominally pure LiNbO3. Our results show that the property of resistance against photorefraction in highly Mg, Zn, In, or Hf doped LiNbO3 is true only in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. By contrast, these crystals exhibit excellent photorefractive characteristics at UV wavelength of 325 nm, even better than those at 351 nm. For example, the photorefractive two-wave coupling gain coefficient Γ and the photorefractive recording sensitivity at 325 nm were measured to be ˜38 cm-1 and 37.7 cm/J, respectively, in a LiNbO3 crystal doped with 9 mol % Zn. The photorefractive response time of a Mg:LiNbO3 with a 9 mol % Mg was measured to be 73 ms with a total recording intensity of 614 mW/cm2 at 325 nm. In highly Mg, Zn, In, or Hf doped LiNbO3 crystals, diffusion dominates over photovoltaic effect and electrons are the dominant charge carriers in UV photorefraction at 325 nm. The results are also of interest to the study on the defect structure of LiNbO3 near to the absorption edge.

  5. Ytterbium- and neodymium-doped vanadate laser hose crystals having the apatite crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Kway, Wayne L.; DeLoach, Laura D.; Krupke, William F.; Chai, Bruce H. T.

    1994-01-01

    Yb.sup.3+ and Nd.sup.3+ doped Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals serve as useful infrared laser media that exhibit low thresholds of oscillation and high slope efficiencies, and can be grown with high optical quality. These laser media possess unusually high absorption and emission cross sections, which provide the crystals with the ability to generate greater gain for a given amount of pump power. Many related crystals such as Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals doped with other rare earths, transition metals, or actinides, as well as the many structural analogs of Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F, where the Sr.sup.2+ and F.sup.- ions are replaced by related chemical species, have similar properties.

  6. Resonant optical scattering in nanoparticle-doped polymer photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Baumberg, J. J.; Pursiainen, O. L.; Spahn, P.

    2009-11-15

    A broadband hyperspectral technique is used to measure the coherent optical backscatter across a wide spectral bandwidth, showing the resonant suppression of the photon transport mean free path around the photonic bandgap of a shear-assembled polymer photonic crystal. By doping with carbon nanoscale scatterers that reside at specific points within the photonic crystal lattice, the ratio between photon mean free path and optical penetration is tuned from 10 to 1, enhancing forward scatter at the expense of back-scatter. The back-scattering strength of different polarisations is not explained by any current theory.

  7. Effective lattice stabilization of gadolinium aluminate garnet (GdAG) via Lu3+ doping and development of highly efficient (Gd,Lu)AG:Eu3+ red phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinkai; Li, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Zhongjie; Wu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shaohong; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Xudong; Sakka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    The metastable garnet lattice of Gd3Al5O12 is stabilized by doping with smaller Lu3+, which then allows an effective incorporation of larger Eu3+ activators. The [(Gd1−xLux)1−yEuy]3Al5O12 (x = 0.1–0.5, y = 0.01–0.09) garnet solid solutions, calcined from their precursors synthesized via carbonate coprecipitation, exhibit strong luminescence at 591 nm (the 5D0 → 7F1 magnetic dipole transition of Eu3+) upon UV excitation into the charge transfer band (CTB) at ∼239 nm, with CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.620 and y = 0.380 (orange-red). The quenching concentration of Eu3+ was estimated at ∼5 at.% (y = 0.05), and the quenching was attributed to exchange interactions. Partial replacement of Gd3+ with Lu3+ up to 50 at.% (x = 0.5) while keeping Eu3+ at the optimal content of 5 at.% does not significantly alter the peak positions of the CTB and 5D0 → 7F1 emission bands but slightly weakens both bands owing to the higher electronegativity of Lu3+. The effects of processing temperature (1000–1500 °C) and Lu/Eu contents on the intensity, quantum efficiency, lifetime and asymmetry factor of luminescence were thoroughly investigated. The [(Gd0.7Lu0.3)0.95Eu0.05]3Al5O12 phosphor processed at 1500 °C exhibits a high internal quantum efficiency of ∼83.2% under 239 nm excitation, which, in combination with the high theoretical density, favors its use as a new type of photoluminescent and scintillation material. PMID:27877495

  8. High power single-frequency and frequency-doubled laser with active compensation for the thermal lens effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiwei; Lu, Huadong; Su, Jing; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-05-01

    The thermal lens effect of terbium gallium garnet (TGG) crystal in a high power single-frequency laser severely limits the output power and the beam quality of the laser. By inserting a potassium dideuterium phosphate (DKDP) slice with negative thermo-optical coefficient into the laser resonator, the harmful influence of the thermal lens effect of the TGG crystal can be effectively mitigated. Using this method, the stable range of the laser is broadened, the bistability phenomenon of the laser during the process of changing the pump power is completely eliminated, the highest output power of an all-solid-state continuous-wave intracavity-frequency-doubling single-frequency laser at 532 nm is enhanced to 30.2 W, and the beam quality of the laser is significantly improved.

  9. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  10. Cholesteric liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, Rajaa; Agez, Gonzague; Mitov, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The reflection color of a cholesteric liquid crystal depends on material parameters such as the molecular chirality or the concentration of chiral dopant, the helical pitch of the twisted structure and the optical indices. We show that the color may be selected simply by varying the annealing time of an open cholesteric oligomer film with hybrid anchoring. The 3D representation of the structure is provided by combining complementary imaging techniques. The color selectivity is due to controlled changes of the orientation of the helix axis with respect to the air-material interface. Potential applications are chiral microreflectors and microlenses. Then, we demonstrate the symbiotic association of gold nanoparticles within such cholesteric textures and their long-range self-organized arrangements. We show that the nanoparticles can be patterned on demand only by playing with the film thickness and the interfacial properties of the CLC film. We investigate how the selective reflection is affected by the in situ organization of gold nanoparticles and what is the plasmon response of nanoparticle chains. Potential applications are envisioned in the field of soft nanotechnology and optical materials.

  11. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Narendra S.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-05-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ˜1 × 1016 cm-3. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm-1, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O-H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm-1. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.

  12. Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, Narendra S., E-mail: nparmar@wsu.edu; Lynn, K. G.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814

    2015-05-15

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ∼1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm{sup −1}, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O–H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observedmore » at 2378 cm{sup −1}. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.« less

  13. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l(sub 15/2)) - ( (4)l(sub13/2)), for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l(sub 7))-((5)l(sub 8)) for Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  14. A Comparative Histological Study of Bone Healing in Rat Calvarial Defect Using the Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser and Rotary Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Jin, Seung-Chan; Lee, Sook-Young; Jang, Eun-Sook; Piao, Zheng-Gang; Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have been used in dentistry for cutting bone and removal of caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone healing in a skull defect prepared in rats using various instruments including Er:YAG laser. The 7 mm calvarial defects were created in 45 rats and 45 rats were divided into three groups (n = 15): a high-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), a low-speed rotation engine with carbide round bur (2-mm diameter), and an Er:YAG laser. Specimens obtained after 3 days or 4 or 8 weeks were submitted for histological analysis. Three days after surgery, no bone formation had occurred in any of the groups. Four weeks after surgery, 90 ±8.16% new bone formation was observed in the high-speed group, and 8 weeks after surgery, 100 ±0% new bone formation was observed in the low- and high-speed groups. There were significant differences among the periods after surgery, but no significant differences were observed among final results with in different device groups.

  15. Aging Effects on the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Terbium-Aluminium Co-doping of Yttrium Iron Garnet Films Prepared Using the Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldbea, Ftema W.; Yusrianto, Efil; Ibrahim, N. B.

    2018-06-01

    The terbium-aluminium co-doped yttrium iron garnet (Tb0.2Y2.8Al1Fe4O12) nanoparticles films, prepared via a sol-gel method, were aged variously for 2 days, 3 days, 4 days and 5 days. The films were deposited on quartz substrates using a spin coating technique then annealed at 900°C in air for 2 h. The microstructural and magnetic properties of the films were measured using an x-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope and a vibrating sample magnetometer. The XRD results showed that all the resultant films were a single phase regardless of aging time. A change in the lattice parameter's behavior was observed at the longer aging times. At an aging time of 5 days, the films became highly agglomerated and exhibited the greatest thickness value of 458.9 nm. The saturation magnetization, M s, of the films decreased from 31 kA/m to 6 kA/m as the aging time was increased from 2 days to 5 days, due to the increasing Fe-O bond length resulting from larger grain sizes. The increase in aging time to 5 days caused a reduction in the coercivity, H c, of films due to the multi-domain formation.

  16. A low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser for the treatment of café-au-lait macules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Rae; Ha, Jeong-Min; Park, Min-Soo; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Im, Myung

    2015-09-01

    Café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are a common pigmentary disorder. Although a variety of laser modalities have been used to treat CALMs, their efficacies vary and dyspigmentation may develop. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of a low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of CALMs. In a preliminary investigation, 6 patients underwent a split-lesion comparative study with 532- and 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment. In total, 32 patients with 39 CALMs were enrolled in a subsequent prospective trial to evaluate the treatment with a low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. In the preliminary study, the 1064-nm treatment group had a more favorable response and a shorter recovery time. In a subsequent prospective trial of a 1064-nm laser, 74.4% of the lesions showed a clinical response with clearance of ≥50.0%. The treatment regimen was well tolerated; 15.4% of patients experienced adverse events. The study participants were followed for 6 months, and there were no relevant treatment controls in the prospective trial group. Low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser therapy afforded good clinical improvement for treating CALMs. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Picosecond 532-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser-a novel and promising modality for the treatment of café-au-lait macules.

    PubMed

    Artzi, Ofir; Mehrabi, Joseph N; Koren, Amir; Niv, Roni; Lapidoth, Moshe; Levi, Assi

    2018-05-01

    Café-au-lait macules (CALMs) present as benign hyperpigmented, well-circumscribed spots on the skin for which many patients seek treatment for aesthetic reasons. The objective of this study is to report our experience in treating CALMs using a picosecond 532-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (PS 532 nm) laser. This is a retrospective case series of 16 patients with CALMs who were treated by a PS 532-nm laser (1-4 treatments, 4-8 weeks apart). Response as seen on clinical photographs was assessed by two independent dermatologists and graded on a scale of 0 (exacerbation) to 5 (95-100% improvement). Patient satisfaction and tolerance were documented at final visit. The results of 15 patients demonstrated significant improvement (average 3.43), and their satisfaction and tolerance levels were high. One patient had no response whatsoever to treatment. The PS 532-nm laser is a promising novel modality for the treatment of CALMs.

  18. Long-Pulsed 532-Nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser for Treatment of Facial Plane Warts in 160 Yemeni Patients.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel; Alshami, Ahlam Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Warts in general and plane warts in particular pose a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. Many treatment modalities exist, with variable success rates, side effect profiles, and precautions. The long-pulsed 532-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (LP Nd:YAG) laser has not been previously used for this indication. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of the LP Nd:YAG laser for treating facial plane warts. A total of 160 Yemeni patients (62 women, 98 men; age range, 5-55 years) were exposed to 1 laser treatment session with the following parameters: wavelength, 532 nm; pulse duration, 20 millisecond; spot size, 2 to 3 mm; and fluence, 25 J/cm. The end point was graying or whitening of the lesion. Color photographs were taken before and immediately after treatment and at follow-up visits 1, 4, and 16 weeks after the laser session. An overall clearance rate of 92% after only one session was achieved, with minimal and transient side effects. The LP Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for treating facial plane warts, with a success rate of 92% after only one session.

  19. Clinical and Histopathologic Assessment of Facial Melasma After Low-Fluence Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer Parra, Camila Anna; Careta, Mariana Figueroa; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; de Sanches Osório, Nuno Eduardo Guimaraes; Torezan, Luis Antonio Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Melasma is a frequent and difficult to treat skin disorder. Results of laser therapy are inconsistent. To determine the safety and efficacy of low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser for melasma treatment and assess recurrence rates and histopathologic findings before and after treatment. Twenty patients were treated with 10 weekly sessions of low-fluence 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser at 1-week intervals. The modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score was evaluated at baseline; 1 week; and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Epidermal melanin quantification was performed on 10 biopsy samples and compared before and after treatment. All patients showed improvement by mMASI scores, range (21%-75%) compared with that at baseline. No permanent side effects occurred. The recurrence rate was 81%. By histopathology, a slight, nonsignificant (p = .305) decrease in melanin deposition was seen in all layers of the epidermis 1 week after the laser treatments ended. The results confirm the safety and effectiveness of low-fluence QS Nd:YAG laser for treating melasma; however, the high recurrence suggests poor long-term results when the laser is used as a monotherapy.

  20. Pulmonary Laser Metastasectomy by 1318-nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet Laser: A Retrospective Study About Laser Metastasectomy of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Porrello, Calogero; Gullo, Roberto; Vaglica, Antonino; Scerrino, Gregorio; Salamone, Giuseppe; Licari, Leo; Raspanti, Cristina; Gulotta, Eliana; Gulotta, Gaspare; Cocorullo, Gianfranco

    2018-04-01

    The lungs are among the first organ affected by remote metastases from many primary tumors. The surgical resection of isolated pulmonary metastases represents an important and effective element of therapy. This is a retrospective study about our entire experience with pulmonary resection for metastatic cancer using 1318-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet laser. In this single-institution study, we retrospectively analyzed a group of 209 patients previously treated for primary malignant solid tumors. We excluded 103 patients. The number and location of lesions in the lungs was determined using chest computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Disseminated malignancy was excluded. All pulmonary laser resections are performed via an anteroaxillary muscle-sparing thoracotomy. All lesions were routinely removed by laser with a small (5-10 mm) margin of the healthy lung. Patients received systematic lymph node sampling with intraoperative smear cytology of sampled lymph nodes. Mortality at 2 years from the first surgery is around 20% (10% annually). This value increases to 45% in the third year. The estimated median survival for patients who underwent the first surgery is reported to be approximately 42 months. Our results show that laser resection of lung metastases can achieve good result, in terms of radical resection and survival, as conventional surgical metastasectomy. The great advantage is the possibility of limiting the damage to the lung. Stapler resection of a high number of metastases would mutilate the lung.

  1. Modulatory effects by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser on fibroblast attachment to single rooted tooth surfaces following ultrasonic scaling and root planning: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Shanta; Krishnamurthy, Malathi; Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Pendor, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Context: One of the most important goals of periodontal therapy is connective tissue reattachment to previously diseased root surfaces. In the recent years, laser therapy has been considered as an important tool in improving the treatment of periodontal disease. Aims: To evaluate the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) lasers effects on root surfaces affected by periodontal disease and compare this treatment with scaling and root planning (SRP) in terms of fibroblast attachment. Materials and Methods: A sample of 30 single-rooted human teeth extracted because of advanced periodontal disease was used in this study. Sixty specimens obtained by longitudinal sectioning were randomly divided in three groups. Group A control (untreated); Group B SRP; Group C laser (Nd: YAG) and ultrasonic scaling. All specimens were incubated with fibroblast suspension and then fixed and observed under scanning electron microscope. Results: With a median of 8, the control group (Group A) exhibited the least number of total fibroblasts among all the three groups. The laser and scaling - treated group (Group C) showed the highest number of fibroblasts (median = 49, mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 48.28 ± 17.18), followed by SRP only (Group B, median = 22, mean ± SD = 22.24 ± 8.67). Conclusions: Nd: YAG laser irradiation at specific energy densities can be used as a useful tool to condition the root surfaces, enhancing fibroblast attachment. Hence aiding in re-establishment of the connective tissue attachment to the root surfaces of previously diseased teeth. PMID:25810589

  2. Structural, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies of pure and doped L-Prolinium trichloroacetate single crystals.

    PubMed

    Renuka, N; Ramesh Babu, R; Vijayan, N; Vasanthakumar, Geetha; Krishna, Anuj; Ramamurthi, K

    2015-02-25

    In the present work, pure and metal substituted L-Prolinium trichloroacetate (LPTCA) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-Visible-NIR, hardness, photoluminescence and dielectric studies. The dopant concentration in the crystals was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the pure and metal substituted LPTCA revealed that the grown crystals belong to the trigonal system. Ni(2+) and Co(2+) doping slightly altered the lattice parameters of LPTCA without affecting the basic structure of the crystal. FTIR spectral analysis confirms the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystals. The mechanical behavior of pure and doped crystals was analyzed by Vickers's microhardness test. The optical transmittance, dielectric and photoluminescence properties of the pure and doped crystals were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; McCoy, Jedidiah; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2018-05-01

    Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 1016 and 1020 cm-3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 1017 cm-3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a second phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20-30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 1017/cm3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200-300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 1016 cm-3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 1018 cm-3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.

  4. Photoluminescence of Copper-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Pyatyshev, A. Yu.; Sidorov, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of copper-doped lithium niobate single crystals is studied using different UV-Vis light-emitting diodes and a pulse-periodic laser with a wavelength of 266 nm as excitation radiation sources. With the resonance excitation from a 527-nm light-emitting diode, the intensity of PL increases sharply (by two orders of magnitude). When using a 467-nm light-emitting diode for excitation, the PL spectrum is characterized by the presence of multiphonon lines in the range of 520-620 nm.

  5. Electron traps in Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce garnets doped with rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanin, V. M.; Rodnyi, P. A.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C. R.

    2017-05-01

    The curves of thermally stimulated luminescence of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce3+ ceramics (a nominally pure sample and samples doped with rare-earth ions) are measured in the temperature range of 80-550 K. The depth and the frequency factor of electron traps established by Eu and Yb impurities are determined. An energy-level diagram of rare-earth ions in the bandgap of Gd3Ga3Al2O12 is presented.

  6. Crystal doping aided by rapid expansion of supercritical solutions.

    PubMed

    Vemavarapu, Chandra; Mollan, Matthew J; Needham, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    engineering. Rapid crystallization kinetics were found vital in making RESS-based doping superior to conventional solvent-based cocrystallizations.

  7. Luminescence quenching and scintillation response in the Ce3+ doped GdxY3-xAl5O12 (x = 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosiewicz, K.; Babin, V.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Mares, J. A.; Beitlerova, A.; Nikl, M.

    2017-01-01

    The luminescence and scintillation properties of the gadolinium yttrium aluminium garnets, (Gd,Y)3Al5O12 doped with Ce3+ are investigated as a function of the Gd/Y ratio with the aim of an improved understanding of the luminescence quenching, energy transfer and phase stability in these materials. An increase of both crystal field strength and instability of the garnet phase with increasing content of Gd3+ is observed. The instability of the garnet phase results in an appearance of the perovskite phase inclusions incorporated into the garnet phase. The luminescence features of Ce3+ in the perovskite phase inclusions and in the main garnet phase are studied separately. The thermal quenching of the 5 d → 4f emission of Ce3+ in the latter phase is determined by temperature dependence of the photoluminescence decay time. The results show that the onset of the thermal quenching is moved to lower temperatures with increasing gadolinium content. The measurements of temperature dependence of delayed radiative recombination do not reveal a clear evidence that the thermal quenching is caused by thermally induced ionization of the Ce3+ 5d1 excited state. Therefore, the main mechanism responsible for the luminescence quenching is due to the non-radiative relaxation from 5d1 excited state to 4f ground state of Ce3+. The energy transfer processes between Gd3+ and Ce3+ as well as between perovskite and garnet phases are evidenced by the photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra as well as decay kinetic measurements. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) studies in the temperature range 77-497 K and scintillation decays under γ excitation complete the material characterization.

  8. Thermal optical nonlinearity in photonic crystal fibers filled with nematic liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiak, Piotr; Budaszewski, Daniel; Bednarska, Karolina; Wójcik, Michał; Sobotka, Piotr; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we studied a newly reported class of nonlinear effects observed in 5CB liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The size of the GNP was determined by direct TEM imaging and by X-ray scattering of the diluted NP solution. GNPs was coated by thiols with the ratio of mesogenic to n-alkyl thiols varying from 1:2 to 1:1. The research involved comparing properties of both undoped and doped 5CB (nematic LC) by infiltrating LC cell and microholes of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) separately. In our experiment the PCF fiber type LMA-10 made by NKT Photonics as host material has been used.

  9. Magnesium oxide doping reduces acoustic wave attenuation in lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

    1970-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

  10. Chromium Diffusion Doping on ZnSe Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Journigan, Troy D.; Chen, K.-T.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.; Schaffers, K.; Page, R. H.; Payne, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Chromium doped zinc selenide crystal have recently been demonstrated to be a promising material for near-IR room temperature tunable lasers which have an emission range of 2-3 micrometers. In this study a new diffusion doping process has been developed for incorporation of Cr(+2) ion into ZnSe wafers. This process has been successfully performed under isothermal conditions, at temperatures above 800 C. Concentrations in excess of 10(exp 19) Cr(+2) ions/cu cm, an order of magnitude larger than previously reported in melt grown ZnSe material, have been obtained by diffusion doping, as estimated from optical absorption measurements. The diffusivity was estimated to be about 10(exp -8) sq cm/sec using a thin film diffusion model. Resistivity was derived from current-voltage measurements and in the range of 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 16) omega-cm. The emission spectra and temperature dependent lifetime data will also be presented and discussed.

  11. Effect of Li and NH4 doping on the crystal perfection, second harmonic generation efficiency and laser damage threshold of potassium pentaborate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshwaran, A. N.; Kalainathan, S.; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2018-03-01

    Potassium pentaborate (KB5) is an excellent nonlinear optical material especially in the UV region. In this work, Li and NH4 doped KB5 crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth method. The incorporation of dopant has been confirmed and analysed by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline perfection of pure and doped KB5 crystals was studied by High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis. Structural grain boundaries were observed in doped crystals. Second harmonic generation was confirmed for pure and doped crystals and output values revealed the enhancement of SHG efficiency in doped crystals. Resistance against laser damage was carried out using 1064 nm Nd-YAG laser of pulse width 10 ns. The laser damage threshold value is increased in Li doped crystal and decreased in NH4 doped crystal when compared to pure KB5 crystal.

  12. Optical and scintillation properties of ce-doped (Gd2Y1)Ga2.7Al2.3O12 single crystal grown by Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Yuntao; Ding, Dongzhou; Li, Huanying; Chen, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jian; Ren, Guohao

    2016-06-01

    Multicomponent garnets, due to their excellent light yield and energy resolution, become one of the most promising scintillators used for homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation applications. This work focuses on the optimization of Ce-doped (Gd,Y)3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillators using a combination strategy of pre-screening and scale-up. Ce-doped GdxY1-xGayAl5-yO12 (x=1, 2 and y=2, 2.2, 2.5, 2.7, 3) polycrystalline powders were prepared by high-temperature solid state reaction method. The desired garnet phase in all the samples was confirmed using X-ray diffraction measurement. By comparing the radioluminescence intensity, the highest scintillation efficiency was achieved at a component of Gd2Y1Ga2.7Al2.3O12:Ce powders. A (Gd2Y1)Ga2.7Al2.3O12 doped with 1% Ce single crystal with dimensions of Ø35×40 mm was grown by Czochralski method using a <111> oriented seed. Luminescence and scintillation properties were measured. An optical transmittance of 84% was achieved in the concerned wavelength from 500 to 800 nm. Its 5d-4f emission of Ce3+ is at 530 nm. The light yield of a Ce1%: Gd2Y1Ga2.7Al2.3O12 single crystal slab at a size of 5×5×1 mm3 can reach about 65,000±3000 Ph/MeV along with two decay components of 94 and 615 ns under 137Cs source irradiation.

  13. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Pr-doped SrI2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Ito, Tomoki; Yoshino, Masao; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Pr-doped SrI2 (Pr:SrI2) single crystals with various Pr concentrations were grown by the halide-micro-pulling-down (H-μ-PD) method, and the scintillation properties were investigated. Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal with high transparency could be grown by the H-μ-PD method while Pr2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals included some cracks and opaque parts. In the photoluminescence spectrum of the Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal, an emission peak originated from the Pr3+ ion was observed around 435 nm while the radioluminescence spectra showed an emission peak around 535 nm for the undoped SrI2 and Pr:SrI2 single crystals. Light yields of Pr1, 2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 7700, 8700, 7200 and 6700 photons/MeV, respectively. Decay times of Pr1 and 2%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 55.9 and 35.0 ns of the fast decay component, and 435 and 408 ns of the slow decay component, respectively.

  14. Luminescence properties and scintillation response in Ce3+-doped Y2Gd1Al5-xGaxO12 (x = 2, 3, 4) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chewpraditkul, Warut; Pánek, Dalibor; Brůža, Petr; Chewpraditkul, Weerapong; Wanarak, Chalerm; Pattanaboonmee, Nakarin; Babin, Vladimir; Bartosiewicz, Karol; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira; Nikl, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The compositional dependence of luminescence properties and scintillation response were investigated in Ce3+-doped Y2Gd1Al5-xGaxO12 (x = 2, 3, 4) single crystals. The Gd3+ → Ce3+ energy transfer was evidenced by photoluminescence excitation spectra of Ce3+ emission. With increasing Ga content in the garnet host, the Ce3+ luminescence from the lowest 5d level (5d1) is shifted toward higher energy due to the decrease in the crystal field splitting of the 5d levels. Light yield (LY) and its dependence on the amplifier shaping time were measured under excitation with γ-rays. High LY value of ˜38 000 ph/MeV was obtained for a Y2Gd1Al3Ga2O12:Ce sample. Scintillation decay was measured with an extended dynamical and temporal scale under the nanosecond pulse soft X-ray excitation. The decrease of both LY value and relative contribution of slower decay component in the scintillation response was observed with increasing Ga content in the garnet host.

  15. Combined vitamin C sonophoresis and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (NdYAG) laser for facial hyperpigmentation: An outcome observation study in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Tsung; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Hsu, Cherng-Ru; Shen, Jen-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-01-01

    The neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (NdYAG) laser therapy has been a popular technique for facial rejuvenation but certain adverse effects like post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are issues of concern to Asian patients. To assess the outcome following combined treatment with vitamin C sonophoresis and NdYAG laser, in selected cases of facial hyperpigmentation. Twenty three women with dyschromia or melasma who had undergone five sessions of Q-switched NdYAG laser therapy followed by transdermal delivery of vitamin C via sonophoresis were selected after a retrospective review of case records. The objective and subjective clinical outcomes and the side effects, including erythema, scaling, pruritus, dryness and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation were evaluated. In both objective or subjective outcomes, 91.3% (21/23) of the patients showed an excellent or better outcome, while 8.7% (2/23) showed no change. A majority of the patients (73.9%, 17/23) experienced no post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or had slight post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation which quickly resolved within 1 week. Only one (4.3%) patient had extreme post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation which lasted for over a month. This was a retrospective study without a control group; a comparative study with a control group (patients treated with the laser alone, without vitamin C sonopheresis) is needed to determine the difference in the outcome. The use of vitamin C sonophoresis along with NdYAG laser may reduce the incidence of adverse effects in Asian patients. Patients experienced obvious improvement in hyperpigmentation and had lower chances of experiencing extreme or severe post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  16. Melanogenesis inhibition in mice using a low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jae-Hui; Min, Joon Hong; Kim, Wang-Kyun; Yim, Sunmin; Kim, Won-Serk

    2017-07-01

    A low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, or laser toning, has yielded favorable outcomes in various benign pigmented disorders. However, the exact mechanism of action of laser toning has not been fully elucidated. We sought to determine the inhibitory effect of laser toning on melanogenesis and to assess how laser passes influence the outcomes. To produce perceptible pigmentation, nine HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice were treated with ultraviolet (UV) B radiation on the dorsal skin. This was followed by zero, two, four, or six passes of laser toning twice in 2 weeks on each designated quadrant. The spectrophotometric values and pigmentation-related protein expressions were measured. Pigment changes were found in the mice skin using the Fontana-Masson stain for histopathological analysis. Four- and six-pass laser toning significantly improved the lightness compared to that in the unirradiated control (p < 0.002). The Fontana-Masson stain showed that melanin was considerably decreased in laser-irradiated skin. As the number of laser passes increased, the expression of tyrosinase decreased (p < 0.008). The following parameters also decreased in proportion to the number of laser passes: MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, p-ERK, and p-Akt. In contrast, TGF-β increased in proportion to the number of laser passes. However, the changes in these six proteins were not statistically significant. Our study demonstrates that laser toning improves skin pigmentation with increased number of passes in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is mediated by tyrosinase inhibition.

  17. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Mitul Kumar; Prakash, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface, but removed more

  18. Implant Bed Preparation with an Erbium, Chromium Doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr: YSGG) Laser Using Stereolithographic Surgical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Seymen, Gülin; Turgut, Zeynep; Berk, Gizem; Bodur, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Implant bed preparation with laser is taken into consideration owing to the increased interest in use of lasers in hard tissue surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine the deviations in the position and inclination between the planned and prepared implant beds with Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser using stereolithographic (SLA) surgical guides. Methods: After 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of six sheep lower jaws, computed tomography (CT) images were transformed into 3D models. Locations of implant beds were determined on these models. Two implant beds in each half jaw were prepared with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser system and a conventional drilling method using a total of 12 SLA surgical guides. A new CT was taken to analyze the deviation values between planned and prepared implant beds. Finally, a software program was used to superimpose the images on 3D models, then the laser and conventional drilling groups were compared. Results: Differences of mean angular deviations between the planned and prepared implant beds were 5.17±4.91° in the laser group and 2.02±1.94° in the conventional drilling group.The mean coronal deviation values were found to be 0.48±0.25 mm and 0.23±0.14 mm in the laser group and conventional drilling group, respectively. While the mean deviation at the apex between the planned and prepared implant beds were 0.70±0.26 mm and 0.26±0.08 ,the mean vertical deviations were 0.06±0.15 mm and 0.02±0.05 mm for the laser group and the conventional drilling group, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to prepare an implant bed properly with the aid of Er,Cr:YSGGlaser by using SLA surgical guide. PMID:25606303

  19. Microbiologic results after non-surgical erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet laser or air-abrasive treatment of peri-implantitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Persson, G Rutger; Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie; Lindahl, Christel; Renvert, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess clinical and microbiologic effects of the non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions using either an erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser or an air-abrasive subgingival polishing method. In a 6-month clinical trial, 42 patients with peri-implantitis were treated at one time with an Er:YAG laser or an air-abrasive device. Routine clinical methods were used to monitor clinical conditions. Baseline and 6-month intraoral radiographs were assessed with a software program. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was used to assess 74 bacterial species from the site with the deepest probing depth (PD) at the implant. Non-parametric tests were applied to microbiology data. PD reductions (mean ± SD) were 0.9 ± 0.8 mm and 0.8 ± 0.5 mm in the laser and air-abrasive groups, respectively (not significant). No baseline differences in bacterial counts between groups were found. In the air-abrasive group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus anaerobius were found at lower counts at 1 month after therapy (P <0.001) and with lower counts in the laser group for Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme (P = 0.002), and Fusobacterium nucleatum nucleatum (P = 0.002). Both treatments failed to reduce bacterial counts at 6 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis counts were higher in cases with progressive peri-implantitis (P <0.001). At 1 month, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. anaerobius were reduced in the air-abrasive group, and Fusobacterium spp. were reduced in the laser group. Six-month data demonstrated that both methods failed to reduce bacterial counts. Clinical improvements were limited.

  20. Histological Evaluation of Retina after Photo Disruption for Vitreous Humor by Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kameel Ghaly, Sally; Foad Ghoneim, Dina; Abdelkawi Ahmed, Salwa; Medhat Abdel-Salam, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rabbits’ eyes were exposed to vitreous humor liquefaction with Q - switched (sometimes called “ giant pulses”) Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser using two different energy protocols (5 mJ X 100 pulse and 10 mJ X 50 pulse)with and without vitamin C administration. The histological changes in the retina were investigated to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C. Methods: The rabbits were divided into four main groups (n= 12 each). The first group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) and then treated with 5 mJ X 100 pulse (X means times) delivered to the anterior, middle and posterior vitreous humor respectively. The second group received a daily dose of 25 mg/Kg vitamin C for two weeks then was divided into three subgroups and treated with laser in the same manner as the first group.The third group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) and then treated with 10 mJ X 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle and posterior vitreous respectively. The fourth group received a daily dose of 25 mg/Kg vitamin C for two weeks then was divided into three subgroups and treated with laser in the same manner as the third group. After two weeks, rabbits were decapitated and histological examination for the retina was performed. Results: The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to 5mJX100 pulse and supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups showed alteration in retina’s tissues histology after laser. Conclusion: Application of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in vitreous humor liquefaction induces changes in retina’s layers. Although there were some sorts of improvements in retinas supplemented with vitamin C, it cannot protect them against laser oxidative damage. PMID:25606329

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline Nd{sup 3+}-doped gadolinium scandium aluminum garnet powders by a gel-combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jing, E-mail: zlj007@126.com; Miao, Ju-hong; Xu, Lin-hua

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The graph shows the emission spectra (λ{sub ex} = 808 nm) of 1 at.% Nd:GSAG powders sintered at different temperatures for 3 h. Compared with the powder sintered at 900 °C, the PL intensity of the powder sintered at 1000 °C decreased significantly. The changes in the PL intensity should mainly due to the crystallinity and dispersion of the powders. Highlights: ► We synthesized Nd:GSAG nano-powders by gel-combustion method successfully. ► We analyzed the structure and the morphology of the heat-treated products. ► We studied the optical characteristics of Nd:GSAG nano-powders. -- Abstract: Nd{sup 3+}-doped gadolinium scandium aluminummore » garnet (Nd:GSAG) precursor was synthesized by a gel combustion method using metal nitrates and citric acid as raw materials. The structure and morphology of the precursor and the sintered powders were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the precursor transformed into pure GSAG polycrystalline phase at about 800 °C, and the powders sintered at 800–1000 °C were well-dispersed with average particle sizes in the range of 30–80 nm. Optical properties of Nd:GSAG nano-powders were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The highest photoluminescence intensity was achieved for the powder sintered at 900 °C.« less

  2. Chemical properties of Garnets from Garnet Ridge, Navajo volcanic field in the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, I.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Significant amounts of garnet crystals have derived from kimberlitic diatremes at Garnet Ridge in northern Arizona. These garnets are chemically diverse and their origins have been still controversial. The diatremes at Garnet Ridge were dated at 30Ma (Smith et al., 2004). Coesite-bearing lawsonite eclogite reported by Usui et al., (2003) is important evidence for subduction of the Fallaron Plate below the Colorado plateau. This study characterized various kinds of garnets with several origins by petrographical observations and electron microprobe analyses (JXA-8900 WDS mode and JXA-733 EDS mode). On the basis of the chemical compositions and other features, the garnets were classified into the following 8 groups (A to H). Inclusions and exsolved phases were identified by laser Raman spectroscopy. (A) Garnet crystals (5-8 mm) with purple color are called ''Navajo Ruby''. A significant amount of Cr2O3 is a typical feature (up to ~5.9 wt. %). These garnet were rich in pyrope (66-78 mol. %). Olivine, Cpx, and exsolved lamellae of rutile were contained. (B) Reddish brown garnets were Pyp-rich (60-75 mol. %), and contained a minor amount of Cr2O3 (less than ~1 wt. %). The inclusions were rod-shaped rutile , Cpx, Opx, zircon, olivine and exsolved lamellae of apatite. (C) Garnet megacrysts (8-12 cm) were plotted near the center of Prp-Alm-Grs triangle (Pyp30-35 Alm28-33 Grs29-35). Exsolved apatite lamellae were confirmed. (D) Some of reddish brown garnets were plotted on same area as the Type-C. (E) Garnets in eclogite have Alm-rich composition (Pyp6-22 Alm52-65 Grs16-42). They clearly showed prograde chemical zonation; MgO: 1.4 to 5.4 wt. %, CaO: 14.0 to 5.6 wt. % both from core to rim. (F) Garnets in altered or metasomatized eclogite had a wide range of chemical composition (Pyp7-38 Alm52-69 Grs4-31) with similar prograde zonation. The cores were plotted near the rim of Type-E garnet. (G) Garnets in unidentified rock (strongly altered) had Alm-rich composition near Alm

  3. Optical pressure and temperature sensor based on the luminescence properties of Nd3+ ion in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal.

    PubMed

    León-Luis, S F; Muñoz-Santiuste, J E; Lavín, V; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U R

    2012-04-23

    Hypersensitivity to pressure and temperature is observed in the near-infrared emission lines of the Nd(3+) ion in a Cr(3+),Nd(3+):Gd(3)Sc(2)Ga(3)O(12) crystal, associated to the R(1,2)((4)F(3/2))→Z(5)((4)I(9/2)) and R(1,2)((4)F(3/2))→Z(1)((4)I(9/2)) transitions. The former emissions show large linear pressure coefficients of -11.3 cm(-1)/GPa and -8.8 cm(-1)/GPa, while the latter show high thermal sensitivity in the low temperature range. Thus this garnet crystal can be considered a potential optical pressure and/or temperature sensor in high pressure and temperature experiments up to 12 GPa and below room temperature, used in diamond anvil cells and excited with different UV and visible commercial laser due to the multiple Cr(3+) and Nd(3+) absorption bands. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  4. Growth, structural, spectroscopic, thermal, dielectric and optical study of cobalt sulphide-doped ADP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochuparampil, A. P.; Joshi, J. H.; Joshi, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    As ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) is a popular nonlinear optical crystal, to engineer its linear and nonlinear optical properties, the chalcogenide compound cobalt sulphide (CoS) was doped and the crystals were grown by the slow solvent evaporation method. To increase the solubility of CoS in water, its nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical technique using ethylene diamine as the capping agent followed by microwave irradiation. The nanoparticle sample exhibited finite solubility in water and was used to dope in ADP crystals. The powder XRD patterns showed the single phase nature of the doped crystals. The FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of various functional groups and EDAX gave the estimation of Co and S elements. The EPR spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of cobalt in the doped samples. TGA indicated slightly less thermal stability of the doped crystals compared to the pure ADP. The dielectric study was carried out at room temperature in the frequency range from 100Hz to 1MHz. Also, various linear optical parameters were evaluated for pure and doped crystals using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of Nd:YAG laser was evaluated by the Kurtz and Parry method for the doped samples, it was found to be slightly lesser than that of the pure ADP crystals.

  5. Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Truher, Joel B.; Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900.degree. C.), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180.degree. C. for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180.degree. C.) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide.

  6. Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Truher, J.B.; Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1994-09-13

    A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate is disclosed. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900 C), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180 C for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180 C) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide. 5 figs.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of gel grown zinc doped calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawanshi, V. B.; Chaudhari, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of zinc doping on the gel grown calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals was studied using the spectroscopic techniques, which included SEM, FTIR and EDAX. It was found that, zinc ions transform the morphology of brushite crystals from rectangular plate shaped crystals to branching microcrystal patterns. However in FT-IR spectroscopy, as compared to undoped brushite crystals few vibrations were shifted to higher value. The observed changes in the vibrations were due to the impact of zinc ions. EDAX techniques is use to determine the percentage composition of elements present in the doped crystals. It revealed that the sample was of a mixed composition.

  8. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOEpatents

    Haller, Eugene E.; Brundermann, Erik

    2000-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  9. Growth of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde doped triglycine sulphate single crystals and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Sreenivas, K.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with 1 mol% of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde (DB) have been grown from aqueous solution at ambient temperature by slow evaporation technique. The effect of dopant on the crystal growth and dielectric, pyroelectric and mechanical properties of TGS crystal have been investigated. X-ray powder diffraction pattern for pure and doped TGS was collected to determine the lattice parameters. FTIR spectra were employed to confirm the presence of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde in TGS crystal, qualitatively. The dielectric permittivity has been studied as a function of temperature by cooling the sample at a rate of 1 °C/min. An increase in the Curie temperature Tc=51 °C (for pure TGS, Tc=48.5 °C) and decrease in maximum permittivity has been observed for doped TGS when compared to pure TGS crystal. Pyroelectric studies on doped TGS were carried out to determine pyroelectric coefficient. The Vickers's hardness of the doped TGS crystals along (0 1 0) face is higher than that of pure TGS crystal for the same face. Domain patterns on b-cut plates were observed using scanning electron microscope. The low dielectric constant, higher pyroelectric coefficient and higher value of hardness suggest that doped TGS crystals could be a potential material for IR detectors.

  10. Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.

    2015-02-21

    Initially, the alkaline-earth scintillator, CaI 2:Eu 2+, was discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, CaI 2:Eu 2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI 2:Eu 2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of CaI2:Eu 2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. Like the early SrI 2:Eu 2+ scintillator, themore » performance of CaI 2:Eu 2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, at least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI 2:Eu 2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to CaI 2:Eu 2+ and pure CaI 2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the CaI 2:Eu 2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles - so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of CaI 2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both CaI 2:Eu 2+ and un-doped CaI 2. Moreover, large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the scintillation properties of CaI 2:Eu 2+ and pure CaI 2 single crystals are presented that include studies of the effects of plastic deformation of the crystals on the scintillator performance.« less

  11. High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; McCoy, Jedidiah

    Here, Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 10 16 and 10 20 cm –3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 10 17 cm –3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a secondmore » phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20–30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm 2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 10 17/cm 3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200–300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 10 16 cm –3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 10 18 cm –3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.« less

  12. High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; McCoy, Jedidiah; ...

    2018-05-07

    Here, Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 10 16 and 10 20 cm –3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 10 17 cm –3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a secondmore » phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20–30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm 2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 10 17/cm 3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200–300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 10 16 cm –3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 10 18 cm –3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.« less

  13. Effects of Gd/Lu ratio on the luminescence properties and garnet phase stability of Ce3+ activated GdxLu3-xAl5O12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosiewicz, K.; Babin, V.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Beitlerova, A.; Nikl, M.

    2018-06-01

    The luminescence properties of Ce3+ activated (Gd,Lu)3Al5O12 single crystals are investigated as a function of the Gd/Lu ratio with the aim of an improved understanding of the luminescence quenching, energy transfer processes, and garnet phase stability. Upon heavy substitution of Lu with Gd, the target garnet phase becomes thermodynamically unstable and unwanted secondary phase inclusions arise. The secondary phase shows luminescence properties in the UV spectral range. The thermal quenching process of the 5d→4f emission of Ce3+ in the garnet phase is determined by the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence decay time and delayed radiative recombination decays. The results show that the onset of the thermal quenching is moved to lower temperatures with increasing the Gd3+ content. The main mechanism responsible for the luminescence quenching is due to the non-radiative relaxation from 5d1 excited state to 4f ground state of Ce3+. The energy transfer processes between Gd3+ and Ce3+ as well as between secondary and garnet phase are evidenced by the photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra as well as decay kinetic measurements.

  14. Bismuth doping effect on crystal structure and photodegradation activity of Bi-TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Ting-Han

    2017-04-01

    The bismuth precursor is adopted as dopant to synthesize bismuth doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Bi-TiO2 NPs) with sol-gel method following by the thermal annealing treatment. We systematically developed a series of Bi-TiO2 NPs at several calcination temperatures and discovered the corresponding crystal structure by varying the bismuth doping concentration. At a certain 650 °C calcination temperature, the crystal structure of bismuth titanate (Bi2Ti2O7) is formed when the bismuth doping concentration is as high as 10.0 mol %. The photocatalytic activity of Bi-TiO2 NPs is increased by varying the doping concentration at the particular calcination temperature. By the definition X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural identification, a phase diagram of Bi-TiO2 NPs in doping concentration versus calcination temperature is provided. It can be useful for further study in the crystal structure engineering and the development of photocatalyst.

  15. Development of n- and p-type Doped Perovskite Single Crystals Using Solid-State Single Crystal Growth (SSCG) Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-09

    doped BaTiO3 single crystal) could be also fabricated by using a BaTiO3 ceramics with the same compositional gradient (Fig. 8). This result has...piezoelectric applications. Compositionally PZT ceramics lie near the MPB between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases and MPB compositions ...single crystal growth) technique are suitable to grow a variety of “n- and p-type doped” perovskite single crystals of complicated compositions . The

  16. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  17. Laser intervention on trabeculo-Descemet's membrane after resistant viscocanalostomy: Selective 532 nm gonioreconditioning or conventional 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser goniopuncture?

    PubMed Central

    Sabur, Huri; Baykara, Mehmet; Can, Basak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the results of conventional 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet laser goniopuncture (Nd:YAG-GP) and selective 532 nm Nd:YAG laser (selective laser trabeculoplasty [SLT]) gonioreconditioning (GR) on trabeculo-Descemet's membrane in eyes resistant to viscocanalostomy surgery. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 35 patients who underwent laser procedure after successful viscocanalostomy surgery were included in the study. When postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was above the individual target, the eyes were scheduled for laser procedure. Nineteen eyes underwent 532 nm SLT-GR (Group 1), and the remaining 19 eyes underwent conventional 1064 nm Nd:YAG-GP (Group 2). IOPs before and after laser (1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and last visit), follow-up periods, number of glaucoma medications, and complications were recorded for both groups. Results: Mean times from surgery to laser procedures were 17.3 ± 9.6 months in Group 1 and 13.0 ± 11.4 months in Group 2. Mean IOPs before laser procedures were 21.2 ± 1.7 mmHg in Group 1 and 22.8 ± 1.9 mmHg in Group 2 (P = 0.454). Postlaser IOP measurements of Group 1 were 12.1 ± 3.4 mmHg and 13.8 ± 1.7 mmHg in the 1st week and last visit, respectively; in Group 2, these measurements were 13.6 ± 3.7 mmHg and 14.9 ± 4.8 mmHg, respectively. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) in IOP reduction at all visits in both groups; the results of the two groups were similar (P > 0.05). Mean follow-up was 16.6 ± 6.4 months after SLT-GR and 18.9 ± 11.2 months after Nd:YAG-GP. Conclusions: While conventional Nd:YAG-GP and SLT-GR, a novel procedure, are both effective choices in eyes resistant to viscocanalostomy, there are fewer complications with SLT-GR. SLT-GR can be an alternative to conventional Nd:YAG-GP. PMID:27688277

  18. Mechanism of radiative recombination in acceptor-doped bulk GaN crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, M.; Suski, T.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Bergman, J. P.; Chen, W. M.; Monemar, B.

    1999-12-01

    Optical and electrical properties of acceptor-doped bulk GaN crystals are discussed. Though introducing Zn and Ca to bulk GaN does not significantly change electron concentration, it results in the appearance of a blue photoluminescence band accompanying the relatively strong yellow band usually present. Highly resistive GaN : Mg crystals are obtained when high amount of Mg is introduced to the Ga melt during high-pressure synthesis. Change of electrical properties of Mg-doped bulk crystals is accompanied by the appearance of a strong blue emission of GaN similar to that in Ca- and Zn-doped crystals. Optically detected magnetic resonance investigations indicate a multi-band character of this blue emission and suggest possible mechanism of compensation in acceptor-doped bulk GaN.

  19. Effect of amino acid doping on the growth and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, C.M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2008-02-05

    Effect of amino acids (L-leucine and isoleucine) doping on the growth aspects and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate crystals has been studied. Pure and doped crystals were grown from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique. The cell parameter values were found to significantly vary for doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. Morphology study reveals that amino acid doping induces faster growth rate along b-direction leading to a wide b-plane and hence suitable for pyroelectric detector applications. Ferroelectric domain structure has been studied by atomic force microscopy and hysteresismore » measurements reveal an increase of coercive field due to the formation of single domain pattern.« less

  20. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, Daniel

    2017-03-31

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering.

  1. Growth and characterization of pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, M.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2012-06-01

    The pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 1 mol%. There is a change in unit cell. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of glycine into CTS crystal. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones. The dopant increases the hardness value of the material. The grown crystals were also subjected to thermal and NLO studies.

  2. Enhanced optical, thermal and piezoelectric behavior in dye doped potassium acid phthalate (KAP) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Dye inclusion crystals have attracted researchers in the context of crystal growth for applications in solid state lasers. Pure and 0.1 mol% amaranth doped KAP single crystals, were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystals are up to the dimension of 12×10×3 mm3. Attempt is made to improve the growth rate, optical, piezoelectric and photoconductive properties of pure KAP single crystal with addition of amaranth dye as a dopant. Various characterization studies were made for both pure and dye doped KAP. Thermal stability of the crystals is tested from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). There is only one endothermic peak indicating decomposition point. Higher optical transparency for dye doped KAP crystal was identified from the UV-vis spectrum. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with amaranth dye. The positive photoconductive nature is observed from both pure and amaranth doped KAP.

  3. Effect of doping with nickel ions on the structural state of a zinc oxide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, S. F.; Sokolov, V. I.; Parkhomenko, V. D.; Maksimov, V. I.; Gruzdev, N. B.

    2009-10-01

    The fine structure of a hexagonal zinc oxide crystal doped with nickel ions of the composition Zn1 - x Ni x O has been studied using neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is established that even at very low doping levels ( x = 0.0004), the crystal undergoes local distortions in basal planes of the initial hexagonal lattice. The local distortions are assumed to be sources of the formation of ferromagnetism in compounds of this class.

  4. Microscopic Mechanism of Doping-Induced Kinetically Constrained Crystallization in Phase-Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Loke, Desmond; Elliott, Stephen R

    2015-10-07

    A comprehensive microscopic mechanism of doping-induced kinetically constrained crystallization in phase-change materials is provided by investigating structural and dynamical dopant characteristics via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The information gained from this study may provide a basis for a fast screening of dopant species for electronic memory devices, or for understanding the general physics involved in the crystallization of doped glasses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Growth and characterization of divalent transition metal ions doped zinc hydrogen phosphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Delma; Jagannatha, N.; Nagaraja, K. P.; Rohith, P. S.; Pradeepkumar, K. V.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc hydrogen phosphate (ZnHP) single crystal co-doped with divalent transition metal ions Cobalt (Co2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) is grown by gel technique in silica hydro gel media. The presence of Co2+ and Cd2+ dopants in the ZnHP crystal was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX).FTIR spectra of the grown crystal depict the stretching and bending vibration of PO4 units, water of crystallization and metal-oxygen bonds. Powder XRD analysis reveals that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system with spacegroup P 21. The thermal stability of the grown crystal is rectified from TG-DSC studies.

  6. Growth and characterization of KDP crystals doped with L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, R; Rajasekaran, R; Samuel, Bincy Susan

    2013-03-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) doped with L-aspartic acid has been grown by solvent slow evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solution of KDP and 0.7% of L-aspartic acid at room temperature. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, FTIR analysis. The doping of aspartic acid was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The Nonlinear optical property (SHG) of L-aspartic acid doped KDP has been confirmed. Microhardness studies were carried out on the grown crystal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical and Electrical Properties of Sn-Doped Zinc Oxide Single Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Haseman, M. S.; Saadatkia, Pooneh; Warfield, J. T.; ...

    2017-11-28

    Here, Sn dopant in ZnO may significantly improve the n-type conductivity of ZnO through a characteristic double effect. However, studies on bulk Sn-doped ZnO are rare, and the effect of Sn doping on the optoelectronic properties of bulk ZnO is not well understood. In this work, the effect of Sn doping on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO bulk single crystals was investigated through optical absorption spectroscopy, Hall-effect measurements, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. Undoped and Sn-doped ZnO single crystals were grown by chemical vapor transport method and characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis. The Sn doping level in the crystalsmore » was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy measurements. Hall-effect measurements revealed an increase in conductivity and carrier concentration with increasing Sn doping, while TL measurements identified a few donor species in the crystals with donor ionization energy ranging from 35 meV to 118 meV. Increasing Sn doping was also associated with a color change of single crystals from colorless to dark blue.« less

  8. Fabrication of a dye-doped liquid crystal light shutter by thermal curing of polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Byeong-Hun; Ji, Seong-Min; Kim, Jin-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2017-07-01

    We report a thermal curing method for fabrication of a dye-doped polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) light shutter, which can prevent the decrease in absorption and discoloration of the dye caused by the UV curing process. We found that the measured transmittance in the opaque state of a dye-doped PSLC cell fabricated by thermal curing was approximately 35% lower than that of a dye-doped PSLC cell fabricated by UV curing. Thermal curing can be an alternative approach for fabrication of a dye-doped PSLC light shutter which can be used to provide high visibility of a see-through display.

  9. Patterning of silver nanoparticles on visible light-sensitive Mn-doped lithium niobate photogalvanic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaoyan; Ohuchi, Fumio; Hatano, Hideki

    2011-08-01

    Visible light-induced polarization-dependent photochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been demonstrated using Mn-doped congruent LiNbO{sub 3} (CLN) single crystals. Mn-doped CLN has a strong absorption over a wide region of the visible spectrum that allowed effective visible light irradiation for photochemical deposition. The AgNPs deposition on Mn-doped CLN was compared with that on non-doped congruent LiNbO{sub 3}, and together these further confirmed that the photochemical deposition on LiNbO{sub 3} is caused by the strong photogalvanic effect.

  10. Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Goel, Neeti; Singh, B. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Kumar, Binay

    2012-06-01

    Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (Tc) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications.

  11. Defect studies of ZnO single crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, J.; Žaludová, N.; Vlach, M.; Daniš, S.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

    2008-03-01

    Various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. The hydrogen content in the crystals is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and it is found that already 0.3at.% H exists in chemically bound form in the virgin ZnO crystals. A single positron lifetime of 182ps is detected in the virgin crystals and attributed to saturated positron trapping at Zn vacancies surrounded by hydrogen atoms. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to ˜30at.%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. More than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e., incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. This drastic increase of the hydrogen concentration is of marginal impact on the measured positron lifetime, whereas a contribution of positrons annihilated by electrons belonging to O-H bonds formed in the hydrogen doped crystal is found in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra. The formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface of the hydrogen doped crystals by optical microscopy is observed and discussed.

  12. Thermally and optically stimulated radiative processes in Eu and Y co-doped LiCaAlF6 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    Yttrium co-doping was attempted to enhance dosimeter performance of Eu doped LiCaAlF6 crystal. Eu doped and Eu, Y co-doped LiCaAlF6 were prepared by the micro-pulling-down technique, and their dosimeter characteristics such as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) were investigated. By yttrium co-doping, emission intensities of OSL and TSL were enhanced by some orders of magnitude. In contrast, scintillation characteristics of yttrium co-doped crystal such as intensity of prompt luminescence induced by X-ray and light yield under neutron irradiation were degraded.

  13. Dielectric and domain studies on Fe doped KNbO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamkuwar, Sanjaykumar H.; Patil, Naresh M.; Korde, Vivek B.; Pradnyakar, Namrata V.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis of Fe doped KNbO3 single crystals by flux method is reported here. The effect of Fe-doping on phase transition temperatures of KNbO3 single crystals was investigated using dielectric studies. The phase transition temperatures were found to be 225°C and 425°C which almost same as reported by others. The domain studies were carried out using metallurgical microscope and it shows the presence of 60° and 90° domains in the grown crystals.

  14. Efficacy and safety of fractional Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser in the treatment of melasma in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yue, Baishuang; Yang, Qianli; Xu, Jinhua; Lu, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Melasma is an acquired disorder of symmetrical hyperpigmentation commonly seen in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV. Various novel therapeutic modalities have emerged to treat melasma. The large-spot low-fluence QS Nd:YAG laser has been widely used in Asia; however, the modality needs to be optimized because of the high recurrence rate. The objective of this study is to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of fractional-mode (Pixel) Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) 1064-nm laser for treatment of melasma in Chinese patients. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled and completed all the treatment sessions and the 12-week follow-up. All were treated using the fractional-mode Pixel QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser for eight sessions at a 2-3-week interval. Clinical photographs were taken using the Visia skin analysis imaging system. Two blinded assessors evaluated melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores before and 4 weeks after the final session. Melanin index (MI) and erythema index (EI) was measured before each treatment visit and after the final treatment. The degree of pigmentation and erythema was assessed using a tristimulus color analyzer. Physicians' global assessment (PGA) and patients' self-assessment were taken as the subjective assessments. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to evaluate clinical response. Recurrence rate were also evaluated. Mean MASI scores decreased from 12.84 ± 6.89 to 7.29 ± 4.15 after treatment (p = 0.000). Seventy percent of patients got moderate to good improvements after all the treatment. Mean MI decreased significantly from 56.52 ± 23.35 to 32.75 ± 12.91 (p = 0.000). L value increased from 59.21 ± 2.22 before treatment to 61.60 ± 2.40 (p = 0.000) after therapy. The mean score of PGA was 3.76 ± 0.71, indicating a "moderate" clearance of the lesion. In patients' self-evaluations, 70 % of the patients rated the result as "good" to

  15. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission in a quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yan, Chao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Guang; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-01

    Quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (QD-PDLCs) were prepared by photoinitiated polymerization and sealed in capillary tubes. The concentration of QDs in the PDLC was 1 wt%. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the quantum dot-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was observed with 532 nm wavelength laser excitation. The threshold for ASE was 6 mJ cm-2, which is much lower than that for homogeneous quantum dot-doped polymer (25 mJ cm-2). The threshold for ASE was dramatically enhanced when the working temperature exceeded the clearing point of the liquid crystal; this result demonstrates that multi-scattering caused by the liquid crystals effectively improved the path length or dwell time of light in the gain region, which played a key role in decreasing the threshold for ASE.

  16. DC electrical conductivity measurements for pure and titanium oxide doped KDP Crystals grown by gel medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareeswaran, S.; Asaithambi, T.

    2016-10-01

    Now a day's crystals are the pillars of current technology. Crystals are applied in various fields like fiber optic communications, electronic industry, photonic industry, etc. Crystal growth is an interesting and innovative field in the subject of physics, chemistry, material science, metallurgy, chemical engineering, mineralogy and crystallography. In recent decades optically good quality of pure and metal doped KDP crystals have been grown by gel growth method in room temperature and its characterizations were studied. Gel method is a very simple and one of the easiest methods among the various crystal growth methods. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 (KDP) continues to be an interesting material both academically and technologically. KDP is a delegate of hydrogen bonded materials which possess very good electrical and nonlinear optical properties in addition to interesting electro-optic properties. We made an attempt to grow pure and titanium oxide doped KDP crystals with various doping concentrations (0.002, 0.004, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.010) using gel method. The grown crystals were collected after 20 days. We get crystals with good quality and shaped crystals. The dc electrical conductivity (resistance, capacitance and dielectric constant) values of the above grown crystals were measured at two different frequencies (1KHz and 100 Hz) with a temperature range of 500C to 1200C using simple two probe setup with Q band digital LCR meter present in our lab. The electrical conductivity increases with the increase of temperature. Dielectric constants value of titanium oxide doped KDP crystal was slightly decreased compared with pure KDP crystals. Results were discussed in details.

  17. Defect modes in silver-doped photonic crystals made by holography using dichromated gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Rui; Chen, Shujing; Ren, Zhi; Wang, Zhaona; Liu, Dahe

    2012-10-01

    The defect mode in silver-doped photonic crystals is investigated. 1D and 3D photonic crystals were made by holography using dichromated gelatin mixed with silver nitrate. By controlling the concentration of the silver nitrate, the defect mode was observed in the bandgaps of the holographic photonic crystals. The numerical simulations were made, and the results showed the consistency with the experimental observations.

  18. Positive hysteresis of Ce-doped GAGG scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Watanabe, Kenichi; Sato, Hiroki; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takagimi

    2014-10-01

    Positive hysteresis and radiation tolerance to high-dose radiation exposure were investigated for Ce 1% and 3% doped Gd3(Al, Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG) crystal scintillator on comparison with other garnet scintillators such Ce:YAG, Ce:LuAG, Pr:LuAG, and ceramic Ce:GAGG. When they were irradiated by several Gy 60Co γ-rays, Ce 1% doped GAGG crystal exhibited ∼20% light yield enhancement (positive hysteresis). This is the first time to observe positive hysteresis in Ce doped GAGG. On the other hand, other garnet materials did not show the positive hysteresis and their light yields were stable after 800 Gy irradiation except Pr:LuAG. The light yield of Pr:LuAG decreased largely. When irradiated Ce:GAGG which showed positive hysteresis was evaluated in Synchrotron facility (UVSOR), new excitation band was created around 60 nm.

  19. Hydrous Na-garnet from Garnet Ridge; products of mantle metasomatism underneath the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamaki, Kunihiko; Sato, Yuto; Ogasawara, Yoshihide

    2016-12-01

    This is the first report on amphibole exsolution in pyrope from the Colorado Plateau. Pyrope crystals delivered from mantle depths underneath the Colorado Plateau by kimberlitic volcanism at 30 Ma were collected at Garnet Ridge, northern Arizona. The garnet grains analyzed in this study occur as discrete crystals (without adjacent rock matrix) and are classified into two major groups, Cr-rich pyrope and Cr-poor pyrope. The Cr-poor pyrope group is divided into four subgroups based on exsolved phases: amphibole lamella type, ilmenite lamella type, dense lamellae type, and clinopyroxene/amphibole lamellae type. Exsolved amphibole occurs in amphibole lamella type, dense lamellae type, and clinopyroxene/amphibole lamellae type of Cr-poor pyrope. The amphibole crystals tend to have preferred orientations in their garnet hosts and occur as monomineralic hexagonal or rhombic prisms and tablets, and as multimineralic needles or blades with other exsolved phases. Exsolved amphibole has pargasitic compositions (Na2O up to 1.6 apfu based on 23 oxygen). Garnet host crystals that have undergone amphibole exsolution have low OH contents (2-42 ppmw H2O) compared to garnets that do not have amphibole lamellae (up to 115 ppmw H2O). The low OH contents of garnets hosting amphibole lamellae suggest loss of OH from garnet during amphibole exsolution. Amphibole exsolution from pyrope resulted from breakdown of a precursor "hydrous Na-garnet" composition (Mg,Na+ x)3(Al2 - x, Mgx)2Si3O12 - 2x(OH)2x. Exsolution of amphibole and other phases probably occurred during exhumation to depths shallower than 100 km prior to volcanic eruption.

  20. Highly reproducible alkali metal doping system for organic crystals through enhanced diffusion of alkali metal by secondary thermal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinho; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Koo, Jin Young; Yoon, Taekyung; Kim, Jun Sung; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2018-05-16

    In this paper, we report an efficient alkali metal doping system for organic single crystals. Our system employs an enhanced diffusion method for the introduction of alkali metal into organic single crystals by controlling the sample temperature to induce secondary thermal activation. Using this system, we achieved intercalation of potassium into picene single crystals with closed packed crystal structures. Using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we confirmed that the resulting samples were uniformly doped and became K 2 picene single crystal, while only parts of the crystal are doped and transformed into K 2 picene without secondary thermal activation. Moreover, using a customized electrical measurement system, the insulator-to-semiconductor transition of picene single crystals upon doping was confirmed by in situ electrical conductivity and ex situ temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. X-ray diffraction studies showed that potassium atoms were intercalated between molecular layers of picene, and doped samples did not show any KH- nor KOH-related peaks, indicating that picene molecules are retained without structural decomposition. During recent decades, tremendous efforts have been exerted to develop high-performance organic semiconductors and superconductors, whereas as little attention has been devoted to doped organic crystals. Our method will enable efficient alkali metal doping of organic crystals and will be a resource for future systematic studies on the electrical property changes of these organic crystals upon doping.

  1. Thermoelectric Properties of Highly-Crystallized Ge-Te-Se Glasses Doped with Cu/Bi.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhuvanesh; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Dorcet, Vincent; Samanta, Manisha; Biswas, Kanishka; Lefèvre, Robin; Gascoin, Franck; Cheviré, François; Tricot, Sylvain; Reece, Michael; Bureau, Bruno

    2017-03-23

    Chalcogenide semiconducting systems are of growing interest for mid-temperature range (~500 K) thermoelectric applications. In this work, Ge 20 Te 77 Se₃ glasses were intentionally crystallized by doping with Cu and Bi. These effectively-crystallized materials of composition (Ge 20 Te 77 Se₃) 100- x M x (M = Cu or Bi; x = 5, 10, 15), obtained by vacuum-melting and quenching techniques, were found to have multiple crystalline phases and exhibit increased electrical conductivity due to excess hole concentration. These materials also have ultra-low thermal conductivity, especially the heavily-doped (Ge 20 Te 77 Se₃) 100- x Bi x ( x = 10, 15) samples, which possess lattice thermal conductivity of ~0.7 Wm -1 K -1 at 525 K due to the assumable formation of nano-precipitates rich in Bi, which are effective phonon scatterers. Owing to their high metallic behavior, Cu-doped samples did not manifest as low thermal conductivity as Bi-doped samples. The exceptionally low thermal conductivity of the Bi-doped materials did not, alone, significantly enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT. The attempt to improve the thermoelectric properties by crystallizing the chalcogenide glass compositions by excess doping did not yield power factors comparable with the state of the art thermoelectric materials, as these highly electrically conductive crystallized materials could not retain the characteristic high Seebeck coefficient values of semiconducting telluride glasses.

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Highly-Crystallized Ge-Te-Se Glasses Doped with Cu/Bi

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Bhuvanesh; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Dorcet, Vincent; Samanta, Manisha; Biswas, Kanishka; Lefèvre, Robin; Gascoin, Franck; Cheviré, François; Tricot, Sylvain; Reece, Michael; Bureau, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Chalcogenide semiconducting systems are of growing interest for mid-temperature range (~500 K) thermoelectric applications. In this work, Ge20Te77Se3 glasses were intentionally crystallized by doping with Cu and Bi. These effectively-crystallized materials of composition (Ge20Te77Se3)100−xMx (M = Cu or Bi; x = 5, 10, 15), obtained by vacuum-melting and quenching techniques, were found to have multiple crystalline phases and exhibit increased electrical conductivity due to excess hole concentration. These materials also have ultra-low thermal conductivity, especially the heavily-doped (Ge20Te77Se3)100−xBix (x = 10, 15) samples, which possess lattice thermal conductivity of ~0.7 Wm−1 K−1 at 525 K due to the assumable formation of nano-precipitates rich in Bi, which are effective phonon scatterers. Owing to their high metallic behavior, Cu-doped samples did not manifest as low thermal conductivity as Bi-doped samples. The exceptionally low thermal conductivity of the Bi-doped materials did not, alone, significantly enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT. The attempt to improve the thermoelectric properties by crystallizing the chalcogenide glass compositions by excess doping did not yield power factors comparable with the state of the art thermoelectric materials, as these highly electrically conductive crystallized materials could not retain the characteristic high Seebeck coefficient values of semiconducting telluride glasses. PMID:28772687

  3. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host

  4. Growth and characterization of pure and Cadmium chloride doped KDP Crystals grown by gel medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, M. S.; Asaithambi, T.

    2016-10-01

    Crystal growth technology provides an important basis for many industrial branches. Crystals are the unrecognized pillars of modern technology. Without crystals, there is no electronic industry, no photonic industry, and no fiber optic communications. Single crystals play a major role and form the strongest base for the fast growing field of engineering, science and technology. Crystal growth is an interdisciplinary subject covering physics, chemistry, material science, chemical engineering, metallurgy, crystallography, mineralogy, etc. In past few decades, there has been a keen interest on crystal growth processes, particularly in view of the increasing demand of materials for technological applications. Optically good quality pure and metal doped KDP crystals have been grown by gel method at room temperature and their characterization have been studied. Gel method is a much uncomplicated method and can be utilized to synthesize crystals which are having low solubility. Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate KH2PO4 (KDP) continues to be an interesting material both academically and industrially. KDP is a representative of hydrogen bonded materials which possess very good electro - optic and nonlinear optical properties in addition to interesting electrical properties. Due to this interesting properties, we made an attempt to grow pure and cadmium chloride doped KDP crystals in various concentrations (0.002, 0.004, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.010) using gel method. The grown crystals were collected after 20 days. We get crystals with good quality and shaped. The dc electrical conductivity (resistance, capacitance and dielectric constant) values were measured at frequencies in the range of 1 KHZ and 100 HZ of pure and cadmium chloride added crystal with a temperature range of 400C to 1300C using simple two probe setup with Q band digital LCR meter present in our lab. The electrical conductivity increases with increase of temperature. The dielectric constants of metal doped KDP

  5. Free carrier absorption in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Y3(Al0.25Ga0.75)3O12 and Gd3Al2Ga3O12 garnet scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffray, E.; Korjik, M.; Lucchini, M. T.; Nargelas, S.; Sidletskiy, O.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tratsiak, Y.; Vaitkevičius, A.

    2016-08-01

    Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in the scintillators prospective for fast timing in high energy physics and medical imaging applications was studied. The time-resolved free carrier absorption investigation was carried out to study the dynamics of nonequilibrium carriers in wide-band-gap scintillation materials: self-activated led tungstate (PbWO4, PWO) ant two garnet crystals, GAGG:Ce and YAGG:Ce. It was shown that free electrons appear in the conduction band of PWO and YAGG:Ce crystals within a sub-picosecond time scale, while the free holes in GAGG:Ce appear due to delocalization from Gd3+ ground states to the valence band within a few picoseconds after short-pulse excitation. The influence of Gd ions on the nonequilibrium carrier dynamics is discussed on the base of comparison the results of the free carrier absorption in GAGG:Ce containing gadolinium and in YAGG without Gd in the host lattice.

  6. Ferromagnetism in CVT grown tungsten diselenide single crystals with nickel doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Zahir; Khan, Rashid; Wu, Chuanqiang; Rehman, Zia ur; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Hengjie; Song, Li

    2018-03-01

    Two dimensional (2D) single crystal layered transition materials have had extensive consideration owing to their interesting magnetic properties, originating from their lattices and strong spin-orbit coupling, which make them of vital importance for spintronic applications. Herein, we present synthesis of a highly crystalline tungsten diselenide layered single crystal grown by chemical vapor transport technique and doped with nickel (Ni) to tailor its magnetic properties. The pristine WSe2 single crystal and Ni-doped crystal were characterized and analyzed for magnetic properties using both experimental and computational aspects. It was found that the magnetic behavior of the 2D layered WSe2 crystal changed from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic after Ni-doping at all tested temperatures. Moreover, first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations further confirmed the origin of room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni-doped WSe2, where the d-orbitals of the doped Ni atom promoted the spin moment and thus largely contributed to the magnetism change in the 2D layered material.

  7. Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases.

    PubMed

    Stimulak, Mitja; Ravnik, Miha

    2014-09-07

    Blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are demonstrated to combine multiple components with different symmetries in one photonic material, creating a photonic crystal with variable and micro-controllable photonic band structure. In this composite photonic material, one contribution to the band structure is determined by the 3D periodic birefringent orientational profile of the blue phases, whereas the second contribution emerges from the regular array of the colloidal particles or from the dielectric/nanoparticle-doped defect network. Using the planewave expansion method, optical photonic bands of the blue phase I and II colloidal crystals and related nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are calculated, and then compared to blue phases with no particles and to face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic colloidal crystals in isotropic background. We find opening of local band gaps at particular points of Brillouin zone for blue phase colloidal crystals, where there were none in blue phases without particles or dopants. Particle size and filling fraction of the blue phase defect network are demonstrated as parameters that can directly tune the optical bands and local band gaps. In the blue phase I colloidal crystal with an additionally doped defect network, interestingly, we find an indirect total band gap (with the exception of one point) at the entire edge of SC irreducible zone. Finally, this work demonstrates the role of combining multiple - by symmetry - differently organised components in one photonic crystal material, which offers a novel approach towards tunable soft matter photonic materials.

  8. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2017-12-01

    Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 ± 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 1016 to 1017/cm3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 1016 and 1020/cm3 with the highest doping efficiency of 40% occurring near 1017 As/cm3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.

  9. Chromium Recharging Processes in the Y3Al5O12: Mg, Cr Single Crystal under the Reducing and Oxidizing Annealing Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    approximately 0.2% of total number of chromium ions occupied tetrahedral sites forming phototropic centers in the YAG: Mg, Cr crystal. Keywords: yttrium...aluminium garnet, Cr doping, thermal treatment, phototropic centers, optical characterization, electron paramagnetic resonance. 1. INTRODUCTION An...of garnet structure while the main part of chromium occupies octahedral sites in three-valence state. 10-12 The dependence of amount of phototropic

  10. Solid-state reaction kinetics and optical studies of cadmium doped magnesium hydrogen phosphate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Madhu; Gupta, Rashmi; Singh, Harjinder; Bamzai, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    The growth of cadmium doped magnesium hydrogen phosphate was successfully carried out by using room temperature solution technique i.e., gel encapsulation technique. Grown crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system and crystallizes in centrosymmetric space group. Kinetics of the decomposition of the grown crystals were studied by non-isothermal analysis. Thermo gravimetric / differential thermo analytical (TG/DTA) studies revealed that the grown crystal is stable upto 119 °C. The various steps involved in the thermal decomposition of the material have been analysed using Horowitz-Metzger, Coats-Redfern and Piloyan-Novikova equations for evaluating various kinetic parameters. The optical studies shows that the grown crystals possess wide transmittance in the visible region and significant optical band gap of 5.5ev with cut off wavelength of 260 nm.

  11. Vapor Growth and Characterization of Cr-Doped ZnSe Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Volz, M. P.; Matyi, R.; George, M. A.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Burger, A.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Cr-doped ZnSe single crystals were grown by a self-seeded physical vapor transport technique in both vertical (stabilized) and horizontal configurations. The source materials were mixtures of ZnSe and CrSe. Growth temperatures were in the range of 1140-1150 C and the furnace translation rates were 1.9-2.2 mm/day. The surface morphology of the as-grown crystals was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Different features of the as-grown surface of the vertically and horizontally grown crystals suggest that different growth mechanisms were involved in the two growth configurations. The [Cr] doping levels were determined to be in the range of 1.8-8.3 x 10 (exp 19) cm (exp -3) from optical absorption measurements. The crystalline quality of the grown crystals were examined by high-resolution triple-crystal X-ray diffraction (HRTXD) analysis.

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped semiconductor ZrS2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Zahir; Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Chuanqiang; Habib, Muhammad; Rehman, Zia ur; Khan, Rashid; Chen, Shuangming; Wu, Xiaojun; Song, Li

    2018-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) layered magnetic materials have obtained much attention due to their intriguing properties with a potential application in the field of spintronics. Herein, room-temperature ferromagnetism with 0.2 emu g‑1 magnetic moment is realized in Fe-doped ZrS2 single crystals of millimeter size, in comparison with diamagnetic behaviour in ZrS2. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that 5.2wt% Fe-doping ZrS2 crystal exhibit high spin value of g-factor about 3.57 at room temperature also confirmed this evidence, due to the unpaired electrons created by doped Fe atoms. First principle static electronic and magnetic calculations further confirm the increased stability of long range ferromagnetic ordering and enhanced magnetic moment in Fe-doped ZrS2, originating from the Fe spin polarized electron near the Fermi level.

  13. Study on structural, morphological, optical and thermal properties of guanidine carbonate doped nickel sulfate hexahydrate crystal.

    PubMed

    Silambarasan, A; Rajesh, P; Ramasamy, P

    2015-01-05

    The single crystal of guanidine carbonate doped nickel sulfate hexahydrate was grown from solution for ultraviolet filters. The single crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the tetragonal system with the space group of P4₁2₁2. The crystallinity of the grown crystal was estimated by powder X-ray diffraction studies. The optical transmission and thermal stability of as-grown guanidine carbonate doped nickel sulfate single crystals have been studied. The optical transmission spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of ultraviolet filters. The TG/DTA studies confirm the thermal properties of grown crystals. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that the dehydration temperature of the guanidine carbonate doped nickel sulfate crystal is about 100 °C, which is much higher than that of pure nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NSH) crystals which is 72 °C. The growth behaviors and dislocation density were detected under the high resolution XRD and etching studies respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anomalous doping of a molecular crystal monitored with confocal fluorescence microscopy: Terrylene in a p-terphenyl crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białkowska, Magda; Deperasińska, Irena; Makarewicz, Artur; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław

    2017-09-01

    Highly terrylene doped single crystals of p-terphenyl, obtained by co-sublimation of both components, showed bright spots in the confocal fluorescence images. Polarization of the fluorescence excitation spectra, blinking and bleaching, and saturation behavior allowed us to attribute them to single molecules of terrylene anomalously embedded between two neighbor layers of the host crystal, in the (a,b) plane. Such an orientation of terrylene molecules results in much more efficient absorption and collection of the fluorescence photons than in the case of previously investigated molecules embedded in the substitution sites. The above conclusion was supported by quantum chemistry calculations. We postulate that the kind of doping considered in this work should be possible in other molecular crystals where the host molecules are organized in a herringbone pattern.

  15. Temperature tuning of lasing emission from dye-doped liquid crystal at intermediate twisted phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Ja-Hon; Jian, Li-Hao; Chen, Yao-Hui; Wu, Jin-Jei

    2015-07-01

    Temperature tuning of lasing emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) at intermediate twisted phase has been demonstrated in this work. With heavily doping of 42.5% chiral molecules into the nematic liquid crystals, the shifts of photonic bandgap versus temperature is obviously as thermal controlling of the sample below the certain value. By the differential scanning calorimetr measuremet, we demonstrate the phase transition from the CLC to the smectic phase when the temperature is lowered to be about 15°C. Between CLC and smectic phase, the liquid crystal mixtures are operated at intermediate twisted phase that can be used the temperature related refractive mirror. After pump by the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, the lasing emission from this dye doped LC mixtures has been demonstrated whose emission wavelength can be tuned from 566 to 637 nm with 1.4°C variation.

  16. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low.

  17. Crystal Growth and Luminescence Properties of Yb-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 Infra-red Scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Nagata, Shinji; Yamamura, Tomoo; Pejchal, Jan; Yamaji, Akihiro; Yokota, Yuui; Shirasaki, Kenji; Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai; Shikama, Tatsuo; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-07-01

    1-mol%-Yb-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 infra-red scintillator crystal has been studied as a novel implantable radiation monitor in radiation therapy. Powder X-ray diffraction measurement and chemical analysis with a field emission scanning microscope and wavelength dispersive spectrometer determined its garnet structure and average chemical composition of Yb0.03±0.01Gd2.99±0.07Al2.21±0.08Ga2.64±0.09O12.10±0.09. Transmittance measurements reached high values of approximately 70% in the human body transparency region between 650 to 1200 nm. Photoluminescence peaks were detected around 970 and 1030 nm under the 940 nm excitation with a Xe lamp. Infra-red scintillation emissions were clearly observed around 970 and 1030 nm due to Yb3+ 4f-4f transitions under X-ray excitation. Therefore, these results suggest that Yb-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 might be used as an infra-red scintillator material.

  18. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows.

  19. The investigation of Ce doped ZnO crystal: The electronic, optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Qiu, Ze-Gang; Yang, Xu; Li, Zhi-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The electronic, optical and magnetic properties of Ce doped ZnO crystal have been studied by using first principles method. The research of formation energies show that Ce doped ZnO is energetically stable, and the formation energies reduce from 6.25% to 12.5% for Ce molar percentage. The energy band is still direct band gap after Ce doped, and band gap increases with the increase of Cesbnd Ce distance. The Fermi level moves upward into conduction band and the DOS moves to lower energy with the increase of Ce concentration, which showing the properties of n-type semiconductor. The calculated optical properties imply that Ce doped causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light. The transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic has been found in Ce doped ZnO.

  20. Superconductivity in Sm-doped CaFe2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Yun, Chen; Bin-Bin, Ruan; Jia, Yu; Qi, Guo; Xiao-Chuan, Wang; Qing-Ge, Mu; Bo-Jin, Pan; Tong, Liu; Gen-Fu, Chen; Zhi-An, Ren

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the Sm-doping single crystals Ca1 - x Sm x Fe2As2 (x = 0 ˜ 0.2) were prepared by the CaAs flux method, and followed by a rapid quenching treatment after the high temperature growth. The samples were characterized by structural, resistive, and magnetic measurements. The successful Sm-substitution was revealed by the reduction of the lattice parameter c, due to the smaller ionic radius of Sm3+ than Ca2+. Superconductivity was observed in all samples with onset T c varying from 27 K to 44 K upon Sm-doping. The coexistence of a collapsed phase transition and the superconducting transition was found for the lower Sm-doping samples. Zero resistivity and substantial superconducting volume fraction only happen in higher Sm-doping crystals with the nominal x > 0.10. The doping dependences of the c-axis length and onset T c were summarized. The high-T c observed in these quenched crystals may be attributed to simultaneous tuning of electron carriers doping and strain effect caused by lattice reduction of Sm-substitution. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474339), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2010CB923000 and 2011CBA00100), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100).

  1. The density and compositional analysis of titanium doped sapphire single crystal grown by the Czocharlski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, H. H.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) crystal has attracted attention not only as beautiful gemstones, but also due to their applications as high power laser action. It is very important crystal for tunable solid state laser. Ti:Al2O3 crystals have been success grown using the Czocharlski method with automatic diameter control (ADC) system. The crystals were grown with different pull rates. The structure of the crystal was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The density of the crystal was measurement based on the Archimedes principle and the chemical composition of the crystal was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of crystals are showed single main peak with a high intensity. Its shows that the samples are single crystal. The Ti:Al2O3 grown with different pull rate will affect the distribution of the concentration of dopant Ti3+ and densities on the sapphire crystals boules as well on the crystal growth process. The increment of the pull rate will increase the percentage distribution of Ti3+ and on the densities of the Ti:Al2O3 crystal boules. This may be attributed to the speed factor of the pull rate of the crystal that then caused changes in the heat flow in the furnace and then causes the homogeneities is changed of species distribution of atoms along crystal.

  2. Study of the growth and pyroelectric properties of TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kecong; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Min; Fang, Changshui; Lu, Mengkai

    1987-04-01

    TGS crystals doped with aniline-family dipolar molecules (aniline, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzoic acid, 3-aminobenzene-sulphonic acid, 4-aminobenzenesulphonic acid and 4-nitroraniline) have been grown by the slow-cooling solution method. The influence of these dopants on the growth habits, crystal morphology pyroelectric properties, and structure parameters of TGS crystals has been systematically investigated. The effects of the domain structure of the seed crystal on the pyroelectric properties of the doped crystals have been studied. It is found that the spontaneous polarization (P), pyroelectric coefficient (lambda), and internal bias field of the doped crystals are slightly higher than those of the pure TGS, and the larger the dipole moment of the dopant molecule, the higher the P and lambda of the doped TGS crystal.

  3. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskiy, A. F., E-mail: shimanaf@mail.ru; Kopytkova, S. A.

    2016-10-15

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  4. Improved ferroelectric and pyroelectric parameters in iminodiacetic acid doped TGS crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Sreenivas, K.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of Iminodiacetic acid (HN(CH 2COOH) 2) doped Triglycine sulphate (IDATGS) has been grown from aqueous solution at constant temperature by slow evaporation technique. The concentration of the dopant in the TGS solution was 2 mol%. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that there is significant change in the lattice parameters compared to pure TGS crystal. The IDATGS crystal has larger transition temperature and observed higher and uniform figure of merit over most part of the ferroelectric phase. These crystals also exhibit higher internal bias field and micro-hardness number compared to pure TGS. Therefore IDATGS may be a potential material for IR detectors.

  5. Effect of crystal size distribution on thermoelectric performance for Lanthanum-doped strontium titanate bulk material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Huo, Zhenzhen; Wu, Yin; Li, Yan; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zou, Tao; Ma, Wen

    2015-07-01

    Effect of crystal size distribution on thermoelectric performance of Lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (La-SrTiO3) ceramics are investigated in this study. Thermoelectric performance measurement, coupled with microstructure studies, shows that the electrical conductivity strongly depends on the crystal size, potential barrier on the grain boundary and porosity. Meantime, because the average potential barriers height are increased along with the reduction of crystal size, the Seebeck coefficients are increased by energy filtering effect at the large number of grain boundaries. As a result, by controlling of crystal size distribution, ZT value of La-SrTiO3 is improved.

  6. Interfacing superconducting qubits and telecom photons via a rare-earth-doped crystal.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Christopher; Lauk, Nikolai; Blum, Susanne; Morigi, Giovanna; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2014-08-08

    We propose a scheme to couple short single photon pulses to superconducting qubits. An optical photon is first absorbed into an inhomogeneously broadened rare-earth doped crystal using controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. The optical excitation is then mapped into a spin state using a series of π pulses and subsequently transferred to a superconducting qubit via a microwave cavity. To overcome the intrinsic and engineered inhomogeneous broadening of the optical and spin transitions in rare-earth doped crystals, we make use of a special transfer protocol using staggered π pulses. We predict total transfer efficiencies on the order of 90%.

  7. Research in LPE of Doped LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 Thin Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    garnet films grown on single crystal garnet substrates by the LPE technique for magnetic bubble applica- tions. The choice of substrate and film are...AD-Al07 686 ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL THOUSAND OAKS CA ELECTRONICS -EUTC F/G 2RESEARCH IN LPE OF DOPED LINBO3 AND LITA03 THIN FILMS .(U JUN Al R R NEUR...Research in LPE of Doped LiNbO3 and LiTa03 Final Report Thin Films 04/01/77 through 03/31/81 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUM9ER ERC41004.11FR 7. AUTNOR

  8. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior

    DOE PAGES

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2017-12-04

    Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 +/- 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 10^16 to 10^17/cm^3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 10^16 and 10^20/cm^3 with the highest dopingmore » efficiency of 40% occurring near 10^17 As/cm^3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.« less

  9. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 +/- 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 10^16 to 10^17/cm^3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 10^16 and 10^20/cm^3 with the highest dopingmore » efficiency of 40% occurring near 10^17 As/cm^3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.« less

  10. Petrogenetic evolution of the Mesoproterozoic garnet-bearing granitoids of Dumka, Eastern India: Implication of garnet and biotite composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Goswami, B.; Ghosal, A.; Nanda, J.; Basak, A.; Bhattacharyya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Garnet is a petrologically significant accessory mineral of igneous rocks. Granite, tonalite, charnoenderbite and enderbite are prominent facies of 1450 Ma old Dumka Granitoids, Jharkhand district, India. Interestingly all the facies of Dumka granitoids contain good amount of garnet and biotite. Sphene, magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, monazite, allanite and rare hornblende present as accessory minerals. The garnets are mainly solid solutions between almandine, pyrope and grossular. Garnets contain 70.5-75.8 mol% of the almandine, 12.8-17.5 mol% of pyrope, 8-11 mol% of grossular and 0.6-2.9 mol% of spessartine. Composition of garnets fit well in the compositional range of igneous garnets suggested by Miller and Stoddard (1981). High MgO and CaO contents together with very low MnO of these garnets suggest that these have been crystallized from granitoid magma under high pressure in the lower crust. No compositional zoning is found in the analyzed garnets. Biotites of the granitoids are rich in Mg [Mg/(Fe+Mg) ratio > 0.4]. Biotites plot in Abdel-Rahman's (1994) field for biotites of calc-alkaline granites. The matrix biotites in these granitoids have higher Ti content than biotites coexist with garnets. Biotites coexisting with garnet are richer in Mg/Fe ratio than matrix biotites. Mg/Fe distribution coefficients between garnet core and matrix biotite (KD= (Mg/Fe)grt/(Mg/Fe)bt) for the Dumka enderbite and tonalite are 0.275 to 0.280 while for the granites the KD varies from 0.189 to 0.264. These KD values are higher than the values obtained from high-grade metamorphic rocks and are consistent with the values of igneous granitoids as shown by Lyons and Morse (1970). Absence of zoning in magmatic garnets in Dumka Granitoids indicate that these have crystallized above 700 °C, whereas absence of "spessartine bell-shaped profile" of the garnets of present study refute their metamorphic origin or that these crystallized below 700 °C (Dahlquist et al., 2007). Geothermobaric

  11. Coilable single crystal fibers of doped-YAG for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Gisele; Soleimani, Nazila; Ponting, Bennett; Gebremichael, Eminet

    2013-05-01

    Single crystal fibers are an intermediate between laser crystals and doped glass fibers. They can combine the advantages of both by guiding laser light and matching the efficiencies found in bulk crystals, making them ideal candidates for high-power laser and fiber laser applications. In particular, a very interesting feature of single crystal fiber is that they can generate high power in the eye-safe range (Er:YAG) with a high efficiency, opening new possibilities for portable directed energy weapons. This work focuses on the growth of a flexible fiber with a core of dopant (Er, Nd, Yb, etc…) that will exhibit good waveguiding properties. Direct growth or a combination of growth and cladding experiments are described. We have, to date, demonstrated the growth of a flexible foot long 45 microns doped YAG fiber. Scattering loss measurements at visible wavelengths along with dopant profile characterization are also presented. Laser characterization for these fibers is in progress.

  12. Comparison of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser for treatment of cosmetic tattoos containing titanium and iron in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Yang, An-Hang; Chen, Chih-Kang; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2010-11-01

    Cosmetic tattoos contain titanium and ferric oxide and darken through reduction after Q-switched laser irradiation. The optimal treatment for removing these pigments remains unknown. To compare the effects of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (SP Er:YAG) laser to remove cosmetic tattoos in an animal model. Rats were tattooed using white, flesh-colored, and brown inks (4 bands of each color) on their backs. For each color, one band was left untreated, and one each was treated with a Q-switched neodymium-doped YAG laser, a Q-switched alexandrite laser, and a SP Er:YAG laser every 3 weeks until the pigments were clear. The two Q-switched lasers were equally effective; all three pigments darkened initially and then resolved gradually. Up to 20, 18, and 10 sessions were required to remove white, flesh-colored, and brown tattoos, respectively. Only six sessions were required with the SP Er:YAG laser. Minimal scarring was observed with all lasers. Skin biopsies confirmed pigment granule fragmentation after Q-switched laser treatment and a decrease in the amount of pigment after SP Er:YAG laser treatment. The SP Er:YAG laser was superior to the Q-switched lasers for removing cosmetic tattoos. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  13. Analysis of intrinsic optical bistability in Tm-doped laser-related crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noginov, M. A.; Vondrova, M.; Casimir, D.

    2003-11-01

    We predict and theoretically study intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) mediated by nonlinear energy transfer processes in rare-earth-doped laser-related crystals. In particular, we investigate Tm-Ho and Tm-Yb systems, in which avalanche pumping is overimposed by energy transfer up-conversion. We predict that IOB can be experimentally observed in (Tm,Yb):BaY2F8 crystals in a wide range of experimentally achievable parameters.

  14. Tuning the functional properties of PMN-PT single crystals via doping and thermoelectrical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Laihui; Dietze, Matthias; Solterbeck, Claus-Henning; Luo, Haosu; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2013-12-01

    Single crystals based on solid solutions of lead-magnesium-niobate (PMN) and lead titanate (PT) have emerged as highly promising multifunctional systems combining piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and electro-optic properties that surpass by far those of the best known lead-zirkonium-titanate ceramics. In this paper we present new findings on how the phase transition temperature and the dielectric and ferroelectric properties can be tuned depending on crystal composition, orientation, and thermoelectrical treatment. Mn-doped and pure 0.72PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.28PbTiO3 (0.72PMN-0.28PT) single crystals with ⟨111⟩ and ⟨001⟩ orientations were investigated. A special attention was devoted to field cooling (FC), i.e., cooling under electric field from different temperatures. The results illustrate different findings that were not reported before: the Curie temperature, i.e., ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature, is enhanced after field cooling of the Mn-doped, ⟨001⟩-oriented crystal while such a shift is not observed in the ⟨111⟩-oriented and the non-doped crystals. In addition, substantial polarization suppression occurs in the Mn-doped crystals upon FC from high temperature regardless of orientation. Based on piezoforce microscopy of the domain structure that shows suppression of domain growth following field cooling from 200 °C, we propose a mechanism for polarization suppression based on domain pinning by charged defects. The practical importance of our results lies in showing the opportunity offered by a proper choice of crystal composition and poling conditions for tuning the functional properties of PMN-PT single crystals for a specific application. This should contribute to the understanding of their properties towards advanced sensor and transducers devices.

  15. Growth and characterization of pure and Ca2+ doped MnHg(SCN)4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, C.; Mahadevan, C. K.; Guo, Li; Liu, Jinghe

    2018-05-01

    Manganese-mercury thiocyanate, MnHg(SCN)4, crystal is considered to be an important organometallic nonlinear optical (NLO) material exhibiting higher thermal stability and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. In order to understand the effect of Ca2+ as an impurity on the physicochemical properties, we have grown pure and Ca2+ doped (with a concentration of 1 mol%) MnHg(SCN)4 single crystals by the free evaporation of solvent method and characterized structurally, chemically, optically and electrically by adopting the available standard methods. Results obtained indicate that Ca2+ doping increases significantly the optical transmittance, SHG efficiency, and DC electrical conductivity and decreases the dielectric loss factor (improves the crystal quality), and AC electrical conductivity without distorting the crystal structure. Also, the low dielectric constant (εr) values observed for both the pure and doped crystals considered at near ambient temperatures indicate the possibility of using these crystals not only as potential NLO materials (useful in the photonics industry) but also as promising low εr value dielectric materials (useful in the microelectronics industry).

  16. Te-and Zn-Doped InSb Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M.; Bonner, W. A.; Duffar, T.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, within the SUBSA (Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules) investigation, seven doped InSb crystals were grown in microgravity at the International Space Station. The key goals of the SUBSA investigation are: (a) to clarify the origin of the melt convection in space laboratories; (b) to reduce melt convection to the level which allows reproducible diffusion-controlled segregation; (e) to explore the submerged baffle process and liquid encapsulation in microgravity. 30 crystal growth experiments were conducted in the ground unit, to optimize the design of flight ampoules and to test the transparent SUBSA furnace developed by TecMasters Inc. The specially designed furnace, allowed observation of the crystal growth process (melting, seeding, motion of the solid-liquid interface, etc.). In the summer of 2002, eight crystal growth experiments were conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility at the ISS. Four Te-doped (k = 0.5) and three Zn-doped (k2.9) crystals were grown on undoped seeds. In one experiment, we were not able to seed and grow. The seven grown crystals were sectioned and analyzed using SIMS. The design of the SUBSA ampoules, the segregation data and the video images obtained during the SUBSA flight experiments will be presented and discussed.

  17. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Page, Ralph H.; DeLoach, Laura D.; Payne, Stephen A.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr.sup.2+ -doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 .mu.m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d.sup.4 and d.sup.6 electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers.

  18. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.; Page, R.H.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-07-30

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr{sup 2+}-doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 {micro}m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d{sup 4} and d{sup 6} electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers. 18 figs.

  19. Guiding and amplification properties of rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, S.; Poli, F.; Passaro, D.; Cucinotta, A.; Lægsgaard, J.; Broeng, J.

    2009-05-01

    Rod-type photonic crystal fibers are large mode area double-cladding fibers with an outer diameter of few millimeters which can provide important advantages for high-power lasers and amplifiers. Numerical studies have recently demonstrated the guidance of higher-order modes in these fibers, which can worsen the output beam quality of lasers and amplifiers. In the present analysis a sectioned core doping has been proposed for Ybdoped rod-type photonic crystal fibers, with the aim to improve the higher-order mode suppression. A full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method has been applied to properly design the low refractive index ring in the fiber core, which can provide an increase of the differential overlap between the fundamental and the higher-order mode. Then, the gain competition among the guided modes along the Yb-doped rod-type fibers has been investigated with a spatial and spectral amplifier model. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the sectioned core doping in worsening the higher-order mode overlap on the doped area, thus providing an effective single-mode behavior of the Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers.

  20. Holon Wigner Crystal in a Lightly Doped Kagome Quantum Spin Liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Hong -Chen; Devereaux, T.; Kivelson, S. A.

    2017-08-07

    We address the problem of a lightly doped spin liquid through a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group study of the t–J model on a kagome lattice with a small but nonzero concentration δ of doped holes. It is now widely accepted that the undoped (δ = 0) spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state. Theoretical arguments have been presented that light doping of such a spin liquid could give rise to a high temperature superconductor or an exotic topological Fermi liquid metal. Instead, we infer that the doped holes form an insulating charge-density wave state with one doped hole permore » unit cell, i.e., a Wigner crystal. Spin correlations remain short ranged, as in the spin-liquid parent state, from which we infer that the state is a crystal of spinless holons, rather than of holes. In conclusion, our results may be relevant to kagome lattice herbertsmithite upon doping.« less

  1. Correlating optical infrared and electronic properties of low tellurium doped GaSb bulk crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Roodenko, K., E-mail: kroodenko@intelliepi.com; Liao, P.-K.; Lan, D.

    2016-04-07

    Control over the Te doping concentration is especially challenging in the mass-production of optically transparent, high-resistivity Te-doped GaSb crystals. Driven by the necessity to perform fast, robust, and non-destructive quality control of the Te doping homogeneity of the optically transparent large-diameter GaSb wafers, we correlated electronic and optical infrared properties of Te-doped GaSb crystals. The study was based on the experimental Hall and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) data collected from over 50 samples of the low-doped n-type material (carrier concentration of 6 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}) and the Te-doped p-type GaSb (4.6 ×more » 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}). For the n-type GaSb, the analysis of the FTIR data was performed using free carrier absorption model, while for the p-type material, the absorption was modeled using inter-valence band absorption mechanism. Using the correlation between the Hall and the IR data, FTIR maps across the wafers allow a fast and reliable way to estimate carrier concentration profile within the wafer.« less

  2. Single Crystal Faceplate Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-25

    conventional powder phosphor. The utility of garnets is amplified by the high state of the art of liquid phase epitaxy ( LPE ). Liquid phase epitaxy of...7]. Much the research at Allied-Signal, Inc. in garnet layer growth has been involved with the kinetics of crystallization of garnet from LPE melts...acceptable resolution and light output characteristics. Single crystal faceplates being evaluated are composed of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) with an

  3. Crystal Structure of Garnet-Related Li-Ion Conductor Li7–3xGaxLa3Zr2O12: Fast Li-Ion Conduction Caused by a Different Cubic Modification?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Li-oxide garnets such as Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) are among the most promising candidates for solid-state electrolytes to be used in next-generation Li-ion batteries. The garnet-structured cubic modification of LLZO, showing space group Ia-3d, has to be stabilized with supervalent cations. LLZO stabilized with Ga3+ shows superior properties compared to LLZO stabilized with similar cations; however, the reason for this behavior is still unknown. In this study, a comprehensive structural characterization of Ga-stabilized LLZO is performed by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Coarse-grained samples with crystal sizes of several hundred micrometers are obtained by solid-state reaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results show that Li7–3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 with x > 0.07 crystallizes in the acentric cubic space group I-43d. This is the first definite record of this cubic modification for LLZO materials and might explain the superior electrochemical performance of Ga-stabilized LLZO compared to its Al-stabilized counterpart. The phase transition seems to be caused by the site preference of Ga3+. 7Li NMR spectroscopy indicates an additional Li-ion diffusion process for LLZO with space group I-43d compared to space group Ia-3d. Despite all efforts undertaken to reveal structure–property relationships for this class of materials, this study highlights the potential for new discoveries. PMID:27019548

  4. Timing of anatexis and melt crystallization in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, SE Brazil: Insights from trace element composition of zircon, monazite and garnet coupled to Usbnd Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, B. C.; Moraes, R.; Möller, A.; Cioffi, C. R.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    The timing of partial melting and melt crystallization in granulite facies rocks of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (SGN), Brazil is constrained using a combination of imaging techniques, LA-ICP-MS and EPMA dating, trace element geochemistry and thermobarometry. (Orthopyroxene)-garnet-bearing migmatite that records extensive biotite dehydration melting shows evidence for a clockwise P-T-t path. UHT peak conditions were attained at 1030 ± 110 °C, 11.7 ± 1.4 kbar, with post-peak cooling to 865 ± 38 °C, 8.9 ± 0.8 kbar. Cryogenian igneous inheritance of ca. 720-640 Ma is identified in oscillatory zoned zircon cores (n = 167) with steep HREE patterns. Resorbed, Y-rich monazite cores preserve a prograde growth stage at 631 ± 4 Ma prior to the partial melting event, providing an upper age limit for the granulite facies metamorphism in the SGN. REE-rich, Th-depleted monazite related to apatite records the initial stages of decompression at 628 ± 4 Ma. Multiple monazite growth episodes record melt crystallization events at 624 ± 3 Ma, 612 ± 5 Ma and 608 ± 6 Ma. Stubby, equant "soccer ball" zircon provide evidence for melt crystallization at 613 ± 2 Ma and 607 ± 4 Ma. The excess scatter in zircon and monazite age populations between 629 ± 4 and 601 ± 3 Ma is interpreted as discontinuous and episodic growth within this age range, characterizing a prolonged metamorphic event in the SGN lasting ca. 30 m.y. The development of Y + HREE-rich monazite rims at ca. 600 Ma documents retrograde garnet breakdown, extensive biotite growth and the final stages of melt crystallization. Th-rich, Y + HREE-poor monazite rims at ca. 590 Ma record monazite recrystallization.

  5. Optical spectroscopy of disordered Ca3Ga2Ge4O14 crystal doped with manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, Vladimir; Alyabyeva, Liudmila; Mill, Boris; Kotov, Viacheslav

    2018-05-01

    Circular dichroism, absorption and luminescence spectra of single crystalline manganese doped calcium gallogermanate Ca3Ga2Ge4O14:Mn were investigated in 300-850 nm wavelength region in wide temperature range 8-300 K. Careful analysis of experimental results revealed presence of electron transitions typical for sixfold coordinated trivalent manganese ions with d4 electron configuration. Thus, manganese ions doping the crystal matrix of CCG incorporate into lattice in 1a octahedral site-positions substituting Ga3+ ions. The results obtained were compared with investigation of isostructural to CGG manganese doped langasite crystals, La3Ga5SiO14:Mn where dopant is in octahedral Mn4+ state.

  6. Specific features of doping with antimony during the ion-beam crystallization of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Pashchenko, A. S., E-mail: as.pashchenko@gmail.com; Chebotarev, S. N.; Lunin, L. S.

    2016-04-15

    A method of doping during the growth of thin films by ion-beam crystallization is proposed. By the example of Si and Sb, the possibility of controllably doping semiconductors during the ion-beam crystallization process is shown. A calibrated temperature dependence of the antimony vapor flow rate in the range from 150 to 400°C is obtained. It is established that, an increase in the evaporator temperature above 200°C brings about the accumulation of impurities in the layer growth direction. Silicon layers doped with antimony to a concentration of 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} are grown. It is shown that, as the evaporator temperaturemore » is increased, the efficiency of the activation of antimony in silicon nonlinearly decreases from ~10{sup 0} to ~10{sup –3}.« less

  7. Microstructure, crystallization and shape memory behavior of titania and yttria co-doped zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Xiao Mei; Du, Zehui; Schuh, Christopher A.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Small volume zirconia ceramics with few or no grain boundaries have been demonstrated recently to exhibit the shape memory effect. To explore the shape memory properties of yttria doped zirconia (YDZ), it is desirable to develop large, microscale grains, instead of submicron grains that result from typical processing of YDZ. In this paper, we have successfully produced single crystal micro-pillars from microscale grains encouraged by the addition of titania during processing. Titania has been doped into YDZ ceramics and its effect on the grain growth, crystallization and microscale elemental distribution of the ceramics have been systematically studied. With 5 mol%more » titania doping, the grain size can be increased up to ~4 μm, while retaining a large quantity of the desired tetragonal phase of zirconia. Finally, micro-pillars machined from tetragonal grains exhibit the expected shape memory effects where pillars made from titania-free YDZ would not.« less

  8. Probing the crystal structure landscape by doping: 4-bromo, 4-chloro and 4-methylcinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Desiraju, Gautam R; Chakraborty, Shaunak; Joseph, Sumy

    2018-06-11

    Accessing the data points in the crystal structure landscape of a molecule is a challenging task, either experimentally or computationally. We have charted the crystal structure landscape of 4-bromocinnamic acid (4BCA) experimentally and computationally: experimental doping is achieved with 4-methylcinnamic acid (4MCA) to obtain new crystal structures; computational doping is performed with 4-chlorocinnamic acid (4CCA) as a model system, because of the difficulties associated in parameterizing the Br-atom. The landscape of 4CCA is explored experimentally in turn, also by doping it with 4MCA, and is found to bear a close resemblance to the landscape of 4BCA, justifying the ready miscibility of these two halogenated cinnamic acids to form solid solutions without any change in crystal structure. In effect, 4MCA, 4CCA and 4BCA form a commutable group of crystal structures, which may be realized experimentally or computationally, and constitute the landscape. Unlike the results obtained by Kitaigorodskii and others, all but two of the multiple solid solutions obtained in the methyl-doping experiments take structures that are different from the hitherto observed crystal forms of the parent compounds. Even granted that the latter might be inherently polymorphic, this unusual observation provokes the suggestion that solid solution formation may be used to probe the crystal structure landscape. The influence of pi...pi interactions, weak hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds in directing the formation of these new structures is also seen. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Numerical study on the effect of temperature oscillations on the crystallization front shape during Czochralski growth of gadolinium gallium garnet crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan

    2017-10-01

    Time-dependent, finite volume method calculations of momentum and heat transfer were carried out to investigate the correlation between oscillatory convection and the crystallization front dynamics during the Czochralski (Cz) growth of an oxide material. The present modeling allows us to illustrate the modification of the interface shape during the time period of oscillation of the flow manifesting as the formation of a cold plume beneath the phase boundary. It was shown that the instability mechanism is associated with an irreversible dramatic change in the interface shape, which occurs at a critical Reynolds number significantly lower than that is predicted by the quasi-stationary global model analysis of the Cz growth system. The baroclinic term which appears in the vorticity equation in a rotating stratified fluid is used to describe the numerical results of the model. The properties of the thermal waves were studied in the monitoring points located nearby the interface. The waves are regular but not in fact vertically correlated as observed in the case of baroclinic waves. The Rayleigh-Benard dynamics is suggested to be the predominant mechanism even though the instability is primarily baroclinic.

  10. Physical property measurements of doped cesium iodide crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, R. S.; Clotfelter, W. N.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanical and thermal property values are reported for crystalline cesium iodide doped with sodium and thallium. Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were obtained from ultrasonic measurements. Young's modulus and the samples' elastic and plastic behavior were also measured under tension and compression. Thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were the temperature dependent measurements that were made.

  11. Dramatic impact of the giant local magnetic fields on spin-dependent recombination processes in gadolinium based garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, N. G., E-mail: nikolai.romanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Tolmachev, D. O.; Gurin, A. S.

    2015-06-29

    A giant magnetic field effect on spin-dependent recombination of the radiation-induced defects has been found in cerium doped gadolinium based garnet crystals and ceramics, promising materials for scintillator applications. A sharp and strong increase in the afterglow intensity stimulated by external magnetic field and an evidence of the magnetic field memory have been discovered. The effect was ascribed to huge Gd-induced internal magnetic fields, which suppress the recombination, and cross-relaxation with Gd{sup 3+} ions leading to reorientation of the spins of the electron and hole centers. Thus, the spin system of radiation-induced defects in gadolinium garnet based scintillator materials wasmore » shown to accumulate significant energy which can be released in external magnetic fields.« less

  12. Trap depth and color variation of Ce3+-Cr3+ co-doped Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12 garnet persistent phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Kazuki; Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2016-12-01

    Persistent luminescent properties in Ce3+-Cr3+ codoped Gd3Al5-xGaxO12 garnet (GAGG:Ce-Cr) solid solution have been investigated. The persistent luminescent color is shifted from orange to yellowish green with increasing Ga content because Ce3+: 5d level splitting becomes much weaker. The depth of electron trap introduced by Cr codoping was estimated from the intense thermoluminescence glow peak by the initial rise method. The trap depth decreases from 0.56 eV to 0.29 eV with increasing Ga content. The shift can be explained by downshift of bottom of conduction band. From the persistent luminescence decay curve measurement after ceasing 450 nm blue illumination, the samples with x = 2.5 exhibited the longest persistent luminescence for 405 min until the luminance becomes 2 mcd/m2 in GAGG:Ce-Cr phosphors.

  13. Characteristics of color optical shutter with dye-doped polymer network liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, G H; Hwang, K Y; Jang, J E; Jin, Y W; Lee, S Y; Jung, J E

    2011-03-01

    The optical properties and the theoretical prediction of color optical shutter with dye-doped polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) were investigated. The view-angle dependence of reflectance according to the bias conditions showed distinctive characteristics, which could be explained from the effects of dye absorption and path length. It was also shown that the thickness dependence of reflectance was strongly influenced by the light-scattering coefficient. Our experimental results matched up well with the theoretical prediction based on the light scattering of liquid crystals in polymer network and the absorption of dichroic dye. This work indicates potential to improve the optical device using dye-doped liquid crystal-polymer composite.

  14. Compositional analysis of dilute nitride doped indium antimonide bulk crystal by VDS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Manisha; Maske, Dilip; Choudhari, Rashmi; Arora, Brij Mohan; Gadkari, Dattatray

    2016-05-01

    Dilute nitrides are suitable materials for fabrication of devices in detection of long wavelength infrared region. Dilute nitride doped Indium antimonide bulk crystals were grown using vertical directional solidification technique. The compositional characteristics of the crystals were carried out using EDS. The analysis was simulated and compared with observations using DTSA II software for accuracy. The ingots have uniform composition of Indium and Antimony. The actual nitrogen composition measured using EDS was 0.136% for doped nitrogen composition 0.1% except near conical end where it was 0.1%. The study of bonding between nitrogen, Indium and antimony was carried out using SIMS. The analysis shows strong presence of In-N bonding along with In-Sb bonds which indicates nitrogen has replaced antimony atoms in crystal lattice.

  15. Luminescence and Excitation Spectra of U 3+ doped RbY 2 Cl 7 Single Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Karbowiak, M.; Murdoch, K.; Drożdżyński, J.; ...

    1996-08-01

    Uranium(3+) doped single crystals of RbY 2 Cl 7 with a uranium concentration of 0.05% and 0.2% were grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method using RbU 2 Cl 7 as the doping substance. Polished plates of ca. 5 mm in diameter were used for measurements of luminescence and excitation spectra. And since the U 3+ ions occupy two somewhat different site symmetries, a splitting of all observed f-f bands was observed. Furthermore, the analysis of the spectra enabled definitively an assignment of 22 crystal field bands for both site symmetries as well as the total crystal field splitting of the groundmore » level, equal to 473 cm -1 and 567 cm -1 for the first and second site symmetry, respectively.« less

  16. Compositional analysis of dilute nitride doped indium antimonide bulk crystal by VDS technique

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Manisha, E-mail: manishauj@gmail.com; Department of Physics, Mithibai College, Vile Parle; Maske, Dilip

    2016-05-06

    Dilute nitrides are suitable materials for fabrication of devices in detection of long wavelength infrared region. Dilute nitride doped Indium antimonide bulk crystals were grown using vertical directional solidification technique. The compositional characteristics of the crystals were carried out using EDS. The analysis was simulated and compared with observations using DTSA II software for accuracy. The ingots have uniform composition of Indium and Antimony. The actual nitrogen composition measured using EDS was 0.136% for doped nitrogen composition 0.1% except near conical end where it was 0.1%. The study of bonding between nitrogen, Indium and antimony was carried out using SIMS.more » The analysis shows strong presence of In-N bonding along with In-Sb bonds which indicates nitrogen has replaced antimony atoms in crystal lattice.« less

  17. Inclusion/lamella mineralogy and chemical characteristics of garnets from the Garnet Ridge in the Colorado Plateau, northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A wide variety of garnets as xenocrysts and those in xenoliths, come from kimberlitic diatreme (Smith et al. 2004), occurs at the Garnet Ridge. Koga and Ogasawara (2012) classified these garnets into 9 groups: (a) Cr and pyrope-rich garnet, (b) pyrope-rich reddish brown garnet, (c) reddish brown garnet, (d) garnet in eclogite, (e) garnet in metasomatized eclogite, (f) garnet aggregate, (g) garnet megacryst, (h) garnet in metasomatic rock I, (i) garnet in metasomatic rock II. They divided genetically these groups into four: mantle peridotite (a, b), subducted oceanic crust (d, e), high-pressure metasomatism (c, f, g), low-pressure metasomatism (h, i).In this study, the following 4 groups (a, b, f, g) were chose for inclusion mineralogy by laser Raman spectroscopy. Groups (a) and (b): pyrope-rich garnets (a: 45-82, b: 61-80 Prp mol%) both Cr-rich and Cr-poor (a: 1.0-5.9, b: 0.0-1.0 wt.% Cr2O3) are Ca-poor (1.5-7.0 wt.% CaO) and single-crystals of 5-15 mm in diameter. Group (a) is identical to chrome-pyrope based on the classification of kimberlitic garnets by Dawson and Stephens (1975). CaO-Cr2O3 ratio of (a, b) indicates lherzorite origin (Turkin and Sobolev 2009). Wang et al. (1999) have reported the detailed inclusion and lamella mineralogy of pyrope-rich garnets from the Garnet Ridge. We identified inclusions of Chl (OH: 3450, 3582, 3679 cm-1), Amp (OH: 3685, 3711 cm-1), Ol, Opx, Cpx, Rt (OH: 3295 cm-1), Mgs, Dol, Cal, sulfides, fluid (OH: 3445 cm-1) and spherical composite inclusions of Amp, Ap, Dol, Mgs, Rt and sulfides, and oriented lamellae (presumable exsolution) of Qz, Ol, Opx, Cpx, Amp, Chl, Rt, Ilm, crichtonite (6-7 Peaks at 120-820 cm-1), carmichaelite (710-782 cm-1, OH: 3340 cm-1), Ap (OH: 3570 cm-1) and Ti-Chn (OH: 3404, 3527, 3564 cm-1) adjacent to the oriented Ol. The mineral assemblages of the inclusion and lamella show a correlation with the host garnet compositions; inclusions: (a, b) Ol + Opx + Cpx × composite, (b, low Mg) Opx + Cpx + Amp

  18. Light emission from organic single crystals operated by electrolyte doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Sakanoue, Tomo; Yomogida, Yohei; Hotta, Shu; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-03-01

    Light-emitting devices based on electrolytes, such as light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), are solution-processable devices with a very simple structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply this device structure into highly fluorescent organic materials for future printed applications. However, owing to compatibility problems between electrolytes and organic crystals, electrolyte-based single-crystal light-emitting devices have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we report on light-emitting devices based on organic single crystals and electrolytes. As the fluorescent materials, α,ω-bis(biphenylyl)terthiophene (BP3T) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) single crystals were selected. Using ionic liquids as electrolytes, we observed clear light emission from BP3T LECs and rubrene EDLTs.

  19. Presumed Multiple Metasomatism underneath the Colorado Plateau; Decoding from Chemistry and Inclusion/Lamella Mineralogy of Diverse Garnets from the Garnet Ridge, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various garnets containing the information on mantle petrology and related metasomatism occur at the Garnet Ridge, Colorado Plateau. The origins of garnets range from deep mantle to shallow continental crust. These garnets were delivered by kimberlitic diatreme of 30 Ma (Smith et al. 2004). We have classified the garnets into 10 groups (A to J, see figure) by naked eye observation, major chemistry, minor Na-Ti-P, inclusion/lamella mineralogy. Among them, groups A to D are of mantle origin, E to G of subducted oceanic crust origin, and H to J of continental crust origin. We summarized results as in the followings. A: Cr and pyrope-rich garnet has Cr2O3(0.8-6.3 wt.%) and inclusions of Ol, Cpx, Opx, Ti-Chu/Chn and carbonates, indicating carbonated garnet lherzolites as host. Cr contents negatively correlates with Na-Ti-P contents and occurrence of exsolved Rt, Ilm and crichtonite. This indicates Cr-rich end-member is the most "primitive" mantle garnet before metasomatism. B: Pyrope-rich reddish brown garnet of peridotitic origins was subdivided into 4 subgroups (B1 to B4, see figure). Compositional range in Ca-Mg-Fe triangle expands to Fe-rich side from group A. Exsolved Na-bearing amphibole and inclusions of Ap, carbonates and fluid were identified. These indicate metasomatism of group A. C: Garnet megacryst is coarse-grained garnet (2-10 cm across) with crystal faces. This garnet has wide chemical variation plotted in the center area of Ca-Mg-Fe triangle. D: Garnet aggregate has similar chemistry of group C and is composed of several grains. Grain boundaries of garnet were recognized by Rt, Ilm and other minerals and oscillatory zonings of Ca, Mg, Fe and Na-Ti-P. Fluid inclusions of groups C and D suggest these garnets might crystalized from fluid. E: Garnet in eclogite and F: Garnet in metasomatized eclogite are xenolith samples (the Fallaron Plate origin?). Aggregate of Zo+Ab contained in group E indicates decomposed precursor lawsonite inclusion. G: Quartz

  20. Comparative study of optical and scintillation properties of Tm3+:YAG, and Tm3+:LuAG single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Yanagida, Takayuki; Wakahara, Shingo; Suzuki, Shotaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Chani, Valery; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2013-09-01

    The optical and scintillation properties of Tm3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet Y3Al5O12 (YAG) and Tm3+-doped lutetium aluminum garnet Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) are compared. The Tm3+-doped single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) technique. Both crystals demonstrated some emission peaks originated from 4f-4f forbidden transition of Tm3+ under 241Am alpha-ray excitation. The scintillation decay time of Tm3+-doped YAG was similar to that of LuAG. When irradiated by the gamma-rays from a 137Cs source, the relative scintillation light yields of Tm:YAG was 90% greater than that of Tm:LuAG.

  1. Fast Response and Spontaneous Alignment in Liquid Crystals Doped with 12-Hydroxystearic Acid Gelators

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Chi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jyun-Kai; Tsai, Sheng-Feng

    2018-01-01

    The spontaneous vertical alignment of liquid crystals (LCs) in gelator (12-hydroxystearic acid)-doped LC cells was studied. Gelator-induced alignment can be used in both positive and negative LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the gelator-doped negative LC cell were similar to those of an LC cell that contained a vertically aligned (VA) host. The rise time of the gelator-doped LC cell was two orders of magnitude shorter than that of the VA host LC cell. The experimental results indicate that the gelator-induced vertical alignment of LC molecules occurred not only on the surface of the indium tin oxide (ITO) but also on the homogeneous alignment layer. Various LC alignments (planar, hybrid, multistable hybrid, and vertical alignments) were achieved by modulating the doped gelator concentrations. The multistable characteristic of LCs doped with the gelator is also presented. The alignment by doping with a gelator reduces the manufacturing costs and provides a means of fabricating fast-responding, flexible LC displays using a low-temperature process. PMID:29735937

  2. Fast Response and Spontaneous Alignment in Liquid Crystals Doped with 12-Hydroxystearic Acid Gelators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Chi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jyun-Kai; Tsai, Sheng-Feng

    2018-05-07

    The spontaneous vertical alignment of liquid crystals (LCs) in gelator (12-hydroxystearic acid)-doped LC cells was studied. Gelator-induced alignment can be used in both positive and negative LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the gelator-doped negative LC cell were similar to those of an LC cell that contained a vertically aligned (VA) host. The rise time of the gelator-doped LC cell was two orders of magnitude shorter than that of the VA host LC cell. The experimental results indicate that the gelator-induced vertical alignment of LC molecules occurred not only on the surface of the indium tin oxide (ITO) but also on the homogeneous alignment layer. Various LC alignments (planar, hybrid, multistable hybrid, and vertical alignments) were achieved by modulating the doped gelator concentrations. The multistable characteristic of LCs doped with the gelator is also presented. The alignment by doping with a gelator reduces the manufacturing costs and provides a means of fabricating fast-responding, flexible LC displays using a low-temperature process.

  3. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  4. Comparison of Micro-Leakage from Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restorations in Cavities Prepared by Er:YAG (Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) Laser and Conventional Method in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Razavi, Forooghosadat; Soleymani, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, significant developments have been taking place in caries removal and cavity preparation using laser in dentistry. As laser use is considered for cavity preparation, it is necessary to determine the quality of restoration margins. Glass ionomer cements have great applications for conservative restoration in the pediatric field. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare resin-modified glass ionomer restorations micro-leakage in cavities prepared by Er:YAG (Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser irradiation and conventional method in primary teeth. Methods: This was an in vitro experimental study. Forty primary canine teeth were divided into 2 groups: group 1 represented cavities prepared by the no. 008 diamond bur, group 2 represented cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser. After cavity preparation, samples were restored by resin-modified glass ionomer. The teeth were thermocycled for 700 cycles, placed in 2% methylene blue for 24h and sectioned in the buccolingual direction. The degree of dye penetration was scored by 3 examiners. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney Test. Results: There was no statistical difference in micro-leakage between the two modes of cavity preparation (P=0.862) Conclusion: Since preparing conservative cavities is very important in pediatric dentistry, it is possible to use Er:YAG laser because of its novel and portable technology. However, further investigations of other restorative materials and other laser powers are required. PMID:25653819

  5. Extremely dense microstructure and enhanced ionic conductivity in hot-isostatic pressing treated cubic garnet-type solid electrolyte of Ga2O3-doped Li7La3Zr2O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shiying; Zhu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Yue; Ling, Ming’En; Hu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jiliang

    A large number of pores and a low relative density that are frequently observed in solid electrolytes reduce severely their ionic conductivity and thus limit their applicability. Here, we report on the use of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for ameliorating the garnet-type lithium-ion conducting solid electrolyte of Ga2O3-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (Ga-LLZO) with nominal composition of Li6.55Ga0.15La3Zr2O12. The Ga-LLZO pellets were conventionally sintered at 1075∘C for 12h, and then were followed by HIP treatment at 120MPa and 1160∘C under an Ar atmosphere. It is found that the HIP-treated Ga-LLZO shows an extremely dense microstructure and a significantly enhanced ionic conductivity. Coherent with the increase in relative density from 90.5% (untreated) to 97.5% (HIP-treated), the ionic conductivity of the HIP-treated Ga-LLZO reaches as high as 1.13×10‑3S/cm at room temperature (25∘C), being two times higher than that of 4.58×10‑4S/cm for the untreated one.

  6. Organic/inorganic-doped aromatic derivative crystals: Growth and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Ionita, I.; Stanculescu, A.

    2014-09-01

    Results of a comparative study on the growth from melt by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method of meta-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) and benzil (Bz) crystals in the same experimental set-up and the same experimental conditions are presented. The incorporation of an inorganic (iodine) dopant in m-DNB was analyzed in the given experimental conditions from the point of view of the solid-liquid interface stability. The limits for a stable growth and the conditions that favor the generation of morphological instability are emphasized. These limits for m-DNB are compatible with those previously determined for Bz, and therefore, even for a high gradient concentration at the growth interface, it is possible to grow m-DNB and Bz crystals in the same experimental conditions characterized by a high ΔT and v. The optical properties were investigated in relation with the dopant incorporation in the crystal in the mentioned experimental conditions. Effects of the dopant (m-DNB/iodine in Bz and iodine in m-DNB) on the optical band gap and optical non-linear properties of the crystals are discussed.

  7. HOMO-LUMO analysis of multi walled carbon nanotubes doped Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, B.; Kumaresan, P.; Nithiyanantham, S.; Sampathkumar, K.

    2018-01-01

    The MWCNTs doped Tetrafluoro Phthalate (C6H2F4O4) precious stones are constantly having higher transmission rate contrasted with immaculate Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystal. The dependability of Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystal was enhanced by doping MWCNTs.The basic, synthetic, optical, mechanical and non-direct optical properties of the doped precious crystals were dissected with the portrayal concentrates, for example, powder XRD, FT-IR, UV-Visible, Hardness and SHG estimations individually. The dopants are relied upon to substitute the carbon iotas in the Tetrafluoro Phthalate grid because of their change of valency and in addition vicinity of ionic sweep. The strength and charge delocalization of the particle were additionally concentrated on by characteristic security orbital (NBO) examination. The HOMO-LUMO energies depict the charge exchange happens inside the atom. Atomic electrostatic potential has been dissected. The SHG productivity of the immaculate and colors doped TFP crystals were additionally contemplated utilizing Nd:YAG Q-exchanged laser.

  8. Boron codoping of Czochralski grown lutetium aluminum garnet and the effect on scintillation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Camera; Koschan, Merry; Wu, Yuntao; Melcher, Charles L.

    2018-03-01

    Many single crystal scintillators, such as Lu3Al5O12, have intrinsic defects that impede their performance. In addition to doping with activators such as cerium, codoping can be used to improve the scintillation properties of a variety of scintillators. In particular, boron has been shown to improve the light yield, energy resolution, and self-absorption of other garnet scintillators, such as GGAG, when incorporated into the lattice via codoping. In this study, single crystals of LuAG: 0.2 at.% Ce codoped with varying concentrations of boron were grown via the Czochralski method at a rate of 1.2 mm/h. Results will show the effect boron codoping has on the scintillation properties of LuAG: Ce, including light yield, decay time, and self-absorption.

  9. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Haris, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu2+ ions and Cd2+ ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd2+ and Cu2+ doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals.

    PubMed

    Prasanyaa, T; Jayaramakrishnan, V; Haris, M

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu(2+) ions and Cd(2+) ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Motion of Doped-Polymer-Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes in a Direct-Current Electric Field

    SciTech Connect

    Trajkovska Petkoska, A.; Kosc, T.Z.; Marshall, K.L.

    The behavior of polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flakes suspended in silicone oil host fluids has been explored in the presence of a direct-current electric field. In addition to “neat” (undoped) flakes, the PCLC material was doped with either conductive, carbon-based particles or highly dielectric inorganic particles to modify the dielectric properties of the resulting PCLC flakes. Doping with conductive particles produced flakes with a net charge, and they exhibited either translational or rotational motion depending on both the distribution of dopant within the flake and the dielectric characteristics of the host fluid. Flakes doped with titania (TiO2) particles reorientedmore » 90º when suspended in a host fluid with a differing dielectric permittivity« less

  12. Electrical conduction studies in ferric-doped KHSO 4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, M.; Kalia, A. K.

    1980-03-01

    Direct-current conductivity of ferric-doped (138, 267, and 490 ppm) single crystals of KHSO 4 has been studied. The mechanism for the dc conduction process is discussed. It is observed that the ferric ion forms a (Fe 3+-two vacancies) complex and the enthaply for its formation is 0.09 ± 0.01 eV. It is proposed that each ferric ion removes two protons from each HSO 4 dimer. The conductivity plot shows the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic regions. It is proposed that in the intrinsic region the dimer of HSO -4 breaks reversibly to form a long-chain monomer-type structure. The conductivity in the KHSO 4 crystal is proposed to be controlled by the rotation of HSO -4 tetrahedra along the axis which contains no hydrogen atom. Isotherm calculation for the trivalent-doped system is applied to this crystal and the results are compared with Co 2+-doped KHSO 4 crystal. The distribution coefficient of ferric ion in the KHSO 4 single crystal is calculated to be 4.5 × 10 -1. Ferric ion causes tapering in the crystal growth habit of KHSO 4 and it is believed to be due to the presence of (Fe 3+-two vacancies) complex. The enthalpy values for the various other processes are as follows: enthalpy for the breakage of HSO -4 dimer ( Hi) = 1.28 ± 0.01 eV; enthalpy for the rotation of HSO -4 tetrahedron ( Hm) = 0.58 ± 0.01 eV.

  13. Bridgman growth and luminescence properties of dysprosium doped lead potassium niobate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Tian, Tian; Yang, Bobo; Xu, Jiayue; Liu, Hongde

    2017-06-01

    Dy-doped lead potassium niobate (Pb2KNb5O15, PKN) single crystal was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman method through spontaneous nucleation. The crystal was brownish, transparent and inclusion free. Five excitation peaks of Dy3+ ions were clearly seen from near ultraviolet region to blue range. It was unique that the excitation peaks in blue range were more intense, especially the one centered at 455 nm. The emission bands consisted of blue, yellow and red emissions, which were at about 487 nm, 573 nm and 662 nm respectively. The CIE chromaticity diagram of PKN:Dy indicated that white light and yellow light could be emitted when the crystal was excited under near ultraviolet light and blue light, respectively. Thus PKN:Dy crystal is a candidate material whose emitting light could be tunable through changing the excited light wavelength.

  14. Single crystal growth and nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped STGS crystal for self-frequency-doubling application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Xinle; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Zhao, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The self-frequency-doubling crystal is an important kind of multi-functional crystal materials. In this work, Nd3+ doped Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (Nd:STGS) single crystals were successfully grown by using Czochralski pulling method, in addition, the nonlinear and laser-frequency-doubling properties of Nd:STGS crystals were studied. The continuous-wave laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated along different physical axes, where the maximum output power was obtained to be 295 mW for the Z-cut samples, much higher than the Y-cut (242 mW) and X-cut (217 mW) samples. Based on the measured refractive indexes, the phase matching directions were discussed and determined for type I (42.5°, 30°) and type II (69.5°, 0°) crystal cuts. As expected, self-frequency-doubling green laser at 529 nm was achieved with output powers being around 16 mW and 12 mW for type I and type II configurations, respectively.

  15. Optical properties of Sulfur doped InP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Youssef, S. B.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Optical properties of InP:S single crystals were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in the spectral range of 200-2500 nm. The absorption coefficient and refractive index were calculated. It was found that InP:S crystals exhibit allowed and forbidden direct transitions with energy gaps of 1.578 and 1.528 eV, respectively. Analysis of the refractive index in the normal dispersion region was discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. Some optical dispersion parameters namely: the dispersion energy (Ed), single oscillator energy (Eo), high frequency dielectric constant (ɛ∞), and lattice dielectric constant (ɛL) were determined. The volume and the surface energy loss functions (VELF & SELF) were estimated. Also, the real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity were calculated.

  16. Effect of Partial Crystallization on the Structural and Luminescence Properties of Er3+-Doped Phosphate Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Iscoa, Pablo; Salminen, Turkka; Hakkarainen, Teemu; Petit, Laeticia; Janner, Davide; Boetti, Nadia G.; Lastusaari, Mika; Pugliese, Diego; Paturi, Petriina; Milanese, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Er-doped phosphate glass ceramics were fabricated by melt-quenching technique followed by a heat treatment. The effect of the crystallization on the structural and luminescence properties of phosphate glasses containing Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO was investigated. The morphological and structural properties of the glass ceramics were characterized by Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the luminescence spectra and the lifetime values were measured in order to study the influence of the crystallization on the spectroscopic properties of the glasses. The volume ratio between the crystal and the glassy phases increased along with the duration of the heat treatment. The crystallization of the glass ceramics was confirmed by the presence of sharp peaks in the XRD patterns and different crystal phases were identified depending on the glass composition. Sr(PO3)2 crystals were found to precipitate in all the investigated glasses. As evidenced by the spectroscopic properties, the site of the Er3+ ions was not strongly affected by the heat treatment except for the fully crystallized glass ceramic which does not contain Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO. An increase of the lifetime was also observed after the heat treatment of this glass. Therefore, we suspect that the Er3+ ions are incorporated in the precipitated crystals only in this glass ceramic. PMID:28772833

  17. Structural, chemical and physical properties of pure and La3+ doped L-Threonine acetate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthamizhan, A.; Sambathkumar, K.; Nithiyanantham, S.; Venkatachalapathy, M.; Rajkamal, N.

    2017-12-01

    The pure and La3+ doped L- Threonine crystals can be grown by slow evaporation techniques. The crystal structure were examined through X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, confirmed the P212121 system. The quantitative nature of dopant can be analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) study. The Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and Fourier Transform (FT- Raman) investigations yields the possible stretching/bonding with their functional groups and the qualitative/quantitative nature of both crystals is analyzed. The optical behavior of crystals can be studied through Ultra Violet (UV) - Visible spectrometer. The mechanical, thermal and decomposition studies can be carried out through Vickers hardness test, Thermo Gravometric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The Non Linear Optical (NLO) properties are found more than Potassium Phosphate (KDP) through Kurtz powders technique. The dielectric and optical absorption studies for both pure and L-doped crystals were studied and interpreted all the properties. The La3+ dopant increases the properties are investigated.

  18. Crystal field parameters and energy levels scheme of trivalent chromium doped BSO

    SciTech Connect

    Petkova, P.; Andreici, E.-L.; Avram, N. M., E-mail: n1m2marva@yahoo.com

    The aim of this paper is to give an analysis of crystal field parameters and energy levels schemes for the above doped material, in order to give a reliable explanation for experimental data. The crystal field parameters have been modeled in the frame of Exchange Charge Model (ECM) of the crystal field theory, taken into account the geometry of systems, with actually site symmetry of the impurity ions. The effect of the charges of the ligands and covalence bonding between chromium cation and oxygen anions, in the cluster approach, also were taken into account. With the obtained values of themore » crystal field parameters we simulated the scheme of energy levels of chromium ions by diagonalizing the matrix of the Hamiltonian of the doped crystal. The obtained energy levels and estimated Racah parameters B and C were compared with the experimental spectroscopic data and discussed. Comparison with experiment shows that the results are quite satisfactory which justify the model and simulation scheme used for the title system.« less

  19. Crystal field parameters and energy levels scheme of trivalent chromium doped BSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, P.; Andreici, E.-L.; Avram, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an analysis of crystal field parameters and energy levels schemes for the above doped material, in order to give a reliable explanation for experimental data. The crystal field parameters have been modeled in the frame of Exchange Charge Model (ECM) of the crystal field theory, taken into account the geometry of systems, with actually site symmetry of the impurity ions. The effect of the charges of the ligands and covalence bonding between chromium cation and oxygen anions, in the cluster approach, also were taken into account. With the obtained values of the crystal field parameters we simulated the scheme of energy levels of chromium ions by diagonalizing the matrix of the Hamiltonian of the doped crystal. The obtained energy levels and estimated Racah parameters B and C were compared with the experimental spectroscopic data and discussed. Comparison with experiment shows that the results are quite satisfactory which justify the model and simulation scheme used for the title system.

  20. Persistent magnetism in silver-doped BaF e 2 A s 2 crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Li; Cao, Huibo; Parker, David S.; ...

    2016-10-12

    Here, we investigate the thermodynamic and transport properties of silver-substituted BaF e 2 A s 2 (122) crystals up to ~ 4.5 % . Similar to other transition-metal substitutions in 122, Ag diminishes the antiferromagnetic ( T N ) and structural ( T S ) transition temperatures, but unlike other electron-doped 122s, T N and T S coincide without splitting. Though magnetism drops precipitously to T N = 84 K at doping x = 0.029 , it only weakly changes above this x , settling at T N = 80 K at x = 0.045 . Compared to this persistentmore » magnetism in Ag-122, doping other group 11 elements of either Cu or Au in 122 diminished T N and induced superconductivity near T c = 2 K at x = 0.044 or 0.031, respectively. Ag-122 crystals show reflective surfaces with surprising thicker cross sections for x ≥ 0.019 , the appearance that is in contrast to the typical thin stacked layered feature seen in all other flux-grown x-122 and lower Ag-122. We found that this physical trait may be a manifest of intrinsic weak changes in c lattice and T N . Our theoretical calculations suggest that Ag doping produces strong electronic scattering and yet a relatively small disruption of the magnetic state, both of which preclude superconductivity in this system.« less

  1. Studies on transport properties of copper doped tungsten diselenide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Parmar, M. N.; Pandya, Nilesh N.; Chaki, Sunil; Bhatt, Sandip V.

    2012-02-01

    During recent years, transition metal dichalcogenides of groups IVB, VB and VIB have received considerable attention because of the great diversity in their transport properties. 2H-WSe 2 (Tungsten diselenide) is an interesting member of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC's) family and known to be a semiconductor useful for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. The anisotropy usually observed in this diamagnetic semiconductor material is a result of the sandwich structure of Se-W-Se layers interacting with each other, loosely bonded by the weak Van der Waals forces. Recent efforts in studying the influence of the anisotropic electrical and optical properties of this layered-type transition metal dichalcogenides have been implemented by doping the samples with different alkali group elements. Unfortunately, little work is reported on doping of metals in WSe 2. Therefore, it is proposed in this work to carry out a systematic growth of single crystals of WSe 2 by doping it with copper in different proportions i.e. Cu xWSe 2 ( x=0, 0.5, 1.0) by direct vapour transport technique. Transport properties like low and high temperature resistivity measurements, high pressure resistivity, Seebeck coefficient measurements at low temperature and Hall Effect at room temperature were studied in detail on all these samples. These measurements show that tungsten diselenide single crystals are p-type whereas doped with copper makes it n-type in nature. The results obtained and their implications are discussed in this paper.

  2. All-Optical, Photonic Band Gap Modulation in Azobenzene Liquid Crystal Doped Cholesterics (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    4348 5e. TASK NUMBER RG 6. AUTHOR(S) Uladzimir A . Hrozhyk, Svetlana V . Serak, and Nelson V . Tabiryan (Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements...modulation in azobenzene liquid crystal doped cholesterics Uladzimir A . Hrozhyk, Svetlana v . Serak, Nelson V . Tabiryan Beam Engineeringfor Advanced...Tsutsumi, Science, 1995,268, 1873. [6] T. Ikeda, J Mat. Chern., 2003,13, 2037. [7] A . Urbas, J. Klosterman, V . Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R

  3. Optical Tuning of the Reflection of Azobenzene Liquid Crystal Doped Cholesterics (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    RG 6. AUTHOR(S) Uladzimir A . Hrozhyk, Svetlana V . Serak, and Nelson V . Tabiryan (Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements Corporation) Timothy...Reflection of Azobenzene Liquid Crystal Doped Cholesterics** By Uladzimir A . Hrozhyk, Svetlana V Serak, Nelson V . Tabil)lall * and Timothy 1. Bunning...1249. [5] T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, Science 1995, 268, 1873. [6] T. Ikeda, J Mat. Chern. 2003, 13, 2037. [7] A . Urbas, J. Klosterman, V . Tondiglia, L

  4. Origin of the defects-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Xie, Zheng; Li, Zhengcao; Wang, Weipeng; Zhang, Zhengjun; Li, Zhuoxin; Cheng, Guodong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2013-02-01

    We clarified, in this Letter, that in un-doped ZnO single crystals after thermal annealing in flowing argon, the defects-induced room-temperature ferromagnetism was originated from the surface defects and specifically, from singly occupied oxygen vacancies denoted as F+, by the optical and electrical properties measurements as well as positron annihilation analysis. In addition, a positive linear relationship was observed between the ferromagnetism and the F+ concentration, which is in support with the above clarification.

  5. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-20

    goenv.o -,y la)ers were YIG (yttrium iron garnet ) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy w:* ( LPE ) on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates. Magnetic...containing three epitaxial layers. In addition to the MSW work oil garnets , LPE of lithium ferrite and hexagonal fertites was studied. A substituted lead...of a stripline. The other layers are epitaxial films , generally YIG (yttrium iron garnet ) with magnetic properties adjusted by suitable modifications

  6. Gadolinium Scandium Gallium Garnet (GSGG) as a Solid-State Laser Host

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    o*SATI CODSi1.SBEC EM (otne nrvrs fnceayad dniy nb)k ubr ~~~~~~~~ Gadolinium Scandium Gallium Garnet (GSGG)asaSldtteLerHt 17. ABSTRACT 6.SUJCTTEM...certain other garnet materials for replacement. It also addresses the solid-state laser host material Gadolinium Scandium Gal- lium Garnet (GSGG) and its...by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) or other mate- rials for most applications. In the years after the invention of the ruby laser, in

  7. Growth, Crystal Structure, Theoretical Analysis and Properties of Te4+-Doped KTiOPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lintao; Yao, Qian; Zhang, Junying; Dong, Weimin; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiyang; Boughton, Robert I.

    2018-04-01

    A single crystal of Te4+-doped KTiOPO4(Te:KTP) has been grown by the flux method. The electronic structure and density of states of KTiOPO4 (KTP) and Te:KTP were calculated from first principles. As the results reveal, there is no change in the space group or lattice structure of Te:KTP, but that some increase in lattice parameters occurred. The chemical composition of Te:KTP was analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The possible existence of Ti3+ has been evaluated by measuring the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum, and the results reveal that the ion is absent from this crystal. It was observed that Te4+ doping reduces the conductivity of the crystal from measurements of its conductivity at different temperatures and frequencies, indicating that Te:KTP has excellent electro-optical properties. The effect of Te4+ doping on the second harmonic generation in KTP was also studied. The thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of KTP and Te:KTP were determined.

  8. Thermo- and electro-optical properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers doped with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Siarkowska, Agata; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Budaszewski, Daniel; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej; Bartosewicz, Bartosz; Woliński, Tomasz R

    2017-01-01

    Thermo- and electro-optical properties of a photonic liquid crystal fiber (PLCF) enhanced by the use of dopants have been investigated. A 6CHBT nematic liquid crystal was doped with four different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (NPs), 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 wt %, for direct comparison of the influence of the dopant on the properties of the PLCF. The thermo-optical effects of the liquid crystal doped with gold NPs were compared in three setups, an LC cell, a microcapillary and within the PLCF, to determine if the observed responses to external factors are caused by the properties of the infiltration material or due to the setup configuration. The results obtained indicated that with increasing NP doping a significant reduction of the rise time under an external electric field occurs with a simultaneous decrease in the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature, thus improving the thermo- and electro-optical properties of the PLCF.

  9. Scintillation properties of YAlO3 doped with Lu and Nd perovskite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatsuka, Masaki; Usui, Yuki; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Kato, Takumi; Kawano, Naoki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    YAlO3 (YAP) single crystals doped with Lu and Nd were grown by the Floating Zone (FZ) method to evaluate their scintillation properties particularly emissions in the near-infrared (NIR) range. The Nd concentration was fixed to 0 or 1 mol% while the Lu concentration was varied from 0 to 30%. When X-ray was irradiated, the scintillation of Nd-doped samples was observed predominantly at 1064 nm due to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of Nd3+. In contrast, a weak emission around 700 nm appeared in the samples doped with only Lu, and the emission origin was attributed to defect centers. In the Nd3+-doped samples, the decay time was 94-157 μs due to the 4f-4f transitions of Nd3+ whereas the Lu-doped samples showed signal with the decay time of 1.45-1.54 ms. The emission origin of the latter signal was attributed to the perovskite lattice defect.

  10. Growth and characterization of metal doped and quasi mixed crystals based on ZnCd(SCN)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, C.; Mahadevan, C. K.; Guo, Li; Liu, Jinghe

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the effect of forming hybrid crystals by doping with metallic impurities or by quasi mixing on the physicochemical properties of the basic material crystal, we have grown by the free evaporation method at room temperature and characterized (chemically, structurally, optically and electrically) un-doped and K+/Ca2+/Mn2+/Mg2+/Cu2+ doped (with 1 mol% concentration) ZnCd(SCN)4 and ZnxCd(2-x)(SCN)4 (with x = 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0) single crystals. Single crystals could be grown with x = 0.0 (leading to Cd(SCN)2) but not when x = 2.0 (leading to Zn(SCN)2). Results obtained in the present study through X-ray diffraction and EDAX spectral measurements indicate the formation of the above hybrid crystals. The optical (UV-Vis-NIR spectral and SHG efficiency) measurements indicate significant changes in optical transmittance and SHG efficiency due to doping as well as quasi mixing. Dielectric measurements made in the temperature range 40-150 °C with a fixed frequency of 1 kHz indicate a normal dielectric behavior for all the eleven crystals grown. Moreover, the present study indicates an increase of dielectric constant and SHG efficiency when ZnCd(SCN)4 crystal is doped with a metallic impurity whereas a decrease of dielectric constant and SHG efficiency when quasi mixing is done.

  11. Water Activated Doping and Transport in Multilayered Germanane Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-21

    Justin Young, Basant Chitara , Nicholas Cultrara , Maxx Q Arguilla , Shishi Jiang, Fan Fan , Ezekiel Johnston-Halperin, Joshua E Goldberger 611102 c...Crystals Justin R Young1, Basant Chitara2, Nicholas D Cultrara2, Maxx Q Arguilla2, Shishi Jiang2, Fan Fan2 Ezekiel Johnston-Halperin1, Joshua E...Optoelectronics ACS Nano 7 5660-5 [9] Zhang Y, Tan Y-W, Stormer H L and Kim P 2005 Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in

  12. KDP crystal doped with L-arginine amino acid: growth, structure perfection, optical and strength characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritula, I. M.; Kostenyukova, E. I.; Bezkrovnaya, O. N.; Kolybaeva, M. I.; Sofronov, D. S.; Dolzhenkova, E. F.; Kanaev, A.; Tsurikov, V.

    2016-07-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) crystal doped with L-arginine (L-arg) amino acid with 1.4 wt% concentration in the solution was grown onto a point seed by the method of temperature reduction. For the first time an attempt was made to grow large-size (7 × 6 × 8 cm3) optically transparent crystals, which allowed to analyze the effect of L-arg additive on the physical properties of the different growth sectors ({100} and {101}) of KDP. The incorporation of L-arg into both growth sectors of the crystal was confirmed by the methods of optical and IR spectroscopy and found to be caused by the ability of the amino acid to form hydrogen bonds with the face {100} and electrostatically interact with the positively charged face {101} of KDP crystal. A slight variation in the unit cell parameters was reported, the elementary cell volume of KDP:L-arg crystal increased in comparison with the one of pure KDP by 2·10-2 and 2.07·10-2 Å3 in the sectors {100} and {101}, respectively. It was found that the doping of L-arg enhanced the SHG efficiency of KDP and depended on the crystal growth sectors. The SHG efficiency of KDP:L-arg was by a factor 2.53 and 3.95 higher in comparison with those of pure KDP for {101} and {100} growth sector, respectively. The doping was found to lead to softening of both faces by ∼3-10% and ∼14-17% in the sectors {101} and {100}, respectively. Investigation of the influence of L-arg molecules on the bulk laser damage threshold of the crystals showed that the bulk laser damage threshold of the samples of KDP:L-arg crystal was higher than the one of the pure crystal in the sector {101} and lower in the sector {100}. The correlation between microhardness and laser damage threshold were discussed. The study is helpful for further searching, designing and simulation of hybrid NLO materials.

  13. Using Garnet to Reconstruct Subduction Zone Dehydration Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, E. F.; Dragovic, B.; Samanta, L. M.; Selverstone, J.; Caddick, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Coupled geodynamic-thermodynamic models make predictions about the progressive dehydration flux from subducted lithologies. However, it has been difficult to test or confirm these predictions through direct petrologic assessment of natural systems. We have developed a method that may be used to reconstruct the rate, timing, and flux of dehydration from diverse lithologies within subduction zones. Here, we summarize the fundamentals of the method and highlight data from two blueschist facies lithologies from the island of Sifnos, Greece. The data indicate that garnet growth and related dehydration from individual lithologies can be focused into relatively brief (100,000s of years) pulses. In general, most garnet forming reactions (in initially hydrous lithologies) also involve the consumption of hydrous minerals (including chlorite, biotite, chloritoid, amphibole, epidote, lawsonite) and the consequent liberation of water. Depending on the exact reaction and on the pressure and temperature vector over which the reaction occurs, the stoichiometric (i.e. molar) ratio between garnet produced and water produced can vary. If this stoichiometry can be constrained via thermodynamic and textural reaction analysis, then garnet may be used as a direct monitor of the progressive dehydration of the rock for the P-T-t span over which garnet grew. To a first order, rocks with greater modal proportion of garnet have released greater amounts of water. Modern techniques are available to directly date the span of garnet growth from single crystals larger than about 5mm diameter. Sm-Nd geochronology of chemically contoured microsampled prograde garnet growth zones from single crystals can produce constraints on garnet growth duration at better than 1 million year resolution. Integration of zoned garnet geochronology and thermodynamic reaction analysis permits reconstruction of the dehydration rate and duration from individual samples. Recent studies of contrasting lithologies on

  14. Random lasing in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rina; Shi, Rui-xin; Wu, Xiaojiao; Wu, Jie; Dai, Qin

    2016-09-01

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was designed and fabricated, and random lasing action was studied. A mixture of laser dye, nematic liquid crystal, chiral dopant, and PVA was used to prepare the dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film by means of microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix ranged from 30 μm to 40 μm, the size of the liquid crystal droplets was small. Under frequency doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical excitation, a plurality of discrete and sharp random laser radiation peaks could be measured in the range of 575-590 nm. The line-width of the lasing peak was 0.2 nm and the threshold of the random lasing was 9 mJ. Under heating, the emission peaks of random lasing disappeared. By detecting the emission light spot energy distribution, the mechanism of radiation was found to be random lasing. The random lasing radiation mechanism was then analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that the size of the liquid crystal droplets is the decisive factor that influences the lasing mechanism. The surface anchor role can be ignored when the size of the liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix is small, which is beneficial to form multiple scattering. The transmission path of photons is similar to that in a ring cavity, providing feedback to obtain random lasing output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378042), the Colleges and Universities in Liaoning Province Outstanding Young Scholars Growth Plans, China (Grant No. LJQ2015093), and Shenyang Ligong University Laser and Optical Information of Liaoning Province Key Laboratory Open Funds, China.

  15. Study on optical properties of L-valine doped ADP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, R. N.; Anis, Mohd.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystal of L-valine doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate has been grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystalline nature of the grown crystal was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction technique. The different functional groups of the grown crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared analysis. The UV-visible studies were employed to examine the high optical transparency and influential optical constants for tailoring materials suitability for optoelectronics applications. The cutoff wavelength of the title crystal was found to be 280 nm with wide optical band gap of 4.7 eV. The dielectric measurements were carried to determine the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at room temperature. The grown crystal has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by the classical Kurtz powder technique and it is found to be 1.92 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The grown crystal was identified as third order nonlinear optical material employing Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  16. Mg,Ce co-doped Lu2Gd1(Ga,Al)5O12 by micro-pulling down method and their luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Yoshino, Masao; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Pejchal, Jan; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Mg co-doping on the scintillation properties of Ce:Lu2Gd1(Ga,Al)5O12 (LGGAG) single crystals with different Ga/Al ratios were investigated. Mg co-doped and non co-doped Ce:LGGAG single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling down (µ-PD) method and then cut, polished and annealed for each measurement. Absorption spectra, radioluminescence (RL) spectra, pulse height spectra, and scintillation decay were measured to reveal the effect of Mg co-doping. Ce4+ charge transfer (CT) absorption band peaking at ∼260 nm was observed in Mg co-doped samples, which is in good agreement with previous reports for the Ce4+ CT absorption band in other garnet-based crystals. The scintillation decay time tended to be accelerated and the light yield tended to be decreased by Mg co-doping at higher Ga concentrations.

  17. Quantification of water in majoritic garnet

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas, Sylvia -Monique; Wilson, Kathryn; Koch-Muller, Monika; ...

    2015-05-01

    Majoritic garnet, characterized by an excess of silicon (>3 Si per formula unit), is considered one of the major phases of the Earth’s transition zone from 410-660 km depth. Quantifying the H 2O content of nominally anhydrous mantle minerals is necessary to evaluate their water storage capacity from experiments and modeling the Earth’s deep water cycle. We present mineral-specific infrared absorption coefficients for the purpose of quantifying the amount of water incorporated into majorite as hydroxyl point defects. A suite of majoritic garnet samples with varying proportions of Si, Fe, Al, Cr and H 2O was synthesized at conditions ofmore » 18-19 GPa and 1500-1800°C. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. We utilize SIMS and Raman spectroscopy in combination with IR spectroscopy to provide IR absorption coefficients for water in majoritic garnets with the general mineral formula (Mg,Fe) 3(Si,Mg,Fe,Al,Cr) 2[SiO4] 3. Furthermore, the IR absorption coefficient for majoritic garnet in the OH stretching region is frequency-dependent and ranges from 10 470 ± 3100 Lmol-1cm-2 to 23 400 ± 2300 Lmol -1cm -2.« less

  18. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy study on Optimally Potassium Doped Single Crystal BaFe2 As 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jihua; Li, Ang; Zhang, Chenglin; Dai, Pengcheng; Pan, Shuheng

    2011-03-01

    The iron pnictide parent compound material can be brought into superconducting state by chemical doping. It is worthwhile to study and compare the hole- and electron-doped iron pnictides. Among the well-known family of AEFe 2 As 2 (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba), the scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy study on hole-doped samples is insufficient. In this talk we will present high resolution STM/STS results on (001) surface of the optimally doped single crystal Ba 0.6 K0.4 Fe 2 As 2 (Tc ~ 37 K). With the data we will discuss the spatial variation of the superconducting energy gap.

  19. Measurements of striae in CR+ doped YAG laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Fredrick M.

    1994-12-01

    Striations in Czochralski (CZ) grown crystals have been observed in materials such as GaAs, silicon, photorefractive crystals used for data storage, potassium titanyl phosphate crystals and LiNbO3. Several techniques have been used for investigating these defects including electron microscopy, laser scanning tomography, selective photoetching, X-ray diffuse scattering, interference orthoscopy, laser interferometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy mapping. A 2mm thick sample of the material to be investigated is illuminated with light that is absorbed and non-absorbed by the ion concentration to be observed. The back surface of the sample is focused onto a solid-state image detector and images of the input beam and absorbed (and diffracted) beams are captured at two wavelengths. The variation of the coefficient of absorption asa function of distance on the sample can be derived from these measurements. A Big Sky Software Beamcode system is used to capture and display images. Software has been written to convert the Beamcode data files to a format that can be imported into a spreadsheet program such as Quatro Pro. The spreadsheet is then used to manipulate and display data. A model of the intensity map of the striae collected by the imaging system has been proposed and a data analysis procedure derived. From this, the variability of the attenuation coefficient alpha can be generated. Preliminary results show that alpha may vary by a factor of four or five over distances of 100 mu m. Potential errors and problems have been discovered and additional experiments and improvements to the experimental setup are in progress and we must now show that the measurement techniques and data analysis procedures provide 'real' information. Striae are clearly visible at all wavelengths including white light. Their basic spatial frequency does not change radically, at least when changing from blue to green to white light. Further experimental and theoretical work can

  20. Co2+-doped diopside: crystal structure and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, C.; Tribaudino, M.; Mezzadri, F.; Skogby, H.; Hålenius, U.

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic clinopyroxenes along the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 join were investigated by a combined chemical-structural-spectroscopic approach. Single crystals were synthesized by flux growth methods, both from Ca-saturated and Ca-deficient starting compositions. Single crystal structure refinements show that the incorporation of Co2+ at the octahedrally coordinated cation sites of diopside, increases the unit-cell as well as the M1 and the M2 polyhedral volumes. Spectroscopic investigations (UV-VIS-NIR) of the Ca-rich samples reveal three main optical absorption bands, i.e. 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g( F), 4 T 1g → 4 A 2g( F) and 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g( P) as expected for Co2+ at a six-coordinated site. The bands arising from the 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g( F) and the 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g( P) electronic transitions, are each split into two components, due to the distortions of the M1 polyhedron from ideal Oh-symmetry. In spectra of both types, a band in the NIR range at ca 5000 cm-1 is caused by the 4 A 2g → 4 T 1g( F) electronic transition in Co2+ in a cubic field in the M2 site. Furthermore, an additional component to a band system at 14,000 cm-1, due to electronic transitions in Co2+ at the M2 site, is recorded in absorption spectra of Ca-deficient samples. No variations in Dq and Racah B parameters for Co2+ at the M1 site in response to compositional changes, were demonstrated, suggesting complete relaxation of the M1 polyhedron within the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 solid solution.

  1. Co2+-doped diopside: crystal structure and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, C.; Tribaudino, M.; Mezzadri, F.; Skogby, H.; Hålenius, U.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic clinopyroxenes along the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 join were investigated by a combined chemical-structural-spectroscopic approach. Single crystals were synthesized by flux growth methods, both from Ca-saturated and Ca-deficient starting compositions. Single crystal structure refinements show that the incorporation of Co2+ at the octahedrally coordinated cation sites of diopside, increases the unit-cell as well as the M1 and the M2 polyhedral volumes. Spectroscopic investigations (UV-VIS-NIR) of the Ca-rich samples reveal three main optical absorption bands, i.e. 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g(F), 4 T 1g → 4 A 2g(F) and 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g(P) as expected for Co2+ at a six-coordinated site. The bands arising from the 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g(F) and the 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g(P) electronic transitions, are each split into two components, due to the distortions of the M1 polyhedron from ideal Oh-symmetry. In spectra of both types, a band in the NIR range at ca 5000 cm-1 is caused by the 4 A 2g → 4 T 1g(F) electronic transition in Co2+ in a cubic field in the M2 site. Furthermore, an additional component to a band system at 14,000 cm-1, due to electronic transitions in Co2+ at the M2 site, is recorded in absorption spectra of Ca-deficient samples. No variations in Dq and Racah B parameters for Co2+ at the M1 site in response to compositional changes, were demonstrated, suggesting complete relaxation of the M1 polyhedron within the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 solid solution.

  2. The effect of Fe 3+ doping in Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate single crystals on structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Ashok; Sivakumar, N.; Vizhi, R. Ezhil; Babu, D. Rajan

    2011-02-01

    This work investigates the influence of iron doping on Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) single crystals by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. Factors such as evaporation rate, solution pH, solute concentration, super saturation limit, etc. are very important in order to have optically transparent single crystals. As part of the work, the effects of metallic salt FeCl 3 in different concentrations were analyzed with pure KHP. Powder X-ray diffraction suggests that the grown crystals are crystallized in the orthorhombic structure. The functional groups and the effect of moisture on the doped crystals can be analyzed with the help of a FTIR spectrum. The pure and doped KHP single crystal shows good transparency in the entire visible region, which is suitable for optical device applications. The refractive indices along b axis of pure and doped KHP single crystals were analyzed by the prism coupling technique. The emission of green light with the use of a Nd:YAG laser ( λ=1064 nm) confirmed the second harmonic generation properties of the grown crystals.

  3. Elimination of a Photovoltaic Induced Fast Instability in Photorefractive Iron-doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. R.; Saleh, M. A.; Allen, A. S.; Pottenger, T. P.; Bunning, T. J.; Guha, S.; Basun, S. A.; Cook, G.

    2002-03-01

    An instability on the order of 10 ns is observed while writing volume gratings in bulk crystals of iron-doped lithium niobate using contra-directional two-beam coupling along the c-axis. This instability is attributed to the quasi-breakdown of the uniform component of the photovoltaic field [1], which affects the uniform electric field formed inside the crystal causing a change in the refractive index through the electro-optic effect. A method to eliminate this instability by coating the z-surfaces of the crystal with a transparent conductive coating will be presented. [1] A. Krumins, Z. Chen, and T. Shiosaki, Opt. Comm. 117 (1995) 147-150.

  4. Enhance the performance of liquid crystal as an optical switch by doping CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Sudad S.; Ibrahim, Rawa K.; Al-Naimee, Kais; Naje, Asama N.; Ibrahim, Omar A.; Majeed, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The electrical and optical properties results were studied for Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) Nanoparticles / Nematic liquid crystal (5CB) mixtures. Doping of CdS nanoparticles increases the spontaneous polarization and response time, the increase is due to large dipole-dipole interaction between the liquid crystal (LC) molecules and CdS nanoparticles, which increase the anchoring energy. The electro-optic measurements revealed a decrease (∼40%) in threshold voltage, and faster response time in doped sample cells than Pure 4'-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal.

  5. Lifshitz topological transitions, induced by doping and deformation in single-crystal bismuth wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, A. A.; Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Para, Gh. I.

    2017-02-01

    The features associated with the manifestation of Lifshitz electron topological transitions (ETT) in glass-insulated bismuth wires upon qualitative changes to the topology of the Fermi surface are investigated. The variation of the energy spectrum parameters was implemented by doping Bi with an acceptor impurity Sn and using elastic strain of up to 2%, relative to the elongation in the weakly-doped p-type Bi wires. Pure and doped glass-insulated single-crystal bismuth with different diameters and (1011) orientations along the axis were prepared by the Ulitovsky liquid phase casting method. For the first time, ETT-induced anomalies are observed along the temperature dependences of the thermoemf α(T) as triple-changes of the α sign (given heavy doping of Bi wires with an acceptor impurity Sn). The concentration and energy position of the Σ-band given a high degree of bismuth doping with Sn was assessed using the Shubnikov-de Haas effect oscillations, which were detected both from L-electrons and from T-holes in magnetic fields of up to 14 T. It is shown that the Lifshitz electron-topological transitions with elastic deformation of weakly-doped p-type Bi wires are accompanied by anomalies along the deformation dependences of the thermoemf at low temperatures. The effect is interpreted in terms of the formation of a selective scattering channel of L-carriers into the T-band with a high density of states, which is in good agreement with existing theoretical ETT models.

  6. Optical properties and refractive indices of Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, N. S.; Busanov, O. A.; Zabelina, E. V.; Kozlova, A. P.; Kasimova, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Crystals of cerium-doped gadolinium-gallium-aluminum garnet have been grown by the Czochralski method. The transmission and reflection spectra of these crystals in the wavelength range of 250-800 nm have been obtained by optical spectroscopy. Refractive indices are calculated based on the measured Brewster angles, the experimental results are approximated using the Cauchy equation, and a dispersion dependence is obtained.

  7. Investigation of emission properties of doped aromatic derivative organic semiconductor crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Mihut, L.; Stanculescu, F.; Alexandru, H.

    2008-04-01

    Fluorescence measurements have been made on pure and doped bulk, mechanically polished wafers of crystalline m-DNB and benzil obtained by cutting ingots grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method modified for organic compounds crystallization. By comparison with pure matrices, we have investigated the effect of an inorganic dopant (iodine, silver, sodium) and of an organic dopant (m-DNB, naphthalene) on the emission characteristics (position and shape) of these molecular crystals. A slight shift of the emission peaks through high energy and an intense emission peak situated around 2.35 eV correlated with the local trapping level attributed to structural defects, which are involved in radiative processes, have been evidenced in iodine-doped m-DNB. The emission peak of m-DNB-doped benzil situated in the high-energy range (2.97 eV) is associated with direct emission activity of m-DNB, suggesting that this is an active impurity in benzil molecular matrix. We have not observed in benzil any evidence of indirect action of the impurity molecules (atoms) associated with the traps represented by the structural defects that generate changes in the energy levels of the neighbouring molecules and are correlated with different growth conditions. We have not remarked any involvement of the studied inorganic metallic impurities and of some organic impurities, such as naphthalene, in the radiative recombination processes in benzil matrix.

  8. Efficacy of Erbium, Chromium-doped:Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium, and Garnet Laser Irradiation Combined with Resin-based Tricalcium Silicate and Calcium Hydroxide on Direct Pulp Capping: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Esra; Yilmaz, Hasan Guney

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the efficiency of erbium, chromium-doped:yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation combined with a resin-based tricalcium silicate material and calcium hydroxide in direct pulp capping for a 6-month follow-up period. A total of 60 teeth of 60 patients between the ages of 18 and 41 years were recruited for this study. Sixty permanent vital teeth without symptoms and radiographic changes were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups (n = 15): Gr CH, the exposed area was sealed with calcium hydroxide (CH) paste; Gr laser CH, the treated area was sealed with CH paste after Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at an energy level of 0.5 W without water and with 45% air; Gr TheraCal, TheraCal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL) was applied directly to the exposed pulp; and Gr Laser TheraCal, TheraCal LC was applied after irradiation with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. At the 1-week and 1-, 3-, and 6-month recall examinations, the loss of vitality, spontaneous pain, reactions to thermal stimuli and percussion, and radiographic changes were considered as failure. The success rates in the CH and TheraCal groups were 73.3% and 66.6%, respectively. These rates did not reveal any significant difference. In both laser groups, success rates were 100%. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated TheraCal and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated CH groups showed statistically higher success rates than the TheraCal and CH groups, respectively. Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 0.5 W without water combined with pulp capping agents can be recommended for direct pulp therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen bonding intermolecular effect on electro-optical response of doped 6PCH nematic liquid crystal with some azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, S.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Tajalli, H.

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies on the electro-optical responses of dye-doped liquid crystal have shown that dopant material have a considerable effect on their electro-optical responses. Despite the studies carried out on electro-optical properties of dye-doped liquid crystal, no attention has been paid to study of the interaction and structural effects in this procedure. In this paper, linear dyes and with similar structure were selected as dopants. The only difference in used dyes is the functional groups in their tails. So, doping of these dyes into liquid crystals determines the influence of interaction type on electro-optical behaviours of the doped systems. Therefore, in this work, two aminoazobenzene (;A-dye;: hydrogen bond donor) and dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (;B-dye;) dyes with different compositional percentages in liquid crystal host were used. Electro-optical Kerr behaviour, the pre-transition temperature and third order nonlinear susceptibility were investigated. The obtained results effectively revealed that type of interactions between the dye and liquid crystal is determinative of behavioral difference of doped system, compared to pure liquid crystal. Also, pre-transitional behaviour and thereupon Kerr electro-optical responses were affected by formed interactions into doped systems. In other words, it will be shown that addition of any dopants in liquid crystal, regardless of the nature of interactions, cannot cause appropriate electro-optical responses. In fact, type of dye, nature of interactions between dopant and liquid crystalline host as well as concentration of dye are the key factors in selecting the appropriate liquid crystal and dopant dye.

  10. Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Yuki; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Kawano, Naoki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-06-01

    Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals were synthesized by the Floating Zone (FZ) method. In photoluminescence (PL) under the excitation wavelength of 280 nm, we observed two types of luminescence: (1) defect luminescence due to recombination of the donor/acceptor pairs which appears at 430 nm and (2) the nsnp-ns2 transitions of Sn2+ which appear at 530 nm. The PL and scintillation decay time curves of the Sn-doped samples were approximated by a sum of exponential decay functions. The faster two components were ascribed to the defect luminescence, and the slowest component was owing to the nsnp-ns2 transitions. In the pulse height spectrum measurements under 241Am α-rays irradiation, all the Sn-doped Ga2O3 samples were confirmed to show a full energy absorption peak but the undoped one. Among the present samples, the 1% Sn-doped sample exhibited the highest scintillation light yield (1,500 ± 150 ph/5.5 MeV-α).

  11. Reconfiguring crystal and electronic structures of MoS 2 by substitutional doping

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Joonki; Tan, Teck Leong; Zhao, Weijie

    Doping of traditional semiconductors has enabled technological applications in modern electronics by tailoring their chemical, optical and electronic properties. However, substitutional doping in two-dimensional semiconductors is at a comparatively early stage, and the resultant effects are less explored. In this work, we report unusual effects of degenerate doping with Nb on structural, electronic and optical characteristics of MoS 2 crystals. The doping readily induces a structural transformation from naturally occurring 2H stacking to 3R stacking. Electronically, a strong interaction of the Nb impurity states with the host valence bands drastically and nonlinearly modifies the electronic band structure with the valencemore » band maximum of multilayer MoS 2 at the Γ point pushed upward by hybridization with the Nb states. Finally, when thinned down to monolayers, in stark contrast, such significant nonlinear effect vanishes, instead resulting in strong and broadband photoluminescence via the formation of exciton complexes tightly bound to neutral acceptors.« less

  12. Reconfiguring crystal and electronic structures of MoS 2 by substitutional doping

    DOE PAGES

    Suh, Joonki; Tan, Teck Leong; Zhao, Weijie; ...

    2018-01-15

    Doping of traditional semiconductors has enabled technological applications in modern electronics by tailoring their chemical, optical and electronic properties. However, substitutional doping in two-dimensional semiconductors is at a comparatively early stage, and the resultant effects are less explored. In this work, we report unusual effects of degenerate doping with Nb on structural, electronic and optical characteristics of MoS 2 crystals. The doping readily induces a structural transformation from naturally occurring 2H stacking to 3R stacking. Electronically, a strong interaction of the Nb impurity states with the host valence bands drastically and nonlinearly modifies the electronic band structure with the valencemore » band maximum of multilayer MoS 2 at the Γ point pushed upward by hybridization with the Nb states. Finally, when thinned down to monolayers, in stark contrast, such significant nonlinear effect vanishes, instead resulting in strong and broadband photoluminescence via the formation of exciton complexes tightly bound to neutral acceptors.« less

  13. Research progress on laser crystals in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingxia, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Current Chinese research on laser crystals is now quite extensive and involves more than 30 research teams with nearly 1,000 technicians and workers actively engaged in the study of more than 20 types of laser cyrstals. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and ruby (Cr:Al2O3) lasers have been manufactured and are widely employed. There are several new and promising crystals now under study which will find applications, and both basic and exploratory research have given rise to new developments.

  14. Unraveling the history of complex zoned garnets from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barickman, M. H.; Martin, C.; Flores, K. E.; Harlow, G. E.; Bonnet, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is situated in central Guatemala, between the North American and Caribbean plates. Two serpentinite mélanges straddle the Motagua Fault system: the North Motagua Mélange (NMM) and the South Motagua Mélange (SMM). In this study, chemically zoned garnet grains from four eclogite blocks from the NMM were analyzed by EMPA for major elements and LA-ICP-MS for trace elements to unravel the geological history of the eclogites. These eclogites typically consist of euhedral to subhedral garnets, partly retrogressed omphacite grains, and accessory minerals such as phengite and epidote as inclusions in garnet. EBSD was employed to examine apparent garnet inclusions in garnet. The garnet grains in NMM eclogites display complex chemical zonations: all grains roughly show a spessartine-rich core, an almandine-rich core and/or intermediate zone, and a pyrope and grossular-rich rim. Additionally, crystal resorption can be observed between the different zones, and the pyrope-grossular rim can display oscillatory zoning. Finally, grossular-rich zones (crystallographically syntactic) within garnet are present in all studied samples. REE and spider diagrams do not show any significant difference in the patterns of the different zones within the garnet, or indicating that the chemical environment from which each garnet zone grew was broadly the same. The lack of significant variation in LILE content indicates that a fluid influx during garnet growth is unlikely. Consequently, we interpret that garnet grains grew in a largely closed system; however, the presence of the grossular-rich zones, argues for occasional excursions into conditions when either two garnets crystallized or Ca-rich overgrowths that were largely resorbed prior to subsequent continued garnet growth.

  15. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Ce Doped Gd3Ga,Al5O12 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Yanagida, Takayuki; Pejchal, Jan; Nikl, Martin; Endo, Takanori; Tsutsumi, Kousuke; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukabori, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Ce1%, 2% and 3% doped Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 (GAGG) single crystals were grown by the Cz method. Luminescence and scintillation properties were measured. Light yield change along the growth direction and effects of Ce concentration on scintillation properties in Ce:GAGG were studied. Ce3+ 5d-4f emission within 520-530 nm was observed in the Ce:GAGG crystals. The Ce1%:GAGG sample with 3×3×1 mm size showed the highest light yield of 46000 photon/MeV. The energy resolution was 7.8%@662 keV. With increasing solidification fraction, the LY were decreased. It is proposed that the increase of Ga concentration along the growth direction is the main cause of the decrease of LY. The scintillation decay times were accelerated with increasing Ce concentration in the Ce:GAGG crystals. The scintillation decay times were 92.0 ns, 79.1 ns and 68.3 ns in the Ce1, 2 and 3% GAGG, respectively.

  16. Effect of nitrogen on the growth of boron doped single crystal diamond

    DOE PAGES

    Karna, Sunil; Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-11-18

    Boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. A modification in surface morphology of the film with increasing boron concentration in the plasma has been observed using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen during boron doping has been found to improve the surface morphology and the growth rate of films but it lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. The Raman spectra indicated a zone center optical phonon mode along with a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions. The change in the peak profilemore » of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. Furthermore, sharpening and upshift of Raman line was observed in the film that was grown in presence of nitrogen along with diborane in process gas.« less

  17. Sensing and splicing applications of small core Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Brueckner, Sven; Kobelke, Jens; Rothhardt, Manfred; Ecke, Wolfgang; Willsch, Reinhardt; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2008-04-01

    Sensor related properties of a small core (4.1μm) Ge-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF) are being reported. Fiber Bragg gratings with 35% and almost 100 % reflectivity were written in the Ge-doped PCF before and after hydrogen loading, respectively, by use of a UV laser. A 5.6pm/°C temperature sensitivity of the FBG was observed. Additionally, a novel method is demonstrated to splice such PCF by use of a commercial fusion splicer with default splice parameters for standard single mode fibers (SMF). No parameter adjustments are required to splice the PCF to various SMFs and a low splice loss of 1.0 ~ 1.4dB can be achieved. No splice interface emerges at the splice joint, which is of advantage for the sensing applications of such a PCF.

  18. Luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped CdF2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekri, H.; Diaf, M.; Guerbous, L.; Jouart, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped CdF2 single crystals. The pulled crystals were prepared by use of the Bridgman technique from a vacuum furnace in fluoride atmosphere. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the crystal doped with three Eu3+ concentrations (0.02%, 0.1% and 0.6% mol.) were recorded at room temperature. The emission spectra exhibit a strong yellow and red emissions in the spectral range 550-720 nm which are assigned to 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 4) transitions and a weak infrared emission around 816 nm corresponding to 5D0 → 7F6 transition. The magnetic dipole emission (5D0 → 7F1) is the most intense for each Eu3+ concentration. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4, Ω6 for 4f-4f transitions of Eu3+ ions were computed from the emission spectra using the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 4, 6) transitions. Via these phenomenological intensity parameters, the spontaneous emission probabilities, branching ratios, radiative lifetimes, quantum efficiencies and emission cross-sections for the main Eu3+ emitting levels are evaluated.

  19. Atomistic simulation of trace element incorporation into garnets - comparison with experimental garnet-melt partitioning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westrenen, W.; Allan, N. L.; Blundy, J. D.; Purton, J. A.; Wood, B. J.

    2000-05-01

    garnet and melt, using binary and other oxides to simulate cation co-ordination environment in the melt. Usol also shows a parabolic dependence on trace element radius, with inter-garnet trends in EX and r0 similar to those found for relaxation energies. However, r0( i+) obtained from minima in plots of Usol vs. radius are located at markedly different positions, especially for heterovalent substitutions ( i = 1, 3). For each end-member garnet, r0 now decreases with increasing Zc, consistent with experiment. Furthermore, although different assumptions for trace element environment in the melt, e.g., REE 3+ (VI) vs. REE 3+ (VIII), lead to parabolae with differing curvatures and minima, relative differences between end-members are always preserved. We conclude that: 1. The simulated variation in r0 and EX between garnets is largely governed by the solid phase. This stresses the overriding influence of crystal local environment on trace element partitioning. 2. Simulations suggest r0 in garnets varies with trace element charge, as experimentally observed. 3. Absolute values of r0 and EX can be influenced by the presence and structure of a coexisting melt. Thus, quantitative relations between r0, E and crystal chemistry should be derived from well-constrained systematic mineral-melt partitioning studies, and cannot be predicted from crystal-structural data alone.

  20. Single crystal EPR, optical absorption and superposition model study of Cr3+ doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kripal, Ram; Pandey, Sangita

    2010-06-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies are carried out on Cr(3+) ion doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) single crystals at room temperature. Four magnetically inequivalent sites for chromium are observed. No hyperfine structure is obtained. The crystal-field and spin Hamiltonian parameters are calculated from the resonance lines obtained at different angular rotations. The zero field and spin Hamiltonian parameters of Cr(3+) ion in ADP are calculated as: |D|=(257+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), |E|=(79+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), g=1.9724+/-0.0002 for site I; |D|=(257+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), |E|=(77+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), g=1.9727+/-0.0002 for site II; |D|=(259+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), |E|=(78+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), g=1.9733+/-0.0002 for site III; |D|=(259+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), |E|=(77+/-2) x 10(-4) cm(-1), g=1.973+/-0.0002 for site IV, respectively. The site symmetry of Cr(3+) doped single crystal is discussed on the basis of EPR data. The Cr(3+) ion enters the lattice substitutionally replacing the NH(4)(+) sites. The optical absorption spectra are recorded in 195-925 nm wavelength range at room temperature. The energy values of different orbital levels are determined. On the basis of EPR and optical data, the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. The calculated values of Racah interelectronic repulsion parameters (B and C), cubic crystal-field splitting parameter (D(q)) and nephelauxetic parameters (h and k) are: B=640, C=3070, D(q)=2067 cm(-1), h=1.44 and k=0.21, respectively. ZFS parameters are also determined using B(kq) parameters from superposition model. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An inverse modeling strategy and a computer program to model garnet growth and resorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanari, Pierre; Giuntoli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    GrtMod is a computer program that allows numerical simulation of the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of garnet porphyroblasts based on the composition of successive growth zones preserved in natural samples. For each garnet growth stage, a new reactive bulk composition is optimized, allowing for resorption and/or fractionation of the previously crystalized garnet. The successive minimizations are performed using a heuristic search method and an objective function that quantify the amount by which the predicted garnet composition deviates from the measured values. The automated strategy of GrtMod includes a two stages optimization and one refinement stage. In this contribution, we will present several application examples. The new strategy provides quantitative estimates of the optimal P-T conditions whereas it was generally derived in a qualitatively way by using garnet isopleth intersections in equilibrium phase diagrams. GrtMod can also be used to model the evolution of the reactive bulk composition along any P-T trajectories. The results for typical MORB and metapelite compositions demonstrate that fractional crystallization models are required to derive accurate P-T information from garnet compositional zoning. GrtMod can also be used to retrieve complex garnet histories involving several stages of resorption. For instance, it has been used to model the P-T condition of garnet growth in grains from the Sesia Zone (Western Alps). The compositional variability of successive growth zones is characterized using standardized X-ray maps and the program XMapTools. Permian garnet cores crystalized under granulite facies conditions (T > 800°C and P = 6 kbar), whereas Alpine garnet rims grew at eclogite facies conditions (650°C and 16 kbar) involving several successive episodes of resorption. The model predicts that up to 50 vol% of garnet was dissolved before a new episode of garnet growth.

  2. Local structural environments of Ge doped in eutectic Sb-Te film before and after crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sang Yeol; Cheong, Byung-ki; Choi, Yong Gyu

    2018-06-01

    Electrical phase change device using the Ge-doped eutectic Sb-Te (e.g., Ge1Sb8Te2) film is known to exhibit improved energy efficiency thanks to lowered threshold voltage as well as decreased power consumption for the reset operation, as compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 film. Ge K-edge EXAFS analysis is employed in this study in an effort to elucidate such merits of Ge1Sb8Te2 film in connection with its local atomic arrangements. It is then verified that a Ge atom is four-fold coordinated in its nearest-neighboring shell both in the as-deposited and in the annealed films. It needs to be highlighted that approximately two Sb atoms constitute the Ge tetrahedral units in its amorphous state; however, after being crystallized, heteropolar Ge-Sb bonds hardly exist in this Ge1Sb8Te2 film. It has been known that crystallization temperature and activation energy for crystallization of this Ge1Sb8Te2 composition are greater than those of Ge2Sb2Te5 composition. In addition, these two phase change materials exhibit distinctly different crystallization mechanisms, i.e., nucleation-dominant for Ge2Sb2Te5 film but growth-dominant for Ge1Sb8Te2 film. These discrepancies in the crystallization-related properties are delineated in terms of the local structural changes verified from the present EXAFS analysis.

  3. Yb3+-doped cadmium molybdato-tungstate single crystal - Its structural, optical, magnetic and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groń, T.; Tomaszewicz, E.; Berkowski, M.; Głowacki, M.; Oboz, M.; Kusz, J.; Sawicki, B.; Kukuła, Z.; Duda, H.

    2018-06-01

    Single crystal of new cadmium and ytterbium molybdato-tungstate (Cd0.9706⎕0.0098Yb0.0196(MoO4)0.9706(WO4)0.0294, where ⎕ denotes cationic vacancies) has been successfully grown by the Czochralski method in air and under 1 MPa. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the as-grown single crystal belongs to a scheelite-type structure (a = b = 5.15539(12) and c = 11.1919(3) Å, space group I41/a), in which Yb3+ ions do not show long-range order and are randomly distributed in the unit cell, substituting the Cd2+ ones. The as-grown single crystal does not show anisotropy of optical properties, i.e. its direct band gap reaches Eg = 1.76 or 1.75 eV along (100) and (001) crystallographic directions, respectively. The single crystal exhibits paramagnetic state with short-range antiferromagnetic and long-range ferrimagnetic interactions, a magnetization with zero coercivity and, a remanence that is almost a universal function of H/T, characterizing superparamagnetic-like behaviour. Electrical studies of the new ytterbium-doped cadmium molybdato-tungstate single crystal show a relatively small dielectric constant (εr<12), large lossiness of Joule-Lenz type observed at low frequencies as well as nonlinear I-V characteristics of Schottky or Maxwell-Wagner type.

  4. Analytical electron microscopic studies and positron lifetime measurements in Al-doped MgO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, M. A.; Pareja, R.; González, R.; Abraham, M. M.

    1987-07-01

    MgO crystals intentionally doped with Al were characterized by analytical electron microscopic examinations and positron lifetime measurements. Large spinel (MgO Al2O3) precipitates were observed in samples with high contents of Al. A well-defined crystallographic relationship between the precipitates and the matrix was found. The characteristics of positron lifetime spectra appear to depend on the valence state of the different impurities in the MgO lattice suggesting that positrons are trapped by vacancy impurity complexes.

  5. Multi-wavelength laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ta; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2008-10-27

    Multi-wavelength lasing in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cell is demonstrated. By adding oversaturated chiral dopant, the multi-photonic band CLC structure can be obtained with non-uniform chiral solubility. Under appropriate excitation, multi-wavelength lasing can be achieved with a multi-photonic band edge CLC structure. The number of lasing wavelengths can be controlled under various temperature processes. Nine wavelength CLC lasings were observed simultaneously. The wavelength range covers around 600-675nm. Furthermore, reversible tuning of multi-wavelength lasing was achieved by controlling CLC device temperature.

  6. Rewritable Optical Storage with a Spiropyran Doped Liquid Crystal Polymer Film.

    PubMed

    Petriashvili, Gia; De Santo, Maria Penelope; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Gary, Ramla; Barberi, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Rewritable optical storage has been obtained in a spiropyran doped liquid crystal polymer films. Pictures can be recorded on films upon irradiation with UV light passing through a grayscale mask and they can be rapidly erased using visible light. Films present improved photosensitivity and optical contrast, good resistance to photofatigue, and high spatial resolution. These photochromic films work as a multifunctional, dynamic photosensitive material with a real-time image recording feature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. On the possibility of laser cooling of Cr3+ ions doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilov, S. P.; Kulinkin, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    The fluorescence of Cr3+ ions doped insulating crystals was studied under the excitation in the long-wavelength tail of the absorption spectrum ("laser cooling regime"). The 4T2 - 4A2 and 2E - 4A2 fluorescence spectra with a dominant anti-Stokes component were observed. Though no optical refrigeration was detected in the presented experiments, the spectroscopic results suggest that electron-phonon bands of Cr3+ ions are of interest for further investigations from the point of view of achieving optical refrigeration.

  8. Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Guey Fuh, Andy; Chiang, Jou-Ting; Chien, Yu-Shein; Chang, Chih-Juang; Lin, Hui-Chi

    2012-07-01

    This work demonstrates a multistable, large phase-retardation plate using gelator-doped liquid crystals (LCs). Multistability is achieved by forming a rubbery LC gel at room temperature. Experimentally, the phase retardation (PR) of an LC-gel film can be varied and fixed by the thermoreversible association and dissociation of the gelator molecules. The PR of the LC plate ranging from 0.3-3.7π can be electrically controllable within 10 V. Half-wave and quarter-wave LC plates were also produced at applied voltages of 3.5 and 6.3 V, respectively. Their properties were examined and found to be stable.

  9. Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Chi; Yang, Meng-Ru; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yan, Shih-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a gelator-doped nematic liquid-crystal (LC) phase grating, which can be operated in both the multistable mode and the dynamic mode. Thermoreversible association and dissociation of the gelator molecules can vary and fix the multistable diffraction efficiencies of the gratings. A voltage (V) can also be applied to modulate dynamically the diffraction efficiencies of the grating, which behaves as a conventional LC grating. Experimental results show that the variations of the diffraction efficiencies in the multistable and dynamic modes are similar. The maximum diffraction efficiency is approximately 30% at V = 2 V.

  10. Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Chiang, Jou-Ting; Chien, Yu-Shein; Chang, Chih-Juang; Lin, Hui-Chi

    2012-07-01

    This work demonstrates a multistable, large phase-retardation plate using gelator-doped liquid crystals (LCs). Multistability is achieved by forming a rubbery LC gel at room temperature. Experimentally, the phase retardation (PR) of an LC-gel film can be varied and fixed by the thermoreversible association and dissociation of the gelator molecules. The PR of the LC plate ranging from 0.3--3.7π can be electrically controllable within 10 V. Half-wave and quarter-wave LC plates were also produced at applied voltages of 3.5 and 6.3 V, respectively. Their properties were examined and found to be stable.

  11. Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Chi, E-mail: huichilin@nfu.edu.tw; Yang, Meng-Ru; Tsai, Sheng-Feng

    2014-01-06

    We demonstrate a gelator-doped nematic liquid-crystal (LC) phase grating, which can be operated in both the multistable mode and the dynamic mode. Thermoreversible association and dissociation of the gelator molecules can vary and fix the multistable diffraction efficiencies of the gratings. A voltage (V) can also be applied to modulate dynamically the diffraction efficiencies of the grating, which behaves as a conventional LC grating. Experimental results show that the variations of the diffraction efficiencies in the multistable and dynamic modes are similar. The maximum diffraction efficiency is approximately 30% at V = 2 V.

  12. Environment spectrum and coherence behaviours in a rare-earth doped crystal for quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bo; Tu, Tao; Zhou, Zhong-Quan; Zhu, Xing-Yu; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of environment and coherence behaviours of the central ion in a quantum memory based on a rare-earth doped crystal. The interactions between the central ion and the bath spins suppress the flip-flop rate of the neighbour bath spins and yield a specific environment spectral density S(ω). Under dynamical decoupling pulses, this spectrum provides a general scaling for the coherence envelope and coherence time, which significantly extend over a range on an hour-long time scale. The characterized environment spectrum with ultra-long coherence time can be used to implement various quantum communication and information processing protocols.

  13. Splicing Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers using commercial fusion splicer with default discharge parameters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiping; Bartelt, Hartmut; Brueckner, Sven; Kobelke, Jens; Rothhardt, Manfred; Mörl, Klaus; Ecke, Wolfgang; Willsch, Reinhardt

    2008-05-12

    A novel technique for splicing a small core Ge-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF) was demonstrated using a commercial fusion splicer with default discharge parameters for the splicing of two standard single mode fibers (SMFs). Additional discharge parameter adjustments are not required to splice the PCF to several different SMFs. A low splice loss of 1.0 approximately 1.4 dB is achieved. Low or no light reflection is expected at the splice joint due to the complete fusion of the two fiber ends. The splice joint has a high bending strength and does not break when the bending radius is decreased to 4 mm.

  14. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  15. Atomic force microscopy study on crystal growth of Cu 2+-doped L-arginine phosphate monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Y. L.; Xu, D.; Wang, Y. L.; Du, W.; Liu, H. Y.; Zhang, G. H.; Wang, X. Q.; Sun, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-steps and defects of the {1 0 0} planes of Cu 2+-doped L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals are observed by atomic force microscopy. Formation of sub-steps is not due to the stacking faults but a result of single LAP: Cu 2+ molecule acting as growth unit. Two-dimensional (2D) nuclei with the same height as sub-steps occur on the step-edges. Impurities of Cu 2+ ions cause steps bunch and macrosteps formation. Liquid inclusions in the form of long channels form when the macrosteps lose their stability. Numerous small 3D growth hillocks are found in the channels. The extra stress induced by the 3D islands can result in dislocations and steps mismatches.

  16. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    shaped LPE garnet samples with 31.5um film thickness. We were informed that initial evalu- ation showed acceptably low insertion loss and that the material...frequencies above 25 GHz. c. Furnish up to eight (8) liquid phase epitaxy yttrium iron garnet films to RADC/EEA for testing and evaluation. These tasks...a "Method for Controlling Resonance Frequency of Yttrium Iron Garnet Films ." A patent, "Epitaxial Growth of M-type Hexagonal Ferrite Films on Spinel

  17. Effect of manganese doping on PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahul, Raffi

    Single crystals based on relaxor-lead titanate (relaxor-PT) solid solutions have advanced the world of piezoelectric materials for the past two decades with their giant piezoelectric properties achieved by domain engineered configurations. When single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) solid solution in the rhombohedral phase were poled along [001]c direction with "4R" domain configuration, they exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33 >2000 pC/N) and high electromechanical coupling (k33 >0.9) which led to their widespread use in advanced medical imaging systems and underwater acoustic devices. However, PMN-PT crystals suffer from low phase transition temperature (Trt ˜85-95 °C) and lower coercive field (depolarizing electric field, Ec ˜2-3 kV/cm). Lead indium niobate - lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals formed by adding indium as another constituent exhibit higher coercive field (E c ˜5kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (Tc >210 °C) than the binary PMN-PT crystals (Ec ˜2.5 kV/cm and Tc <140 °C). When these ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals are doped with manganese (Mn:PIN-PMN-PT), they behave like hard piezoelectric materials demonstrating an internal bias field (Ei ˜0.8-1.6 kV/cm), leading to low elastic losses and high mechanical Q-factor (Qm >600) compared to the undoped binary crystals (Qm of PMN-PT <150). Although the spontaneous polarization directions for these rhombohedral crystals are in the c directions, the giant piezoelectric effect (d33 >2000 pC/N for PMN-PT) occurs in the [001]c poled crystals, which is attributed to the polarization rotation mechanisms. Hence, domain engineering configurations induced by poling these crystals in orientations other than their polarization axis are critical for achieving large piezoelectric effects. Based on the phase diagram of these solid solutions, with the increase in PT content beyond the rhombohedral phase region, orthorhombic

  18. Energy transfer and up-conversion in rare-earth doped dielectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, Alexandra M.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we consider the prospects of development of the visible, and IR laser-diode pumped lasers based on TR3+-doped double-fluoride crystals. On the basis of estimates of the probabilities of competing non-radiative energy-transfer processes obtained from the experiments and theoretical calculations, the conclusions are drawn on the efficiency of up-conversion pumping and selfquenching of the upper TR3+ states excited by laser-diode emission. The effect of the host composition, dopant concentration, and temperature on the efficiency of up-conversion processes is demonstrated on the example of the YLF:Nd, YLF:Er, BaY2F8:Er, and BaY2F8:Er,Yb crystals. The transfer microparameters for most important cross-relaxation transitions are determined and the conclusions about interaction mechanisms are drawn.

  19. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of themore » dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.« less

  20. Dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystal doped with Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, A.; Ara, M. H. Majles; Saboohi, F.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) on dielectric properties of planar and homeotropic oriented nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were studied during the temperature interval of 298-322 °K. It was found that the dielectric permittivity was considerably increased by adding NPs mass percentages. The structural characterization of the synthesized NPs with the scale 14-18 nm has been analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy results. The obtained dielectric anisotropy (?) and mean dielectric (?) have shown an immense increment in the value of 1% and 10% wt. NPs doped NLCs, respectively. These results were assigned to the strong dipole-dipole interaction between the superparamagnetic particles and the surrounding liquid crystal molecules.

  1. Paramagnetic Ce3 + optical emitters in garnets: Optically detected magnetic resonance study and evidence of Gd-Ce cross-relaxation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmachev, D. O.; Gurin, A. S.; Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Asatryan, G. R.; Badalyan, A. G.; Romanov, N. G.; Petrosyan, A. G.; Baranov, P. G.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.

    2017-06-01

    Paramagnetic Ce3 +optical emitters have been studied by means of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) via Ce3 + spin-dependent emission in cerium-doped garnet crystals which were both gadolinium free and contain gadolinium in a concentration from the lowest (0.1%) to 100%, i.e., to the superparamagnetic state. It has been shown that the intensity of photoluminescence excited by circularly polarized light into Ce3 + absorption bands can be used for selective monitoring the population of the Ce3 + ground-state spin sublevels. Direct evidence of the cross-relaxation effects in garnet crystals containing two electron spin systems, i.e., the simplest one of Ce3 + ions with the effective spin S =1/2 and the system of Gd3 + ions with the maximum spin S =7/2 , has been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance of Gd3 + has been found by monitoring Ce3 + emission in cerium-doped garnet crystals with gadolinium concentrations of 0.1 at. %, 4%-8%, and 100%, which implies the impact of the Gd3 + spin polarization on the optical properties of Ce3 +. Strong internal magnetic fields in superparamagnetic crystals were shown to modify the processes of recombination between UV-radiation-induced electron and hole centers that lead to the recombination-induced Ce3 + emission. Observation of spikes and subsequent decay in the cross-relaxation-induced ODMR signals under pulsed microwave excitation is suggested to be an informative method to investigate transient processes in the many-spin system of Ce3 +, Gd3 +, and electron and hole radiation-induced centers.

  2. Studies of absorption coefficient cum electro-optic performance of polymer dispersed liquid crystal doped with CNT and dichroic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vandna; Kumar, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Absorption coefficient of doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) is a critical factor for their device performance and depends on dopants parameters like solubility, order parameter and extinction coefficients, in addition to configuration and orientation of the droplets. In this study, a fixed amount (0.125% wt/wt) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and orange azo dichroic dye was doped in PDLC and measured the OFF state absorption coefficient. Considering the theory based on Beer's law and followed by extinction coefficients of CNT and dye, the OFF state transmission for dye doped PDLC was found lower compared to CNT doped PDLC. As a result, absorption coefficient for dye doped PDLC was higher and resulted in the superior contrast ratio. The experimental results were found be consistent with the theoretical results.

  3. Probing the Crystal Structure and Formation Mechanism of Lanthanide-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Hudry, Damien; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Dooryhee, E.; ...

    2016-11-23

    Lanthanide (Ln)-doped upconverting nanocrystals (UCNCs), such as NaLnF 4 (with Ln = lanthanide), constitute an important class of nanoscale materials due to their capacity to convert near-infrared photons into near-ultraviolet or visible light. Although under intense investigation for more than a decade, UCNCs have been relatively underexplored especially regarding their crystal structure and mechanisms of formation in organic media. The former is needed to explain the relationship between atomic scale structure and upconversion (UC) properties of UCNCs (i.e., local symmetry for 4f–4f transition probability, Ln 3+ distances for energy migration), while the latter is essential to finely tune the size, morphology, chemical composition, and architecture of well-defined upconverting nanostructures, which constitute the experimental levers to modify the optical properties. In this contribution, we use synchrotron-based diffraction experiments coupled to Rietveld and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses to understand the formation of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs in organic media and to investigate their crystal structure. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of the formation of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs based on chemical reactions involving molecular clusters and in situ-generated, crystalline sodium fluoride at high temperature. Additionally, a detailed crystallographic investigation of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs is presented. Our Rietveld and PDF analyses show that the space group Pmore » $$\\bar{6}$$ is the one that best describes the crystal structure of NaGdF 4:Yb:Er UCNCs contrary to what has been recently proposed. Further, our Rietveld and PDF data reveal the formation of bulk-like crystal structure down to 10 nm with limited distortions. Finally, the results presented in this paper constitute an important step toward the comprehensive understanding of the underlying picture that governs UC properties of lanthanide-doped nanostructures.« less

  4. Optical parameters and dispersion behavior of potassium magnesium chloride sulfate single crystals doped with Co+2 ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu El-Fadl, A.; Abd-Elsalam, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    Single crystals of potassium magnesium chloride sulfate (KMCS) doped with cobalt ions were grown by slow cooling method. Powder XRD study confirmed the monoclinic structure of the grown crystals. The functional group vibrations were checked through FTIR spectroscopy measurements. In optical studies, the absorbance behavior of the crystals and their optical energy gap were established by Tauc plot. The refractive index, the extinction coefficient and other optical constants were calculated for the grown crystals. The normal dispersion of the refractive index was analyzed according to single oscillator Sellmeier's model. The Urbach's rule was applied to analyze the localized states density in the forbidden gap.

  5. High-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Sn-doped ZnO single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, E. Senthil; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Boatner, Lynn A.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, Group IV donors in ZnO are poorly understood, despite evidence that they are effective n-dopants. We present high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy studies of unintentionally doped and Sn doped ZnO single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Doped samples showed greatly increased emission from the I10 bound exciton transition which was recently proven to be related to the incorporation of Sn impurities based on radio-isotope studies. PL linewidths are exceptionally sharp for these samples, enabling clear identification of several donor species. Temperature dependent PL measurements of the I10 line emission energy and intensity dependence reveal a behavior similar tomore » other shallow donors in ZnO. Ionized donor bound exciton and two electron satellite transitions of the I10 transition are unambiguously identified and yield a donor binding energy of 71 meV. In contrast to recent reports of Ge-related donors in ZnO, the spectroscopic binding energy for the Sn-related donor bound exciton follows a linear relationship with donor binding energy (Haynes rule), confirming the shallow nature of this defect center, which we attribute to a SnZn double donor compensated by an unknown single acceptor.« less

  6. Studies on output characteristics of stable dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hongchun; Zhang, Sa; Hou, Zhiyun; Xia, Changming; Zhou, Guiyao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jiantao; Wu, Jiale; Fu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    A stable dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser pumped by a 976 nm laser diode has been demonstrated at room temperature. Single-wavelength, dual-wavelength laser oscillations are observed when the fiber laser operates under different pump power by using different length of fibers. Stable dual-wavelength radiation around 1045 nm and 1075 nm has been generated simultaneously at a high pump power directly from an ytterbium-doped fiber laser without using any spectral control mechanism. A small core ytterbium-doped PCF fabricated by the powder sinter direction drawn rod technology is used as gain medium. The pump power and fiber length which can affect the output characteristics of dual-wavelength fiber laser are analyzed in the experiment. Experiments confirm that higher pump power and longer fiber length favors 1075 nm output; lower pump power and shorter fiber length favors 1045 nm output. Those results have a good reference in multi-wavelength fiber laser.

  7. Doping dependent crystal structures and optoelectronic properties of n-type CdSe:Ga nanowries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhizhong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Xie, Chao; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Bian, Liang; Wu, Yiming; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuping; Jie, Jiansheng

    2011-11-01

    Although CdSe nanostructures possess excellent electrical and optical properties, efforts to make nano-optoelectronic devices from CdSe nanostructures have been hampered by the lack of efficient methods to rationally control their structural and electrical characteristics. Here, we report CdSe nanowires (NWs) with doping dependent crystal structures and optoelectronic properties by using gallium (Ga) as the efficient n-type dopant via a simple thermal co-evaporation method. The phase change of CdSe NWs from wurtzite to zinc blende with increased doping level is observed. Systematical measurements on the transport properties of the CdSe:Ga NWs reveal that the NW conductivity could be tuned in a wide range of near nine orders of magnitude by adjusting the Ga doping level and a high electron concentration up to 4.5 × 10(19) cm(-3) is obtained. Moreover, high-performance top-gate field-effect transistors are constructed based on the individual CdSe:Ga NWs by using high-κ HfO(2) as the gate dielectric. The great potential of the CdSe:Ga NWs as high-sensitive photodetectors and nanoscale light emitters is also exploited, revealing the promising applications of the CdSe:Ga NWs in new-generation nano-optoelectronics.

  8. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Ho-Doped Lu3Al5O12 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Makoto; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Totsuka, Daisuke; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Futami, Yoshisuke; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-10-01

    The crystals of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3% Ho doped Lu3Al5O12 (Ho:LuAG) grown by the micro-pulling-down method were examined for their scintillation properties. At wavelengths longer than 300 nm, Ho:LuAG crystals demonstrated around 60% transparency with many absorption peaks attributed to Ho3+ 4f10-4 f10 transitions. When excited by 241Am α-ray to obtain radio luminescence spectra, broad host emission and four sharp Ho3+ 4f10-4 f10 emission peaks were detected in the visible region. Light yields and decay time profiles of the samples irradiated by 137Cs γ-ray were measured using photomultiplier tubes R7600 (Hamamatsu). Ho 0.5%:LuAG showed the highest light yield of 3100 ±310 photons/MeV among the present samples. The decay time profiles were well reproduced by two components exponential approximation consisting of 0.5-1 μs and 3-6 μs.

  9. Insights into the mantle geochemistry of scandium from a meta-analysis of garnet data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassé, Mathieu; Griffin, William L.; Alard, Olivier; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Calas, Georges

    2018-06-01

    The meta-analysis of about 13,000 analyses of scandium content in garnet grains shows that, below the spinel-garnet transition, this phase carries about three-quarters of the Sc budget of the mantle, indicating its control on Sc mobility. The Sc content of garnets in mafic rocks is low, due to a dilution effect resulting from their high modal content in garnet. Garnets from ultramafic rocks exhibit a wider range of Sc concentrations. We assess the relative influence of thermobarometry, crystal chemistry and fluid-related events on the distribution of Sc in garnet from such rocks to improve the tracking of geochemical processes in the mantle. Pressure and temperature of equilibration in the mantle are second-order factors influencing the Sc content of garnet, while crystal chemistry, in particular Cr/Cr+Al and Ca/Ca+Mg, is the main parameter controlling the compatibility of Sc. Scandium is incorporated in both X and Y sites of Cr-Ca-rich garnets, resulting in a behaviour intermediate between rare-earth elements, incorporated in the X site, and trivalent transition elements, occupying the Y site. This affinity for both sites results in a mild compatibility of Sc in the garnet stability field of the mantle; hence Sc concentration in garnet increases with melt extraction and can be reduced by silicate-melt metasomatism. In contrast, metasomatism by volatile-rich fluids increases the Sc concentration in garnet. The control of garnet on the compatibility of Sc in deep lithospheric rocks demonstrates the potential of using Sc to track the conditions of formation of magmas and their residual rocks, as well as the origin and nature of metasomatic fluids.

  10. Structural and optical properties of indium-doped highly conductive ZnO bulk crystals grown by the hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Buguo; Claflin, Bruce; Look, David; Jiménez, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Indium-doped ZnO bulk crystals grown by the hydrothermal method are highly-conductive, with resistivity at 0.01 Ωcm at room temperature as revealed by Hall-effect measurement. In this paper we report on structural and optical properties of these crystals. The grown In:ZnO crystals have been studied by high resolution X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering and low-temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. It was found that the c lattice parameter of the grown In:ZnO crystal expanded 0.06% with respect to the lithium-doped ZnO crystal seed, and the In-doped ZnO overgrew the seed crystal pseudomorphically but with high quality crystallinity; the X-ray rocking curves show the FWHM of the Zn face and O faces are only 0.05° and 0.1° ; and the indium concentration in the crystal reaches the solubility limit. Raman spectra show strain relaxation gradually from the regrowth interface as well as a weak spectral feature at 723 cm-1. The peak at 312 cm-1 noticed in hydrothermally grown In:ZnO nanostructures does not appear in our In-doped crystals, indicating that this peak may be associated with specific defects (e.g. surface related) of the nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements show that an indium donor bound exciton peak I9 (In0X) is the dominant peak in the PL spectrum, located at 3.3586 eV on the zinc face and 3.3577 eV on the oxygen face. Both of them deviated from the consensus literature value of 3.3567 eV, probably due to strain in the crystal induced by impurities.

  11. Scintillation properties of the silver doped lithium iodide single crystals at room and low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sajid; Kim, H. J.; Lee, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents luminescence and scintillation properties of Silver doped LiI crystals. Single crystals of LiI: x% Ag (x=0.02, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5) were grown by using the Bridgman technique. X-ray induced luminescence spectra show emission bands spanning from 275 nm to 675 nm, dominated by Ag+ band having a peak at 300 nm. Under UV-luminescence, a similar emission band was observed with the peak excitation wavelength of 265 nm. Energy resolution, light yield and decay time profiles of the samples were measured under a 137Cs γ-ray irradiation. The LiI(0.1%Ag) showed the highest light yield and the best energy resolution among the samples. The light yield of LiI(0.1%Ag) is higher than commercially available LiI(Eu) crystal (15,000±1500 ph/MeV). The LiI(Ag) samples exhibit three exponential decay time components except the LiI(0.02%Ag), where the fitting found two decay time components. Temperature dependences of emission spectra, light yield and decay time were studied from 300 K to 10 K. The LiI(0.1%Ag) crystal showed an increase in the light yield and a shortening of decay time with a decrease in temperature..

  12. Solid solutions of gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods by combined microwave-ultrasonic irradiation assisted crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran; Obeydavi, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Nanocrystalline solid solutions consisting of un-doped and gadolinium doped zinc oxide nanorods were fabricated by a modified sol-gel process utilizing combined ultrasonic-microwave irradiations. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, diethylene glycol, and triethylenetetramine respectively as capping, structure directing, and complexing agents were used under ultrasound dynamic aging and microwave heating to obtain crystalline nanorods. Crystalline phase monitoring, lattice parameters and variation, morphology and shape, elemental analysis, functional groups, reducibility, and the oxidation state of emerged species were examined by PXRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, micro Raman, H2-TPR, and EPR techniques. Results have verified that irradiation mechanism of gelation and crystallization reduces the reaction time, augments the crystal quality, and formation of hexagonal close pack structure of Wurtzite morphology. Besides, dissolution of gadolinium within host lattice involves lattice deformation, unit cell distortion, and angular position variation. Structure related shape and growth along with compositional purity were observed through microscopic and spectroscopic surveys. Furthermore, TPR and EPR studies elucidated more detailed behavior upon exposure to the exerted irradiations and subsequent air-annealing including the formed oxidation states and electron trapping centers, presence of gadolinium, zinc, and oxygen disarrays and defects, as well as alteration in the host unit cell via gadolinium addition.

  13. EPR Studies of Magnetically Dilute Ga-Doped Single Crystals of Fe18 Antiferromagnetic Molecular Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, John; Ramsey, Christopher; Del Barco, Enrique; Stamatatos, Theocharis; Christou, George

    2008-03-01

    Studies of the quantum dynamics of the electron spins in solid state systems has gained considerable interest recently due to their potential for use as quantum computing substrates. One class of materials, molecular magnets, are of particular importance, owing to the seemingly limitless array of spin configurations due to synthetic chemical flexibility. Efforts are currently devoted to minimizing decoherence times by diminishing dipolar effects. In this regard, we have carried out EPR measurements on small single crystals of 0.5% Ga doped Fe18 molecular antiferromagnetic wheels at temperatures down to 300 mK using planar resonators patterned on GaAs wafers. This system constitutes a dilute sample of S = 5/2 molecules dispersed within a sea of S = 0 (at low temperature) molecules, which significantly reduces dipolar interactions and might provide a means of observing Rabi oscillations in crystals of molecular magnets. Detailed angular dependence studies reveal significant anisotropy with D = 500 mK and E = 20 mK. The presence of second order anisotropy (E) is very unusual for such a high symmetry system and its interpretation will be discussed. Pulsed-EPR measurements and doping concentration dependence will also be discussed.

  14. Spectroscopic and crystal-field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Gaumé, Romain; Viana, Bruno; Antic-Fidancev, Elisabeth; Vivien, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    Crystal-field effects are very important as far as laser performances of Yb-doped materials are concerned. In order to simplify the interpretation of low-temperature spectra, two tools derived from a careful examination of crystal-field interaction are presented. Both approaches are successfully applied in the case of new Yb-doped materials, namely Ca3Y2(BO3)4 (CYB), Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 (CaGB), Sr3Y(BO3)3 (SrYBO), Ba3Lu(BO3)3 (BLuB), Y2SiO5 (YSO), Ca2Al2SiO7 (CAS) and SrY4(SiO4)3O (SYS). The 2F7/2 splitting is particularly large in these materials and favourable to a quasi-three-level laser operating scheme. Calculations performed using the point charge electrostatic model for these compounds and using a consistent set of effective atomic charges confirm the experimental results. This should permit to use this model in a predictive approach.

  15. Timing and duration of garnet granulite metamorphism in magmatic arc crust, Fiordland, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stowell, H.; Tulloch, A.; Zuluaga, C.; Koenig, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pembroke Granulite from Fiordland, New Zealand provides a window into the mid- to lower crust of magmatic arcs. Garnet Sm-Nd and zircon U-Pb ages constrain the timing and duration of high-P partial melting that produced trondhjemitic high Sr/Y magma. Trace element zoning in large, euhedral garnet is compatible with little post growth modification and supports the interpretation that garnet Sm-Nd ages of 126.1??2.0 and 122.6??2.0. Ma date crystal growth. Integration of the garnet ages with U-Pb zircon ages elucidates a history of intrusion(?) and a protracted period of high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting. The oldest zircon ages of 163 to 150. Ma reflect inheritance or intrusion and a cluster of zircon ages ca. 134. Ma date orthopyroxene-bearing mineral assemblages that may be magmatic or metamorphic in origin. Zircon and garnet ages from unmelted gneiss and garnet reaction zones record garnet granulite facies metamorphism at 128 to 126. Ma. Peritectic garnet and additional zircon ages from trondhjemite veins and garnet reaction zones indicate that garnet growth and partial melting lasted until ca. 123. Ma. Two single fraction garnet ages and young zircon ages suggest continued high-temperature re-equilibration until ca. 95. Ma. Phase diagram sections constrain orthopyroxene assemblages to <0.6 GPa @ 650??C, peak garnet granulite facies metamorphic conditions to 680-815??C @ 1.1-1.4. GPa, and a P-T path with a P increase of???0.5. GPa. These sections are compatible with water contents???0.28wt.%, local dehydration during garnet granulite metamorphism, and <0.3. GPa P increases during garnet growth. Results demonstrate the utility of integrated U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd garnet ages, and phase diagram sections for understanding the nature, duration, and conditions of deep crustal metamorphism and melting. Geochronologic and thermobarometric data for garnet granulite indicate that thickening of arc crust, which caused high-pressure metamorphism in northern

  16. Distribution of garnet grain sizes and morphologies across the Moine Supergroup, northern Scottish Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Thigpen, J. Ryan; Law, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is used in a wide range of geologic studies due to its important physical and chemical characteristics. While the mineral is useful for thermobarometry and geochronology constraints and can often be correlated to deformation and fabric development, difficulties remain in making meaningful interpretations of such data. In this study, we characterize garnet grain sizes and crystal morphologies from 141 garnet-bearing metasedimentary rock samples collected from the northern part of the Moine Supergroup in the Scottish Caledonides. Larger, euhedral crystals are indicative of prograde metamorphic growth and are typically associated with the most recent phase of orogenesis (Scandian, ˜430 Ma). Small, rounded ("pin-head") garnets are interpreted as detrital in origin. A subhedral classification is more subjective and is used when garnets contains portions of straight boundaries but have rounded edges or rims that have been altered through retrograde metamorphic reactions. From our collection, 88 samples contain anhedral garnets (maximum measured grain size d = 0.46 ± 0.21 mm), 34 bear subhedral garnets (d = 2.0 ± 1.0 mm), and the remaining 19 samples contain garnets with euhedral grains (d = 4.4 ± 2.6 mm). Plotting the distribution of garnets relative to the mapped thrust contacts reveals an abrupt change in morphology and grain size when traced from the Moine thrust sheet across the Ben Hope and Sgurr Beag thrusts into the higher-grade, more hinterland-positioned thrust sheets. The dominance of anhedral garnets in the Moine thrust sheet suggests that these grains should not be used for peak P - T estimation associated with relatively low temperature (<500 ° C) Scandian metamorphism, as they are likely detrital in origin and contain protolith chemical signatures that would not have been reset due to sluggish diffusivities at greenschist facies temperatures. However, chemical and isotopic data from these grains may provide information into the provenance of

  17. Recent progress in advanced optical materials based on gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Guang; Sakka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes the recent achievements in stabilization of the metastable lattice of gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12, GAG) and the related developments of advanced optical materials, including down-conversion phosphors, up-conversion phosphors, transparent ceramics, and single crystals. Whenever possible, the materials are compared with their better known YAG and LuAG counterparts to demonstrate the merits of the GAG host. It is shown that novel emission features and significantly improved luminescence can be attained for a number of phosphor systems with the more covalent GAG lattice and the efficient energy transfer from Gd3+ to the activator. Ce3+ doped GAG-based single crystals and transparent ceramics are also shown to simultaneously possess the advantages of high theoretical density, fast scintillation decay, and high light yields, and hold great potential as scintillators for a wide range of applications. The unresolved issues are also pointed out. PMID:27877750

  18. Recent progress in advanced optical materials based on gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Guang; Sakka, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    This review article summarizes the recent achievements in stabilization of the metastable lattice of gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12, GAG) and the related developments of advanced optical materials, including down-conversion phosphors, up-conversion phosphors, transparent ceramics, and single crystals. Whenever possible, the materials are compared with their better known YAG and LuAG counterparts to demonstrate the merits of the GAG host. It is shown that novel emission features and significantly improved luminescence can be attained for a number of phosphor systems with the more covalent GAG lattice and the efficient energy transfer from Gd3+ to the activator. Ce3+ doped GAG-based single crystals and transparent ceramics are also shown to simultaneously possess the advantages of high theoretical density, fast scintillation decay, and high light yields, and hold great potential as scintillators for a wide range of applications. The unresolved issues are also pointed out.

  19. Effect of Ga3+ and Gd3+ ions substitution on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ -doped yttrium aluminium garnet phosphor nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Wako, A H; Dejene, F B; Swart, H C

    2016-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of commercially obtained Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + phosphor were investigated by replacing Al 3 + with Ga 3 + and Y 3 + with Gd 3 + in the Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + structure to form Y 3 (Al,Ga) 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + and (Y,Gd) 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + . X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed slight 2-theta peak shifts to lower angles when Ga 3 + was used and to higher angles when Gd 3 + was used, with respect to peaks from Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + and JCPDS card no. 73-1370. This could be attributed to induced crystal-field effects due to the different ionic sizes of Ga 3 + and Gd 3 + compared with Al 3 + and Y 3 + . The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed broad excitation from 350 to 550 nm with a maximum at 472 nm, and broad emission bands from 500 to 650 nm, centred at 578 nm for Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + arising from the 5d → 4f transition of Ce 3 + . PL revealed a blue shift for Ga 3 + substitution and a red shift for Gd 3 + substitution. UV-Vis showed two absorption peaks at 357 and 457 nm for Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3 + , with peaks shifting to 432 nm for Ga 3 + and 460 nm for Gd 3 + substitutions. Changes in the trap levels or in the depth and number of traps due to Ce 3 + were analysed using thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. This revealed the existence of shallow and deep traps. It was observed that Ga 3 + substitution contributes to the shallowest traps at 74 °C and fewer deep traps at 163 °C, followed by Gd 3 + with shallow traps at 87 °C and deep traps at 146 °C. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Comparison of tunable lasers based on diode pumped Tm-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Černý, Pavel; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Żendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Urata, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Mikio

    2008-12-01

    We report on continuously tunable operation of a diode pumped lasers based on Tm-doped materials, emitting in the 1.8 - 2.μ1 m spectral band. In our study we compare results obtained with three various single crystals doped by Tm3+ ions: Yttrium Aluminum perovskite YAP (YAlO3), Gadolinium orthovanadate GdVO4, and Yttrium Lithium Fluoride YLF (YLiF4). Following samples were available: the 3mm long a-cut crystal rod of Tm:YAP with 4% at. Tm/Y (diameter 3 mm); the 8mm long b-cut crystal rod of Tm:YLF with 3.5% at. Tm/Y (diameter 3 mm); the 2.7mm long a-cut crystal block of Tm:GdVO4 with 2% at. Tm/Gd (crystal face 5×3 mm). For active medium pumping, the laser diode radiation was used. Because the tested samples differs significantly in absorption spectra, two fibre-coupled (core diameter 400 µm) temperature-tuned laser diodes were used: first operating at wavelength 793nm was used for Tm:YAP and Tm:YLF; the second operating at wavelength 802nm was used for Tm:GdVO4. In both cases, the continuous power up to 20W was available for pumping. The diode radiation was focused into the active crystal by two achromatic doublet lenses with the focal length f = 75 mm. The measured radius of pumping beam focus inside the crystal was 260 µm. The longitudinally diode pumped crystals were tested in linear, 80mm long, hemispherical laser cavity. The curved (radius 150mm) output coupler reflectivity was ~ 97 % in range from 1.8 up to 2.1 μm. The pumping flat mirror had maximal reflectivity in this range and it had high transmission around 0.8 μm. A 1.5mm thick birefringent plate made from quartz (Lyot filter) inserted under a Brewster's angle was used as a tuning element. This plate was placed inside the resonator between the crystal and the output coupler. Using Tm:YAP crystal, the maximal output power of 2.8W in this set-up was obtained. The laser could be tuned from 1865nm up to 2036nm with a maximum at 1985 nm. Laser based on Tm:YLF crystal was tunable from 1835nm up to

  1. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2013-06-11

    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  2. Spectroscopic characterisation of Er-doped LuVO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, R.; Dominiak-Dzik, G.; Solarz, P.; Strzęp, A.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Łukasiewicz, T.

    2010-12-01

    The LuVO4:Er single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. The crystal-field split energy levels of Er3+ ion were derived experimentally employing absorption and emission spectra measured at T=10 K. The Judd-Ofelt phenomenological method was used to estimate intensity parameters, radiative lifetimes and branching ratios of luminescence. The excited state dynamics of the LuVO4:Er systems was investigated and experimental lifetimes of emitting levels were measured. The emission cross section of the 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in the infrared was calculated by the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg method. The gain cross section, estimated for several inverse-population parameters, allowed us to evaluate a potential laser activity of the LuVO4:Er system at 1.6 μm. Also, the potential range of the optical pumping was assessed based on absorption spectra achieved at the room temperature. The optical losses related to the green up-converted emission, encountered under the 978 nm excitation between 300 and 670 K were indicated and discussed. Spectroscopic peculiarities of the Er3+-doped LuVO4 crystal were discussed in relation to optical properties of the YVO4:Er and GdVO4:Er crystals. Taking into account the high quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level, and satisfactory absorption and emission features, the LuVO4:Er crystal can be considered as a promising active material for laser operation near 1.6 μm.

  3. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-07-21

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+))-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc(3+) with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu(3+) at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln(3+) NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er(3+)/Yb(3+) NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln(3+) NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.

  4. Comparison of luminescence property of gamma-ray irradiated Tb3+ -doped and Ce3+ co-doped potassium halide single crystals.

    PubMed

    Bangaru, S; Ravi, D; Saradha, K

    2017-05-01

    Single crystals of KCl and KBr singly and doubly doped with Tb 3 + and Ce 3 + , respectively, were successfully grown using the Bridgeman technique. This work reports the comparative luminescence behavior and optical absorption characterization of non-irradiated and γ-ray-irradiated single crystals of these materials. The existing defect and the defect created by γ-ray irradiation were monitored by optical absorption spectra. The excitation and emission spectra of these materials were measured at room temperature with a spectrofluorometer and the pertaining results were compared. The F-band comparison was made when bleached with F-light for 2 mins. The trap-level changes in KCl and KBr when it is singly and doubly doped enabled us to draw conclusions on the nature of the defect and on the recombination processes involved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The mechanism of the UV band edge photorefractivity suppression in highly doped LiNbO3:Zr crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fei-fei

    2017-11-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) band edge photorefractivity of LiNbO3:Zr at 325 nm has been investigated. The experimental results show that the resistance against photorefraction at 325 nm is quite obvious but not as strong as that at 351 nm, when the doping concentration of Zr reaches 2.0 mol%. It is reported that the photorefractivity in other tetravalently doped LiNbO3 crystals, such as LiNbO3:Hf and LiNbO3:Sn, is enhanced dramatically with doping concentration over threshold. Here we give an explicit explanation on such seemly conflicting behaviors of tetravalently doped LiNbO3, which is ascribed to the combined effect of increased photoconductivity and the absorption strength of the band edge photorefractive centers.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the formation of basal plane stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Chisato; Ichimura, Aiko; Ohtani, Noboru, E-mail: ohtani.noboru@kwansei.ac.jp

    The formation of basal plane stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals was theoretically investigated. A novel theoretical model based on the so-called quantum well action mechanism was proposed; the model considers several factors, which were overlooked in a previously proposed model, and provides a detailed explanation of the annealing-induced formation of double layer Shockley-type stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals. We further revised the model to consider the carrier distribution in the depletion regions adjacent to the stacking fault and successfully explained the shrinkage of stacking faults during annealing at even higher temperatures. The model also succeeded inmore » accounting for the aluminum co-doping effect in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals, in that the stacking fault formation is suppressed when aluminum acceptors are co-doped in the crystals.« less

  7. Variations in Ti coordination and concentration in garnet in response to temperature, pressure and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerson, M. R.; Tailby, N.; Watson, E. B.; Spear, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    Titanium concentrations in garnet vary over several orders of magnitude in natural systems-- from trace-element levels in continental metamorphic systems to several weight percent in garnets from mantle xenoliths. Broadly speaking the wide range of concentrations is due to crystallization from diverse environments. Understanding the crystallographic site and Ti-substitution mechanism in garnet is crucial to deciphering concentration trends and how these relate to the petrogenetic history. This study uses XANES spectroscopy to measure Ti coordination in natural and synthetic garnets known to crystallize over a wide range of conditions to investigate whether changes in Ti coordination and concentration correlate with changes T, P and bulk composition. Ti XANES spectroscopy utilizes shifts in the 1s-3d pre-edge feature, which shows systematic shifts in intensity and energy with coordination. Natural and synthetic garnets grown at >800 oC and >1 GPa incorporate Ti almost entirely on the octahedral site in garnet. It is possible that a small amount of Ti substitutes on the tetrahedral site in these garnets, but the concentration is too low to be observed in the spectra. The most feasible mechanism for octahedral substitution involves charge-balanced coupled substitution with an M2+ cation (where M2+=Mg, Fe, Ca, or Mn) resulting in a net loss of two Al for every Ti gained. Substitution of Al onto the tetrahedral site and Ti on the octahedral site is an other feasible mechanism, although the stoichiometric deficit of Al in experimental garnets suggests this mechanism could only account for a small percentage of Ti. Increases in Ti concentration correlate best with increasing Ca content in experimental garnets. Ti solubility also changes in response to T and P. These observations suggest that Ti incorporation on the octahedral site is dependent on the activities of Ti, Al and other M2+ cation system components. This helps to explain some of the differences in Ti

  8. Luminescence spectra of chromium-doped LiGaO 2 crystals as indicator of their phase heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylman, Mikhail L.

    2006-02-01

    The luminescent properties of chromium-doped LiGaO2 single crystals grown from melt by Cz pulling technique are considered and compared with similar data for the other stable crystalline compounds in Li2O-Ga2O3 oxide system. It is proposed that co-crystallization of large LiGaO2 single crystal and a great number of LiGa5O8 spinel microcrystallites of nano scale dimensions is the key cause for appearance of numerous inclusions observed in LiGaO2 plates used as substrates at the III nitride films epitaxial growth.

  9. The effect of deuteration and doping on the phase transition temperature of grown glycine phosphite single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Perumal, R., E-mail: perumal-cgc@yahoo.co.uk; Chandru, A. Lakshmi; Babu, S. Moorthy

    The Glycinium Phosphite (GPI) compound is a representative of hydrogen-bonded ferroelectric crystals. The ordering of protons could be expected below the room temperature (225 K). Crystals grown from the milipore water as well as deuterated solvents respectively. The corresponding hydrogen bond distance was stretched out due to the effect of isotopic substitution that increase the phase transition temperature. Further to improve the phase transition temperature, GPI crystal was doped with organic complexing agent and various metals and the obtained results are presented.

  10. Growth and Properties of Oxygen and Ion Doped BISMUTH(2) STRONTIUM(2) Calcium COPPER(2) Oxygen (8+DELTA) Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitzi, David Brian

    1990-01-01

    A directional solidification method for growing large single crystals in the Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{8+delta} system is reported. Ion substitutions, with replacement of La for Sr and Y for Ca, as well as oxygen doping in these crystals has been explored. Ion doping results in little change of the superconducting transition for substitution levels below 20-25% (as a result of simultaneous oxygen intercalation), while beyond this level, the Meissner signal broadens and the low temperature Meissner signal decreases. Microprobe analysis and x-ray diffraction performed on these more highly substituted single crystals, provides evidence for inhomogeneity and phase segregation into regions of distinct composition. Annealing unsubstituted crystals in increasing partial pressures of oxygen reversibly depresses the superconducting transition temperature from 90K (as made) to 77K (oxygen pressure annealed) while the Hall concentrations increase from n = 3.1(3) times 10 ^{21} cm^{ -3} (0.34 holes/Cu site) to 4.6(3) times 10^{21} cm^{-3} (0.50 holes/Cu site). Further suppression of T_{c} to 72K is possible by annealing in oxygen pressures up to 100atm. No degradation of the Meissner transition or other indications of inhomogeneity or phase segregation with doping are noted, suggesting that oxygen doped Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{8+delta} is a suitable system for pursuing doping studies. The decrease in T _{c} with concentration for 0.34 <=q n <=q 0.50 indicates that a high carrier concentration regime exists where T_{c} decreases with n and suggests that this decrease does not arise from material inhomogeneity or other materials problems. The physical properties of these Bi _2Sr_2CaCu _2O_{8+delta} crystals, in this high carrier concentration regime, will be discussed.

  11. Sonocatalytic degradation of azo fuchsine in the presence of the Co-doped and Cr-doped mixed crystal TiO2 powders and comparison of their sonocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lv, Yanhui; Zhang, Zhaohong; Deng, Yingqiao; Zhang, Liquan; Liu, Bin; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2009-10-15

    In order to degrade some pollutants effectively under ultrasonic irradiation, the Co-doped and Cr-doped mixed crystal TiO(2) powders, with high sonocatalytic activity, were prepared as sonocatalyst. The Co-doped and Cr-doped mixed crystal TiO(2) powders as sonocatalyst were prepared through sol-gel and heat-treated methods from tetrabutylorthotitanate, and then were characterized by XRD and TG-DTA technologies. In order to compare and evaluate the sonocatalytic activity of the Co-doped and Cr-doped mixed crystal TiO(2) powders, the low power ultrasound was as an irradiation source and the azo fuchsine was chosen as a model compound to be degraded. The degradation process was investigated by UV-vis, TOC, ion chromatogram and HPLC techniques. The results indicated that the sonocatalytic activity of Cr-doped mixed crystal TiO(2) powder was higher than that of Co-doped and undoped mixed crystal TiO(2) powder during the sonocatalytic degradation of the azo fuchsine in aqueous solution. These results may be of great significance for driving sonocatalytic method to treat non- or low-transparent industrial wastewaters.

  12. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  13. Stimulated Terahertz Stokes Emission of Silicon Crystals Doped with Antimony Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, S. G.; Hübers, H.-W.; Hovenier, J. N.; Klaassen, T. O.; Carder, D. A.; Phillips, P. J.; Redlich, B.; Riemann, H.; Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Shastin, V. N.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulated Stokes emission has been observed from silicon crystals doped by antimony donors when optically excited by radiation from a tunable infrared free electron laser. The photon energy of the emission is equal to the pump photon energy reduced by the energy of the intervalley transverse acoustic (TA) g phonon in silicon (≈2.92THz). The emission frequency covers the range of 4.6-5.8 THz. The laser process occurs due to a resonant coupling of the 1s(E) and 1s(A1) donor states (separation ≈2.97THz) via the g-TA phonon, which conserves momentum and energy within a single impurity center.

  14. Behaviour of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles in the presence of an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emdadi, M.; Poursamad, J. B.; Sahrai, M.; Moghaddas, F.

    2018-06-01

    A planar nematic liquid crystal cell (NLC) doped with spherical ferroelectric nanoparticles is considered. Polarisation of the nanoparticles are assumed to be along the NLC molecules parallel and antiparallel to the director with equal probability. The NLC molecules anchoring to the cell walls are considered to be strong, while soft anchoring at the nanoparticles surface is supposed. Behaviour of the NLC molecules and nanoparticles in the presence of a perpendicular electric field to the NLC cell is theoretically investigated. The electric field of the nanoparticles is taken into account in the calculations. Freedericksz transition (FT) threshold field in the presence of nanoparticles is found. Then, the director and particles reorientations for the electric fields larger than the threshold field are studied. Measuring the onset of the nanoparticles reorientation is proposed as a new method for the FT threshold measurement.

  15. Seven-core neodymium-doped phosphate all-solid photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longfei; He, Dongbing; Feng, Suya; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode seven-core Nd-doped phosphate photonic crystal fiber with all-solid structure with an effective mode field diameter of 108 μm. The multicore fiber is first theoretically investigated through the finite-difference time-domain method. Then the in-phase mode is selected experimentally by a far-field mode-filtering method. The obtained in-phase mode has 7 mrad mode field divergences, which approximately agrees with the predicted 5.6 mrad in seven-core fiber. Output power of 15.5 W was extracted from a 25 cm fiber with slope efficiency of 57%.

  16. Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Savio, R.; Galli, M.; Liscidini, M.

    We report on the design, fabrication, and electro-optical characterization of a light emitting device operating at 1.54 μm, whose active layer consists of silicon oxide containing Er-doped Si nanoclusters. A photonic crystal (PhC) is fabricated on the top-electrode to enhance the light extraction in the vertical direction, and thus the external efficiency of the device. This occurs if a photonic mode of the PhC slab is resonant with the Er emission energy, as confirmed by theoretical calculations and experimental analyses. We measure an increase of the extraction efficiency by a factor of 3 with a high directionality of light emission inmore » a narrow vertical cone. External quantum efficiency and power efficiency are among the highest reported for this kind of material. These results are important for the realization of CMOS-compatible efficient light emitters at telecom wavelengths.« less

  17. Scintillation properties of Tm-doped Lu 3Al 5O 12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Makoto; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Totsuka, Daisuke; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-12-01

    Using the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method, Tm-doped Lu 3Al 5O 12 (Tm:LuAG) single crystals were grown to examine their scintillation properties. In transmittance spectra, they exhibited about 80% transparency in the wavelengths longer than 320 nm and five absorption lines due to Tm 3+ 4f-4f transitions were observed. 241Am α-ray excited radioluminescence spectra were measured and intense 4f-4f emission peaks were observed with the host emission. When excited by 137Cs γ-Ray to obtain pulse height spectra, Tm 1% doped LuAG showed the highest light yield coupled with a photomultiplier (PMT) or a silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD). The light yield was estimated to be 5800 and 7300 photons/MeV for PMT and Si-APD, respectively. Decay time profiles consist of two exponential components and the fast and slow components are considered to be attributed to the host and the combination of the host and Tm 3+ 4f-4f emission, respectively.

  18. Hedgehog spin-vortex crystal stabilized in a hole-doped iron-based superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Meier, William R.; Ding, Qing-Ping; Kreyssig, Andreas; ...

    2018-02-09

    Magnetism is widely considered to be a key ingredient of unconventional superconductivity. In contrast to cuprate high-temperature superconductors, antiferromagnetism in most Fe-based superconductors (FeSCs) is characterized by a pair of magnetic propagation vectors, (π,0) and (0,π). Consequently, three different types of magnetic order are possible. Of these, only stripe-type spin-density wave (SSDW) and spin-charge-density wave (SCDW) orders have been observed. A realization of the proposed spin-vortex crystal (SVC) order is noticeably absent. We report a magnetic phase consistent with the hedgehog variation of SVC order in Ni-doped and Co-doped CaKFe 4As 4 based on thermodynamic, transport, structural and local magneticmore » probes combined with symmetry analysis. The exotic SVC phase is stabilized by the reduced symmetry of the CaKFe 4As 4 structure. Thus, our results suggest that the possible magnetic ground states in FeSCs have very similar energies, providing an enlarged configuration space for magnetic fluctuations to promote high-temperature superconductivity.« less

  19. Hedgehog spin-vortex crystal stabilized in a hole-doped iron-based superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, William R.; Ding, Qing-Ping; Kreyssig, Andreas

    Magnetism is widely considered to be a key ingredient of unconventional superconductivity. In contrast to cuprate high-temperature superconductors, antiferromagnetism in most Fe-based superconductors (FeSCs) is characterized by a pair of magnetic propagation vectors, (π,0) and (0,π). Consequently, three different types of magnetic order are possible. Of these, only stripe-type spin-density wave (SSDW) and spin-charge-density wave (SCDW) orders have been observed. A realization of the proposed spin-vortex crystal (SVC) order is noticeably absent. We report a magnetic phase consistent with the hedgehog variation of SVC order in Ni-doped and Co-doped CaKFe 4As 4 based on thermodynamic, transport, structural and local magneticmore » probes combined with symmetry analysis. The exotic SVC phase is stabilized by the reduced symmetry of the CaKFe 4As 4 structure. Thus, our results suggest that the possible magnetic ground states in FeSCs have very similar energies, providing an enlarged configuration space for magnetic fluctuations to promote high-temperature superconductivity.« less

  20. Thermoelectric Properties of Electron-Doped SrMnO3 Single Crystals with Perovskite Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sakai, H.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric properties have been investigated for single crystals of Sr(Mn1- x Mo x )O3 with the perovskite structure. Similar to (Sr1- x Ce x )MnO3, the Seebeck coefficient for lightly electron-doped compounds ( x ≤ 0.01) is enhanced upon G-type antiferromagnetic ordering, while maintaining metallic conduction. This results in enhancement of the figure of merit ( ZT). On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient for the more electron-doped compound ( x = 0.025) changes sign from negative to positive within a spin and orbital ordered phase (with C-type antiferromagnetic configuration and Mn 3 z 2 - r 2 type orbital order) as the temperature is lowered, whereas the Hall coefficient remains negative in the whole temperature range. The enhancement of the ZT value in the G-type antiferromagnetic phase implies the possibility for improvement of the thermoelectric efficiency by using the coupling between charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom in strongly correlated electron systems.

  1. Flexible, ferroelectric nanoparticle doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices for lower switching voltage and nanoenergy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmy John, V.; Varanakkottu, Subramanyan Namboodiri; Varghese, Soney

    2018-06-01

    Flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal (F-PDLC) devices were fabricated using transparent conducting ITO/PET film. Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) method was used for pure and ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ZnO doped PDLC devices. The distribution of nanoparticles in the PDLC and the formation of micro cavities were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was observed that the addition of ferroelectric BTO nanoparticles has reduced the threshold voltage (Vth) and saturation voltage (Vsat) of FNP-PDLC by 85% and 41% respectively due to the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles. The ferroelectric properties of BTO and ZnO in the fabricated devices were investigated using dynamic contact electrostatic force microscopy (DC EFM). Flexing the device can generate a potential due to the piezo-tribo electric effect of the ferroelectric nanomaterial doped in the PDLC matrix, which could be utilized as an energy generating system. The switching voltage after multiple flexing was also studied and found to be in par with non-flexing situations.

  2. MAGNETIC RELAXATION IN RARE EARTH DOPED GARNET.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in resonance measurements by the constant low temperature linewidth due to two magnon scattering. In contrast, the PPI relaxation rate is independent...of two magnon scattering. The 4.5K doublet may well be related to a near crossing of energy levels which probably causes the anomalous low temperature peaks in delta H and resonance field observed by Dillon. (Author)

  3. Bulk growth of undoped and Nd3+ doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) monocrystal: Exploring the remarkably enhanced structural, optical, electrical and mechanical performance of Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal for NLO device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Mohd; Muley, Gajanan. G.

    2017-05-01

    In current scenario good quality crystals are demanded for NLO device application hence present communication is aimed to grow bulk crystal and investigate the doping effect of rare earth element Nd3+ on structural, linear-nonlinear optical, luminescence, mechanical and dielectric properties of zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystal. The ZTC crystal of dimension 21×10×8 mm3 and the Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal of dimension 27×17×5 mm3 have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The elemental analysis of Nd3+ doped ZTC single crystal has been performed by means of energy dispersive spectroscopic technique. The powder X-ray diffraction technique has been employed to confirm the crystalline phase and identify the effect of Nd3+ doping on structural dimensions of ZTC crystal. The grown crystals have been characterized by UV-Vis-NIR study in the range of 190-1100 nm to ascertain the enhancement in optical transparency of ZTC crystal facilitated by dopant Nd3+. The recorded transmittance data has been utilized to investigate the vital optical constants of grown crystals. The second order nonlinear optical behavior of grown crystals has been evaluated by means of Kurtz-Perry test and the second harmonic generation efficiency of Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal is found to be 1.24 times higher than ZTC crystal. The luminescence analysis has been performed to examine the electronic purity and the color centered photoluminescence emission nature of pure and Nd3+ doped ZTC crystals. The influence of Nd3+ ion on mechanical behavior of ZTC crystal has been investigated by means of microhardness studies. The nature of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of pure and Nd3+ doped ZTC crystal has been examined in the range of 40-100 °C under dielectric study. The Z-scan technique has been employed using the He-Ne laser to investigate the third order nonlinear optical (TONLO) nature of Nd3+ doped ZTC single crystal. The magnitude of TONLO susceptibility, absorption

  4. Modeling and characterization of dye-doped guest-host liquid crystal eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutino, Pedro Coutino

    This thesis explores the use of dye-doped guest-host liquid crystals in variable transmission eyewear devices that protect against rapid and abrupt changes in lighting conditions. Some of their unique characteristics such as millisecond time response, low power consumption, fail-safe operation, and wide color palette make them the only available technology that meets the basic requirements for fast, adaptative eyewear applications. Despite these unique features, there are limitations in the technology which have hindered its use for more advanced eyewear applications. It is the aim of this dissertation to explore these limitations and provide experimental and numerical characterization tools necessary to surpass them. First, several techniques are described to evaluate materials and devices performance in terms of their photopic transmission, haze, birefringence, and distortion. The results are used to demonstrate that by choosing and combining the right materials, it is possible to improve the optical quality of the eyewear. Then, a simulation instrument which combines and integrates all the necessary elements to model the electro-optical response of dye-doped guest-host liquid crystal eyewear was constructed. This program is capable of reproducing with high accuracy experimental results, to predict the performance of devices, and to mimic the spectral curve of a target color. Numerical experiments were performed to study some of the most common limitations of the e-Tint mode or single cell technology including photopic transmission window, and polarization dependence and demonstrate that optimizing parameters such as birefringence, d/p, and concentration of dyes helps to overcome these limitations and enhance system performance. A guest-host double cell system is proposed as a new alternative mode for most advanced eyewear applications. Particular attention was placed on a switchable crossed polarizers configuration which offered superior optical characteristics

  5. Homogeneity and variation of donor doping in Verneuil-grown SrTiO3:Nb single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Rodenbücher, C.; Luysberg, M.; Schwedt, A.; Havel, V.; Gunkel, F.; Mayer, J.; Waser, R.

    2016-01-01

    The homogeneity of Verneuil-grown SrTiO3:Nb crystals was investigated. Due to the fast crystal growth process, inhomogeneities in the donor dopant distribution and variation in the dislocation density are expected to occur. In fact, for some crystals optical studies show variations in the density of Ti3+ states on the microscale and a cluster-like surface conductivity was reported in tip-induced resistive switching studies. However, our investigations by TEM, EDX mapping, and 3D atom probe reveal that the Nb donors are distributed in a statistically random manner, indicating that there is clearly no inhomogeneity on the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale in high quality Verneuil-grown crystals. In consequence, the electronic transport in the bulk of donor-doped crystals is homogeneous and it is not significantly channelled by extended defects such as dislocations which justifies using this material, for example, as electronically conducting substrate for epitaxial oxide film growth. PMID:27577508

  6. Sensitivity-enhanced Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped YAG single crystal optical fiber thermometry based on upconversion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lu; Ye, Linhua; Bao, Renjie; Zhang, Xianwei; Wang, Li-Gang

    2018-03-01

    Optical thermometry based on Y3Al5O12 (YAG) single crystal optical fiber with end Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped is presented. The YAG crystal fiber with end Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped was grown by laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method. Under a 976 nm laser diode excitation, the upconversion (UC) emissions, originating from 3F2,3 →3H6 and 3H4 →3H6 transitions of Tm3+ ions, were investigated in the temperature range from 333 K to 733 K. Interestingly, the UC emission intensity of 3F2,3 →3H6 transition was significantly enhanced with increase of temperature, as compared with the other Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped materials. The temperature dependence of fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) of these two emission bands (3F2,3/3H4 →3H6) suggests that this doped YAG crystal fiber can be used as a highly sensitive optical thermal probe, which demonstrates a high absolute sensitivity with the maximum value of 0.021 K-1 at 733 K. In addition, due to the compact structure, strong mechanical strength and high thermal stability, such thermal probe may be a more promising candidate for temperature sensor with a high spatial resolution.

  7. Praseodymium Cuprate Thin Film Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Roles of Doping, Orientation, and Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Hayamizu, Yoshiaki; Kim, Chang Sub; Kolchina, Liudmila M; Mazo, Galina N; Istomin, Sergey Ya; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L

    2016-12-21

    Highly textured thin films of undoped, Ce-doped, and Sr-doped Pr 2 CuO 4 were synthesized on single crystal YSZ substrates using pulsed laser deposition to investigate their area-specific resistance (ASR) as cathodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The effects of T' and T* crystal structures, donor and acceptor doping, and a-axis and c-axis orientation on ASR were systematically studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on half cells. The addition of both Ce and Sr dopants resulted in improvements in ASR in c-axis oriented films, as did the T* crystal structure with the a-axis orientation. Pr 1.6 Sr 0.4 CuO 4 is identified as a potential cathode material with nearly an order of magnitude faster oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at 600 °C compared to thin films of the commonly studied cathode material La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3-δ . Orientation control of the cuprate films on YSZ was achieved using seed layers, and the anisotropy in the ASR was found to be less than an order of magnitude. The rare-earth doped cuprate was found to be a versatile system for study of relationships between bulk properties and the oxygen reduction reaction, critical for improving SOFC performance.

  8. Experimental study of quartz inclusions in garnet at pressures up to 3.0 GPa: evaluating validity of the quartz-in-garnet inclusion elastic thermobarometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jay B.; Spear, Frank S.

    2018-05-01

    Garnet crystals with quartz inclusions were hydrothermally crystallized from oxide starting materials in piston-cylinder apparatuses at pressures from 0.5 to 3 GPa and temperatures ranging from 700 to 800 °C to study how entrapment conditions affect remnant pressures of quartz inclusions used for quartz-in-garnet (QuiG) elastic thermobarometry. Systematic changes of the 128, 206 and 464 cm-1 Raman band frequencies of quartz were used to determine pressures of quartz inclusions in garnet using Raman spectroscopy calibrations that describe the P-T dependencies of Raman band shifts for quartz under hydrostatic pressure. Within analytical uncertainties, inclusion pressures calculated for each of the three Raman band frequencies are equivalent, which suggests that non-hydrostatic stress effects caused by elastic anisotropy in quartz are smaller than measurement errors. The experimental quartz inclusions have pressures ranging from - 0.351 to 1.247 GPa that span the range of values observed for quartz inclusions in garnets from natural rocks. Quartz inclusion pressures were used to model P-T conditions at which the inclusions could have been trapped. The accuracy of QuiG thermobarometry was evaluated by considering the differences between pressures measured during experiments and pressures calculated using published equation of state parameters for quartz and garnet. Our experimental results demonstrate that Raman measurements performed at room temperature can be used without corrections to estimate garnet crystallization pressures. Calculated entrapment pressures for quartz inclusions in garnet are less than 10% different from pressures measured during the experiments. Because the method is simple to apply with reasonable accuracy, we expect widespread usage of QuiG thermobarometry to estimate crystallization conditions for garnet-bearing silicic rocks.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of rare-earth doped glasses and crystals for optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Wendy

    This research focused on developing and characterizing rare-earth doped, solid-state materials for laser cooling. In particular, the work targeted the optimization of the lasercooling efficiency in Yb3+ and Tm3+ doped fluorides. The first instance of laser-induced cooling in a Tm3+-doped crystal, BaY2F8 was reported. Cooling by 3 degrees Kelvin below ambient temperature was obtained in a single-pass pump geometry at lambda = 1855 nm. Protocols were developed for materials synthesis and purification which can be applied to each component of ZBLANI:Yb 3+/Tm3+ (ZrF4 -- BaF2 -- LaF3 -- AlF3 -- NaF -- InF3: YbF3/TmF3) glass to enable a material with significantly reduced transition-metal impurities. A method for OH- impurity removal and ultra-drying of the metal fluorides was also improved upon. Several characterization tools were used to quantitatively and qualitatively verify purity, including inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Here we found a more than 600-fold reduction in transition-metal impurities in a ZrCl2O solution. A non-contact spectroscopic technique for the measurement of laser-induced temperature changes in solids was developed. Two-band differential luminescence thermometry (TBDLT) achieved a sensitivity of ˜7 mK and enabled precise measurement of the zero-crossing temperature and net quantum efficiency. Several Yb3+-doped ZBLANI glasses fabricated from precursors of varying purity and by different processes were analyzed in detail by TBDLT. Laser-induced cooling was observed at room temperature for several of the materials. A net quantum efficiency of 97.39+/-0.01% at 238 K was found for the best ZBLANI:1%Yb 3+ laser-cooling sample produced from purified metal-fluoride precursors, and proved competitive with the best commercially procured material. The TBDLT technique enabled rapid and sensitive benchmarking of laser-cooling materials and provided critical feedback to the development and optimization of high-performance optical

  10. Sunlight-switchable light shutter fabricated using liquid crystals doped with push-pull azobenzene.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Won; Baek, Jong-Min; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-11-14

    We propose a sunlight-switchable light shutter using liquid crystal/polymer composite doped with push-pull azobenzene. The proposed light shutter is switchable between the translucent and transparent states by application of an electric field or by UV irradiation. Switching by UV irradiation is based on the change of the liquid crystal (LC) clearing point by the photo-isomerization effect of push-pull azobenzene. Under sunlight, the light shutter can be switched from the translucent to the transparent state by the nematic-isotropic phase transition of the LC domains triggered by trans-cis photo-isomerization of the push-pull azobenzene molecules. When the amount of sunlight is low because of cloud cover or when there is no sunlight at sunset, the light shutter rapidly relaxes from its transparent state back to its initial translucent state by the isotropic-nematic phase transition induced by cis-trans back-isomerization of the push-pull azobenzene molecules.

  11. Thermoelectric properties and thermal stability of Bi-doped PbTe single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Li, Decong; Deng, Shuping; Tang, Yu; Sun, Luqi; Liu, Wenting; Shen, Lanxian; Yang, Peizhi; Deng, Shukang

    2018-06-01

    In this study, n-type Bi-doped single-crystal PbTe thermoelectric materials were prepared by melting and slow cooling method according to the stoichiometric ratio of Pb:Bi:Te = 1-x:x:1 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25). The X-ray diffraction patterns of Pb1-xBixTe samples show that all main diffraction peaks are well matched with the PbTe matrix, which has a face-centered cubic structure with the space group Fm 3 bar m . Electron probe microanalysis reveals that Pb content decreases gradually, and Te content remains invariant basically with the increase of Bi content, indicating that Bi atoms are more likely to replace Pb atoms. Thermal analysis shows that the prepared samples possess relatively high thermal stability. Simultaneously, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction pattern indicate that the prepared samples have typical single-crystal structures with good mechanical properties. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the prepared samples improved significantly compared with that of the pure sample, and the maximum ZT value of 0.84 was obtained at 600 K by the sample with x = 0.2.

  12. Upconversion luminescence of CsScF4 crystals doped with erbium and ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonnikov, D. A.; Voronov, V. N.; Molokeev, M. S.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Tetragonal CsScF4 crystals doped with (5 at.%) Er and Er/Yb (0.5 at.%/5 at.%) are grown and their crystal structure is determined to belong to Pmmn space group. Er and Yb ions are shown to occupy distorted octahedral Sc sites with the center of inversion. Bright visible upconversion luminescence was observed under 970-980 nm pumping with red (4F9/2), yellow (4S3/2) and green (2H11/2) bands of comparable intensity. UCL tuning curves maximize at 972 nm (CSF:Er) and at 969.7 nm (CSF:Er,Yb) pumping wavelengths. Different ratios between yellow-green and red luminescence intensities in CSF:Er and CSF:Er, Yb are explained by contribution of cross-relaxation in CSF:Er UCL. UC in CSF:Er is a three stage process while UC in CSF:Er, Yb is a two stage process. The peculiarities of power dependences are explained by the power-dependent repopulation between starting levels of UC.

  13. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    operating at frequencies between 1 GHz and 25 GHz. 2. Investigate LPE growth of lithium ferrite with the objective of preparing low-loss, large area films ...and hexagonal ferrites when the series of contracts began in 1975. At that time the liquid phase epitaxy method for growth of magnetic garnet films ...principal interest in epitaxial garnets was for magnetic bubble memories. For this Uapplication the films had to be about 3pm thick with low defect density

  14. The influence of Mg doping on the formation of Ga vacancies and negative ions in GaN bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarinen, K.; Nissilä, J.; Hautojärvi, P.; Likonen, J.; Suski, T.; Grzegory, I.; Lucznik, B.; Porowski, S.

    1999-10-01

    Gallium vacancies and negative ions are observed in GaN bulk crystals by applying positron lifetime spectroscopy. The concentration of Ga vacancies decreases with increasing Mg doping, as expected from the behavior of the VGa formation energy as a function of the Fermi level. The concentration of negative ions correlates with that of Mg impurities determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. We thus attribute the negative ions to MgGa-. The negative charge of Mg suggests that Mg doping converts n-type GaN to semi-insulating mainly due to the electrical compensation of ON+ donors by MgGa- acceptors.

  15. Correlation by Rb-Sr geochronology of garnet growth histories from different structural levels within the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Selverstone, Jane; Rosenfeld, John L.

    1993-06-01

    In order to evaluate rates of tectonometamorphic processes, growth rates of garnets from metamorphic rocks of the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps were measured using Rb-Sr isotopes. The garnet growth rates were determined from Rb-Sr isotopic zonation of single garnet crystals and the Rb-Sr isotopic compositions of their associated rock matrices. Garnets were analyzed from the Upper Schieferhulle (USH) and Lower Schieferhulle (LSH) within the Tauern Window. Two garnets from the USH grew at rates of 0.67(-0.13)+0.19 mm/million years and 0.88(-0.19)+0.34 mm/million years, respectively, indicating an average growth duration of 5.4 +- 1.7 million years. The duration of growth coupled withmore » the amount of rotation recorded by inclusion trails in the USH garnets yields an average shear-strain rate during garnet growth of 2.7(-0.7)+1.2 x 10(-14) s-1 . Garnet growth in the sample from the USH occurred between 35.4 +- 0.6 and 30 +- 0.8 Ma. The garnet from the LSH grew at a rate of 0.23 +- 0.015 mm/mil lion years, between 62 +- 1.5 Ma and 30.2 +- 1.5 Ma. Contemporaneous cessation of garnet growth in both units at approximately 30 Ma is in accord with previous dating of the thermal peak of metamorphism in the Tauern Window. Correlation with previously published pressure-temperature paths for garnets from the USH and LSH yields approximate rates of burial, exhumation and heating during garnet growth. Assuming that these P - T paths are applicable to the garnets in this study, the contemporaneous exhumation rates recorded by garnet in the USH and LSH were approximately 4(-2)+3 mm/year and 2 +- 1 mm/year, respectively. [References: 34]« less

  16. Effect of L-Cysteine doping on growth and some characteristics of potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadik, Ashwini; Soni, P. H.; Desai, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Among quite a number of technologically important NLO materials, Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) is one of the most favourable ones for second harmonic generation applications, such as in electro-optic modulators, parametric oscillators and harmonic generators. The authors report here their studies on KDP crystals doped with L-Cysteine (1 mol% and 2 mol%). The dopant inclusion in the crystals was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The XRD results also confirm the tetragonal structure with lattice parameters a = b = 7.45 Å and c = 6.98 Å. The presence of functional groups of crystals was analyzed using the FTIR spectra. For band gap evaluation, UV-Vis spectra were used and it was found to be 3.41 eV, 4.40eVand 4.50 eV, respectively in the cases of pure KDP, 1 mol% and 2 mol% L-Cysteine dopings. The spectra quality indicates good transparency of the doped crystals in the visible region, a feature quite desirable for applications in optoelectronics.

  17. Effect of doping of KDP crystal with amino acid L-arginine on the strength properties and character of laser damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolzhenkova, E. F.; Kostenyukova, E. I.; Bezkrovnaya, O. N.; Pritula, I. M.

    2017-11-01

    Studied were the strength characteristics of KDP crystals doped with L-arginine under a concentrated load and irradiation of the first harmonic YAG:Nd3+ laser. The crystals were obtained by means of the temperature reduction method on a point seed, the content of L-arginine in the aqueous solution being 0.3, 0.4, 1.0 and 1.4 wt%. The character of the dependence of KDP microhardness versus the concentration of amino acid in the crystal was investigated. The regularities of brittle damage of the doped KDP crystal at mechanical testing and laser irradiation were shown to be similar. As confirmed in the study, the planes of easy crack extension in the crystal are {2 2 1}, (1 0 0), and (0 0 1) planes, the cracks mainly propagate parallel to {2 2 1} planes. The mechanical and laser strength values of doped KDP crystals were evaluated.

  18. Stabilization of cubic Li7La3Hf2O12 by Al-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanova, Yana V.; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Fortes, A. Dominic; Maksimova, Lidiya G.; Korona, Daniil V.; Denisova, Tatyana A.

    2018-07-01

    In this paper we report on the stabilization of cubic Li7La3Hf2O12 by Al3+ doping and present a detailed crystal structure study and lithium ion conductivity measurements of the obtained compound. Polycrystalline Al-doped Li7La3Hf2O12 was prepared by a modified solid state method. The compound consists of micrometer size grains encapsulated by a glassy phase, which helps preventing the volatilization of lithium during annealing. Al-doped Li7La3Hf2O12 crystallizes in the garnet-related structure with a cubic unit cell (sp. gr. Ia 3 bar d (230)). A structural refinement using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data showed that the Al3+ ions occupy only tetrahedral Li+ sites in the structure. The presence of overextended leading edges of the peaks on the XRD and NPD data is described by the introduction of an additional phase with rhombohedral distortion that occurs through a stretching of the cubic phase along the body diagonal. The activation energy as well as the total conductivity at room temperature are close to values obtained for un-doped cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and Li7La3Hf2O12 garnets, which make Al-doped Li7La3Hf2O12 a potential candidate for the application as solid electrolyte in solid-state rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Internal photopumping of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states in yttrium aluminum garnet by excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers and Fe3+ continuum emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J. D.; Spinka, T. M.; Senin, A. A.; Eden, J. G.

    2011-07-01

    Photoexcitation of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states by the broad (˜70 nm FWHM), near-infrared continuum provided by Fe3+ has been observed at 300 K in bulk yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystals doped with trace concentrations (<50 ppm) of Fe, Cr, and Eu. Irradiation of YAG at 248 nm with a KrF laser, which excites the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) in YAG having peak absorption at ˜240 nm, culminates in ODC→Fe3+ excitation transfer and subsequent Fe3+ emission. This internal optical pumping mechanism for rare earth ions is unencumbered by the requirement for donor-acceptor proximity that constrains conventional Förster-Dexter excitation transfer in co-doped crystals.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of pure, Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped organic NLO l-arginine trifluoroacetate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Haris, M.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Amgalan, M.; Mathivanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Optically transparent Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystals were grown from its aqueous solution using the slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction to confirm the monoclinic crystal structure. The percentage of transmittance measured using the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer was found to be more than 80% for doped crystals. The functional group analysis of the grown crystals has been made by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis was performed for the grown crystals. An atomic absorption study was carried out to determine the presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show a significant variation in the hardness value between the pure and doped LATF crystals. The second harmonic generation measurements show that Cu2+ doped LATF is 2.8 times greater and Cd2+ doped is 2.6 times greater than KDP. The anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities of the title compound were performed using the disc diffusion method against standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  1. Effects of Concentration of Nanoscale Tin-Doped Indium Oxide on Electrical Breakdown of High-Resistance Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bau-Jy; Liu, Don-Gey; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Shie, Wun-Yi

    2011-05-01

    According to our previous study, a high concentration of nanoscale tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) may be beneficial for protecting liquid crystal (LC) against attacks by electrostatic discharge (ESD). In this study, the influence of high-voltage stresses in an ESD test was investigated for cells doped with different concentrations of ITO. It was found that nano-ITO with a concentration of 0.4% in weight ratio deteriorated the physical properties of LC of transparency transition and charge retention. However, our experiment showed that the capability of ESD protection for the doped LC was still improved at the ITO concentration of 0.4 wt %. This finding supports the proposed model in our previous report. The role of ITO in the LC is not always beneficial, as discussed in this paper.

  2. Thermally and optically tunable lasing properties from dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal in capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maozhou; Dai, Haitao; Wang, Dongshuo; Yang, Yue; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Changlong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated tunable lasing properties from the dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) gratings in capillaries with thermal and optical manners. The thermally tunable range of the lasing from the dye-doped HPDLC reached 8.60 nm with the temperature ranging from 23 °C to 50 °C. The optically tunable laser emission was achieved by doping azo-dye in HPDLC. The transition of azo-dye from trans- to cis-state could induce the reorientation of LC molecules after UV light irradiation, which resulted in the variation of refractive index contrast of LC-rich/polymer-rich layer in HPDLC. Experimentally, the emission wavelength of lasing showed a blueshift (about 2 nm) coupled with decreasing output intensities. The tunable laser based on HPDLC may enable more applications in laser displays, optical communication, biosensors, etc.

  3. Holographic recording in a doubly doped lithium niobate crystal with two wavelengths: a blue laser diode and a green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2010-08-01

    A doubly-doped LiNbO3 (LN) crystal has been well used as a nonvolatile two-wavelength recording material. By using two levels of the crystal, two-kind holograms can be recorded on one crystal; a hologram is recorded with a 405-nm blue laser diode (LD) for a deep Mn level, and another hologram is with a 532-nm green laser for a shallow Fe level. The recording capacity doubles. A 780-nm LD is non-volatile reconstructing source since the LD line is insensitive to both levels. Multiplexed reconstructed images are demonstrated by using a sharp angular selectivity of a volume LN crystal keeping Bragg condition with spherical reconstructions.

  4. The EPR study of Mn(2+) ion doped DADT single crystal produced under high pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Ümit; Tapramaz, Recep

    2016-01-05

    An EPR study on Cu(2+) and VO(2+) doped di ammonium d-tartrate single crystals has been reported in previous papers, but the same host did not accept Mn(2+) ion at the same reaction conditions in previous trials. In this study EPR study of Mn(2+) ion doped di ammonium d tartrate single crystal, (DADT) [(NH4)2C4H4O6], produced in a reactor under high pressure and high temperature. The electronic transitions were determined by the optical absorption spectrum. Hyperfine splitting and g values of the Mn(2+) ion forming a complex in the lattice were measured from experimental spectra and spin-spin dipolar splitting parameters D and E were found by the spectrum simulation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced visible light activity of nano-titanium dioxide doped with multiple ions: Effect of crystal defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Gopakumar Warrier, Krishna

    2012-12-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysts co-doped with iron(III) and lanthanum(III) have been prepared through a modified sol-gel method. Doping with Fe3+ resulted in a relatively lower anatase to rutile phase transformation temperature, while La3+ addition reduced the crystal growth and thus retarded the phase transformation of titania nanoparticles. The presence of Fe3+ ions shifted the absorption profile of titania to the longer wavelength side of the spectrum and enhanced the visible light activity. On the other hand, La3+ addition improved the optical absorption of titania nanoparticles. Both the dopants improved the life time of excitons by proper transferring and trapping of photoexcited charges. In the present work, considerable enhancement in photocatalytic activity under visible light was achieved through synergistic effect of optimum concentrations of the two dopants and associated crystal defects.

  6. Investigation on growth and macro-defects of Er3+-doped BaY2F8 laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Ruan, Yongfeng; Tsuboi, Taiju; Zhang, Shouchao; Wang, Youfa; Tong, Hongshuang

    2013-08-01

    Large BaY2F8 and Er3+-doped BaY2F8 single crystals were grown by the temperature gradient method. Three kinds of macro-defects were found in BaY2F8 single crystals. These macro-defects include cracks, growth striations and straight pipes. The morphologies and distribution regularities of these macro-defects were observed and studied using a solid polarization microscope. The formation mechanisms and the methods of eliminating these defects were discussed.

  7. Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO{sub 4} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, G.; Fay, W.R.; Alekel, T. III

    1994-12-31

    The production of the laser host material YVO{sub 4} via high temperature solution growth (HTSG) is described as a facile alternative for producing optical quality crystals for research. The effects of dopant concentration on optical absorption properties in 0.7% and 3% Nd:YVO{sub 4} crystals are discussed. The rare earths ions Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} have been doped into YVO{sub 4} with the HTSG method, and inaugural optical properties of Ho{sub 0.04}Y{sub 0.96}VO{sub 4} are presented.

  8. Role of magnetism in superconductivity of BaFe 2As 2: Study of 5d Au-doped crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Li; Cao, Huibo; McGuire, Michael A.; ...

    2015-09-09

    We investigate properties of BaFe 2As 2 (122) single crystals upon gold doping, which is the transition metal with the highest atomic weight. The Au substitution into the FeAs-planes of 122 crystal structure (Au-122) is only possible up to a small amount of ~3%. We find that 5d is more effective in reducing magnetism in 122 than its counter 3d Cu, and this relates to superconductivity. We provide evidence of short-range magnetic fluctuations and local lattice inhomogeneities that may prevent strong percolative superconductivity in Ba(Fe 1-xAu x)2As 2.

  9. Spectroscopic, Homo-Lumo and NLO studies of tetra fluoro phthalate doped Coumarin crystals using DFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, B.; Kumaresan, P.; Nithiyanantham, S.; Sampathkumar, K.

    2017-08-01

    In the present examination, a methodical study has been done on the development of unadulterated and Coumarin doped Tetrafluoro Phthalate precious stones. Powder X-beam diffraction studies were done and the cross section parameters were computed by minimum square technique in pure and doped crystals. FT-IR, UV-Vis, Thermal, Micro-hardness and Dielectric studies were additionally done for the pure and doped crystals. The tentatively watched FT-IR and FT-Raman groups were allotted to various ordinary methods of the atom. The steadiness and charge delocalization of the particle were likewise concentrations were done by characteristic security orbital (NBO) examination. The HOMO-LUMO energies depict the charge exchange happens inside the particle. Atomic electrostatic potential has been broken down the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator quality, wavelengths and HOMO-LUMO energies were acquired by time-subordinate DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The SHG of pure and doped TFP stones were examined through Nd:YAG Q-exchanged laser.

  10. Characteristics of epitaxial garnets grown by CVD using single metal alloy sources. [Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besser, P. J.; Hamilton, T. N.; Mee, J. E.; Stermer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Single metal alloys have been explored as the cation source in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron garnets. Growth of good quality single crystal garnet films containing as many as five different cations has been achieved over a wide range of deposition conditions. The relationship of film composition to alloy compositions and deposition conditions has been determined for several materials. By proper choice of the alloy composition and the deposition conditions, uncrazed deposits were grown on (111) gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates. Data on physical, magnetic and optical properties of representative films is presented and discussed.

  11. Mixed garnet laser for a water vapour DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treichel, Rainer; Strohmaier, Stephan; Nikolov, Susanne; Eichler, Hans-Joachim; Murphy, Eamonn

    2017-11-01

    For the water vapour DIAL "WALES" the wavelength regions around 935 nm, 942 nm and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. These wavelengths can be obtained using opticalparametric-oscillators (OPOs), stimulated Raman shifters and the Ti-Sapphire laser but none of these systems could deliver all the needed parameters like beam quality, efficiency, pulse length and energy yet. Also these systems are comparably big and heavy making them less suitable for a satellite based application. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the quasi-3-level laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing aluminium and yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals or special pump lasers are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. In a first phase such mixed garnet crystals had been grown and characterised. The outcome was the selection of the gadolinium-scandium garnet for the most suitable laser crystal. During a second phase the complete laser system with output energy about 18 mJ in single 20 ns pulses and up to 8 mJ in free running mode with a combined pulse width of 250 μs at 942 nm have been demonstrated. The results of the first laser operation and the achieved performance parameter are reported.

  12. Crystal Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Al-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deuk Yong; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn

    2016-05-01

    Al-TiO2 nanofibers were prepared using a sol-gel derived electrospinning by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the crystal structure and the photocatalytic activity of Al-TiO2 for methylene blue (MB) degradation. XRD results indicated that as the Al/Ti molar ratio rose, crystal structure of Al-TiO2 was changed from anatase/rutile (undoped), anatase (0.07-0.18), to amorphous phase (0.38-0.73), which was confirmed by XPS and Raman analysis. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 7.3 x 10(-4) min(-1) to 4.5 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of Al/Ti molar ratios from 0 to 0.38, but decreased to 3.4 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the Al/Ti molar ratio reached 0.73. The Al-TiO2 catalyst doped with 0.38 Al/Ti molar ratio demonstrated the best MB degradation. Experimental results indicated that the Al doping in Al-TiO2 was mainly attributed to the crystal structure of TiO2 and the photocatalytic degradation of MB.

  13. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-01

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (102 cm2/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  14. Effect of silver-doping on the crystal structure, morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, N. A. M.; Kim, H. Y.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, effect of sliver-doping on the crystal structure, the nanofibrous morphology and the photocatalytic activity of titanium oxide nanofibers have been investigated. Silver-doped TiO2 nanofibers having different silver contents were prepared by calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats consisting of silver nitrate, titanium isopropoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) at 600 °C. The results affirmed formation of silver-doped TiO2 nanofibers composed of anatase and rutile when the silver nitrate content in the original electrospun solution was more than 3 wt%. The rutile phase content was directly proportional with the AgNO3 concentration in the electrospun solution. Negative impact of the silver-doping on the nanofibrous morphology was observed as increase the silver content caused to decrease the aspect ratio, i.e. producing nanorods rather nanofibers. However, silver-doping leads to modify the surface roughness. Study of the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye clarified that increase the silver content strongly enhances the dye oxidation process.

  15. Enhanced performance of an S-band fiber laser using a thulium-doped photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, A. R.; Emami, S. D.; Hmood, J. K.; Sayar, K.; Penny, R.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2014-11-01

    This work proposes a new method to enhance the performance of an S-band fiber laser by using a thulium-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The proposed method is based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) suppression provided by the thulium-doped PCF unique geometric structure. The enhanced performance of this filter based PCF is dependent on the short and long cut-off wavelength characteristics that define the fiber transmission window. Realizing the short wavelength cut-off location requires the PCF cladding to be doped with a high index material, which provides a refractive index difference between the core and cladding region. Achieving the long cut-off wavelength necessitates enlarging the size of the air holes surrounding the rare-earth doped core region. The PCF structure is optimized so as to achieve the desired ASE suppression regions of below 0.8 μm and above 1.8 μm. The laser performance is simulated for different host media, namely pure silica, alumino-silicate, and fluoride-based fiber ZBLAN based on this thulium-doped PCF design. The host media spectroscopic details, including lifetime variations and quantum efficiency effect on the lasing emission are also discussed. Information on the filter based PCF design is gathered via a full-vectorial finite element method analysis and specifically a numerical modelling solution for the energy level rate equation using the Runge-Kutta method. Results are analyzed for gain improvement, lasing cavity, laser efficiency and effect of core size diameter variation. Results are compared with conventional thulium-doped fiber and thulium-doped PCF for every single host media. We observe that the ZBLAN host media is the most promising candidate due to its greater quantum efficiency.

  16. Impacts of Co-doping on the superconductivity and the orbital ordering state in Fe1-xCoxSe single crystal studied by the electrical transport.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Takahiro; Tanabe, Yoichi; Heguri, Satoshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    In the FeSe with the simplest crystal structure in the Fe-based superconductor families, although both the superconductivity and the orbital ordering states are investigated, the relation between them is still unclear. Here, we report Co doping effects on the superconductivity and the orbital ordering state in Fe1-xCoxSe single crystals. The electrical transport measurements demonstrated that the superconductivity vanishes at 4 % Co doping while the orbital ordering state may be robust against Co doping. Present results suggest that the orbital ordering state is not related to the emergence of the superconductivity in FeSe.

  17. Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazka, Zbigniew; Ganschow, Steffen; Fiedler, Andreas; Bertram, Rainer; Klimm, Detlef; Irmscher, Klaus; Schewski, Robert; Pietsch, Mike; Albrecht, Martin; Bickermann, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally evaluated segregation of Cr, Ce and Al in bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method, as well as the impact of these dopants on optical properties. The segregation of Cr and Ce and their incorporation into the β-Ga2O3 crystal structure strongly depends on O2 concentration in the growth atmosphere which has a noticeable impact on decomposition of Ga2O3 and Cr2O3, as well as on the charge state of Cr and Ce. Effective segregation coefficients for Cr are in the range of 3.1-1.5 at 7-24 vol% O2, while for Ce they are roughly below 0.01 at 1.5-34 vol% O2. The effective segregation coefficient for Al is 1.1 at 1.5-21 vol% O2. Both dopants Ce and Al have a thermodynamically stabilizing effect on β-Ga2O3 crystal growth by supressing decomposition. While Ce has no impact on the optical transmittance in the ultraviolet and visible regions, in Cr doped crystals we observe three absorption bands due to Cr3+ on octahedral Ga sites, one in the ultraviolet merging with the band edge absorption of β-Ga2O3 and two in the visible spectrum, for which we estimate the absorption cross sections. Al doping also does not induce dopant related absorption bands but clearly shifts the absorption edge as one expects for a solid-solution crystal Ga2(1-x)Al2xO3 still in the monoclinic phase. For the highest doping concentration (Ga1.9Al0.1O3) we estimate an increase of the energy gap by 0.11 eV.

  18. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 μm-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 Vrms. This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  19. Meshed doped silicon photonic crystals for manipulating near-field thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2018-01-01

    The ability to control and manipulate heat flow is of great interest to thermal management and thermal logic and memory devices. Particularly, near-field thermal radiation presents a unique opportunity to enhance heat transfer while being able to tailor its characteristics (e.g., spectral selectivity). However, achieving nanometric gaps, necessary for near-field, has been and remains a formidable challenge. Here, we demonstrate significant enhancement of the near-field heat transfer through meshed photonic crystals with separation gaps above 0.5 μm. Using a first-principle method, we investigate the meshed photonic structures numerically via finite-difference time-domain technique (FDTD) along with the Langevin approach. Results for doped-silicon meshed structures show significant enhancement in heat transfer; 26 times over the non-meshed corrugated structures. This is especially important for thermal management and thermal rectification applications. The results also support the premise that thermal radiation at micro scale is a bulk (rather than a surface) phenomenon; the increase in heat transfer between two meshed-corrugated surfaces compared to the flat surface (8.2) wasn't proportional to the increase in the surface area due to the corrugations (9). Results were further validated through good agreements between the resonant modes predicted from the dispersion relation (calculated using a finite-element method), and transmission factors (calculated from FDTD).

  20. Nanophotonic photon echo memory based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei; Caltech nano quantum optics Team

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth ions (REIs) are promising candidates for implementing solid-state quantum memories and quantum repeater devices. Their high spectral stability and long coherence times make REIs a good choice for integration in an on-chip quantum nano-photonic platform. We report the coupling of the 883 nm transition of Neodymium (Nd) to a Yttrium orthosilicate (YSO) photonic crystal nano-beam resonator, achieving Purcell enhanced spontaneous emission by 21 times and increased optical absorption. Photon echoes were observed in nano-beams of different doping concentrations, yielding optical coherence times T2 up to 80 μs that are comparable to unprocessed bulk samples. This indicates the remarkable coherence properties of Nd are preserved during nanofabrication, therefore opening the possibility of efficient on-chip optical quantum memories. The nano-resonator with mode volume of 1 . 6(λ / n) 3 was fabricated using focused ion beam, and a quality factor of 3200 was measured. Purcell enhanced absorption of 80% by an ensemble of ~ 1 × 106 ions in the resonator was measured, which fulfills the cavity impedance matching condition that is necessary to achieve quantum storage of photons with unity efficiency.

  1. Manipulating transmission and reflection properties of a photonic crystal doped with quantum dot nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Solookinejad, G.; Panahi, M.; Sangachin, E. A.

    The transmission and reflection properties of incident light in a defect dielectric structure is studied theoretically. The defect structure consists of donor and acceptor quantum dot nanostructures embedded in a photonic crystal. It is shown that the transmission and reflection properties of incident light can be controlled by adjusting the corresponding parameters of the system. The role of dipole–dipole interaction is considered as a new parameter in our calculations. It is noted that the features of transmission and reflection curves can be adjusted in the presence of dipole–dipole interaction. It is found that the absorption of weak probe light canmore » be converted to the probe amplification in the presence of dipole–dipole interaction. Moreover, the group velocity of transmitted and reflected probe light is discussed in detail in the absence and presence of dipole–dipole interaction. Our proposed model can be used as a new all-optical devices based on photonic materials doped with nanoparticles.« less

  2. An enhanced effective mode area fluorine doped octagonal photonic crystal fiber with extremely low loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Sumaiya; Razzak, S. M. Abdur

    2018-07-01

    In our paper an enhanced effective mode area octagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is presented. This PCF ensures large effective mode area along with ultra-low confinement loss and bending loss. Both the elimination of air-holes from the rings near the core region and inclusion of low index fluorine doped silica rods in an octagonal pattern are the vital design features. We have used full vectorial finite element method (FEM) based software with circularly perfectly matched layer (PML) to simulate the guiding properties of PCF. Our proposed fiber achieves effective mode area of 1110 μm2. Moreover, it offers ultra-low confinement loss of 1.14 × 10-15 dB/m and can be bent as small as 30 cm without any significant bending loss of 6.49 × 10-9 dB/m. The PCF also ensures low non-linearity with small amount of splice loss. However, our proposed PCF can be used in applications like fiber amplifiers and lasers.

  3. Electronic refractive index changes and measurement of saturation intensity in Cr3+-doped YAG crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavulu, C. R.; Moncorgé, R.; Fromager, M.; Ait-Ameur, K.; Catunda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic refractive index variation is associated with the difference in the polarizabilities (Δαp) of the Cr3+ ion in its ground and excited states. In order to further address the physical origin of Δαp in a Cr3+-doped YAG crystal, time-resolved Z-scan measurements were performed and analyzed at λ = 457 nm by using a chopped Ar+ ion laser. It is found a nonlinear refractive index with the real and imaginary parts n2‧ = 2.2 × 10-8 cm2/W and n2‧‧ = 2.8 × 10-10 cm2/W, respectively. The real part is associated with a polarizability difference Δαp = 2.2 × 10-25 cm3. The imaginary part indicates that excited state absorption (ESA) occurs and that Cr:YAG behaves as a saturable absorber. The transient response of the Z-scan signal decreases with the laser intensity as τ-1 = τo-1(1+I/Is), where τo is the excited state lifetime and Is the saturation intensity. By measuring this transient response at different laser intensities, it was possible to confirm the τo value which can be derived from fluorescence measurements and to determine a Is value of 8.3 kW/cm2.

  4. A photoluminescence, thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance study of EFG grown europium doped lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Pooja; Swati, G.; Haranath, D.; Rao, S. M. D.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2018-07-01

    Europium (Eu) doped LiF crystals have been grown by the Edge-defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. The designing and installation of the furnace used for the growth of the crystals have been discussed in detail. In the present study, Eu (Eu2O3) has been doped in LiF in different concentration (0.02-0.2 wt %). X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy confirms the incorporation of Eu in LiF. The influence of Eu on LiF has been investigated through photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in as-grown and annealed crystals. PL emission spectra shows the presence of both Eu3+ and Eu2+ form in the as-grown crystals which is confirmed by EPR results. Whereas, in annealed crystals, Eu is present predominantly as Eu2+ form. This suggests that growing crystals at high temperature (∼900 °C) in argon gas atmosphere through EFG technique favours the reduction of Eu3+ → Eu2+. This reduction phenomenon has been explained on the basis of charge compensation model. TL study of the LiF: Eu (0.02-0.2 wt %) crystals has been done after irradiation with Co60 gamma rays. In this study, it has been observed that the TL intensity as well as glow curve structure of LiF: Eu crystals are a strong function of Eu concentration. The maximum TL is observed at Eu concentration of 0.05 wt% at which a well defined glow curve structure with a prominent peak at 185 °C and a small peak at 253 °C. Beyond this concentration (0.05 wt %), TL intensity decreases due to aggregation of defects in the host. The peak at 185 °C in LiF: Eu (0.05 wt %) is certainly due to the presence of Eu2+ associated defects which is also supported by the PL spectra. It has been observed that Eu doping have a key role in creation of more defect levels which lead to the increased number of electron and hole traps. Further, trapping parameters are analysed using glow curve deconvolution method to have an insight study of TL phenomena

  5. Mineral resource of the month: garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    Garnet, the birthstone for the month of January, has been used as a gemstone for centuries. Garnet necklaces dating from the Bronze Age have been found in graves, and garnet is found among the ornaments adorning the oldest Egyptian mummies. However, garnet’s characteristics, such as its relatively high hardness and chemical inertness, make it ideal for many industrial applications.

  6. Li+, Na+ and K+ co-doping effects on scintillation properties of Ce:Gd3Ga3Al2O12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Masao; Kamada, Kei; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Ivanov, Mikhail; Nikl, Martin; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-06-01

    Ce0.5%: Ce:Gd3Ga3Al2O12(GGAG) single crystals co-doped with 500at.ppm Li+, Na+ and K+ were grown by using the micro-pulling down method. The smooth Ce4+ charge transfer absorption below 350 nm and decay time acceleration were observed in Li co-doped sample. Na+ and K+ co-doping did not show a large effect on the acceleration of decay time compared with Li co-doping. Ce0.5%:GGAG single crystals co-doped with 500 at.ppm Li+ were also grown by the Czochralski method. Optical, scintillation properties and timing performance were evaluated to investigate the effect of univalent alkali metal ions co-doping on Ce:GGAG scintillators. The scintillation decay curves were accelerated by Li co-doping: the decay time was significantly accelerated to 54.8 ns (47%) for the faster component and 158 ns (53%) for the slower component. The light output was 94% of the non co-doped Ce:GGAG standard. The coincidence time resolution was improved to 258 ps by Li co-doping.

  7. Highly resistive C-doped hydride vapor phase epitaxy-GaN grown on ammonothermally crystallized GaN seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwinska, Malgorzata; Piotrzkowski, Ryszard; Litwin-Staszewska, Elzbieta; Sochacki, Tomasz; Amilusik, Mikolaj; Fijalkowski, Michal; Lucznik, Boleslaw; Bockowski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    GaN crystals were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and doped with C. The seeds were high-structural-quality ammonothermally crystallized GaN. The grown crystals were highly resistive at 296 K and of high structural quality. High-temperature Hall effect measurements revealed p-type conductivity and a deep acceptor level in the material with an activation energy of 1 eV. This is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations based on hybrid functionals as presented by the Van de Walle group. They obtained an ionization energy of 0.9 eV when C was substituted for N in GaN and acted as a deep acceptor.

  8. Spectroscopic and laser cooling results on Yb3+-doped BaY2F8 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigotta, Stefano; Parisi, Daniela; Bonelli, Lucia; Toncelli, Alessandra; Tonelli, Mauro; Di Lieto, Alberto

    2006-07-01

    Anti-Stokes cooling has been observed in an Yb3+-doped BaY2F8 single crystal. Single crystals have been grown by the Czochralski technique. The absorption spectra and the emission properties have been measured at room temperature and at 10K. The energy positions of the Stark sublevels of the ground and the excited state manifolds have been determined and separated from the vibronic substructure. The intrinsic decay time of the F5/22 level has been measured taking care of avoiding the effect of multiple reabsorption processes. The theoretical and experimental cooling efficiencies of Yb:BaY2F8 are evaluated and compared with respect to those of the most frequently investigated materials for laser cooling. A temperature drop of almost 4K was measured by pumping the crystal with 3W of laser radiation at ˜1025nm in single pass configuration with a cooling efficiency of ˜3%.

  9. Random lasing from dye-doped negative liquid crystals using ZnO nanoparticles as tunable scatters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long-Wu; Shang, Zhen-Zhen; Deng, Luogen

    2016-09-01

    This work demonstrates the realization of a lasing in scattering media, which contains dispersive solution of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyle-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran(DCM) in negative liquid crystals (LCs) that was injected into a cell. The lasing intensity of the dye-doped negative LC laser can be tuned from low to high if the NPs concentration is increased. The tunability of the laser is attributable to the clusters-sensitive feature in effective refractive index of the negative LCs. Such a tunable negative liquid crystal laser can be used in the fabrication of new optical sources, optical communication, and liquid crystal laser displays. Project supported by the Doctoral Science Research Start-up Funding of Guizhou Normal University, China (Grant No. 11904-0514162) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474021).

  10. Thermally switchable photonic band-edge to random laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lihua; Wang, Yan; Feng, Yangyang; Liu, Bo; Gu, Bing; Cui, Yiping; Lu, Yanqing

    2018-03-01

    By changing the doping concentration of the chiral agent to adjust the relative position of the reflection band of cholesteric liquid crystals and the fluorescence emission spectrum of the dye, photonic band-edge and random lasing were observed, respectively. The reflection band of the cholesteric phase liquid crystal can also be controlled by adjusting the temperature: the reflection band is blue-shifted with increasing temperature, and a reversible switch from photonic band-edge to random lasing is obtained. Furthermore, the laser line width can be thermally adjusted from 1.1 nm (at 27 °C) to 4.6 nm (at 32.1 °C). A thermally tunable polarization state of a random laser from dual cells was observed, broadening the field of application liquid crystal random lasers.

  11. Thermal, dielectric studies on pure and amino acid ( L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped KDP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaresan, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Anbarasan, P. M.

    2008-05-01

    Amino acids ( L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phospate crystals are grown by solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1 mol% to 10 mol%. The solubility data for all dopants concentration were determined. There is variation in pH value and hence, there is habit modification of the grown crystals were characterized with UV-VIS, FT-IR studies, SHG trace elements and dielectric studies reveal slight distortion of lattice parameter for the heavily doped KDP crystals. UV-Visible spectra confirm the improvement in the transparency of these crystals on doping metal ions. FT-IR spectra reveal strong absorption band between 1400 and 1600 cm -1 for metal ion doped crystals. TGA-DTA studies reveal good thermal stability. The dopants increase the hardness value of the material and it also depends on the concentration of the dopants. Amino acids doping improved the NLO properties. The detailed results on the spectral parameters, habit modifications and constant values will be presented.

  12. Fragmentation of wall rock garnets during deep crustal earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Austrheim, Håkon; Dunkel, Kristina G.; Plümper, Oliver; Ildefonse, Benoit; Liu, Yang; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Fractures and faults riddle the Earth’s crust on all scales, and the deformation associated with them is presumed to have had significant effects on its petrological and structural evolution. However, despite the abundance of directly observable earthquake activity, unequivocal evidence for seismic slip rates along ancient faults is rare and usually related to frictional melting and the formation of pseudotachylites. We report novel microstructures from garnet crystals in the immediate vicinity of seismic slip planes that transected lower crustal granulites during intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Bergen Arcs area, western Norway, some 420 million years ago. Seismic loading caused massive dislocation formations and fragmentation of wall rock garnets. Microfracturing and the injection of sulfide melts occurred during an early stage of loading. Subsequent dilation caused pervasive transport of fluids into the garnets along a network of microfractures, dislocations, and subgrain and grain boundaries, leading to the growth of abundant mineral inclusions inside the fragmented garnets. Recrystallization by grain boundary migration closed most of the pores and fractures generated by the seismic event. This wall rock alteration represents the initial stages of an earthquake-triggered metamorphic transformation process that ultimately led to reworking of the lower crust on a regional scale. PMID:28261660

  13. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-05

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO).

  14. Thermal, Dielectric Studies on Pure and Amino Acid L-Glutamic Acid, L-Histidine L-Valine Doped Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaresan, P.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Anbarasan, P. M.

    Amino acids (L-Glutamic acid, L-Histidine, L-Valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals were grown by the solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1 mole % to 10 mole %. The solubility data for all dopant concentrations were determined. The variation in pH and the corresponding habit modification of the grown crystals were characterized with UV - VIS, FT-IR and SHG trace elements, and dielectric studies reveal slight distortion of lattice parameter for the heavily doped KDP crystals. TGA-DTA studies reveal good thermal stability. The dopants increase the hardness value of the material, which also depends on the concentration of the dopants. Amino acids doping improved the NLO properties. The detailed results on the spectral parameters, habit modifications and constant values will be presented.

  15. Diode-pumped mode-locked femtosecond Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Xie, G Q; Gao, W L; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Yu, H H; Zhang, H J; Wang, J Y

    2012-04-15

    A diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Tm-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (Tm:CLNGG) disordered crystal laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With a 790 nm laser diode pumping, stable CW mode-locking operation was obtained by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The disordered crystal laser generated mode-locked pulses as short as 479 fs, with an average output power of 288 mW, and repetition rate of 99 MHz in 2 μm spectral region. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  16. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  17. First principles study of crystal Si-doped Ge2Sb2Te5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beibei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Tian; Wang, Minglei; Chang, Hong; Ke, Daoming; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and Si-doped GST with hexagonal structure were investigated by means of First-principles calcucations. We performed many kinds of doping types and studied the electronic properties of Si-doped GST with various Si concentrations. The theoretical calculations show that the lowest formation energy appeared when Si atoms substitute the Sb atoms (SiSb). With the increasing of Si concentrations from 10% to 30%, the impurity states arise around the Fermi level and the band gap of the SiSb structure broadens. Meanwhile, the doping supercell has the most favorable structure when the doping concentration keeps in 20%. The Si-doped GST exhibits p-type metallic characteristics more distinctly owing to the Fermi level moves toward the valence band. The Te p, d-orbitals electrons have greater impact on electronic properties than that of Te s-orbitals.

  18. Growth, improved thermal stability and spectral properties of Yb3+-ions doped high temperature phase α-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 crystals co-doped by Sr2+, Ca2+ and La3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shangke; Zhang, Jianyu; Pan, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the cause of the thermal instability of Yb3+-ions doped Ba3Gd(BO3)3 crystal grown from Czochralski technique, the low temperature phase β-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 powder was synthesized at the temperature of 800 °C. To inhibit the phase transition of high temperature phase Yb:α-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 during the crystal growth process, co-doping ions Sr2+, Ca2+ and La3+ ions were introduced in Yb:α-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 crystal. The melting point increased and the thermal stability of Yb:α-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 crystal was improved by co-doping ions. The absorption peaks of co-doped crystals centered at 976 nm with FWHM of 11, 11 and 12 nm and the absorption cross sections were 3.40 × 10-21 cm2, 4.00 × 10-21 cm2 and 2.66 × 10-21 cm2, respectively. The emission cross sections at 1040 nm were 2.19 × 10-21 cm2, 2.53 × 10-21 cm2 and 1.93 × 10-21 cm2, respectively. The fluorescence times of co-doped by Sr2+, Ca2+ and La3+ ions were shorter than that of Yb:α-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 crystal. So Yb:α-Ba3Gd(BO3)3 crystals co-doped by Sr2+, Ca2+ and La3+ ions will be more suitable for LD-pumping laser.

  19. Universal doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in single crystals of electron-doped Ba(Fe 1–xRh x) 2As 2 from London penetration depth measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, M. A.; Martin, C.; ...

    2018-05-08

    Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4d-electron doped Ba(Fe 1–xRh x) 2As 2 using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of the London penetration depth Δλ( T). Single crystals with doping levels representative of an underdoped regime x = 0.039 ( T c = 15.5 K), close to optimal doping x = 0.057 ( T c = 24.4 K) and overdoped x = 0.079 ( T c = 21.5 K) and x = 0.131( T c = 4.9 K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, n,more » by fitting the data to the power-law, Δλ = AT n. The exponent n varies non-monotonically with x, increasing to a maximum n = 2.5 for x = 0.079 and rapidly decreasing towards overdoped compositions to 1.6 for x = 0.131. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in other iron pnictides, including hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe 2As 2 and 3d-electron-doped Ba(Fe,Co) 2As 2 superconductors, finding a full gap near optimal doping and strong anisotropy toward the ends of the superconducting dome in the T-x phase diagram. The normalized superfluid density in an optimally Rh-doped sample is almost identical to the temperature-dependence in the optimally doped Ba(Fe,Co) 2As 2 samples. In conclusion, our study supports the universal superconducting gap variation with doping and pairing at least in iron based superconductors of the BaFe 2As 2 family.« less

  20. Universal doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in single crystals of electron-doped Ba(Fe1‑x Rh x )2As2 from London penetration depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, M. A.; Martin, C.; Blomberg, E. C.; Ni, Ni; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.

    2018-06-01

    Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4d-electron doped Ba(Fe1‑x Rh x )2As2 using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of the London penetration depth . Single crystals with doping levels representative of an underdoped regime x  =  0.039 ( K), close to optimal doping x  =  0.057 ( K) and overdoped x  =  0.079 ( K) and x  =  0.131( K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, n, by fitting the data to the power-law, . The exponent n varies non-monotonically with x, increasing to a maximum n  =  2.5 for x  =  0.079 and rapidly decreasing towards overdoped compositions to 1.6 for x  =  0.131. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in other iron pnictides, including hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe2As2 and 3d-electron-doped Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 superconductors, finding a full gap near optimal doping and strong anisotropy toward the ends of the superconducting dome in the T-x phase diagram. The normalized superfluid density in an optimally Rh-doped sample is almost identical to the temperature-dependence in the optimally doped Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 samples. Our study supports the universal superconducting gap variation with doping and pairing at least in iron based superconductors of the BaFe2As2 family.

  1. Universal doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in single crystals of electron-doped Ba(Fe 1–xRh x) 2As 2 from London penetration depth measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, M. A.; Martin, C.

    Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4d-electron doped Ba(Fe 1–xRh x) 2As 2 using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of the London penetration depth Δλ( T). Single crystals with doping levels representative of an underdoped regime x = 0.039 ( T c = 15.5 K), close to optimal doping x = 0.057 ( T c = 24.4 K) and overdoped x = 0.079 ( T c = 21.5 K) and x = 0.131( T c = 4.9 K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, n,more » by fitting the data to the power-law, Δλ = AT n. The exponent n varies non-monotonically with x, increasing to a maximum n = 2.5 for x = 0.079 and rapidly decreasing towards overdoped compositions to 1.6 for x = 0.131. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in other iron pnictides, including hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe 2As 2 and 3d-electron-doped Ba(Fe,Co) 2As 2 superconductors, finding a full gap near optimal doping and strong anisotropy toward the ends of the superconducting dome in the T-x phase diagram. The normalized superfluid density in an optimally Rh-doped sample is almost identical to the temperature-dependence in the optimally doped Ba(Fe,Co) 2As 2 samples. In conclusion, our study supports the universal superconducting gap variation with doping and pairing at least in iron based superconductors of the BaFe 2As 2 family.« less

  2. Universal doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in single crystals of electron-doped Ba(Fe1-x Rh x )2As2 from London penetration depth measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, M A; Martin, C; Blomberg, E C; Ni, Ni; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Prozorov, R

    2018-06-06

    Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4d-electron doped Ba(Fe 1-x Rh x ) 2 As 2 using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of the London penetration depth [Formula: see text]. Single crystals with doping levels representative of an underdoped regime x  =  0.039 ([Formula: see text] K), close to optimal doping x  =  0.057 ([Formula: see text] K) and overdoped x  =  0.079 ([Formula: see text] K) and x  =  0.131([Formula: see text] K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, n, by fitting the data to the power-law, [Formula: see text]. The exponent n varies non-monotonically with x, increasing to a maximum n  =  2.5 for x  =  0.079 and rapidly decreasing towards overdoped compositions to 1.6 for x  =  0.131. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in other iron pnictides, including hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe 2 As 2 and 3d-electron-doped Ba(Fe,Co) 2 As 2 superconductors, finding a full gap near optimal doping and strong anisotropy toward the ends of the superconducting dome in the T-x phase diagram. The normalized superfluid density in an optimally Rh-doped sample is almost identical to the temperature-dependence in the optimally doped Ba(Fe,Co) 2 As 2 samples. Our study supports the universal superconducting gap variation with doping and [Formula: see text] pairing at least in iron based superconductors of the BaFe 2 As 2 family.

  3. Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianqun; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2011-11-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber (ED-PCF) ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber(PM-PCF) is presented and demonstrated experimentally. A segment of ED-PCF is used as linear gain medium in the resonant cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) caused by the PM-PCF and a polarization controller (PC), the laser can operate in stable dual- or triple- wavelength modes at room temperature. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the laser without any wavelength-selective components is greater than 30 dB. The amplitude variations of lasing peaks in ten minutes are less than 0.26dB for two different operating modes.

  4. Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianqun; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2012-03-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber (ED-PCF) ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber(PM-PCF) is presented and demonstrated experimentally. A segment of ED-PCF is used as linear gain medium in the resonant cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) caused by the PM-PCF and a polarization controller (PC), the laser can operate in stable dual- or triple- wavelength modes at room temperature. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the laser without any wavelength-selective components is greater than 30 dB. The amplitude variations of lasing peaks in ten minutes are less than 0.26dB for two different operating modes.

  5. Low-voltage tunable color in full visible region using ferroelectric liquid-crystal-doped cholesteric liquid-crystal smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-De; Lin, Jyun-Wei; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2018-02-01

    Electrical tuning of photonic bandgap (PBG) of cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) without deformation within the entire visible region at low voltages is not easy to achieve. This study demonstrates low-voltage-tunable PBG in full visible region with less deformation of the PBG based on smart materials of ferroelectric liquid crystal doped CLC (FLC-CLC) integrating with electrothermal film heaters. Experimental results show that the reflective color of the FLC-CLC can be low-voltage-tuned through entire visible region. The induced temperature change is induced by electrically heating the electrothermal film heaters at low voltages at near the smectic-CLC transition temperature. Coaxial electrospinning can be used to develop smart fibrous devices with FLC/CLC-core and polymer-shell which color is tunable in full visible region at low voltages.

  6. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associatedmore » with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the

  7. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui [Lakeshore, CA; Shi, Xun [Troy, MI; Bai, Shengqiang [Shanghai, CN; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai, CN; Chen, Lidong [Shanghai, CN; Yang, Jiong [Shanghai, CN

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  8. Random lasing in Nd{sup 3+} doped potassium gadolinium tungstate crystal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, André L., E-mail: andre.moura@fis.ufal.br; Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE; Fewo, Serge I.

    2015-02-28

    Random laser (RL) emission in Nd{sup 3+} doped potassium gadolinium tungstate—KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+}—crystal powder is demonstrated. The powder was excited at 813 nm in resonance with the Nd{sup 3+} transition {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}. RL emission at 1067 nm due to the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} transition was observed and characterized. An intensity threshold dependent on the laser spot area and bandwidth narrowing from ≈2.20 nm to ≈0.40 nm were observed and measured. For a beam spot area of 0.4 mm{sup 2}, a RL threshold of 6.5 mJ/mm{sup 2} (90 MW/cm{sup 2}) was determined. For excitation intensity smaller than the RL threshold, only spontaneousmore » emission from level {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} with decay time in the tens microsecond range was observed, but for excitation above the RL threshold, significant shortening of excited level lifetime, characteristic of a stimulated process was found. The overall characteristics measured show that KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+} is an efficient material for operation of solid state RLs in the near-infrared.« less

  9. Crystal growth and characterization of europium doped lithium strontium iodide scintillator as an ionizing radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uba, Samuel

    High performance detectors used in the detection of ionizing radiation is critical to nuclear nonproliferation applications and other radiation detectors applications. In this research we grew and tested Europium doped Lithium Strontium Iodide compound. A mixture of lithium iodide, strontium iodide and europium iodide was used as the starting materials for this research. Congruent melting and freezing temperature of the synthesized compound was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a Setaram Labsys Evo DSC-DTA instrument. The melting temperatures were recorded at 390.35°C, 407.59°C and freezing temperature was recorded at 322.84°C from a graph of heat flow plotted against temperature. The synthesized material was used as the charge for the vertical Bridgeman growth, and a 6.5 cm and 7.7cm length boule were grown in a multi-zone transparent Mullen furnace. A scintillating detector of thickness 2.53mm was fabricated by mechanical lapping in mineral oil, and scintillating response and timing were obtained to a cesium source using CS-137 isotope. An energy resolution (FWHM over peak position) of 12.1% was observed for the 662keV full absorption peak. Optical absorption in the UV-Vis wavelength range was recorded for the grown crystal using a U-2900 UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. Absorption peaks were recorded at 194nm, 273nm, and 344nm from the absorbance spectrum, various optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, and optical loss were derived. The optical band gap energy was calculated using Tauc relation expression at 1.79eV.

  10. Effects of doping impurity and growth orientation on dislocation generation in GaAs crystals grown from the melt: A qualitative finite-element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. A.; Tsai, C. T.

    2000-09-01

    Dislocations in gallium arsenide (GaAs) crystals are generated by excessive thermal stresses induced during the crystal growth process. The presence of dislocations has adverse effects on the performance and reliability of the GaAs-based devices. It is well known that dislocation density can be significantly reduced by doping impurity atoms into a GaAs crystal during its growth process. A viscoplastic constitutive equation that couples the microscopic dislocation density with the macroscopic plastic deformation is employed in a crystallographic finite element model for calculating the dislocation density generated in the GaAs crystal during its growth process. The dislocation density is considered as an internal state variable and the drag stress caused by doping impurity is included in this constitutive equation. A GaAs crystal grown by the vertical Bridgman process is adopted as an example to study the influences of doping impurity and growth orientation on dislocation generation. The calculated results show that doping impurity can significantly reduce the dislocation density generated in the crystal. The level of reduction is also influenced by the growth orientation during the crystal growth process.

  11. Defect types and room temperature ferromagnetism in N-doped rutile TiO2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiu-Bo; Li, Dong-Xiang; Li, Rui-Qin; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Bao-Yi

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic properties and defect types of virgin and N-doped TiO2 single crystals are probed by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and positron annihilation analysis (PAS). Upon N doping, a twofold enhancement of the saturation magnetization is observed. Apparently, this enhancement is not related to an increase in oxygen vacancy, rather to unpaired 3d electrons in Ti3+, arising from titanium vacancies and the replacement of O with N atoms in the rutile structure. The production of titanium vacancies can enhance the room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM), and substitution of O with N is the onset of ferromagnetism by inducing relatively strong ferromagnetic ordering.

  12. Czochralski and modified Bridgman-Stockbarger growth of pure, Cd 2+ and Nd 3+ doped benzil single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Wang, W. S.; Tambwe, M.

    1993-03-01

    Pure, Cd2+ and Nd3+-doped benzil C6H5COCOC6H5 have been grown from melt using the Czochralski and modified Bridgman-Stockbarger methods. Angle-tuned second harmonic generation of pure benzil from Nd:YAG laser radiation of λ = 1.06 μm with a conversion efficiency η = I2w/Iw = 0.4% has been demonstrated. We have used a Nd:YAG pulse laser to measure the radiation damage threshold as 15.9 MW/cm2 (c-axis) and 23.9 MW/cm2 (a-axis) under the conditions that laser pulse width is 10 ns. Under the same conditions, the conversion efficiency of Nd3+ and Cd2+-doped benzil, η= I2w/Iw = 1.1%, has been demonstrated. The radiation threshold is higher than for pure benzil crystals.

  13. Preparation and optical characteristics of ZnSe nanocrystals doped glass by sol gel in situ crystallization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Haiyan; Yao, Xi; Wang, Minqiang

    2007-01-01

    Homogeneous ZnSe nanocrystals doped SiO 2 glass was successfully prepared by sol-gel in situ crystallization method. The structure of the doped ZnSe nanocrystals was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). ZnSe nanocrystals in silica were about 4-10 nm analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which was consistent with the results of XRD estimated using Scherrer's formular. The quantum size effect in ZnSe nanocrystals was evidenced from the blue-shifts of the optical absorption edge, and the average size of ZnSe nanocrystals was estimated by the magnitude of blue shift according to the L.E. Brus' effective mass model. The size of ZnSe nanocrystals depending on annealing time and temperature was further discussed using XRF.

  14. Thermoelectric and magnetic properties of Cr-doped single crystal Bi2Se3 - Search for energy filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, P.; Ruleova, P.; Holy, V.; Prokleska, J.; Kucek, V.; Palka, K.; Benes, L.; Drasar, C.

    2018-02-01

    Thermoelectric effects are one of the promising ways to utilize waste heat. Novel approaches have appeared in recent decades aiming to enhance thermoelectric conversion. The theory of energy filtering of free carriers by inclusions is among the latest developed methods. Although the basic idea is clear, experimental evidence of this phenomenon is rare. Based on this concept, we searched suitable systems with stable structures showing energy filtering. Here, we report on the anomalous behavior of Cr-doped single-crystal Bi2Se3 that indicates energy filtering. The solubility of chromium in Bi2Se3 was studied, which is the key parameter in the formation process of inclusions. We present recent results on the effect of Cr-doping on the transport coefficients on a wide set of single crystalline samples. Magnetic measurements were used to corroborate the conclusions drawn from the transport and X-ray measurements.

  15. Chapter L: U.S. Industrial Garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2006-01-01

    The United States presently consumes about 16 percent of global production of industrial garnet for use in abrasive airblasting, abrasive coatings, filtration media, waterjet cutting, and grinding. As of 2005, domestic garnet production has decreased from a high of 74,000 t in 1998, and imports have increased to the extent that as much as 60 percent of the garnet used in the United States in 2003 was imported, mainly from India, China, and Australia; Canada joined the list of suppliers in 2005. The principal type of garnet used is almandite (almandine), because of its specific gravity and hardness; andradite is also extensively used, although it is not as hard or dense as almandite. Most industrial-grade garnet is obtained from gneiss, amphibolite, schist, skarn, and igneous rocks and from alluvium derived from weathering and erosion of these rocks. Garnet mines and occurrences are located in 21 States, but the only presently active (2006) mines are in northern Idaho (garnet placers; one mine), southeastern Montana (garnet placers; one mine), and eastern New York (unweathered bedrock; two mines). In Idaho, garnet is mined from Tertiary and (or) Quaternary sedimentary deposits adjacent to garnetiferous metapelites that are correlated with the Wallace Formation of the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup. In New York, garnet is mined from crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Mountains that are part of the Proterozoic Grenville province, and from the southern Taconic Range that is part of the northern Appalachian Mountains. In Montana, sources of garnet in placers include amphibolite, mica schist, and gneiss of Archean age and younger granite. Two mines that were active in the recent past in southwestern Montana produced garnet from gold dredge tailings and saprolite. In this report, we review the history of garnet mining and production and describe some garnet occurrences in most of the Eastern States along the Appalachian Mountains and in some of the Western States where

  16. Heat capacity of rare-earth cuprates, orthovanadates, and aluminum garnets, gallium garnets, and iron garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Kargin, Yu. F.; Denisov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    The correlation between the heat capacities of rare-earth cuprates, orthovanadates, and garnets with ionic radius R 3+ has been analyzed. It has been shown that the values of C {/p 0} change consistently depending on the radius R 3+ within the corresponding tetrads (La-Nd, Pm-Gd, Gd-Ho, Eu-Lu).

  17. Optical properties of Mg2+, Yb3+, and Ho3+ tri-doped LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li; Liu, Chun-Rui; Tan, Chao; Yan, Zhe-Hua; Xu, Yu-Heng

    2017-04-01

    A series of LiNbO3 crystals tri-doped with Mg{}2+, Yb{}3+, and Ho{}3+ are grown by the conventional Czochraski technique. The concentrations of Mg{}2+, Yb{}3+, and Ho{}3+ ions in Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystals are measured by using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The x-ray diffraction is proposed to determine the lattice constant and analyze the internal structure of the crystal. The light-induced scattering of Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal is quantitatively described via the threshold effect of incident exposure energy flux. The exposure energy ({E}{{r}}) is calculated to discuss the optical damage resistance ability. The exposure energy of Mg(7 mol):Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal is 709.17 J/cm2, approximately 425 times higher than that of the Mg(1 mol):Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal in magnitude. The blue, red, and very intense green bands of Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal are observed under the 980-nm laser excitation to evaluate the up-conversion emission properties. The dependence of the emission intensity on pumping power indicates that the up-conversion emission is a two-photon process. The up-conversion emission mechanism is discussed in detail. This study indicates that Mg:Yb:Ho:LiNbO3 crystal can be applied to the fabrication of new multifunctional photoluminescence devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51301055), the Youth Science Fund of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. QC2015061), the Special Funds of Harbin Innovation Talents in Science and Technology Research, China (Grant No. 2015RQQXJ045 ), and the Science Funds for the Young Innovative Talents of Harbin University of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 201501).

  18. Evidence of mantle metasomatism in garnet peridotites from V. Grib kimberlite pipe (Arkhangelsk region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchukina, Elena; Agashev, Alexey; Golovin, Nikolai; Pokhilenko, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    We have studied 26 samples of garnet peridotite xenoliths from V.Grib pipe and 17 of them are phlogopite bearing. Studied peridotites have features of two types of modal metasomatism: low-temperature (˜ 1100 C°) and high-temperature (˜ 1100 C°). Low-temperature modal metasomatism: 17 samples contain modal phlogopite, which is present in the form of tabular grains (to 3 mm in size) and rims around pyrope grains. Chemical composition of minerals from phlogopite-garnet peridotites and phlogopite free peridotites is distinctly different. Olivine, garnet, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene have higher concentration of FeO relative to these minerals in phlogopite free peridotites. Occurrence of phlogopite in peridotites indicates the influence of melt enriched in K2O, H2O, FeO and other incompatible elements. Two types of phlogopite have difference in chemical composition that indicates two different sources. High-temperature modal metasomatism: Reconstructed V.Grib pipe peridotite whole-rocks composition and high Mg# of peridotite olivines indicates that these samples are residues after 30-40 % partial melting of primitive mantle. At those high degree of partial melting all clinopyroxene and probably all garnet should be exhausted from residue. Character of REE patterns in garnets and clinopyroxenes indicates that the most garnets and all clinopyroxene in studied peridotites are of metasomatic origin. We used the method of geochemical modeling of fractional crystallization to establish the source's composition for garnets and clinopyroxenes. For geochemical modeling we used the composition of tholeitic basalts, picrites and carbonatites which occurred in Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province (ADP) and have emplacement ages similar to that of kimberlites. Modeling result indicates that garnets could be crystallized from alkali picrite and tholeite basalts compositions. Peridotites containing garnets equilibrated with picritic melt have a different position in lithospheric

  19. Disorder in KHCO3 as studied by EPR and DTA in Cu2+ doped and gamma-irradiated single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksal, F.; Karabulut, B.; Demir, D.; Icbudak, H.; Koseoglu, R.

    2005-08-01

    Kalicinite (KHCO3) single crystals were investigated by the electron paramagnetric resonance (EPR) technique in their Cu2+ doped and gamma- irradiated states. It is observed that the behavior of the spectrum is the same at ambient and low temperatures down to 113 K in consistence with the monoclinic symmetry of the crystal. However, when the temperature is increased to 313 K, only one site signals were observed at all orientations of the magnetic field for the Cu2+ doped samples as the site splitted signals overlap at this temperature. Furthermore, for the gamma-irradiated crystals, two sites were observed for the induced H(C)over dot O-3 and (C)over dot O-2(-) radicals at ambient temperature for an arbitrary orientation of the magnetic field. However, when the temperature is increased to 348 K, the signals due to the H(C)over dot O-3 radical overlap indicating only one site, but the signals due to (C)over dot O-2(-) the radical do not and continue to indicate the presence of the two sites. Therefore, we conclude that this one site transition at 313 K is due to the disordering of the proton vacancies, as the charge compensation of Cu2+ is fulfilled by K+ and proton holes. This indicates that the proton vacancies come to disorder at 313 K and the protons get disordered at 348 K. The differential thermal analysis results show two small endothermic peaks for the Cu2+ doped and gamma-irradiated samples at 313 and 348 K that were attributed to the disorder of the proton vacancies and protons, in consistency with the EPR results.

  20. Comparison of OARE Accelerometer Data with Dopant Distribution in Se-Doped GaAs Crystals Grown During USML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Bly, Jennifer M.; Matthiesen, David H.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the crystal growth furnace (CGF) during the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1), the STS-50 flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia, to determine the segregation behavior of selenium in bulk GaAs in a microgravity environment. After the flight, the selenium-doped GaAs crystals were sectioned, polished, and analyzed to determine the free carrier concentration as a function of position, One of the two crystals initially exhibited an axial concentration profile indicative of diffusion controlled growth, but this profile then changed to that predicted for a complete mixing type growth. An analytical model, proposed by Naumann [R.J. Naumann, J. Crystal Growth 142 (1994) 253], was utilized to predict the maximum allowable microgravity disturbances transverse to the growth direction during the two different translation rates used for each of the experiments. The predicted allowable acceleration levels were 4.86 microgram for the 2.5 micrometers/s furnace translation rate and 38.9 microgram for the 5.0 micrometers/s rate. These predicted values were compared to the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) accelerometer data recorded during the crystal growth periods for these experiments. Based on the analysis of the OARE acceleration data and utilizing the predictions from the analytical model, it is concluded that the change in segregation behavior was not caused by any acceleration events in the microgravity environment.

  1. High-Performance Doped Strontium Iodide Crystal Growth Using a Modified Bridgman Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Emmanuel

    The importance of gamma-ray spectroscopy---the science of determining the distribution of energy in a gamma field---can rarely be overstated. High performance scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy in Nuclear Nonproliferation applications and homeland security require excellent energy resolution to distinguish neighboring element and isotope lines while minimizing the time and exposure to do so. Semiconductor detectors operate by converting incident photons directly into electrical pulses, but often have problems of high costs due to constituent segregation and surface states as is the case for Cadmium Zinc Telluride. The ideal scintillator material for gamma spectrometer will therefore requires high light yield, excellent proportionality between light yield and gamma photon energy, and material uniformity. A scintillator should possess the following properties; it should convert the kinetic energy of the generated charged particles (typically K-shell electrons) into detectable visible light. This conversion should be linear-the light yield should be proportional to deposited energy over as wide a range as possible. For good light collection, the medium should be transparent to the wavelength of its own emission. The decay time of the induced luminescence should be short so that fast signal pulses can be generated. The medium should be of good optical quality and subject to manufacture in sizes large enough to be of interest as a practical detector. Its index of refraction should be near that of glass (~1.5) to permit efficient coupling of scintillation light to a photomultiplier tube or other photo-sensor. In the past decade, inorganic scintillator research has focused less on improving the characteristics of known scintillators, but rather on the search for new hosts capable of fast response and high energy resolution. Extensive searches have been made for hosts doped with lanthanide activators utilizing the allowed 5d-4f transition. These 5d-4f transitions are

  2. EPR and optical absorption study of Cu{sup 2+} doped lithium sulphate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subramanian, P., E-mail: psubramaniangri@gmail.com; Krishnan, S. Radha

    2016-05-23

    EPR study of Cu{sup 2+} doped NLO active Lithium Sulphate monohydrate (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4.}H{sub 2}O) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The principal values of g and A tensors indicate existence of orthorhombic symmetry around the Cu{sup 2+} ion. From the direction cosines of g and A tensors, the locations of Cu{sup 2+} in the lattice have been identified as interstitial site. Optical absorption confirms the rhombic symmetry and ground state wave function of the Cu{sup 2+} ion in a lattice as d{sub x2-y2}.

  3. Large Scale Laser Crystallization of Solution-based Alumina-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) Nanoinks for Highly Transparent Conductive Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Qiong; Callahan, Michael; Saei, Mojib; Look, David; Efstathiadis, Harry; Bailey, John; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    A new method combining aqueous solution printing with UV Laser crystallization (UVLC) and post annealing is developed to deposit highly transparent and conductive Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) films. This technique is able to rapidly produce large area AZO films with better structural and optoelectronic properties than most high vacuum deposition, suggesting a potential large-scale manufacturing technique. The optoelectronic performance improvement attributes to UVLC and forming gas annealing (FMG) induced grain boundary density decrease and electron traps passivation at grain boundaries. The physical model and computational simulation developed in this work could be applied to thermal treatment of many other metal oxide films. PMID:26515670

  4. Role of space charges on light-induced effects in nematic liquid crystals doped by methyl red.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, L; Simoni, F

    2014-03-01

    We show that both the extraordinarily large nonlinear response and the light-induced permanent reorientation in liquid crystals doped by the azo dye methyl red originates from the same phenomenon of modification of the charge density on the irradiated surface. The demonstration is done by applying ac voltage to the samples, showing that in this case no permanent anchoring is possible. The measurements confirm the role of photoisomerization that gives a transient contribution to the actual reorientation process only in the high dose regime. This result allows us to draw a picture for light-induced effects that might be applied to a large class of compounds.

  5. Large-mode-area single-mode-output Neodymium-doped silicate glass all-solid photonic crystal fiber

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentao; Chen, Danping; Qinling, Zhou; Hu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a 45 μm core diameter Neodymium-doped all-solid silicate glass photonic crystal fiber laser with a single mode laser output. The structure parameters and modes information of the fiber are both demonstrated by theoretical calculations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and experimental measurements. Maximum 0.8 W output power limited by launched pump power has been generated in 1064 nm with laser beam quality factor M2 1.18. PMID:26205850

  6. High energy resolution with transparent ceramic garnet scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, N. J.; Seeley, Z. M.; Payne, S. A.; Beck, P. R.; Swanberg, E. L.; Hunter, S.; Ahle, L.; Fisher, S. E.; Melcher, C.; Wei, H.; Stefanik, T.; Chung, Y.-S.; Kindem, J.

    2014-09-01

    Breakthrough energy resolution, R(662keV) < 4%, has been achieved with an oxide scintillator, Cerium-doped Gadolinium Yttrium Gallium Aluminum Garnet, or GYGAG(Ce). Transparent ceramic GYGAG(Ce), has a peak emission wavelength of 550 nm that is better matched to Silicon photodetectors than to standard PMTs. We are therefore developing a spectrometer based on pixelated GYGAG(Ce) on a Silicon photodiode array that can provide R(662 keV) = 3.6%. In comparison, with large 1-2 in3 size GYGAG(Ce) ceramics we obtain R(662 keV) = 4.6% with PMT readout. We find that ceramic GYGAG(Ce) of a given stoichiometric chemical composition can exhibit very different scintillation properties, depending on sintering conditions and post-anneal treatments. Among the characteristics of transparent ceramic garnet scintillators that can be controlled by fabrication conditions are: scintillation decay components and their amplitudes, intensity and duration of afterglow, thermoluminescence glow curve peak positions and amplitudes, integrated light yield, light yield non-proportionality - as measured in the Scintillator Light Yield Non-Proportionality Characterization Instrument (SLYNCI), and energy resolution for gamma spectroscopy. Garnet samples exhibiting a significant fraction of Cerium dopant in the tetravalent valence also exhibit: faster overall scintillation decay, very low afterglow, high light yield, but poor light yield proportionality and degraded energy resolution.

  7. Phosphate ytterbium-doped single-mode all-solid photonic crystal fiber with output power of 13.8 W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longfei; He, Dongbing; Feng, Suya; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Qiu, Jianrong; Chen, Danping

    2015-01-01

    Single-mode ytterbium-doped phosphate all-solid photonic crystal fiber (AS-PCF) with 13.8 W output power and 32% slope efficiency was reported. By altering the diameter of the rods around the doped core and thus breaking the symmetry of the fiber, a polarization-maintaining AS-PCF with degree of polarization of >85% was also achieved, for the first time to knowledge, in a phosphate PCF. PMID:25684731

  8. Synergistic effect of non-covalent interaction in colloidal nematic liquid crystal doped with magnetic functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Nima; Javadian, Soheila

    2018-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), CNT@Fe3O4, and Fe3O4 nanocomposites were doped to eutectic uniaxial nematic liquid crystal (NLC's) (E5CN7) to improve physiochemical properties such as phase transition temperature, activation energy (Ea), dielectric anisotropy, and electro-optical properties. The thermal study of nematic phase shows a decrease in the nematic to isotropic phase transition temperature as CNT is doped. However, higher doping concentration of CNTs leads to the further increase in transition temperature. The anchoring effect or π-π interaction plays a key role in N-I phase transition. The functionalization of SWCNTs with Fe3O4 diminishes the CNT aggregation while the magnetic susceptibility is increased. The functionalized CNT doping to NLC's decrease significantly the phase transition temperature compared to doping of non-functionalized CNTs. Attractive interaction between guest and host molecules by magnetic and geometry effect increased the enthalpy and entropy of phase transition in the SWCNT@Fe3O4 sample compared to non-functionalized CNT doped system. Also, the Ea values are decreased as SWCNT@Fe3O4 is doped to pure E5CN7. The difference of N-I phase transition temperature was observed in Fe3O4 and CNT@Fe3O4 compared to SWCNT doped systems. Finally, dielectric anisotropy was increased in the doped system compared to pure NLC.

  9. Luminescence of BaBrI and SrBrI single crystals doped with Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, A. A.; Shendrik, R.; Myasnikova, A. S.; Bogdanov, A.; Rusakov, A.; Vasilkovskyi, A.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal growth procedure and luminescence properties of pure and Eu2+-doped BaBrI and SrBrI crystals are reported. Emission and excitation spectra were recorded under ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet excitations. The energy of the first Eu2+ 4f-5d transition and SrBrI band gap are obtained. The electronic structure calculations were performed within GW approximation as implemented in the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package. The energy between lowest Eu2+ 5d state and the bottom of conduction band are found based on luminescence quenching parameters. The vacuum referred binding energy diagram of lanthanide levels was constructed using the chemical shift model.

  10. Insulating and metallic spin glass in Ni-doped K x Fe 2 - y Se 2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Wang, Kefeng

    2015-05-01

    Here in this paper, we report electron doping effects by Ni in K xFe 2- δ-y Ni ySe 2 (0.06 ≤ y ≤ 1.44) single-crystal alloys. A rich ground-state phase diagram is observed. A small amount of Ni (~4 %) suppressed superconductivity below 1.8 K, inducing insulating spin-glass magnetic ground state for higher Ni content. With further Ni substitution, metallic resistivity is restored. For high Ni concentration in the lattice the unit cell symmetry is high symmetry I4/mmm with no phase separation whereas both I4 / m + I4/mmm space groups were detected in the phase separated crystals when concentrationmore » of Ni< Fe. The absence of superconductivity coincides with the absence of crystalline Fe vacancy order.« less

  11. Effect of temperature and rare-earth doping on charge-carrier mobility in indium-monoselenide crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Abdinov, A. Sh., E-mail: abdinov-axmed@yandex.ru; Babayeva, R. F., E-mail: Babaeva-Rena@yandex.ru; Amirova, S. I.

    2013-08-15

    In the temperature range T = 77-600 K, the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility ({mu}) on the initial dark resistivity is experimentally investigated at 77 K ({rho}d{sub 0}), as well as on the temperature and the level (N) of rare-earth doping with such elements as gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), and dysprosium (Dy) in n-type indium-monoselenide (InSe) crystals. It is established that the anomalous behavior of the dependences {mu}(T), {mu}({rho}d{sub 0}), and {mu}(N) found from the viewpoint of the theory of charge-carrier mobility in crystalline semiconductors is related, first of all, to partial disorder in indium-monoselenide crystals and can be attributedmore » to the presence of random drift barriers in the free energy bands.« less

  12. Growth and spectral-luminescent study of SrMoO4 crystals doped with Tm3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaeva, E. E.; Zverev, P. G.; Doroshenko, M. E.; Nekhoroshikh, A. V.; Ivleva, L. I.; Osiko, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    SrMoO4 crystals doped with Tm3+ ions have been produced from a melt using the Czochralski method; their spectral-luminescent characteristics have been studied, and laser radiation has been generated at the wavelength of 1.94 μm using laser-diode excitation. The high absorption section at the wavelength of 795 nm, the fairly high luminescence section, the long lifetime at the upper laser level 3F4 of 1.5 ms, and a wide luminescence band allow one to hope for developing efficient tunable Tm3+: SrMoO4 crystal lasers with diode pumping in the range of 1.7-2.0 μm, which are capable of implementing SRS self-transformation of radiation into the middle IR band.

  13. Experimental investigation of low temperature garnet-melt partitioning in CMASH, with application to subduction zone processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizet, Y.; Blundy, J.; McDade, P.

    2003-04-01

    During subduction, the slab undergoes several processes such as dehydration and partial melting at pressures of 2-3 GPa and temperatures of 600-900^oC. Under these conditions, there is little or no distinction between melt and fluid phases (Bureau &Keppler, 1999, EPSL 165, 187-196). To investigate the behaviour of trace elements under these conditions we have carried out partitioning experiments in the system CMASH at 2.2 GPa, 700-920^oC. CMAS starting compositions were doped with trace elements, and loaded together with quartz and water into a Pt capsule, which was in turn contained within a Ni-lined Ti capsule. Run durations were 3-7 days. A run at 810^oC produced euhedral calcic garnet, zoisite, quartz, hydrous melt and tiny clinopyroxene interpreted as quench crystals. LA-ICPMS and SIMS were used to quantify trace element concentrations of the phases. Garnet-melt D's for the HREE decrease from ˜300 for Lu to less than 0.2 for La. DSc and D_V are less than 5, consistent with the large X-site dimension in the garnet. DLi DSr and DBa are considerably less than the adjacent REE. There is a very slight negative partitioning anomaly for Zr and Hf relative to Nd and Sm; DHf is slightly greater than DZr. D_U < DTh, due largely to the oxidizing conditions of the experiment (NNO). The most striking result is very high D's for Nb and Ta: 18±10 and 5.4±1.9 (LA-ICPMS), 25.8±11.9 and 6.6±1.3 (SIMS) for Nb and Ta respectively. These are considerably larger than any previously measured (at much higher temperatures). The observed partitioning behaviour is consistent with the large temperature dependence for DREE proposed by Van Westrenen et al. (2001, Contrib Min Pet, 142, 219-234), and an even larger temperature dependence for DNb and DTa. These preliminary results suggest that garnet (rather than rutile) may play the key role in controlling the Nb and Ta budget of arc magmas and the Nb/Ta ratio of residual eclogites. For example, modelling of eclogite melting, using a N

  14. Stress Tuning of Laser Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carty, Atherton A.

    1995-01-01

    The topic of stress tunable laser crystals is addressed in this study with the purpose of determining the piezo-optic coefficients of a new laser material. This data was collected using a quadruple pass birefringence technique because of its high degree of sensitivity relative to the other methods examined including fringe shift analysis using a Mach-Zender interferometer. A green He-Ne laser was passed through a light chopper and Glan-Thompson prism before entering a crystal of Erbium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) (used in order to validate the experimental technique). The Er:YAG crystal is mounted in a press mechanism and the laser is quadruple passed through test specimen before being returned through the prism and the orthogonally polarized portion of the beam measured with a optical sensor. At a later stage, the Er:YAG crystal was replaced with a new crystal in order to determine the piezo-optic coefficients of this uncharacterized material. The applied load was monitored with the use of a 50 lb. load cell placed in line with the press. Light transmission readings were taken using a lock-in amplifier while load cell measurements were taken with a voltmeter from a 5 volt, 0.5 amp power supply. Despite the fact that an effective crystal press damping system was developed, size limitations precluded the use of the complete system. For this reason, data points were taken only once per full turn so as to minimize the effect of non uniform load application on the collected data. Good correlation was found in the transmission data between the experimentally determined Er:YAG and the previously known peizo-optic constants of non-doped crystal with which it was compared. The variation which was found between the two could be accounted for by the aforementioned presence of Erbium in the experimental sample (for which exact empirical data was not known). The same test procedure was then carried out on a Yttrium Gallium Aluminum garnet (YGAG) for the purpose of

  15. Radiation hardness test of un-doped CsI crystals and Silicon Photomultipliers for the Mu2e calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Loreti, S.; Miscetti, S.; Pillon, M.; Sarra, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Mu2e calorimeter is composed by 1400 un-doped CsI crystals coupled to large area UV extended Silicon Photomultipliers arranged in two annular disks. This calorimeter has to provide precise information on energy, timing and position. It should also be fast enough to handle the high rate background and it must operate and survive in a high radiation environment. Simulation studies estimated that, in the hottest regions, each crystal will absorb a dose of 300 Gy and will be exposed to a neutron fluency of 6 × 1011 n/cm2 in 3 years of running. Test of un-doped CsI crystals irradiated up to 900 Gy and to a neutron fluency up to 9 × 1011 n/cm2 have been performed at CALLIOPE and FNG ENEA facilities in Italy. We present our study on the variation of light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU) of these crystals after irradiation. The ionization dose does not modify LRU while a 20% reduction in LY is observed at 900 Gy. Similarly, the neutron flux causes an acceptable LY deterioration (≤ 15%). A neutron irradiation test on different types of SIPMs (two different array models from Hamamatsu and one from FBK) have also been carried out by measuring the variation of the leakage current and the charge response to an ultraviolet led. We concluded that, in the experiment, we will need to cool down the SIPMs to 0 °C reduce the leakage current to an acceptable level.

  16. Doping- and irradiation-controlled pinning of vortices in BaFe 2 (As 1 - x P x ) 2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, L.; Jia, Y.; Schlueter, J. A.

    We report on the systematic evolution of vortex pinning behavior in isovalent doped single crystals of BaFe 2 (As 1 - x P x ) 2 . Proceeding from optimal doped to overdoped samples, we find a clear transformation of the magnetization hysteresis from a fishtail behavior to a distinct peak effect, followed by a reversible magnetization and Bean-Livingston surface barriers. Strong point pinning dominates the vortex behavior at low fields whereas weak collective pinning determines the behavior at higher fields. In addition to doping effects, we show that particle irradiation by energetic protons can tune vortex pinning in thesemore » materials.« less

  17. Doping- and irradiation-controlled pinning of vortices in BaFe{<_2}(As{<_1-x}P{<_x}){<_2} single crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, L.; Jia, Y.; Schlueter, J. A.

    We report on the systematic evolution of vortex pinning behavior in isovalent doped single crystals of BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}. Proceeding from optimal doped to overdoped samples, we find a clear transformation of the magnetization hysteresis from a fishtail behavior to a distinct peak effect, followed by a reversible magnetization and Bean-Livingston surface barriers. Strong point pinning dominates the vortex behavior at low fields whereas weak collective pinning determines the behavior at higher fields. In addition to doping effects, we show that particle irradiation by energetic protons can tune vortex pinning in these materials.

  18. P2O5-doping in waste glasses: evolution of viscosity and crystallization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrago, Mariona; Espuñes, Alex; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    Current concern for environmental preservation is the main motive for the study of new, more sustainable materials. Increasing amounts of sewage sludge are produced in wastewater treatment plants over the world every day. This fact represents a major problem for the municipalities and industries due to the volume of waste and also to the contaminant elements it may bear, which require expensive conditions for disposal in landfills. Vitrification is an established technique in the inertization of different types of toxic wastes (such as nuclear wastes and contaminated soils) that has been used successfully for sewage sludge. Glasses of basaltic composition (43.48SiO2-14.00Al2O3-12.86Fe2O3-10.00CaO-9.94MgO-3.27Na2O-1.96K2O-0.17MnO-0.55P2O5-2.48TiO2) are used as a laboratory analogous of wastes such as sewage sludge and galvanic sludge to study the properties of the inertization matrix. This basaltic matrix is doped by adding 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 20% of P5O5 in order to cover the compositional range of phosphate in sewage sludge encountered in the literature. In this study, the focus has been placed in the effect of the concentration of phosphate (P2O5) in glass stability, thermal properties and evolution of viscosity with temperature. The dependence of viscosity on temperature and the thermal behaviour of these glasses are critical parameters in the design of their production process. Regarding the compositional limits of the mixture, it has been observed that melt reactivity is much increased when P2O5 content is over 4%, hindering the glass conformation process. Moreover, stanfieldite (calcium and magnesium phosphate) crystallized during glass making when phosphate concentration approached 20%, hence establishing the upper limit for glass stability. Viscosity is also dramatically increased in this range, hence requiring production amends. Differential thermal analysis has provided nucleation and crystallization temperatures of the glasses around 915°C and 1050

  19. Dynamic control of mode field diameter and effective area by germanium doping of hexagonal photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Kazuya; Namihira, Yoshinori; Kasamatsu, Yuho; Hossain, Md. Anwar

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate dynamic control of the effective area ( A eff) of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in the range of 18.1-8.22 μm2 and the mode field diameter in the range of 4.78-3.42 μm. This control was realized by altering their structural properties and varying the germanium (Ge) doping rate, which changed the refractive index difference (Δ n Ge) between 1.0 and 3.0% relative to the refractive index of the silica cladding. This was achieved by adjusting the Ge doping rate in the core and changing the radius ( d core) of the doped region, i.e., by changing the equivalent refractive index, using numerical calculations. Numerical results were verified by comparison with experimental results for a fabricated Gedoped PCF obtained by far-field scanning based on the ITU-T Petermann II definition. The proposed approach will simultaneously decrease Aeff and achieves high light confinement and high nonlinearity in PCFs. It enables architectonics/controllability of highly nonlinear PCFs with passive optical devices in photonic networks and life science applications.

  20. Thermoluminescence Response of Ge-Doped Cylindrical-, Flat- and Photonic Crystal Silica-Fibres to Electron and Photon Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Entezam, A.; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Ung, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, J.; Safari, M. J.; Moradi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Study has been made of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of silica-based Ge-doped cylindrical, flat and photonic crystal fibres (referred to herein as PCF-collapsed) to electron (6, 12 and 20 MeV) and photon (6, 10 MV) irradiation and 1.25 MeV γ-rays, for doses from 0.1 Gy to 100 Gy. The electron and photon irradiations were delivered through use of a Varian Model 2100C linear accelerator located at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and γ-rays delivered from a 60Co irradiator located at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Tailor-made to be of various dimensions and dopant concentrations (6–10% Ge), the fibres were observed to provide TL yield linear with radiation dose, reproducibility being within 1–5%, with insensitivity to energy and angular variation. The sensitivity dependency of both detectors with respect to field size follows the dependency of the output factors. For flat fibres exposed to 6 MV X-rays, the 6% Ge-doped fibre provided the greatest TL yield while PCF-collapsed showed a response 2.4 times greater than that of the 6% Ge-doped flat fibres. The response of cylindrical fibres increased with core size. The fibres offer uniform response, high spatial resolution and sensitivity, providing the basis of promising TL systems for radiotherapy applications. PMID:27149115

  1. The steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride: The impact of crystal temperature and doping concentration variations

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O'Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca

    2016-03-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient aspects of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride, with a focus on the response to variations in the crystal temperature and the doping concentration. We find that while the electron transport associated with zinc-blende InN is highly sensitive to the crystal temperature, it is not very sensitive to the doping concentration selection. The device consequences of these results are then explored.

  2. Temperature dependent fluorescence spectra arise from change in excited-state intramolecular proton transfer potential of 4‧-N,N-dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone-doped acetonitrile crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Norifumi; Hino, Kazuyuki; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of intermolecular interaction on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in 4‧-N,N-dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone (DMHF) doped in acetonitrile crystals was investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectra. A solid/solid phase transition of DMHF-doped acetonitrile crystals occurred in the temperature between 210 and 218 K. Significant differences in the spectral profiles and shifts in the fluorescence spectra were observed in the low- and high-temperature regions of the phase transition. The temperature dependence of the ESIPT potential of DMHF is discussed.

  3. Epitaxial Garnet Investigation; Technical Report, Foreign Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-25

    Pure yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are grown on GGG substrates by * liquid phase epitaxy ( LPE ) in production lots. In addition, one or two...epitaxial garnet films for Philips Dr. Krumme * Dr. Doormann 3-6-87 Thomson - CSF Research Center, Orsay, France Dr. J. P. Castera Dr. P. L. Meunier all...research physicists who grow, characterize, Dr. J. Y. Beguin or use epitaxial garnet films for Thomson CSF. Dr. J. L. Rolland Dr. P. Friez The

  4. [Effect of annealing temperature on the crystallization and spectroscopic response of a small-molecule semiconductor doped in polymer film].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Liu, Hong-Mei

    2012-11-01

    The crystallization properties of the perylene (EPPTC) molecules doped in the solid film of the derivative of polyfluorene (F8BT) at different annealing temperatures, as well as the consequently induced spectroscopic response of the exciplex emission in the heterojunction structures, were studied in the present paper. Experimental results showed that the phase separation between the small and the polymer molecules in the blend film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature, which leads to the crystallization of the EPPTC molecules due to the strong pi-pi stacking. The size of the crystal phase increases with increasing the annealing temperature. However, this process weakens the mechanisms of the heterojunction configuration, thus, the total interfacial area between the small and the polymer molecules and the amount of exciplex are reduced significantly in the blend film. Meanwhile, the energy transfer from the polymer to the small molecules is also reduced. As a result, the emission from the exciplex becomes weaker with increasing the annealing temperature, whereas the stronger emission from the polymer molecules and from the crystal phase of the small molecules can be observed. These experimental results are very important for understanding and tailoring the organic heterojunction structures. Furthermore, this provides photophysics for improving the performance of photovoltaic or solar cell devices.

  5. Spectroscopic and neutron detection properties of rare earth and titanium doped LiAlO 2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Dickens, Peter T.; Marcial, Jose; McCloy, John; ...

    2017-05-17

    In this study, LiAlO 2 crystals doped with rare-earth elements and Ti were produced by the CZ method and spectroscopic and neutron detection properties were investigated. Photoluminescence revealed no clear luminescent activation of LiAlO 2 by the rare-earth dopants though some interesting luminescence was observed from secondary phases within the crystal. Gamma-ray pulse height spectra collected using a 137Cs source exhibited only a Compton edge for the crystals. Neutron modeling using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code revealed most neutrons used in the detection setup are thermalized, and while using natural lithium in the crystal growth, which contains 7.6% 6Li, amore » 10 mm Ø by 10 mm sample of LiAlO 2 has a 70.7% intrinsic thermal neutron capture efficiency. Furthermore, the pulse height spectra collected using a 241Am-Be neutron source demonstrated a distinct neutron peak.« less

  6. Spectroscopic and neutron detection properties of rare earth and titanium doped LiAlO 2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, Peter T.; Marcial, José; McCloy, John

    In this study, LiAlO2 crystals doped with rare-earth elements and Ti were produced by the CZ method and spectroscopic and neutron detection properties were investigated. Photoluminescence revealed no clear luminescent activation of LiAlO2 by the rare-earth dopants though some interesting luminescence was observed from secondary phases within the crystal. Gamma-ray pulse height spectra collected using a 137Cs source exhibited only a Compton edge for the crystals. Neutron modeling using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code revealed most neutrons used in the detection setup are thermalized, and while using natural lithium in the crystal growth, which contains 7.6 % 6Li, a 10more » mm Ø by 10 mm sample of LiAlO2 has a 70.7 % intrinsic thermal neutron capture efficiency. Furthermore, the pulse height spectra collected using a 241Am-Be neutron source demonstrated a distinct neutron peak.« less

  7. Temperature dependence of luminescence behavior in Er3+-doped BaY2F8 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Ruan, Yongfeng; Tsuboi, Taiju; Tong, Hongshuang; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Shouchao

    2013-12-01

    BaY2F8 single crystals doped with Er3+ ions have been grown by the temperature gradient method. The absorption, excitation and emission spectra for Er3+-doped BaY2F8 crystals were measured at room temperature (297 K) and 12 K. The effect of temperature on the luminescence intensity and effective bandwidth was investigated in the range of 12-297 K. The temperature dependence of the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) for the 522 nm emission (2H11/2→4I15/2 transition) and the 552 nm emission (4S3/2→4I15/2 transition) was also studied in the range of 12-297 K. Based on the fitting FIR curve, the value of the constant term B (2.25) was obtained. The fitting FIR curve and FIR equation may have a potential application in the temperature measurement. In addition, the up-conversion spectrum at room temperature was recorded under excitation of 980 nm and the up-conversion mechanism was analyzed in detail.

  8. Growth of a Lightly Doped Pr^3+:LaCl3 Crystal to Determine Radiative Transition Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, J. Michael; Ganem, Joseph; Shaw, L. B.; Bowman, S. R.; Feldman, B. J.

    1996-03-01

    The recent demontration of 5.2 and 7.2 micron lasers using Pr^3+:LaCl3 ,(S. R. Bowman, Joseph Ganem, B. J. Feldman and A. W. Kueny, IEEE J. Quant. Elect. 30, 2925(1994).)^,(S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman and Joseph Ganem, postdeadline paper CPD 26 at CLEO(1995).) the longest known wavelengths for any rare earth solid-state laser, has motivated further studies of this material. Design of mid-infrared lasers that use Pr^3+:LaCl3 would benefit from the ability to model population dynamics under different pumping conditions of the lower levels of the Pr^3+ ion. The lower levels, that are the basis for the new mid-infrared lasers, have many energetic overlaps resulting in several competing energy transfer processes when Pr^3+ concentrations approach 1 percent or higher. To minimize these processes we have grown and studied a lightly doped Pr^3+:LaCl3 crystal in order to determine the underlying radiative transition rates. We report how knowledge of the radiative rates can be incorporated into a model describing energy transfer processes in more heavily doped crystals.

  9. Degradation and recovery of iron doped barium titanate single crystals via modulus spectroscopy and thermally stimulated depolarization current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J. J.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Randall, C. A.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding resistance degradation during the application of DC bias and recovery after removing the DC bias provides insight into failure mechanisms and defects in dielectric materials. In this experiment, modulus spectroscopy and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) techniques were used to characterize the degradation and recovery of iron-doped barium titanate single crystals. Modulus spectroscopy is a very powerful analytical tool applied during degradation and recovery to observe changes in the local conductivity distribution. During degradation, oxygen vacancies migrate to the cathode region, and a counter flow of oxygen anions migrates towards the anode. With increasing time during degradation, the distribution of conductivity broadens only slightly exhibiting crucial differences to iron doped strontium titanate. After removing the DC bias, the recovery shows that a second previously unobserved and distinct conductivity maximum arises in the modulus data. This characteristic with two maxima related to different conductivities in the anode and cathode region is what can be expected from the published defect chemistry. It will be concluded that only the absence of an external electric field during recovery measurements permits the observation of local conductivity measurements without the presence of non-equilibrium conditions such as charge injection. Equilibrium conductivity as a function of oxygen vacancy concentration is described schematically. Oxygen vacancy migration during degradation and recovery is verified by TSDC analysis. We establish a self-consistent rationale of the transient changes in the modulus and TSDC for the iron doped barium titanate single crystal system including electron, hole and oxygen vacancy conductivity. During degradation, the sample fractured.

  10. Ge and B doped collapsed photonic crystal optical fibre, a potential TLD material for low dose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozaila, Z. Siti; Alyahyawi, Amjad; Khandaker, M. U.; Amin, Y. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Offering a number of advantageous features, tailor-made silica-based fibres are attracting attention as thermoluminesence (TL) dosimeters. We have performed a detailed study of the TL properties of Ge-doped and Ge-B-doped collapsed photonic crystal fibres (PCFc), most particularly with regard to their potential use for the environmental and X-ray diagnostic dose monitoring. Extrinsic doping and defects generated by strain at the fused inner walls of the collapsed fibres result in the PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge fibres producing markedly greater TL response than that of the phosphor-based dosimeter TLD-100, by some 9 and 7×, respectively. The linearity of TL yield has been investigated for X-ray doses from 0.5 mGy to 10 mGy. For a dose of 1 Gy, the energy response of the PCFs and TLD-100 has been studied using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 20 kVp through to 200 kVp and for the 1.25 MeV mean gamma-ray energy from 60Co. The effective atomic number , Zeffof PCFc-Ge and PCFc-Ge-B was estimated to be 12.5 and 14.4, respectively. Some 35 days post-irradiation, fading of the stored TL signal from PCFc-Ge-B and PCFc-Ge were found to be ∼15% and 20% respectively, with mean loss in TL emission of 0.4-0.5% per day. The present doped-silica collapsed PCFs provide greatly improved TLD performance compared to that of previous fibre designs and phosphor-based TLD-100.

  11. Growth and properties of oxygen- and ion-doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitzi, D. B.; Lombardo, L. W.; Kapitulnik, A.; Laderman, S. S.; Jacowitz, R. D.

    1990-04-01

    A directional solidification method for growing large single crystals in the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ system is reported. Ion doping, with replacement of La for Sr and Y for Ca, as well as oxygen doping in these crystals has been explored. Doped and undoped crystals have been characterized using microprobe analysis, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic and Hall measurements. Ion doping results in little change of the superconducting transition for substitution levels below 20-25%, while beyond this level the Meissner signal broadens and the low-temperature Meissner signal decreases. Microprobe analysis and x-ray diffraction performed on these more highly substituted single crystals provide evidence for inhomogeneity and phase segregation into regions of distinct composition. Annealing unsubstituted crystals in increasing partial pressures of oxygen reversibly depresses the superconducting transition temperature from 90 (as made) to 77 K (oxygen pressure annealed), while the carrier concentrations, as determined from Hall effect measurements, increase from n=3.1(3)×1021 cm-3 (0.34 holes per Cu site) to 4.6(3)×1021 cm-3 (0.50 holes per Cu site). No degradation of the Meissner transition or other indications of inhomogeneity or phase segregation with doping are noted, suggesting that oxygen-doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ is a suitable system for pursuing doping studies. The decrease in Tc with concentration for 0.34<=n<=0.50 indicates that a high-carrier-concentration regime exists in which Tc decreases with n and suggests that this decrease does not arise from material inhomogeneity or other materials problems. An examination of the variation of Tc with the density of states and lattice constants for all of the doped and undoped superconducting samples considered here indicates that changes in Tc with doping are primarily affected by changes in the density of states (or carrier concentration) rather than by structural variation induced by the doping.

  12. Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet from UHPM rocks (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    PubMed

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Dieing, Thomas; Golovin, Aleksandr V; Toporski, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Confocal Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-grade metamorphic calc-silicate rocks from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan) reveals that these fluid inclusions consist of almost pure water with different step-daughter phases (e.g., calcite, mica and rare quartz). These fluid inclusions are characterized by negative crystal shape of the host-garnet and they exclusively occur within the core of garnet porphyroblasts. These observations are consistent with their primary origin, most likely at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. The euhedral newly formed garnet, different in color and composition, was found to be associated with these fluid inclusions. It is proposed that newly formed garnet and water fluid inclusions appear by reaction between the hydrous fluid and the garnet-host. These fluid inclusions provide an unequivocal record of almost pure H(2)O fluids, indicating water-saturated conditions within subducted continental crust during prograde stage and/or ultrahigh-P metamorphism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study of Defect Behavior in Almandine Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Brearley, A. J.; Dachs, E.; Tipplet, G.; Rossman, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    Transport and diffusion in crystals are controlled by defects. However, a good understanding of the defect types in many silicates, including garnet, is not at hand. We undertook a study on synthetic almandine, ideal end-member Fe3Al2Si3O12, to better understand its precise chemical and physical properties and defect behavior. Crystals were synthesized at high pressures and temperatures under different fO2 conditions using various starting materials with H2O and without. The almandine obtained came in polycrystalline and single-crystal form. The synthetic reaction products and crystals were carefully characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analysis and with 57Fe Mössbauer, UV/VIS single-crystal absorption and IR single-crystal spectroscopy. Various possible intrinsic defects, such as the Frenkel, Schottky and site-disorder types, along with Fe3+, in both synthetic and natural almandine crystals, were analyzed based on model defects expressed in Kröger-Vink notation. Certain types of minor microscopic- to macroscopic-sized precipitation or exsolution phases, including some that are nanosized, that are observed in synthetic almandine (e.g., magnetite), as well as in more compositionally complex natural crystals (e.g., magnetite, rutile, ilmenite), may result from defect reactions. An explanation for their origin through minor amounts of defects in garnet has certain advantages over other models that have been put forth in the literature that assume strict garnet stoichiometry for their formation and/or open-system atomic transport over relatively long length scales. Physical properties, including magnetic, electrical conductivity and diffusion behavior, as well as the color, of almandine are also analyzed in terms of various possible model defects. It is difficult, if not impossible, to synthesize stoichiometric end-member almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12, in the laboratory, as small amounts of extrinsic OH- and/or Fe3+ defects, for example

  14. Giant increase of critical current density and vortex pinning in Mn doped K{sub x}Fe{sub 2−y}Se{sub 2} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingtao; Zhang, Jincang, E-mail: jczhang@staff.shu.edu.cn; Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444

    2014-11-10

    We report a comparative study of the critical current density (J{sub c}) and vortex pinning among pure and Mn doped K{sub x}Fe{sub 2−y}Se{sub 2} single crystals. It is found that the J{sub c} values can be greatly improved by Mn doping and post-quenching treatment when comparing to pristine pure sample. In contrast to pure samples, an anomalous second magnetization peak (SMP) effect is observed in both 1% and 2% Mn doped samples at T = 3 K for H∥ab but not for H∥c. Referring to Dew-Hughes and Kramer's model, we performed scaling analyses of the vortex pinning force density vs magnetic field inmore » 1% Mn doped and quenched pristine crystals. The results show that the normal point defects are the dominant pinning sources, which probably originate from the variations of intercalated K atoms. We propose that the large nonsuperconducting K-Mn-Se inclusions may contribute to the partial normal surface pinning and give rise to the anomalous SMP effect for H∥ab in Mn doped crystals. These results may facilitate further understanding of the superconductivity and vortex pinning in intercalated iron-selenides superconductors.« less

  15. Composition and crystal structure of N doped TiO2 film deposited at different O2 flow rate by direct current sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    N doped Ti02 films were deposited by direct current pulse magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The influence of 02 flow rate on the crystal structure of deposited films was studied by Stylus profilometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. The results indicate that the 02 flow rate strongly controls the growth behavior and crystal structure of N doped Ti02 film. It is found that N element mainly exists as substitutional doped state and the chemical stiochiometry is near to TiO1.68±0.06N0.11±0.01 for all film samples. N doped Ti02 film deposited with 2 sccm (standard-state cubic centimeter per minute) 02 flow rate is amorphous structure with high growth rate, which contains both anatase phase and rutile phase crystal nucleuses. In this case, the film displays the mix-phase of anatase and rutile after annealing treatment. While N doped Ti02 film deposited with 12 cm(3)/min 02 flow rate displays anatase phase before and after annealing treatment. And it should be noticed that no TiN phase appears for all samples before and after annealing treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multistage metasomatism in lithospheric mantle beneath V. Grib pipe (Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province, Russia): evidence from REE patterns in garnet xenocrysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchukina, Elena; Alexei, Agashev; Nikolai, Pokhilenko

    2015-04-01

    150 garnet xenocrysts from V. Grib kimberlite pipe were analyzed for major and trace elements compositions. 70 % of garnet belong to lherzolite field; 14 % - megacrysts and pyroxenites; 11 % - eclogites; 4 % - harzburgite; 1 % (1- wehrlite defined by Sobolev (1973). Harzburgite garnets: sinusoidal REE patterns Smn/Ern > 5 (5.2 - 19.8). low Y (0.5 - 3.9 ppm), Zr (1.1 - 44.6 ppm), Ti (54 - 1322 ppm). Wehrlite garnetd: close to sinusoidal REE patterns, Smn/Ern - 1.8. Megacrysts and pyroxenites garnets: normal REE patterns Smn/Ern < 1 (0.2 - 0.6), high TiO2 (0.9 - 1.3 wt %). Lherzolite garnets 70 % show four groups of REE patterns similar to peridotite xenoliths (Shchukina et al., 2013, 2015). 1-st contains MREE at С1 level, Sm/Ern - 0.03, La/Ybn - 0.002. increasing La -Yb range, low Y, Zr, Ti indicating residual nature. 2-nd: MREE at 2 - 13 chondrite units, Smn/Ern (0.16 - 0.98), La/Ybn - 0.001 - 0.040 and flat pattern from MREE to HREE. 3-rd -MREE at 5 - 14 chondrite units, Sm/Ern > 1 (1.05 - 4.81) La/Ybn - 0.010-0.051 increasing an hump at MREE decreasing to HREE. 4-th: sinusoidal REE, Sm/Ern 4.2 - 27.2. and harzburgite Y, Zr, Ti . Average Cr2O3 content increases from 2-nd to the 3-rd group (3.3 to 5.7 wt%) and 4th (7.9 wt %). Average Y/Zr decreases from 2-nd (0.6) to 3rd (0.2) and 4th group (0.08). REE and Y, Zr, Ti indicate the metasomatic origin of garnets of 2, 3. 4 groups. Modeling of TREfor equilibrated melts and fractional crystallization 2nd group close to Turyino field basalts and 3-rd - to Izmozero field picrites of Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province (ADP). Basing on geochemical data of garnet xenocrysts and garnets and clinopyroxenes in peridotites (Shchukina et al., 2013, 2015) we suppose at least 3 stage of high-temperature metasomatic enrichment. 1st stage - is enrichment of residual garnets (found only in peridotite garnets) in LREE by the influence of carbonatite melt close to the Mela field carbonatites of ADP. REE patterns in clinopyroxenes from

  17. Garnet cannibalism provides clues to extensive hydration of lower crustal fragments in a subduction channel (Sesia Zone, Northwestern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which granulites are transformed to eclogites is thought to impose critical limits on the subduction of continental lower crust. Although it is seldom possible to document such densification processes in detail, the transformation is believed to depend on fluid access and deformation. Remarkably complex garnet porphyroblasts are widespread in eclogite facies micaschists in central parts of the Sesia Zone (Western Italian Alps). They occur in polydeformed samples in assemblages involving phengite+quartz+rutile ±paragonite, Na-amphibole, Na-pyroxene, chloritoid. Detailed study of textural and compositional types reveals a rich inventory of growth and partial resorption zones in garnet. These reflect several stages of the polycyclic metamorphic evolution. A most critical observation is that the relict garnet cores indicate growth at 900 °C and 0.9 GPa. This part of the Eclogitic Micaschist Complex thus derived from granulite facies metapelites of Permian age. These dry rocks must have been extensively hydrated during Cretaceous subduction, and garnet records the conditions of these processes. Garnet from micaschist containing rutile, epidote, paragonite and phengite were investigated in detail. Two types of garnet crystals are found in many thin sections: mm-size porphyroclasts and smaller atoll garnets, some 100 µm in diameter. X-ray maps of the porphyroclasts show complex zoning in garnet: a late Paleozoic HT-LP porphyroclastic core is overgrown by several layers of HP-LT Alpine garnet, these show evidence of growth at the expense of earlier garnet generations. Textures indicate 1-2 stages of resorption, with garnet cores that were fractured and then sealed by garnet veins, rimmed by multiple Alpine overgrowth rims with lobate edges. Garnet rim 1 forms peninsula and embayment structures at the expense of the core. Rim 2 surrounds rim 1, both internally and externally, and seems to have grown mainly at the expense of the core. Rim 3 grew mainly at

  18. Nano- and micro-scale Bi-substituted iron garnet films for photonics and magneto-optic eddy current defectoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzhansky, V. N.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V.; Prokopov, A. R.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Shumilov, A. G.; Lugovskoy, N. V.; Semuk, E. Yu.; Kharchenko, M. F.; Lukienko, I. M.; Kharchenko, Yu. M.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis technology of nano-scale Bi-substituted iron garnets films with high magneto-optic activity for photonics and plasmonics applications were proposed. The micro-scale single-crystal garnet films with different types of magnetic anisotropy as a magneto-optic sensors were synthesized. It was shown that easy-axis anisotropy films demonstrated the best results for visualization of redistribution eddy current magnetic field near defects.

  19. Thermal Characterization, Crystal Field Analysis and In-Band Pumped Laser Performance of Er Doped NaY(WO4)2 Disordered Laser Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, María Dolores; Cascales, Concepción; Han, Xiumei; Zaldo, Carlos; Jezowski, Andrzej; Stachowiak, Piotr; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Fromzel, Viktor; Dubinskii, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Undoped and Er-doped NaY(WO4)2 disordered single crystals have been grown by the Czochralski technique. The specific heat and thermal conductivity (κ) of these crystals have been characterized from T = 4 K to 700 K and 360 K, respectively. It is shown that κ exhibits anisotropy characteristic of single crystals as well as a κ(T) behavior observed in glasses, with a saturation mean free phonon path of 3.6 Å and 4.5 Å for propagation along a and c crystal axes, respectively. The relative energy positions and irreducible representations of Stark Er3+ levels up to 4G7/2 multiplet have been determined by the combination of experimental low (<10 K) temperature optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements and simulations with a single-electron Hamiltonian including both free-ion and crystal field interactions. Absorption, emission and gain cross sections of the 4I13/2↔4I15/2 laser related transition have been determined at 77 K. The 4I13/2 Er3+ lifetime (τ) was measured in the temperature range of 77–300 K, and was found to change from τ (77K) ≈ 4.5 ms to τ (300K) ≈ 3.5 ms. Laser operation is demonstrated at 77 K and 300 K by resonantly pumping the 4I13/2 multiplet at λ≈1500 nm with a broadband (FWHM≈20 nm) diode laser source perfectly matching the 77 K crystal 4I15/2 → 4I13/2 absorption profile. At 77 K as much as 5.5 W of output power were obtained in π-polarized configuration with a slope efficiency versus absorbed pump power of 57%, the free running laser wavelength in air was λ≈1611 nm with the laser output bandwidth of 3.5 nm. The laser emission was tunable over 30.7 nm, from 1590.7 nm to 1621.4 nm, for the same π-polarized configuration. PMID:23555664

  20. Accurate X-ray diffraction studies of KTiOPO{sub 4} single crystals doped with niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Novikova, N. E., E-mail: natnov@ns.crys.ras.ru; Sorokina, N. I.; Alekseeva, O. A.

    2017-01-15

    Single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate doped with 4% of niobium (КТР:4%Nb) and 6% of niobium (KTP:6%Nb) are studied by accurate X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The niobium atoms are localized near the Ti1 and Ti2 atomic positions, and their positions are for the first time refined independent of the titanium atomic positions. Maps of difference electron density in the vicinity of K1 and K2 atomic positions are analyzed. It is found that in the structure of crystal КТР:4%Nb, additional positions of K atoms are located farther from the main positions and from each other than in КТР and KTP:6%Nbmore » crystals. The nonuniform distribution of electron density found in the channels of the КТР:4%Nb structure is responsible for ~20% increase in the signal of second harmonic generation.« less

  1. Growth of 2 Inch Eu-doped SrI2 single crystals for scintillator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Hayasaka, Shoki; Chani, Valery I.; Ito, Tomoki; Kamada, Kei; Ohashi, Yuji; Kochurikhin, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    A vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth process was established using modified micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) crystal growth system with a removable chamber that was developed for the growth of deliquescent halide single crystals because conventional μ-PD method does not allow growth of large bulk single crystals. Eu:SrI2 crystals were grown from the melt of (Sr0.98Eu0.02)I2 composition using carbon crucibles. Undoped μ-PD SrI2 crystals were used as seeds that were affixed to the bottom of the crucible. All the preparations preceding the growths and the hot zone assembling were performed in a glove box with Ar gas. Then the removable chamber was taken out of the glove box, attached to the μ-PD system, connected with a Turbo Molecular pump, and evacuated down to 10-4 Pa at 300 °C. After the baking procedure, high purity Ar gas (6N) was injected into the chamber. The crucible was heated by a high frequency induction coil up to the melting point of Eu:SrI2. After melting the starting materials, the crucible was displaced in downward direction for the crystal growth and then cooled down to room temperature. Thus, 2 in. and crack-free Eu:SrI2 bulk crystals were produced. The crystals had high transparency and did not contain any visible inclusions. The crystals were cut and polished in the glove box and then sealed in an aluminum container with an optical window for characterization. The details of the crystal growth are discussed.

  2. Testing Mechanisms and Scales of Equilibrium Using Textural and Compositional Analysis of Porphyroblasts in Rocks with Heterogeneous Garnet Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthven, R. C.; Ketcham, R. A.; Kelly, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional textural analysis of garnet porphyroblasts and electron microprobe analyses can, in concert, be used to pose novel tests that challenge and ultimately increase our understanding of metamorphic crystallization mechanisms. Statistical analysis of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) data of garnet porphyroblasts tells us the degree of ordering or randomness of garnets, which can be used to distinguish the rate-limiting factors behind their nucleation and growth. Electron microprobe data for cores, rims, and core-to-rim traverses are used as proxies to ascertain porphyroblast nucleation and growth rates, and the evolution of sample composition during crystallization. MnO concentrations in garnet cores serve as a proxy for the relative timing of nucleation, and rim concentrations test the hypothesis that MnO is in equilibrium sample-wide during the final stages of crystallization, and that concentrations have not been greatly altered by intracrystalline diffusion. Crystal size distributions combined with compositional data can be used to quantify the evolution of nucleation rates and sample composition during crystallization. This study focuses on quartzite schists from the Picuris Mountains with heterogeneous garnet distributions consisting of dense and sparse layers. 3D data shows that the sparse layers have smaller, less euhedral garnets, and petrographic observations show that sparse layers have more quartz and less mica than dense layers. Previous studies on rocks with homogeneously distributed garnet have shown that crystallization rates are diffusion-controlled, meaning that they are limited by diffusion of nutrients to growth and nucleation sites. This research extends this analysis to heterogeneous rocks to determine nucleation and growth rates, and test the assumption of rock-wide equilibrium for some major elements, among a set of compositionally distinct domains evolving in mm- to cm-scale proximity under identical P-T conditions.

  3. Minor elements, HREE and d18O distribution in UHP garnets from the Dora-Maira massif (western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, F.; Chazot, G.; Vielzeuf, D.; Chopin, C.

    2003-04-01

    The spatial distribution of minor elements, HREE and δ18O in garnet can be used as a probe of the availability and mobility of those elements and isotopes at the time of crystal growth, provided that the initial record was not significantly modified by intracrystalline diffusion and that growth took place under nearly constant pressure and temperature conditions. Garnets from three different Dora-Maira rock-types have been studied, (1) nearly pure pyrope (GT1) from the magnesian coesite-bearing quartzites, (2) almandine/pyrope dominant garnets (GT2) from jadeite-quartzite veins which crosscut the Mg-quartzite body, (3) almandine/grossular dominant garnets (GT3) from the country-rock gneiss, sampled in the vicinity of the quartzites. In GT1, minor elements are mainly Fe, Na and P. Na and P are incorporated according to a Na^+ + P5+ = Me2+ + Si4+ substitution with P_2O_5 contents up to 2000 to 2500 ppm. HREE concentrations obtained by LA-ICP-MS, vary by 2 orders of magnitude from core to rim. The δ18O ratio (Cameca 1270, Nancy), around 5 ppm (SMOW), is constant within error throughout the analysed crystals. In GT2, the situation is different since HREE concentrations appear remarkably constant within a given crystal and from one crystal to the other. In contrast with GT1, Na in GT2 is partly charge-balanced by yttrium incorporation. The δ18O ratio in GT2 of around 7 ppm is close to that encountered in GT3 (gneiss) between 7 and 8 ppm. In GT3, phosphorus content is close to detection limit (P_2O_5 below 300 ppm). HREE concentrations are highly variable from one crystal to the other and unfortunately, the size of garnet crystals does not allow profiling. Although δ18O ratio in garnet is imposed by the bulk-rock isotopic composition, HREE distribution is dominated by element availability through the fluid composition and/or absence/presence of accessory phases. The decrease in HREE and P concentration from GT1 cores to rims suggest that these elements are

  4. Crystal Growth and Optical Properties of Co2+ Doped SrLaGa3O7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Electron Spin Resonance, absorption spectra, gallate crystals, thermal annealing. 1. INTRODUCTION SrLaGa307 (SLGO) belongs to the family of binary... gallates of alkaline and rare earth metals. Crystal of these compounds have the tetragonal gehlenite (Ca 2AS12SiO 7) structure (space group: P-421ml, D 3 2d

  5. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu 3Al 5O 12 single crystals with different Nd concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Makoto; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Pejchal, Jan; Furuya, Yuki; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Nd 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 3% doped Lu 3Al 5O 12 (Nd:LuAG) single crystals were grown in the nitrogen atmosphere by the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method. The grown crystals had a single-phase confirmed by powder XRD analysis. In absorption spectra, some weak absorption lines due to Nd 3+ 4f-4f transitions were observed and their intensity increased with the increase of Nd concentration. When excited by 241Am α-ray, a broad emission peak due to defects in the host lattice at 320 nm and some sharp lines due to Nd 3+ 4f-4f transitions at wavelength longer than 400 nm were observed. The decay time profiles of Nd:LuAG under γ-ray excitation were well approximated by two exponential function of 340-760 ns and 3-5 μs for each sample. By pulse height measurement using 137Cs, Nd 0.5%:LuAG showed the highest light yield of 7600 ± 760 photons/MeV.

  6. Doping effects of Co and Cu on superconductivity and magnetism in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z T; Yang, Z R; Li, L; Ling, L S; Zhang, C J; Pi, L; Zhang, Y H

    2013-01-23

    We report on the investigation of Co and Cu substitution effects on superconductivity and magnetism in Fe(1+y)Te(0.6)Se(0.4) single crystals. The parent Fe(1.01)Te(0.59)Se(0.41) shows a nodeless bulk superconductivity as revealed in heat capacity measurement, which is gradually suppressed by either Co or Cu doping. It is found that the Co or Cu doping mainly serves as scatterers rather than charge carrier doping, which is in agreement with the DFT calculation (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 157004) reported by Wadati et al. In comparison with Cu doping, Co doping shows a stronger influence on magnetism while a less evident suppression effect on superconductivity. Upon substitution of Co for Fe, a Schottky heat capacity anomaly develops gradually at low temperatures, implying the existence of a paramagnetic moment in the Co-doped samples. In contrast, Cu doping may mainly serve as non-magnetic scatterers, where no Schottky anomaly is observed.

  7. Impact of carrier doping on electrical properties of laser-induced liquid-phase-crystallized silicon thin films for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umishio, Hiroshi; Matsui, Takuya; Sai, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takeaki; Matsubara, Koji

    2018-02-01

    Large-grain-size (>1 mm) liquid-phase-crystallized silicon (LPC-Si) films with a wide range of carrier doping levels (1016-1018 cm-3 either of the n- or p-type) were prepared by irradiating amorphous silicon with a line-shaped 804 nm laser, and characterized for solar cell applications. The LPC-Si films show high electron and hole mobilities with maximum values of ˜800 and ˜200 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, at a doping level of ˜(2-4) × 1016 cm-3, while their carrier lifetime monotonically increases with decreasing carrier doping level. A grain-boundary charge-trapping model provides good fits to the measured mobility-carrier density relations, indicating that the potential barrier at the grain boundaries limits the carrier transport in the lowly doped films. The open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of test LPC-Si solar cells depend strongly on the doping level, peaking at (2-5) × 1016 cm-3. These results indicate that the solar cell performance is governed by the minority carrier diffusion length for the highly doped films, while it is limited by majority carrier transport as well as by device design for the lowly doped films.

  8. Shock wave compression of iron-silicate garnet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, E. K.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Shock wave compression data to over 650 kb are presented for single-crystal almandine garnet. The data indicate the initiation of a phase transformation near 200 kb. Total transition to the high-pressure polymorph occurs at approximately 300 kb. The elastic properties of the high-pressure phase are calculated from the metastable Hugoniot data by using the linear shock velocity-particle velocity relationships. The overall results obtained strongly suggest that upper mantle minerals are likely to occur in the ilmenite structure over a substantial part of the lower mantle.

  9. Density of photon states in dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal cells in the presence of losses and gain.

    PubMed

    Mavrogordatos, Th K; Morris, S M; Castles, F; Hands, P J W; Ford, A D; Coles, H J; Wilkinson, T D

    2012-07-01

    We calculate the density of photon states (DOS) of the normal modes in dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells in the presence of various loss mechanisms. Losses and gain are incorporated into the transmission characteristics through the introduction of a small imaginary part in the dielectric constant perpendicular and along the director, for which we assume no frequency dispersion. Theoretical results are presented on the DOS in the region of the photonic band gap for a range of values of the loss coefficient and different values of the optical anisotropy. The obtained values of the DOS at the photonic band gap edges predict a reversal of the dominant modes in the structure. Our results are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained excitation thresholds in chiral nematic LC lasers. The behavior of the DOS is also discussed for amplifying LC cells providing additional insight to the lasing mechanism of these structures.

  10. A 15 W 1152 nm Raman fiber laser with 6 nm spectral width for Ho3+-doped crystal's pumping source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuyan; Jiang, Huawei

    2016-12-01

    A 11.5 W 1152 nm Raman fiber laser with 6 nm spectral width was demonstrated based on the resonator constructed with one fiber loop mirror and one fiber Bragg grating. By mans of experimental measurement and theoretical calculation, the reflectivity of the fiber loop mirror was confirmed as 0.93. The Yb3+-doped 1090 nm fiber length was about 5 m. When the maximum pumping power of 976 nm laser was 54.8 W, 32.2 W 1090 nm laser was obtained and the optical to optical conversion efficiency from 1090 nm to 1152 nm light was 48%. Finally, the 1152 nm Raman fiber laser was used for pumping Ho3+:LLF crystal, and the 1194 nm fluorescence emission peak was detected for the first time.

  11. Sustained phase separation and spin glass in Co-doped K x Fe 2 - y Se 2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Hyejin; Wang, Kefeng; Opacic, M.; ...

    2015-11-19

    We describe Co substitution effects in K xFe 2-y-zCo zSe 2 (0.06 ≤ z ≤ 1.73) single crystal alloys. By 3.5% of Co doping superconductivity is suppressed whereas phase separation of semiconducting K 2Fe 4Se 5 and superconducting/metallic K xFe 2Se 2 is still present. We show that the arrangement and distribution of superconducting phase (stripe phase) is connected with the arrangement of K, Fe and Co atoms. Semiconducting spin glass is found in proximity to superconducting state, persisting for large Co concentrations. At high Co concentrations ferromagnetic metallic state emerges above the spin glass. This is coincident withmore » changes of the unit cell, arrangement and connectivity of stripe conducting phase.« less

  12. Intrinsic Enhancement of Dielectric Permittivity in (Nb + In) co-doped TiO2 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Kawarasaki, Masaru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki

    2017-07-13

    The development of dielectric materials with colossal permittivity is important for the miniaturization of electronic devices and fabrication of high-density energy-storage devices. The electron-pinned defect-dipoles has been recently proposed to boost the permittivity of (Nb + In) co-doped TiO 2 to 10 5 . However, the follow-up studies suggest an extrinsic contribution to the colossal permittivity from thermally excited carriers. Herein, we demonstrate a marked enhancement in the permittivity of (Nb + In) co-doped TiO 2 single crystals at sufficiently low temperatures such that the thermally excited carriers are frozen out and exert no influence on the dielectric response. The results indicate that the permittivity attains quadruple of that for pure TiO 2 . This finding suggests that the electron-pinned defect-dipoles add an extra dielectric response to that of the TiO 2 host matrix. The results offer a novel approach for the development of functional dielectric materials with large permittivity by engineering complex defects into bulk materials.

  13. Color centers inside crystallic active media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Kaczmarek, Slawomir M.; Kopczynski, Krzysztof

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents research results on color centers induced by radiation of a xenon lamp in non doped crystals of yttrium aluminum garnet Y3Al5O12 (YAG), strontium- lanthanum aluminate SrLaAlO4 (SLAO), strontium-lanthanum gallate SrLaGa3O7 (SLGO), and in doped crystals: Nd:YAG, Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG (CTH:YAG), Nd:SLAO and Nd:SLGO. In all these investigated crystals under the influence of intensive exposure by xenon lamp radiation additional bands connected with centers O-2, O2 and centers F came up near the short-wave absorption edge. In the case of doped crystals the observed processes are much more complicated. In crystals CTH:YAG the greatest perturbations in relation to basic state are present at the short-wave absorption edge, as well as on areas of absorption bands of ions Cr+3 and Tm+3 conditioning the sensibilization process of ions Ho+3. These spectral structure disturbances essentially influence the efficiency of this process, as proven during generating investigations. In the case of SrLaGa3O7:Nd+3 under the influence of exposure substantial changes of absorption spectrum occurred on spectral areas 346 divided by 368 nm, 429 divided by 441 nm and 450 divided by 490 nm. Those changes have an irreversible character. They disappear not before the plate is being held at oxidizing atmosphere. Investigations of laser rods Nd:SLGO, CTH:YAG, and Nd:YAG in a free generation demonstrated that the color centers of these crystals are induced by pomp radiation from the spectral area up to 450 nm.

  14. Colour centres and nanostructures on the surface of laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, N A

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents a study of structural and radiationinduced colour centres in the bulk and ordered nanostructures on the surface of doped laser crystals: sapphire, yttrium aluminium garnet and strontium titanate. The influence of thermal annealing, ionising radiation and plasma exposure on the spectroscopic properties of high-purity materials and crystals containing Ti, V and Cr impurities is examined. Colour centres resulting from changes in the electronic state of impurities and plasma-induced surface modification of the crystals are studied by optical, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray line valence shift measurements are used to assessmore » changes in the electronic state of some impurity and host ions in the bulk and on the surface of oxide crystals. Conditions are examined for the formation of one- and two-level arrays of ordered crystallites 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -7} m in size on the surface of crystals doped with irongroup and lanthanoid ions. The spectroscopic properties of the crystals are analysed using ab initio self-consistent field calculations for Me{sup n+} : [O{sup 2-}]{sub k} clusters. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)« less

  15. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping: insights into the crystallisation history of a metamorphic garnet population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Freya; Gaidies, Fred

    2017-04-01

    In comparison to our understanding of major element zoning, relatively little is known about the incorporation of trace elements into metamorphic garnet. Given their extremely slow diffusivities and sensitivity to changing mineral assemblages, the analysis of the distribution of trace elements in garnet has the potential to yield a wealth of information pertaining to interfacial attachment mechanisms during garnet crystallisation, the mobility of trace elements in both garnet and the matrix, and trace element geochronology. Due to advances in the spatial resolution and analytical precision of modern microbeam techniques, small-scale trace element variations can increasingly be documented and used to inform models of metamorphic crystallisation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in particular, can be used to rapidly quantify a wide range of elemental masses as a series of laser rasters, producing large volumes of spatially constrained trace element data. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS maps of trace element concentrations from numerous centrally-sectioned garnets representative of the crystal size-distribution of a single sample's population. The study sample originates from the garnet-grade Barrovian zone of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence in Sikkim, northeast India, and has been shown to have crystallised garnet within a single assemblage between 515 ˚C and 565˚C, with no evidence for accessory phase reaction over the duration of garnet growth. Previous models have indicated that the duration of garnet crystallisation was extremely rapid (<1 Myr), with negligible diffusional homogenisation of major divalent cations. Consequently, the trace element record likely documents the primary zonation generated during garnet growth. In spite of straightforward (i.e. concentrically-zoned) major element garnet zonation, trace elements maps are characterised by significant complexity and variability. Y and the heavy rare earth elements

  16. Raman spectroscopy of garnet-group minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mingsheng, P.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Dien, L.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the natural end members of the garnet-group minerals, which include pyrope, almandine and spessarite of Fe-Al garnet series and grossularite, andradite and uvarovite of Ca-Fe garnet series, have been studied. Measured Raman spectra of these minerals are reasonably and qualitatively assigned to the internal modes, translational and rotatory modes of SiO4 tetrahedra, as well as the translational motion of bivalent cations in the X site. The stretch and rotatory Alg modes for the Fe-Al garnet series show obvious Raman shifts as compared with those for the Ca-Fe garnet series, owing to the cations residing in the X site connected with SiO4 tetrahedra by sharing the two edges. The Raman shifts of all members within either of the series are attributed mainly to the properties of cations in the X site for the Fe-Al garnet series and in the Y site for the Ca-Fe garnet series. ?? 1994 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jiliang; Yang, Xin; Yang, Mingming; Ma, Decai; Huang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Yunzhong; Wang, Biao

    2018-02-01

    Large-size neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The extinction ratio and wavefront distortion of the crystal were tested to determine the optical homogeneity. Moreover, under different growth conditions, the macro defects of inclusion, striations, and cracking in the as-grown Nd:YAG crystals were analyzed. Specifically, the inclusion defects were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The stresses of growth striations and cracking were studied via a parallel plane polariscope. These results demonstrate that improper growth parameters and temperature fields can enhance defects significantly. Thus, by adjusting the growth parameters and optimizing the thermal environment, high-optical-quality Nd:YAG crystals with a diameter of 80 mm and a total length of 400 mm have been obtained successfully.

  18. Growth of high quality yttrium iron garnet films using standard pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Aliaa M.; Blythe, Harry J.; Heald, Steve M.; Fox, A. Mark; Gehring, Gillian A.

    2018-05-01

    Thin films with properties comparable to bulk single crystals were grown by pulsed laser deposition using a substrate temperature of only 500 °C. This was achieved by a careful choice of both the oxygen pressure in the deposition chamber and the temperature of the air anneal. The best films were grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates but we also report data for films grown on the diamagnetic substrate yttrium aluminium garnet. The films were analysed using X-ray diffraction, near edge X-ray absorption and magnetometry. Our best films had a magnetisation of 143 emu/cm3 and a coercive field of ∼1 Oe.

  19. Doping evolution of the second magnetization peak and magnetic relaxation in (B a1 -xKx ) F e2A s2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Kewei; Straszheim, Warren E.; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a thorough study of doping dependent magnetic hysteresis and relaxation characteristics in single crystals of (B a1 -xKx ) F e2A s2 (0.18 ≤x ≤1 ). The critical current density Jc reaches maximum in the underdoped sample x =0.26 and then decreases in the optimally doped and overdoped samples. Meanwhile, the magnetic relaxation rate S rapidly increases and the flux creep activation barrier U0 sharply decreases in the overdoped sample x =0.70 . These results suggest that vortex pinning is very strong in the underdoped regime, but it is greatly reduced in the optimally doped and overdoped regime. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements reveal the existence of dislocations and inclusions in all three studied samples x =0.38 , 0.46, and 0.65. An investigation of the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) suggests that spatial variations in Tc become small in the samples x =0.43 and 0.46, slightly above the optimal doping levels. Our results support that two types of pinning sources dominate the (B a1 -xKx ) F e2A s2 crystals: (i) strong δl pinning, which results from the fluctuations in the mean free path l and δ Tc pinning from the spatial variations in Tc in the underdoped regime, and (ii) weak δ Tc pinning in the optimally doped and overdoped regime.

  20. Doping evolution of the second magnetization peak and magnetic relaxation in ( B a 1 - x K x ) F e 2 A s 2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Kewei; ...

    2018-02-16

    Here, we present a thorough study of doping dependent magnetic hysteresis and relaxation characteristics in single crystals of (Ba 1-xK x) Fe 2As 2 (0.18 ≤ x ≤ 1). The critical current density J c reaches maximum in the underdoped sample x = 0.26 and then decreases in the optimally doped and overdoped samples. Meanwhile, the magnetic relaxation rate S rapidly increases and the flux creep activation barrier U 0 sharply decreases in the overdoped sample x = 0.70. These results suggest that vortex pinning is very strong in the underdoped regime, but it is greatly reduced in the optimallymore » doped and overdoped regime. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements reveal the existence of dislocations and inclusions in all three studied samples x = 0.38, 0.46, and 0.65. An investigation of the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) suggests that spatial variations in T c become small in the samples x = 0.43 and 0.46, slightly above the optimal doping levels. Our results support that two types of pinning sources dominate the (Ba 1-xK x) Fe 2As 2 crystals: (i) strong δl pinning, which results from the fluctuations in the mean free path l and δT c pinning from the spatial variations in T c in the underdoped regime, and (ii) weak δT c pinning in the optimally doped and overdoped regime.« less

  1. Doping evolution of the second magnetization peak and magnetic relaxation in ( B a 1 - x K x ) F e 2 A s 2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Kewei

    Here, we present a thorough study of doping dependent magnetic hysteresis and relaxation characteristics in single crystals of (Ba 1-xK x) Fe 2As 2 (0.18 ≤ x ≤ 1). The critical current density J c reaches maximum in the underdoped sample x = 0.26 and then decreases in the optimally doped and overdoped samples. Meanwhile, the magnetic relaxation rate S rapidly increases and the flux creep activation barrier U 0 sharply decreases in the overdoped sample x = 0.70. These results suggest that vortex pinning is very strong in the underdoped regime, but it is greatly reduced in the optimallymore » doped and overdoped regime. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements reveal the existence of dislocations and inclusions in all three studied samples x = 0.38, 0.46, and 0.65. An investigation of the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) suggests that spatial variations in T c become small in the samples x = 0.43 and 0.46, slightly above the optimal doping levels. Our results support that two types of pinning sources dominate the (Ba 1-xK x) Fe 2As 2 crystals: (i) strong δl pinning, which results from the fluctuations in the mean free path l and δT c pinning from the spatial variations in T c in the underdoped regime, and (ii) weak δT c pinning in the optimally doped and overdoped regime.« less

  2. Effects of Ca/Sr ratio control on optical and scintillation properties of Eu-doped Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Tanaka, Chieko; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-05-01

    Eu-doped Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 [Eu:LiCSAF] single crystals with various Ca/Sr ratios were grown by the micro-pulling-down method, and their optical and scintillation properties were investigated to reveal the effects of Ca/Sr ratio on optical and scintillation properties of the Eu:LiCSAF single crystals. The Li(Ca1-x-ySrxEuy)AlF6 single crystals could be grown in 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1, 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 and y = 0.02 while the Eu:LiCSAF crystals with x = 0.2, 0.25 and 0.4 included two colquiriite-type phases with different lattice parameters. The Li(Ca1-x-ySrxEuy)AlF6 single crystal with x = 0.25 and y = 0.02 showed the highest light yield under neutron irradiation.

  3. Effect of Sequential Exposition to Short- and Long-Wavelength Radiation on the Optical Absorption in the Bismuth Titanium Oxide Crystal Doped by Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyu, V. G.; Kisteneva, M. G.; Shandarov, S. M.; Khudyakova, E. S.; Smirnov, S. V.; Kargin, Yu. F.

    Changes in the spectral dependences of the optical absorption induced in the bismuth titanium oxide crystal doped by aluminum as a result of sequential exposition to cw laser radiation first with the wavelength λi = 532 nm and then with the longer wavelength λn = 633, 655, 663, 780, 871, or 1064 nm are investigated. Our experiments show that after the short-wavelength exposition to radiation with λi = 532 nm, the optical absorption in the crystal increases, and in the range 470-1000 nm, yields the spectrum whose form is independent of the initial crystal state. The subsequent exposition to longer-wavelength radiation leads to enhanced transmittance of the crystal in the examined spectral range. A maximum decrease of the optical absorption in the crystal is observed upon exposure to radiation with the wavelength λn = 663 nm.

  4. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy of BaY2F8 single crystals doped with trivalent Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, A.; Capelletti, R.; Cornelli, M.; Ponzoni, A.; Ruffini, A.; Sperzagni, A.; Tonelli, M.

    High resolution (0.04 cm-1) FTIR spectroscopy is applied to monoclinic Er3+-doped BaY2F8 single crystals in the wavenumber range 500-24000 cm-1 and temperature range 9-300 K to study the crystal field splitting of the fundamental 4I15/2 and of the excited 4I13/2, 4I11/2, 4I9/2, 4F9/2, 4S3/2, 2H11/2, 4F7/2, 4F5/2, and 4F3/2 states and the effects caused by increasing Er3+-concentrations (2-20% m.f.), such as inhomogeneous line-broadening and new lines due to Er3+-Er3+ interaction. In the framework of the electron-phonon interaction, the thermally induced line-broadening and -shift are detected and accounted for by the two-phonon Raman model and the vibronic replicas of a few lines are investigated.

  5. Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn 5

    DOE PAGES

    Rosa, Priscila Ferrari Silveira; Oostra, Aaron; Thompson, Joe David; ...

    2016-07-05

    In this research, we investigate single crystals of Ce 1₋xNd xRhIn 5 by means of x-ray-diffraction, microprobe, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity measurements. Our data reveal that the antiferromagnetic transition of CeRhIn 5, at Tmore » $$Ce\\atop{N}$$=3.8 K, is linearly suppressed with x Nd. We associate this effect with the presence of a “Kondo hole” created by Nd substitution. The extrapolation of T$$Ce\\atop{N}$$ to zero temperature, however, occurs at x c~0.3, which is below the two-dimensional percolation limit found in Ce 1₋xLa xRhIn 5. This result strongly suggests the presence of a crystal-field induced magnetic frustration. Near x Nd~0.2, the Ising antiferromagnetic order from Nd 3+ ions is stabilized and T$$Nd\\atop{N}$$ increases up to 11 K in NdRhIn 5. Finally, our results shed light on the effects of magnetic doping in heavy-fermion antiferromagnets and stimulate the study of such systems under applied pressure.« less

  6. Dispersive heterodyne probing method for laser frequency stabilization based on spectral hole burning in rare-earth doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Gobron, O; Jung, K; Galland, N; Predehl, K; Le Targat, R; Ferrier, A; Goldner, P; Seidelin, S; Le Coq, Y

    2017-06-26

    Frequency-locking a laser to a spectral hole in rare-earth doped crystals at cryogenic temperature has been shown to be a promising alternative to the use of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities when seeking a very high short term stability laser (M. J. Thorpe et al., Nature Photonics 5, 688 (2011)). We demonstrate here a novel technique for achieving such stabilization, based on generating a heterodyne beat-note between a master laser and a slave laser whose dephasing caused by propagation near a spectral hole generate the error signal of the frequency lock. The master laser is far detuned from the center of the inhomogeneous absorption profile, and therefore exhibits only limited interaction with the crystal despite a potentially high optical power. The demodulation and frequency corrections are generated digitally with a hardware and software implementation based on a field-programmable gate array and a Software Defined Radio platform, making it straightforward to address several frequency channels (spectral holes) in parallel.

  7. EPR and optical investigation of Mn2+ doped L-histidine-4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakaran, R.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    Single crystals of L-histidine-4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol[LHFNP] complex doped with Mn2+ were grown by the slow evaporation method at room temperature. The EPR spectrum reveals the entry of one Mn2+ ion in the lattice. The angular variation plot was drawn between the angles and the magnetic field position. The spin Hamiltonian parameters were obtained by EPR-NMR program. The D and E values show the rhombic field around the ion and is an interstitial one. The g value obtained here suggests that the Mn2+ ion experiences a strong field and there is a transfer of electron from the metal ion to the ligand atom. The optical absorption study shows various bands and are assigned to the transition from the ground state 6A1g(S). The Racah and crystal field parameters have also been evaluated and fitted to the experimental values. The Racah parameter shows the covalent bonding between the metal ion to the ligand.

  8. Fast-switching optically isotropic liquid crystal nano-droplets with improved depolarization and Kerr effect by doping high k nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeonggon; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shim, Gyu-Yeop; Park, Ji-Sub; Joo, Kyung-Il; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Joun-Ho; Baek, Ji-Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo; Choi, Yoonseuk; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2018-01-10

    We proposed and analyzed an optically isotropic nano-droplet liquid crystal (LC) doped with high k nanoparticles (NPs), exhibiting enhanced Kerr effects, which could be operated with reduced driving voltages. For enhancing the contrast ratio together with the light efficiencies, the LC droplet sizes were adjusted to be shorter than the wavelength of visible light to reduce depolarization effects by optical scattering of the LC droplets. Based on the optical analysis of the depolarization effects, the influence of the relationship between the LC droplet size and the NP doping ratio on the Kerr effect change was investigated.

  9. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of Eu-doped (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiwu; Zhao, Xiangyong; Deng, Hao; Chen, Chao; Lin, Di; Li, Xiaobing; Yan, Jun; Luo, Haosu

    2014-02-01

    Eu3+-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (Eu:NBT) single crystals were grown by a top-seeded solution growth method. Photoluminescence emission and excitation spectra of Eu:NBT were investigated. The two transitions in 7F0 → 5D0 excitation spectra reveal that Eu3+ ions were incorporated into two adjacent crystallographic sites in NBT, i.e., Bi3+ and Na+ sites. The former has a symmetrical surrounding, while the later has a disordered environment, which was confirmed by decay curve measurements. The dielectric dispersion behavior was depressed and the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were improved after Eu doping.

  10. The CaGeO3 Ca3Fe2Ge3O12 garnet join: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iezzi, Gianluca; Boffa-Ballaran, Tiziana; McCammon, Catherine; Langenhorst, Falko

    2005-06-01

    Germanate garnets are often used as isostructural analogues of silicate garnets to provide insight into the crystal chemistry and symmetry of the less accessible natural garnet solid solutions. We synthesised two series of germanate garnets at 3 GPa along the joinVIIICa3VI(CaGe)IVGe3O12 VIIICa3VIFe2IVGe3O12 at 900 °C and 1,100 °C. Samples with compositions close to the CaGeO3 end-member consist of tetragonal garnet with a small amount of triclinic CaGe2O5. Samples with nominal compositions between XFe=0.4 and 1.0 consist of a mixture of tetragonal and cubic garnets; whereas, single-phase cubic garnets were obtained for compositions with XFe>1.2 (XFe gives the iron content expressed in atoms per formula unit, and varies between 0 and 2 along the join). Run products which were primarily single-phase garnet were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Spectra from samples synthesised at 1,100°C consist of one well-resolved doublet that can be assigned to Fe3+ in the octahedral site of the garnet structure. A second doublet, present primarily in samples synthesised at 900°C, can be assigned to Fe2+ at the octahedral sites of the garnet structure. The relative abundance of Fe2+ decreases with increasing iron content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm this tendency and show that the garnets are essentially defect-free. The unit-cell parameters of tetragonal VIIICa3VI(CaGe)IVGe3O3 garnet decrease with increasing synthesis temperature, and the deviation from cubic symmetry becomes smaller. Cubic garnets show a linear decrease of unit-cell parameter with increasing iron content. The results are discussed in the context of iron incorporation into VIIIMg3VI(MgSi)IVSi3O3 majorite.

  11. Trace element zoning as a record of chemical disequilibrium during garnet growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Carlson, William D.

    1999-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in pelitic garnets from the Picuris Range of New Mexico display precipitous changes coincident with abrupt variations in Ca concentration. These patterns probably arise from the transitory participation of different trace element enriched phases in the garnet forming reaction. Changes in the reactant and product assemblages occur at different times during the reaction history for crystals of different size, so they cannot be the result of any event affecting the entire rock, such as a change in pressure, temperature, or fluid composition. Instead, they reflect kinetic factors that cause Ca, Y, Yb, P, Ti, Sc, Zr, Hf, Sr, Na, and Li to fail to achieve chemical equilibrium during garnet growth. Caution is needed to avoid misinterpreting excursions in the concentration of these elements as event markers recording simultaneous rockwide changes in intensive parameters, when in fact they may record transient disequilibrium states that are local in scope, and not contemporaneous.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Rapid Crystallization of Bismuth-Doped Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Kenneth A.; Gilmer, George H.; Temkin, Dmitri E.

    1995-01-01

    In this Letter we report Ising model simulations of the growth of alloys which predict quite different behavior near and far from equilibrium. Our simulations reproduce the phenomenon which has been termed 'solute trapping,' where concentrations of solute, which are far in excess of the equilibrium concentrations, are observed in the crystal after rapid crystallization. This phenomenon plays an important role in many processes which involve first order phase changes which take place under conditions far from equilibrium. The underlying physical basis for it has not been understood, but these Monte Carlo simulations provide a powerful means for investigating it.

  13. Structure and crystallization of SiO2 and B2O3 doped lithium disilicate glasses from theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Erlebach, Andreas; Thieme, Katrin; Sierka, Marek; Rüssel, Christian

    2017-09-27

    Solid solutions of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 in Li 2 O·2SiO 2 are synthesized and characterized for the first time. Their structure and crystallization mechanisms are investigated employing a combination of simulations at the density functional theory level and experiments on the crystallization of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 doped lithium disilicate glasses. The remarkable agreement of calculated and experimentally determined cell parameters reveals the preferential, kinetically controlled incorporation of [SiO 4 ] and [BO 4 ] at the Li + lattice sites of the Li 2 O·2SiO 2 crystal structure. While the addition of SiO 2 increases the glass viscosity resulting in lower crystal growth velocities, glasses containing B 2 O 3 show a reduction of both viscosities and crystal growth velocities. These observations could be rationalized by a change of the chemical composition of the glass matrix surrounding the precipitated crystal phase during the course of crystallization, which leads to a deceleration of the attachment of building units required for further crystal growth at the liquid-crystal interface.

  14. Vacancy identification in Co+ doped rutile TiO2 crystal with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, X. B.; Zhang, P.; Liang, L. H.; Zhao, B. Z.; Yu, R. S.; Wang, B. Y.; Wu, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Co-doped rutile TiO2 films were synthesized by ion implantation. Variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening measurements were performed for identification of the vacancies. A newly formed type of vacancy can be concluded by the S-W plot and the CDB results indicated that the oxygen vacancy (VO) complex Ti-Co-VO and/or Ti-VO are formed with Co ions implantation and the vacancy concentration is increased with increase of dopant dose.

  15. EPR and optical studies of Cu2+ ions doped in magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Shukla, Santwana

    2011-03-01

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Cu2+-doped magnesium potassium phosphate is performed at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT; 77 K). Two magnetically non-equivalent sites for Cu2+ are observed. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to a rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The ground state wavefunction is also determined. The g-anisotropy is evaluated and compared with the experimental value. With the help of an optical study, the nature of the bonding in the complex is discussed.

  16. Growth and electrical properties of (Mn,F) co-doped 0.92Pb(Zn 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-0.08PbTiO 3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shujun; Lebrun, Laurent; Randall, Clive A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2004-06-01

    The growth and characterization of (Mn,F) doped Pb(Zn 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-PbTiO 3 (PZNT) single crystals are reported in this paper. The typical single crystal obtained is up to 30 mm size with dark brown color. The crystal lattice parameters of doped PZNT crystal are slightly decreased compared to the pure one. The room temperature dielectric permittivity along <0 0 1> direction is about 6000, which is lower than that of the pure PZNT8 because of the dopants. The Curie temperature of the doped crystal is about 180°C while the ferroelectric phase transition temperature is around 100°C, which are higher than those of the pure PZNT8 single crystal. The remnant polarization and coercive field of <0 0 1> oriented doped crystal measured at 1 Hz and 10 kV/cm field are about 27 μC/cm 2 and 4.2 kV/cm, respectively. The room temperature mechanical quality factor is ˜300. Piezoelectric coefficient of <0 0 1> oriented doped crystal is higher than 3500 pC/N and the longitudinal electromechanical coupling factor is larger than 93%. The piezoelectric properties of doped PZNT single crystal with temperature and orientations are also reported in this paper. The valence state of the manganese dopant was determined by electron spin resonance, indicating no Mn 4+ in the crystals, suggesting the valence of manganese ions in PZNT crystals may be 2+, which acts as a hardener, stabilizes the domain wall and pins the domain wall motion, on the other hand, the dopant will enter Ti 4+ position, shifting the crystal composition to higher PT content.

  17. Investigation of the crystallization features, atomic structure, and microstructure of chromium-doped monticellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbotin, K. A.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Zharikov, E. V.; Lavrishchev, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    A series of Cr4+:CaMgSiO4 single crystals is grown using floating zone melting, and their microstructure, composition, and crystal structure are investigated. It is shown that regions with inclusions of second phases, such as forsterite, akermanite, MgO, and Ca4Mg2Si3O12, can form over the length of the sample. The composition of the single-phase regions of the single crystals varies from the stoichiometric monticellite CaMgSiO4 to the solid solution Ca(1 - x)Mg(1 + x)SiO4( x = 0.22). The Cr:(Ca0.88Mg0.12)MgSiO4 crystal is studied using X-ray diffraction. It is revealed that, in this case, the olivine-like orthorhombic crystal lattice is distorted to the monoclinic lattice with the parameters a = 6.3574(5) Å, b = 4.8164(4) Å, c = 11.0387(8) Å, β = 90.30(1)o, Z = 4, V = 337.98 Å3, and space group P21/ c. In the monoclinic lattice, the M(1) position of the initial olivine structure is split into two nonequivalent positions with the center of symmetry, which are occupied only by Mg2+ cations with the average length of the Mg-O bond R av = 2.128 Å. The overstoichiometric Mg2+ cations partially replace Ca2+ cations (in the M(2) position of the orthorhombic prastructure) with the average bond length of 2.347 Å in the [(Ca,Mg)-O6] octahedron. The average distance in SiO4 distorted tetrahedra is 1.541 Å.

  18. Intercomparison of garnet barometers and implications for garnet mixing models

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, L.M.; Essene, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several well-calibrated barometers are available in the system Ca-Fe-Ti-Al-Si-O, including: Alm+3Ru-3Ilm+Sil+2Qtz (GRAIL), 2Alm+Grreverse arrow6Ru=6Ilm+3An+3Qtz (GRIPS); 2Alm+Gr=3Fa+3An (FAG); 3AnGr+Ky+Qtz (GASP); 2Fs-Fa+Qtz (FFQ); and Gr+Qtz=An+2Wo (WAGS). GRIPS, GRAIL and GASP form a linearly dependent set such that any two should yield the third given an a/X model for the grossular/almandine solid-solution. Application to barometry of garnet granulite assemblages from the Grenville in Ontario yields average pressures 0.1 kb lower for GRIPS and 0.4 kb higher for FAGS using our mixing model. Results from Parry Island, Ontario, yield 8.7 kb from GRAIL as opposed to 9.1 kb using Ganguly and Saxena's model. Formore » GASP, Parry Island assemblages yield 8.4 kb with the authors calibration. Ganguly and Saxena's model gives 5.4 kb using Gasparik's reversals and 8.1 kb using the position of GASP calculated from GRIPS and GRAIL. These corrections allow GRIPS, GRAIL, GASP and FAGS to yield consistent pressures to +/- 0.5 kb in regional metamorphic terranes. Application of their mixing model outside of the fitted range 700-1000 K is not encouraged as extrapolation may yield erroneous results.« less

  19. Toward the realization of erbium-doped GaN bulk crystals as a gain medium for high energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Zhao, W. P.

    Er-doped GaN (Er:GaN) is a promising candidate as a gain medium for solid-state high energy lasers (HELs) at the technologically important and eye-safe 1.54 μm wavelength window, as GaN has superior thermal properties over traditional laser gain materials such as Nd:YAG. However, the attainment of wafer-scale Er:GaN bulk or quasi-bulk crystals is a prerequisite to realize the full potential of Er:GaN as a gain medium for HELs. We report the realization of freestanding Er:GaN wafers of 2-in. in diameter with a thickness on the millimeter scale. These freestanding wafers were obtained via growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy in conjunction withmore » a laser-lift-off process. An Er doping level of 1.4 × 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} has been confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. The freestanding Er:GaN wafers exhibit strong photoluminescent emission at 1.54 μm with its emission intensity increasing dramatically with wafer thickness under 980 nm resonant excitation. A low thermal quenching of 10% was measured for the 1.54 μm emission intensity between 10 K and 300 K. This work represents a significant step in providing a practical approach for producing Er:GaN materials with sufficient thicknesses and dimensions to enable the design of gain media in various geometries, allowing for the production of HELs with improved lasing efficiency, atmosphere transmission, and eye-safety.« less

  20. Zero-charged catanionic lamellar liquid crystals doped with fullerene C60 for potential applications in tribology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Liu, Baoyong; Wang, Xiaolin; Fu, Yanxu; Hao, Jingcheng; Li, Hongguang

    2017-09-20

    The formation of lamellar liquid crystals (LLCs) has been demonstrated in a few salt-free catanionic surfactant systems and their properties have been well documented. However, examples of their combination with other materials are relatively rare. Herein, a salt-free zero-charged catanionic surfactant with low chain melting temperature was prepared by mixing equimolar tetradecyltrimethylammonium oxide (TTAOH) and oleic acid (OA) in water, and its concentration-dependent aggregate transition was investigated. In the dilute region (c TTAO ≤ 5 wt%), fluorescence microscopy observations revealed the formation of vesicles (the L αv phase). Further increasing c TTAO induced a transition from the L αv phase to LLCs via a region where vesicles and lamellae coexist. With ordered hydrophobic domains, the LLCs can be used as hosts for the doping of fullerene C 60 (refers to C 60 hereafter) with the highest C 60 /TTAO weight ratio of 0.04. The doping of C 60 effectively improves the viscoelasticity of the LLCs confirmed by rheological characterization while only slight modifications on their matrixes have been detected using small angle X-ray scattering measurements. The LLC/C 60 hybrids with c TTAO = 80 wt% were then subjected to tribological measurements, and an obvious reduction in their friction coefficients and wear volumes was observed. The C 60 /TTAO weight ratio at which the best tribological performance appears was determined to be 0.01. Our results indicate that the combination of C 60 and catanionic LLCs could lead to the appearance of a new generation of environmentally-benign lubricants.