Sample records for gas concentration gradient

  1. Effect of Vertical Concentration Gradient on Globally Planar Detonation with Detailed Reaction Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qingguana; Wang, Cheng; Han, Yong; Gao, Dayuan; Duan, Yingliang

    2017-06-01

    Since detonation often initiates and propagates in the non-homogeneous mixtures, investigating its behavior in non-uniform mixtures is significant not only for the industrial explosion in the leakage combustible gas, but also for the experimental investigations with a vertical concentration gradient caused by the difference in the molecular weight of gas mixture. Objective of this work is to show the detonation behavior in the mixture with different concentration gradients with detailed chemical reaction mechanism. A globally planar detonation in H2-O2 system is simulated by a high-resolution code based on the fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme in spatial discretization and the third-order Additive Runge-Kutta schemes in time discretization. The different shocked combustion modes appear in the rich-fuel and poor-fuel layers due to the concentration gradient effect. Globally, for the cases with the lower gradient detonation can be sustained in a way of the alternation of the multi-heads mode and single-head mode, whereas for the cases with the higher gradient detonation propagates with a single-head mode. Institute of Chemical Materials, CAEP.

  2. Combinational concentration gradient confinement through stagnation flow.

    PubMed

    Alicia, Toh G G; Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhiping; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-21

    Concentration gradient generation in microfluidics is typically constrained by two conflicting mass transport requirements: short characteristic times (τ) for precise temporal control of concentration gradients but at the expense of high flow rates and hence, high flow shear stresses (σ). To decouple the limitations from these parameters, here we propose the use of stagnation flows to confine concentration gradients within large velocity gradients that surround the stagnation point. We developed a modified cross-slot (MCS) device capable of feeding binary and combinational concentration sources in stagnation flows. We show that across the velocity well, source-sink pairs can form permanent concentration gradients. As source-sink concentration pairs are continuously supplied to the MCS, a permanently stable concentration gradient can be generated. Tuning the flow rates directly controls the velocity gradients, and hence the stagnation point location, allowing the confined concentration gradient to be focused. In addition, the flow rate ratio within the MCS rapidly controls (τ ∼ 50 ms) the location of the stagnation point and the confined combinational concentration gradients at low flow shear (0.2 Pa < σ < 2.9 Pa). The MCS device described in this study establishes the method for using stagnation flows to rapidly generate and position low shear combinational concentration gradients for shear sensitive biological assays.

  3. Pulsed-field-gradient measurements of time-dependent gas diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Cory, D. G.; Peled, S.; Tseng, C. H.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed-field-gradient NMR techniques are demonstrated for measurements of time-dependent gas diffusion. The standard PGSE technique and variants, applied to a free gas mixture of thermally polarized xenon and O2, are found to provide a reproducible measure of the xenon diffusion coefficient (5.71 x 10(-6) m2 s-1 for 1 atm of pure xenon), in excellent agreement with previous, non-NMR measurements. The utility of pulsed-field-gradient NMR techniques is demonstrated by the first measurement of time-dependent (i.e., restricted) gas diffusion inside a porous medium (a random pack of glass beads), with results that agree well with theory. Two modified NMR pulse sequences derived from the PGSE technique (named the Pulsed Gradient Echo, or PGE, and the Pulsed Gradient Multiple Spin Echo, or PGMSE) are also applied to measurements of time dependent diffusion of laser polarized xenon gas, with results in good agreement with previous measurements on thermally polarized gas. The PGMSE technique is found to be superior to the PGE method, and to standard PGSE techniques and variants, for efficiently measuring laser polarized noble gas diffusion over a wide range of diffusion times. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Contaminant gradients in trees: Directional tree coring reveals boundaries of soil and soil-gas contamination with potential applications in vapor intrusion assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Samaranayake, V.A.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminated sites pose ecological and human-health risks through exposure to contaminated soil and groundwater. Whereas we can readily locate, monitor, and track contaminants in groundwater, it is harder to perform these tasks in the vadose zone. In this study, tree-core samples were collected at a Superfund site to determine if the sample-collection location around a particular tree could reveal the subsurface location, or direction, of soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes. Contaminant-centroid vectors were calculated from tree-core data to reveal contaminant distributions in directional tree samples at a higher resolution, and vectors were correlated with soil-gas characterization collected using conventional methods. Results clearly demonstrated that directional tree coring around tree trunks can indicate gradients in soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes, and the strength of the correlations were directly proportionate to the magnitude of tree-core concentration gradients (spearman’s coefficient of -0.61 and -0.55 in soil and tree-core gradients, respectively). Linear regression indicates agreement between the concentration-centroid vectors is significantly affected by in-planta and soil concentration gradients and when concentration centroids in soil are closer to trees. Given the existing link between soil-gas and vapor intrusion, this study also indicates that directional tree coring might be applicable in vapor intrusion assessment.

  5. Contaminant Gradients in Trees: Directional Tree Coring Reveals Boundaries of Soil and Soil-Gas Contamination with Potential Applications in Vapor Intrusion Assessment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jordan L; Samaranayake, V A; Limmer, Matthew A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-12-19

    Contaminated sites pose ecological and human-health risks through exposure to contaminated soil and groundwater. Whereas we can readily locate, monitor, and track contaminants in groundwater, it is harder to perform these tasks in the vadose zone. In this study, tree-core samples were collected at a Superfund site to determine if the sample-collection location around a particular tree could reveal the subsurface location, or direction, of soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes. Contaminant-centroid vectors were calculated from tree-core data to reveal contaminant distributions in directional tree samples at a higher resolution, and vectors were correlated with soil-gas characterization collected using conventional methods. Results clearly demonstrated that directional tree coring around tree trunks can indicate gradients in soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes, and the strength of the correlations were directly proportionate to the magnitude of tree-core concentration gradients (spearman's coefficient of -0.61 and -0.55 in soil and tree-core gradients, respectively). Linear regression indicates agreement between the concentration-centroid vectors is significantly affected by in planta and soil concentration gradients and when concentration centroids in soil are closer to trees. Given the existing link between soil-gas and vapor intrusion, this study also indicates that directional tree coring might be applicable in vapor intrusion assessment.

  6. Simultaneous concentration and purification through gradient deformation chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velayudhan, A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Mobile-phase additives, commonly used to modulate absorbate retention in gradient elution chromatography, are usually assumed to be either linearly retained or unretained. Previous theoretical work from our laboratory has shown that these modulators, such as salts in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and organic modifiers in reversed-phase chromatography, can absorb nonlinearly, giving rise to gradient deformation. Consequently, adsorbate peaks that elute in the vicinity of the head of the deformed gradient may exhibit unusual shapes, form shoulders, and/or be concentrated. These effects for a reversed-phase sorbent with aqueous acetonitrile (ACN) as the modulator are verified experimentally. Gradient deformation is demonstrated experimentally and agrees with simulations based on ACN isotherm parameters that are independently determined from batch equilibrium studies using the layer model. Unusual absorbate peak shapes were found experimentally for single-component injections of phenylalanine, similar to those calculated by the simulations. A binary mixture of tryptophan and phenylalanine is used to demonstrate simultaneous concentration and separation, again in agreement with simulations. The possibility of gradient deformation in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography is discussed.

  7. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Anders; Visser, Eric J W; Colmer, Timothy D; Brodersen, Klaus P; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole

    2016-07-01

    Traits for survival during flooding of terrestrial plants include stimulation or inhibition of shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation and efficient gas exchange. Leaf gas films form on superhydrophobic cuticles during submergence and enhance underwater gas exchange. The main hypothesis tested was that the presence of leaf gas films influences the distribution of plant species along a natural flood gradient. We conducted laboratory experiments and field observations on species distributed along a natural flood gradient. We measured presence or absence of leaf gas films and specific leaf area of 95 species. We also measured, gas film retention time during submergence and underwater net photosynthesis and dark respiration of 25 target species. The presence of a leaf gas film was inversely correlated to flood frequency and duration and reached a maximum value of 80% of the species in the rarely flooded locations. This relationship was primarily driven by grasses that all, independently of their field location along the flood gradient, possess gas films when submerged. Although the present study and earlier experiments have shown that leaf gas films enhance gas exchange of submerged plants, the ability of species to form leaf gas films did not show the hypothesized relationship with species composition along the flood gradient. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Magnetic Control of Concentration Gradient in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2005-01-01

    A report describes a technique for rapidly establishing a fluid-concentration gradient that can serve as an initial condition for an experiment on solutal instabilities associated with crystal growth in microgravity. The technique involves exploitation of the slight attractive or repulsive forces exerted on most fluids by a magnetic-field gradient. Although small, these forces can dominate in microgravity and therefore can be used to hold fluids in position in preparation for an experiment. The magnetic field is applied to a test cell, while a fluid mixture containing a concentration gradient is prepared by introducing an undiluted solution into a diluting solution in a mixing chamber. The test cell is then filled with the fluid mixture. Given the magnetic susceptibilities of the undiluted and diluting solutions, the magnetic-field gradient must be large enough that the magnetic force exceeds both (1) forces associated with the flow of the fluid mixture during filling of the test cell and (2) forces imposed by any residual gravitation and fluctuations thereof. Once the test cell has been filled with the fluid mixture, the magnetic field is switched off so that the experiment can proceed, starting from the proper initial conditions.

  9. Design keys for paper-based concentration gradient generators.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Federico; Urteaga, Raúl; Kler, Pablo A; Berli, Claudio L A

    2018-08-03

    The generation of concentration gradients is an essential operation for several analytical processes implemented on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. The dynamic gradient formation is based on the transverse dispersion of chemical species across co-flowing streams. In paper channels, this transverse flux of molecules is dominated by mechanical dispersion, which is substantially different than molecular diffusion, which is the mechanism acting in conventional microchannels. Therefore, the design of gradient generators on paper requires strategies different from those used in traditional microfluidics. This work considers the foundations of transverse dispersion in porous substrates to investigate the optimal design of microfluidic paper-based concentration gradient generators (μPGGs) by computer simulations. A set of novel and versatile μPGGs were designed in the format of numerical prototypes, and virtual experiments were run to explore the ranges of operation and the overall performance of such devices. Then physical prototypes were fabricated and experimentally tested in our lab. Finally, some basic rules for the design of optimized μPGGs are proposed. Apart from improving the efficiency of mixers, diluters and μPGGs, the results of this investigation are relevant to attain highly controlled concentration fields on paper-based devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of reactive microbial hotspots in concentration gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Antoine; Farasin, Julien; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    In subsurface environments, bacteria play a major role in controlling the kinetics of a broad range of biogeochemical reactions. In such environments, nutrients fluxes and solute concentrations needed for bacteria metabolism may be highly variable in space and intermittent in time. This can lead to the formation of reactive hotspots where and when conditions are favorable to particular microorganisms, hence inducing biogeochemical reaction kinetics that differ significantly from those measured in homogeneous model environments. To investigate the impact of chemical gradients on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of subsurface microorganism populations, we develop microfluidic cells allowing for a precise control of flow and chemical gradient conditions, as well as a quantitative monitoring of the bacteria's spatial distribution and biofilm development. Using the non-motile Escherichia coli JW1908-1 strain and Gallionella as model organisms, we investigate the behavior and development of bacteria over a range of single and double concentration gradients in the concentrations of nutrients, electron donors and electron acceptors. To quantify bacterial activity we use Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis by bacterial enzymes which transforms FDA into Fluorescein, whose local concentration is measured optically. We thus measure bacterial activity locally from the time derivative of the measured fluorescence. This approach allows time-resolved monitoring of the location and intensity of reactive hotspots in micromodels as a function of the flow and chemical gradient conditions. We discuss consequences for the formation and temporal dynamics of biofilms in the subsurface.

  11. Climate Effect of Greenhouse Gas: Warming or Cooling is Determined by Temperature Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shia, R.

    2011-12-01

    The instantaneous radiative forcing (IRF) at the top of the atmosphere (ToA) is the initial change of the total energy in the climate system when the concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG) increases. In my previous presentation at the 2010 Fall AGU meeting (A11J-02, "Mechanism of Radiative Forcing of Greenhouse Gas its Implication to the Global Warming"), it was demonstrated that IRF at TOA is generated by moving up of the emission weighting function. Thus, the temperature gradient plays a critical role in determining the climate effect of GHG. In this presentation the change of the outgoing infrared radiation flux at ToA is studied from a perturbation point of view. After the cancellation between the changes in the outgoing radiation flux from the surface emission and from the reemission of the atmosphere, the derivative of the outgoing flux to the concentration of GHG is found to be proportional to the temperature gradients below the level where the concentration of GHG changes. Therefore, the greenhouse gas contribute only to the magnitude of the radiative forcing, the temperature gradients decide the direction of the radiative forcing, i.e. warming or cooling, in addition to contributing to its magnitude. In response to the question "Does the negative IRF at ToA lead to the surface cooling or it only cools the upper part of the atmosphere?" the Eddington grey radiative equilibrium model is modified to simulate different scenarios. The original model has been used to illustrate the warming effect of GHG in textbooks of the atmospheric physics. It is modified by adding source terms from the absorption of the solar flux and the internal energy exchange in the atmosphere. In two cases the modified model generates atmospheres with a large and warm stratosphere and negative IRF at ToA when GHG increases by 25%. This negative radiative forcing can lead to the cooling of the atmosphere all the way down to the surface. The implications of the cooling effect of GHG to the

  12. Construction of oxygen and chemical concentration gradients in a single microfluidic device for studying tumor cell-drug interactions in a dynamic hypoxia microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Wenming; Wang, Yaolei; Wang, Jian-chun; Tu, Qin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Jinyi

    2013-02-21

    Recent microfluidic advancements in oxygen gradients have greatly promoted controllable oxygen-sensitive cellular investigations at microscale resolution. However, multi-gradient integration in a single microfluidic device for tissue-mimicking cell investigation is not yet well established. In this study, we describe a method that can generate oxygen and chemical concentration gradients in a single microfluidic device via the formation of an oxygen gradient in a chamber and a chemical concentration gradient between adjacent chambers. The oxygen gradient dynamics were systematically investigated, and were quantitatively controlled using simple exchange between the aerial oxygen and the oxygen-free conditions in the gas-permeable polydimethylsiloxane channel. Meanwhile, the chemical gradient dynamics was generated using a special channel-branched device. For potential medical applications of the established oxygen and chemical concentration gradients, a tumor cell therapy assessment was performed using two antitumor drugs (tirapazamine and bleomycin) and two tumor cell lines (human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells). The results of the proof-of-concept experiment indicate the dose-dependent antitumor effect of the drugs and hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity of tirapazamine. We demonstrate that the integration of oxygen and chemical concentration gradients in a single device can be applied to investigating oxygen- and chemical-sensitive cell events, which can also be valuable in the development of multi-gradient generating procedures and specific drug screening.

  13. Dynamics of Reactive Microbial Hotspots in Concentration Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, A.; Farasin, J.; Tabuteau, H.; Dufresne, A.; Meheust, Y.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    In subsurface environments, bacteria play a major role in controlling the kinetics of a broad range of biogeochemical reactions. In such environments, nutrients fluxes and solute concentrations needed for bacteria metabolism may be highly variable in space and intermittent in time. This can lead to the formation of reactive hotspots where and when conditions are favorable to particular microorganisms, hence inducing biogeochemical reaction kinetics that differ significantly from those measured in homogeneous model environments. To investigate the impact of chemical gradients on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of subsurface microorganism populations, we develop microfluidic cells allowing for a precise control of flow and chemical gradient conditions, as well as quantitative monitoring of the bacteria's spatial distribution and biofilm development. Using the non-motile Escherichia coli JW1908-1 strain and Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 as model organisms, we investigate the behavior and development of bacteria over a range of single and double concentration gradients in the concentrations of nutrients, electron donors and electron acceptors. We measure bacterial activity and population growth locally in precisely known hydrodynamic and chemical environments. This approach allows time-resolved monitoring of the location and intensity of reactive hotspots in micromodels as a function of the flow and chemical gradient conditions. We compare reactive microbial hotspot dynamics in our micromodels to classic growth laws and well-known growth parameters for the laboratory model bacteria Escherichia coli.We also discuss consequences for the formation and temporal dynamics of biofilms in the subsurface.

  14. Biomimetic approaches to control soluble concentration gradients in biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Eric H; Schwartz, Michael P; Murphy, William L

    2011-04-08

    Soluble concentration gradients play a critical role in controlling tissue formation during embryonic development. The importance of soluble signaling in biology has motivated engineers to design systems that allow precise and quantitative manipulation of gradient formation in vitro. Engineering techniques have increasingly moved to the third dimension in order to provide more physiologically relevant models to study the biological role of gradient formation and to guide strategies for controlling new tissue formation for therapeutic applications. This review provides an overview of efforts to design biomimetic strategies for soluble gradient formation, with a focus on microfluidic techniques and biomaterials approaches for moving gradient generation to the third dimension. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Why do high-redshift galaxies show diverse gas-phase metallicity gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-04-01

    Recent spatially resolved observations of galaxies at z ˜ 0.6-3 reveal that high-redshift galaxies show complex kinematics and a broad distribution of gas-phase metallicity gradients. To understand these results, we use a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, which include physically motivated models of the multiphase interstellar medium, star formation and stellar feedback. Our simulations reproduce the observed diversity of kinematic properties and metallicity gradients, broadly consistent with observations at z ˜ 0-3. Strong negative metallicity gradients only appear in galaxies with a rotating disc, but not all rotationally supported galaxies have significant gradients. Strongly perturbed galaxies with little rotation always have flat gradients. The kinematic properties and metallicity gradient of a high-redshift galaxy can vary significantly on short time-scales, associated with starburst episodes. Feedback from a starburst can destroy the gas disc, drive strong outflows and flatten a pre-existing negative metallicity gradient. The time variability of a single galaxy is statistically similar to the entire simulated sample, indicating that the observed metallicity gradients in high-redshift galaxies reflect the instantaneous state of the galaxy rather than the accretion and growth history on cosmological time-scales. We find weak dependence of metallicity gradient on stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Low-mass galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR tend to have flat gradients, likely due to the fact that feedback is more efficient in these galaxies. We argue that it is important to resolve feedback on small scales in order to produce the diverse metallicity gradients observed.

  16. Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

  17. Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

  18. Designing in vivo concentration gradients with discrete controlled release: a computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Edgar Y.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2010-08-01

    One promising neurorehabilitation therapy involves presenting neurotrophins directly into the brain to induce growth of new neural connections. The precise control of neurotrophin concentration gradients deep within neural tissue that would be necessary for such a therapy is not currently possible, however. Here we evaluate the theoretical potential of a novel method of drug delivery, discrete controlled release (DCR), to control effective neurotrophin concentration gradients in an isotropic region of neocortex. We do so by constructing computational models of neurotrophin concentration profiles resulting from discrete release locations into the cortex and then optimizing their design for uniform concentration gradients. The resulting model indicates that by rationally selecting initial neurotrophin concentrations for drug-releasing electrode coatings in a square 16-electrode array, nearly uniform concentration gradients (i.e. planar concentration profiles) from one edge of the electrode array to the other should be obtainable. DCR therefore represents a promising new method of precisely directing neuronal growth in vivo over a wider spatial profile than would be possible with single release points.

  19. Dexamethasone concentration gradients along scala tympani after application to the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Plontke, Stefan K; Biegner, Thorsten; Kammerer, Bernd; Delabar, Ursular; Salt, Alec N

    2008-04-01

    Local application of dexamethasone-21-dihydrogen-phosphate (Dex-P) to the round window (RW) membrane of guinea pigs produces a substantial basal-apical concentration gradient in scala tympani (ST) perilymph. In recent years, intratympanically applied glucocorticoids are increasingly being used for the treatment of inner ear disease. Although measurements of intracochlear concentrations after RW application exist, there is limited information on the distribution of these drugs in the inner ear fluids. It has been predicted from computer simulations that substantial concentration gradients will occur after RW application, with lower concentrations expected in apical turns. Concentration gradients of other substances along the cochlea have recently been confirmed using a sequential apical sampling method to obtain perilymph. Dexamethasone-21-dihydrogen-phosphate (10 mg/ml) was administered to the RW membrane of guinea pigs (n = 9) in vivo for 2 to 3 hours. Perilymph was then collected using a protocol in which 10 samples, each of approximately 1 mul, were taken sequentially from the cochlear apex into capillary tubes. Dexamethasone-21-dihydrogen-phosphate concentration of the samples was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Interpretation of sample data using a finite element model allowed the longitudinal gradients of Dex-P in ST to be quantified. The Dex-P content of the first sample in each experiment (dominated by perilymph from apical regions) was substantially lower than that of the third and fourth sample (dominated by basal turn perilymph). These findings qualitatively demonstrated the existence of a concentration gradient along ST. After detailed analysis of the measured sample concentrations using an established finite element computer model, the mean basal-apical concentration gradient was estimated to be 17,000. Both absolute concentrations of Dex-P in ST and the basal-apical gradients were found to vary substantially. The existence of

  20. Dexamethasone concentration gradients along scala tympani after application to the round window membrane

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alec N

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis Local application of dexamethasone-21-dihydrogene-phosphate (Dex-P) to the round window membrane (RWM) of guinea pigs produces a substantial basal-apical concentration gradient in scala tympani (ST) perilymph. Background In recent years, intratympanically-applied glucocorticoids are increasingly being used for the treatment of inner ear disease. Although measurements of intracochlear concentrations after round window (RW) application exist, there is limited information on the distribution of these drugs in the inner ear fluids. It has been predicted from computer simulations that substantial concentration gradients will occur with lower concentrations expected in apical turns after RW application. Concentration gradients of other substances along the cochlea have recently been confirmed using a sequential apical sampling method to obtain perilymph. Methods Dex-P (10mg/ml) was administered to the RWM of guinea pigs (n=9) in vivo for 2 to 3 hours. Perilymph was then collected using a protocol in which ten samples, each of approximately 1μl, were taken sequentially from the cochlear apex into capillary tubes. Dex-P concentration of the samples was determined by HPLC. Interpretation of sample data using a finite element model allowed the longitudinal gradients of Dex-P in scala tympani to be quantified. Results The Dex-P content of the first sample in each experiment (dominated by perilymph from apical regions) was substantially lower than that of the third and fourth sample (dominated by basal turn perilymph). These findings qualitatively demonstrated the existence of a concentration gradient along scala tympani (ST). After detailed analysis of the measured sample concentrations using an established finite element computer model, the mean basal-apical concentration gradient was estimated to be 17•103. Both absolute concentrations of Dex-P in ST and the basal-apical gradients were found to vary substantially. Conclusion The existence of substantial basal

  1. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  2. Fugacity and concentration gradients in a gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Equations are reviewed which show that at equilibrium fugacity and concentration gradients can exist in gravitational fields. At equilibrium, the logarithm of the ratio of the fugacities of a species at two different locations in a gravitational field is proportional to the difference in the heights of the two locations and the molecular weight of the species. An analogous relation holds for the concentration ratios in a multicomponent system. The ratio is calculated for a variety of examples. The kinetics for the general process are derived, and the time required to approach equilibrium is calculated for several systems. The following special topics are discussed: ionic solutions, polymers, multiphase systems, hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure, and solubility gradients in a gravity field.

  3. Nonlinear analyte concentration gradients for one-step kinetic analysis employing optical microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Marty, Michael T; Sloan, Courtney D Kuhnline; Bailey, Ryan C; Sligar, Stephen G

    2012-07-03

    Conventional methods to probe the binding kinetics of macromolecules at biosensor surfaces employ a stepwise titration of analyte concentrations and measure the association and dissociation to the immobilized ligand at each concentration level. It has previously been shown that kinetic rates can be measured in a single step by monitoring binding as the analyte concentration increases over time in a linear gradient. We report here the application of nonlinear analyte concentration gradients for determining kinetic rates and equilibrium binding affinities in a single experiment. A versatile nonlinear gradient maker is presented, which is easily applied to microfluidic systems. Simulations validate that accurate kinetic rates can be extracted for a wide range of association and dissociation rates, gradient slopes, and curvatures, and with models for mass transport. The nonlinear analyte gradient method is demonstrated with a silicon photonic microring resonator platform to measure prostate specific antigen-antibody binding kinetics.

  4. Nonlinear Analyte Concentration Gradients for One-Step Kinetic Analysis Employing Optical Microring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Michael T.; Kuhnline Sloan, Courtney D.; Bailey, Ryan C.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods to probe the binding kinetics of macromolecules at biosensor surfaces employ a stepwise titration of analyte concentrations and measure the association and dissociation to the immobilized ligand at each concentration level. It has previously been shown that kinetic rates can be measured in a single step by monitoring binding as the analyte concentration increases over time in a linear gradient. We report here the application of nonlinear analyte concentration gradients for determining kinetic rates and equilibrium binding affinities in a single experiment. A versatile nonlinear gradient maker is presented, which is easily applied to microfluidic systems. Simulations validate that accurate kinetic rates can be extracted for a wide range of association and dissociation rates, gradient slopes and curvatures, and with models for mass transport. The nonlinear analyte gradient method is demonstrated with a silicon photonic microring resonator platform to measure prostate specific antigen-antibody binding kinetics. PMID:22686186

  5. Factors controlling the concentration of methane and other volatiles in groundwater and soil-gas around a waste site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, C.; Davis, G. B.; Briegel, D.; Ward, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of methane in groundwater and soil-gas in the vicinity of a waste landfill on an unconfined sand aquifer has been investigated in detail. These data have been used to evaluate techniques which use volatile organic compounds in soil-gas as indicators of groundwater contamination. Simple one-dimensional models of gas advection and diffusion have been adapted for use in the study. Lateral advection of gas in the unsaturated sand was found to be seasonal and was most noticeable in winter when the profile was wet; a mean velocity of 1 m d - was measured from breakthrough of a helium tracer in an injection test. The effects of advection on trace concentrations of methane in soil-gas were limited to within 150-200m from the waste site and resulted from pressure gradients brought about by positive gas pressures in the landfill, and also as a result of ebullition (gas bubbling) from contaminated groundwater. The distribution of methane in soil-gas at shallow (2m) depth gave a general indication of the direction of movement of contaminants with groundwater in close proximity to the landfill. Outside this zone, diffusional transport of methane from groundwater to soil-gas occurred and methane in soil-gas sampled close to the water table was found to be a useful indicator of contaminated groundwater. Modelling the exchange of volatiles between aqueous and gas phases indicates that a wide range of organic compounds, particularly those with Henry's Law constants greater than 2.5 × 10 t-2 kPam 3mol -1, would have potential for use as indicators of pollution, if these were present in groundwater and they behaved relatively conservatively. In general, the principal factors controlling the concentration of these volatiles in soil-gas were the concentration gradient at the water table and capillary fringe and the ratio of diffusion coefficients in the saturated and unsaturated zones.

  6. Redox potential characterization and soil greenhouse gas concentration across a hydrological gradient in a Gulf coast forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Patrick, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Soil redox potential (Eh), concentrations of oxygen (O2) and three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) were measured in the soil profile of a coastal forest at ridge, transition, and swamp across a hydrological gradient. The results delineated a distinct boundary in soil Eh and O2 concentration between the ridge and swamp with essentially no overlap between the two locations. Critical soil Eh to initiate significant CH4 production under this field conditions was about +300 mV, much higher than in the homogenous soils (about -150 mV). The strength of CH4 source to the atmosphere was strong for the swamp, minor for the transition, and negligible or even negative (consumption) for the ridge. Maximum N2O concentration in the soils was found at about Eh +250 mV, and the soil N2O emission was estimated to account for less than 4% for the ridge and transition, and almost negligible for the swamp in the cumulative global warming potential (GWP) of these three gases. The dynamic nature of this study site in response to water table fluctuations across a hydrological gradient makes it an ideal model of impact of future sea level rise to coastal ecosystems. Soil carbon (C) sequestration potential due to increasing soil water content upon sea level rise and subsidence in this coastal forest was likely limited and temporal, and at the expense of increasing soil CH4 production and emission. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOEpatents

    Salomon, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  8. Murine Intracochlear Drug Delivery: Reducing Concentration Gradients within the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Borkholder, David A.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hyatt, Brad T.; Archilla, Alfredo S.; Livingston, William J.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Direct delivery of compounds to the mammalian inner ear is most commonly achieved by absorption or direct injection through the round window membrane (RWM), or infusion through a basal turn cochleostomy. These methods provide direct access to cochlear structures, but with a strong basal-to-apical concentration gradient consistent with a diffusion-driven distribution. This gradient limits the efficacy of therapeutic approaches for apical structures, and puts constraints on practical therapeutic dose ranges. A surgical approach involving both a basal turn cochleostomy and a posterior semicircular canal canalostomy provides opportunities for facilitated perfusion of cochlear structures to reduce concentration gradients. Infusion of fixed volumes of artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium salicylate were used to evaluate two surgical approaches in the mouse: cochleostomy-only (CO), or cochleostomy-plus-canalostomy (C+C). Cochlear function was evaluated via closed-system distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) threshold level measurements from 8-49 kHz. AP infusion confirmed no surgical impact to auditory function, while shifts in DPOAE thresholds were measured during infusion of salicylate and AP (washout). Frequency dependent shifts were compared for the CO and C+C approaches. Computer simulations modeling diffusion, volume flow, interscala transport, and clearance mechanisms provided estimates of drug concentration as a function of cochlear position. Simulated concentration profiles were compared to frequency-dependent shifts in measured auditory responses using a cochlear tonotopic map. The impact of flow rate on frequency dependent DPOAE threshold shifts was also evaluated for both surgical approaches. Both the C+C approach and a flow rate increase were found to provide enhanced response for lower frequencies, with evidence suggesting the C+C approach reduces concentration gradients within the cochlea. PMID:20451593

  9. Metallicity Gradients in the Intracluster Gas of Abell 496

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; White, Raymond E., III

    2000-07-01

    Analysis of spatially resolved ASCA spectra of the intracluster gas in Abell 496 confirms there are mild metal abundance enhancements near the center, as previously found in a joint analysis of spectra from Ginga Large Area Counter and Einstein solid state spectrometer. Simultaneous analysis of spectra from all ASCA instruments (SIS+GIS) shows that the iron abundance is 0.36+/-0.03 solar 3'-12' from the center of the cluster and rises ~50% to 0.53+/-0.04 solar within the central 2'. The F-test shows that this abundance gradient is significant at the more than 99.99% level. Nickel and sulfur abundances are also centrally enhanced. We use a variety of elemental abundance ratios to assess the relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and Type II supernovae (SNe II) to the metal enrichment of the intracluster gas. We find spatial gradients in several abundance ratios, indicating that the fraction of iron from SNe Ia increases toward the cluster center, with SNe Ia accounting for ~50% of the iron mass 3'-12' from the center and ~70% within 2'. The increased proportion of SN Ia ejecta at the center is such that the central iron abundance enhancement can be attributed wholly to SNe Ia; we find no significant gradient in SN II ejecta. These spatial gradients in the proportion of SN Ia/II ejecta imply that the dominant metal enrichment mechanism near the center is different than in the outer parts of the cluster. We show that the central abundance enhancement is unlikely to be due to ram pressure stripping of gas from cluster galaxies or to secularly accumulated stellar mass loss within the central cD. We suggest that the additional SN Ia ejecta near the center is the vestige of a secondary SN Ia-driven wind from the cD (following a more energetic protogalactic SN II-driven wind phase), which was partially smothered in the cD due to its location at the cluster center.

  10. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOEpatents

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  11. Murine intracochlear drug delivery: reducing concentration gradients within the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Borkholder, David A; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hyatt, Brad T; Archilla, Alfredo S; Livingston, William J; Frisina, Robert D

    2010-09-01

    Direct delivery of compounds to the mammalian inner ear is most commonly achieved by absorption or direct injection through the round window membrane (RWM), or infusion through a basal turn cochleostomy. These methods provide direct access to cochlear structures, but with a strong basal-to-apical concentration gradient consistent with a diffusion-driven distribution. This gradient limits the efficacy of therapeutic approaches for apical structures, and puts constraints on practical therapeutic dose ranges. A surgical approach involving both a basal turn cochleostomy and a posterior semicircular canal canalostomy provides opportunities for facilitated perfusion of cochlear structures to reduce concentration gradients. Infusion of fixed volumes of artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium salicylate were used to evaluate two surgical approaches in the mouse: cochleostomy-only (CO), or cochleostomy-plus-canalostomy (C+C). Cochlear function was evaluated via closed-system distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) threshold level measurements from 8 to 49 kHz. AP infusion confirmed no surgical impact to auditory function, while shifts in DPOAE thresholds were measured during infusion of salicylate and AP (washout). Frequency dependent shifts were compared for the CO and C+C approaches. Computer simulations modeling diffusion, volume flow, interscala transport, and clearance mechanisms provided estimates of drug concentration as a function of cochlear position. Simulated concentration profiles were compared to frequency-dependent shifts in measured auditory responses using a cochlear tonotopic map. The impact of flow rate on frequency dependent DPOAE threshold shifts was also evaluated for both surgical approaches. Both the C+C approach and a flow rate increase were found to provide enhanced response for lower frequencies, with evidence suggesting the C+C approach reduces concentration gradients within the cochlea. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Directed Self-Assembly of Gradient Concentric Carbon Nanotube Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Suck Won; Jeong, Wonje; Ko, Hyunhyub; Tsukruk, Vladimir; Kessler, Michael; Lin, Zhiqun

    2008-03-01

    Hundreds of gradient concentric rings of linear conjugated polymer, (poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4- phenylenevinylene], i.e., MEH-PPV) with remarkable regularity over large areas were produced by controlled, repetitive ``stick- slip'' motions of the contact line in a confined geometry consisting of a sphere on a flat substrate (i.e., sphere-on-flat geometry). Subsequently, MEH-PPV rings exploited as template to direct the formation of gradient concentric rings of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with controlled density. This method is simple, cost effective, and robust, combining two consecutive self-assembly processes, namely, evaporation-induced self- assembly of polymers in a sphere-on-flat geometry, followed by subsequent directed self-assembly of MWNTs on the polymer- templated surfaces.

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: modelling the metallicity gradients of gas and stars - radially dependent metal outflow versus IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Parikh, Taniya; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Rong, Yu; Tang, Baitian; Yan, Renbin

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work, we found that only two scenarios are capable of reproducing the observed integrated mass-metallicity relations for the gas and stellar components of local star-forming galaxies simultaneously. One scenario invokes a time-dependent metal outflow loading factor with stronger outflows at early times. The other scenario uses a time-dependent initial mass function (IMF) slope with a steeper IMF at early times. In this work, we extend our study to investigate the radial profile of gas and stellar metallicity in local star-forming galaxies using spatially resolved spectroscopic data from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We find that most galaxies show negative gradients in both gas and stellar metallicity with steeper gradients in stellar metallicity. The stellar metallicity gradients tend to be mass dependent with steeper gradients in more massive galaxies while no clear mass dependence is found for the gas metallicity gradient. Then we compare the observations with the predictions from a chemical evolution model of the radial profiles of gas and stellar metallicities. We confirm that the two scenarios proposed in our previous work are also required to explain the metallicity gradients. Based on these two scenarios, we successfully reproduce the radial profiles of gas metallicity, stellar metallicity, stellar mass surface density, and star formation rate surface density simultaneously. The origin of the negative gradient in stellar metallicity turns out to be driven by either radially dependent metal outflow or IMF slope. In contrast, the radial dependence of the gas metallicity is less constrained because of the degeneracy in model parameters.

  14. The effect of solute concentration on hindered gradient diffusion in polymeric gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Kristan K. S.; Dungan, Stephanie R.; Phillips, Ronald J.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of solute concentration on hindered diffusion of sphere-like colloidal solutes in stiff polymer hydrogels is examined theoretically and experimentally. In the theoretical development, it is shown that the presence of the gel fibres enhances the effect of concentration on the thermodynamic driving force for gradient diffusion, while simultaneously reducing the effect of concentration on the hydrodynamic drag. The result is that gradient diffusion depends more strongly on solute concentration in gels than it does in pure solution, by an amount that depends on the partition coefficient and hydraulic permeability of the gel solute system. Quantitative calculations are made to determine the concentration-dependent diffusivity correct to first order in solute concentration. In order to compare the theoretical predictions with experimental data, rates of diffusion have been measured for nonionic micelles and globular proteins in solution and agarose hydrogels at two gel concentrations. The measurements were performed by using holographic interferometry, through which one monitors changes in refractive index as gradient diffusion takes place within a transparent gel. If the solutes are modelled as spheres with short-range repulsive interactions, then the experimentally measured concentration dependence of the diffusivities of both the protein and micelles is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  15. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  16. Dissolved gas concentrations of the geothermal fluids in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ai-Ti; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan, a geologically active island, is located on the boundary of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. High heat flow and geothermal gradient generated by the complex collision and orogeny, warm up the meteoric water and/or the ground water. The heated water becomes geothermal fluids. In previous studies, researchers tried to categorize hot springs based on the appearance, chemical compositions and lithological areas. Because of the chemical inertness, the concentrations and isotopic composition of dissolved noble gases are good indicators of the mantle degassing, geothermal conditions, and so on. In this study, 55 hot springs were collected from different tectonic units. It is the first time to systematically study the hot springs in Taiwan in terms of dissolved gases. Hot spring water is sampled and stored in pre-evacuated glass bottles for analyzing gas compositions. The abundances of noble gases were determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer based on the isotope dilution technique. Samples with glass vials are introduced to RAD 7 and GC for dissolved Rn and major dissolved gases analyses. Furthermore, helium isotopic ratios and helium-neon ratios are measured on a conventional noble gas mass spectrometer. For hydrochemistry analysis, water samples are analyzed by IC, ICP-MS and titration. We can classify the hot springs samples into three major groups from main anion concentration data; and then, subdivide them into nine minor groups by cation concentration data. Moreover, according to major dissolved gases compositions, three major gas components: CH4, N2 and CO2, are identified. Dissolved noble gases provided more detailed clues about hot springs sources in Taiwan, such as the degree of mixing between meteoric water and deep-source water, which will be further discussed in this study.

  17. One-Dimension Diffusion Preparation of Concentration-Gradient Fe₂O₃/SiO₂ Aerogel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Wang, Haoran; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Xiujie; Wang, Hongqiang; Du, Ai

    2018-06-21

    Concentration-gradient Fe₂O₃/SiO₂ aerogels were prepared by placing an MTMS (methyltrimethoxysilane)-derived SiO₂ aerogel on an iron gauze with an HCl atmosphere via one-dimensional diffusion, ammonia-atmosphere fixing, supercritical fluid drying and thermal treatment. The energy dispersive spectra show that the Fe/Si molar ratios change gradually from 2.14% to 18.48% with a height of 40 mm. Pore-size distribution results show that the average pore size of the sample decreases from 15.8 nm to 3.1 nm after diffusion. This corresponds well with TEM results, indicating a pore-filling effect of the Fe compound. In order to precisely control the gradient, diffusion kinetics are further studied by analyzing the influence of time and position on the concentration of the wet gel. At last, it is found that the diffusion process could be fitted well with the one-dimensional model of Fick’s second law, demonstrating the feasibility of the precise design and control of the concentration gradient.

  18. Gentamicin concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following systemic applications

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N.; Schumacher, Ulrike; Plontke, Stefan K.

    2013-01-01

    In prior studies it was shown that round window membrane (RWM) application of gentamicin produced a robust baso-apical concentration gradient in the perilymph of scala tympani (ST) with peak concentrations in the basal turn of ST. These gradients potentially contribute to the clinical efficacy and safety of intratympanic gentamicin applications for the treatment of Meniere’s disease. The present study aimed to establish the distribution of gentamicin along ST perilymph after systemic applications. Gentamicin sulfate was applied intravenously in the amounts of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/bw over a period of three hours or as a 300 mg/kg/bw subcutaneous bolus injection. Three and five hours after the start of the application perilymph of ST was aspirated from the cochlea apex of the right and left cochlea, respectively. Ten sequential 1 μL-perilymph samples from the apex of each cochlea were quantitatively analyzed using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In contrast to local RWM delivery, systemic application of gentamicin resulted in highest perilymph levels in the apex of the cochlea with decreasing concentrations towards the basal regions of ST. The absolute gentamicin concentrations increased with amount of drug applied and time before sampling. While the basal-apical gradient measured after local drug applications to the RW niche is likely the result of the direct uptake of drugs into the perilymph of the ST, distribution by diffusion and a very low perilymph flow towards the cochlear apex, computer simulations suggested that the apical-basal gradient observed with these systemic applications can be explained by higher entry rates of gentamicin in the apex compared to the basal turns of the cochlea. It is also possible that gentamicin enters perilymph indirectly from blood via the endolymph. In this case the faster kinetics in apical turns could be due to the smaller cross-sectional area of scala tympani relative to endolymph in the apical turns. PMID

  19. Gentamicin concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following systemic applications.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N; Schumacher, Ulrike; Plontke, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown in prior studies that round window membrane (RWM) application of gentamicin produced a robust basal-apical concentration gradient in the perilymph of scala tympani (ST) with peak concentrations in the basal turn of ST. These gradients potentially contribute to the clinical efficacy and safety of intratympanic gentamicin applications for the treatment of Ménière's disease. The present study aimed to establish the distribution of gentamicin along ST perilymph after systemic applications. Gentamicin sulfate was applied intravenously in the amounts of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) over a period of 3 h or as a 300 mg/kg BW subcutaneous bolus injection. At 3 and 5 h after the start of the application perilymph of ST was aspirated from the cochlea apex of the right and left cochlea, respectively, and 10 sequential 1-µl perilymph samples from the apex of each cochlea were quantitatively analyzed using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In contrast to local RWM delivery, systemic application of gentamicin resulted in the highest perilymph levels in the apex of the cochlea with decreasing concentrations towards the basal regions of ST. The absolute gentamicin concentrations increased with the amount of drug applied and time before sampling. While it is likely that the basal-apical gradient measured after local drug applications to the round window niche is the result of the direct uptake of drugs into the perilymph of the ST, distribution by diffusion and a very low perilymph flow towards the cochlear apex, computer simulations suggested that the apical-basal gradient observed with these systemic applications can be explained by higher entry rates of gentamicin in the apex compared to the basal turns of the cochlea. It is also possible that gentamicin enters perilymph indirectly from the blood via the endolymph. In this case the faster kinetics in apical turns could be due to the smaller cross-sectional area of ST relative to endolymph in

  20. Influence of the Latitudinal Temperature Gradient on Soil Dust Concentration and Deposition in Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegen, Ina; Rind, David

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of changes in the latitudinal temperature gradient and the global mean temperature on dust concentration in the Northern Hemisphere, experiments with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GCM) are performed. The dust concentration over Greenland is calculated from sources in central and eastern Asia, which are integrated on-line in the model. The results show that an increase in the latitudinal temperature gradient increases both the Asian dust source strength and the concentration over Greenland. The source increase is the result of increased surface winds, and to a minor extent, the increase in Greenland dust is also associated with increased northward transport. Cooling the climate in addition to this increased gradient leads to a decrease in precipitation scavenging, which helps produce a further (slight) increase in Greenland dust in this experiment. Reducing the latitudinal gradient reduces the surface wind and hence the dust source, with a subsequent reduction in Greenland dust concentrations. Warming the climate in addition to this reduced gradient leads to a further reduction in Greenland dust due to enhanced precipitation scavenging. These results can be used to evaluate the relationship of Greenland ice core temperature changes to changes in the latitudinal and global temperatures.

  1. Gas1 extends the range of Hedgehog action by facilitating its signaling

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, David C.; Fan, Chen-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Cellular signaling initiated by Hedgehog binding to Patched1 has profound importance in mammalian embryogenesis, genetic disease, and cancer. Hedgehog acts as a morphogen to specify distinctive cell fates using different concentration thresholds, but our knowledge of how the concentration gradient is interpreted into the activity gradient is incomplete. The membrane protein Growth Arrest-Specific Gene 1 (GAS1) was thought to be a negative regulator of the Hedgehog concentration gradient. Here, we report unexpected genetic evidence that Gas1 positively regulates Hedgehog signaling in multiple developmental contexts, an effect particularly noticeable at regions where Hedgehog acts at low concentration. Using a combination of in vitro cell culture and in ovo electroporation assays, we demonstrate that GAS1 acts cooperatively with Patched1 for Hedgehog binding and enhances signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner. Our data support a model in which GAS1 helps transform the Hedgehog protein gradient into the observed activity gradient. We propose that Gas1 is an evolutionarily novel, vertebrate-specific Hedgehog pathway regulator. PMID:17504940

  2. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  3. Homeostasis of the Intraparenchymal-Blood Glutamate Concentration Gradient: Maintenance, Imbalance, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wei; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). However, there is also a large amount of glutamate in the blood. Generally, the concentration gradient of glutamate between intraparenchymal and blood environments is stable. However, this gradient is dramatically disrupted under a variety of pathological conditions, resulting in an amplifying cascade that causes a series of pathological reactions in the CNS and peripheral organs. This eventually seriously worsens a patient’s prognosis. These two “isolated” systems are rarely considered as a whole even though they mutually influence each other. In this review, we summarize what is currently known regarding the maintenance, imbalance and regulatory mechanisms that control the intraparenchymal-blood glutamate concentration gradient, discuss the interrelationships between these systems and further explore their significance in clinical practice. PMID:29259540

  4. Velocity Gradients in the Intracluster Gas of the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato A.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2001-02-01

    We report the results of spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of eight different ASCA pointings distributed symmetrically around the center of the Perseus Cluster. The outer region of the intracluster gas is roughly isothermal, with temperature ~6-7 keV and metal abundance ~0.3 solar. Spectral analysis of the central pointing is consistent with the presence of a cooling flow and a central metal abundance gradient. A significant velocity gradient is found along an axis at a position angle of ~135°, which is ~45° discrepant with the major axis of the X-ray elongation. The radial velocity difference is found to be greater than 1000 km s-1 Mpc-1 at the 90% confidence level. Simultaneous fittings of GIS 2 and 3 indicate that the velocity gradient is significant at the 95% confidence level, and the F-test rules out constant velocities at the 99% level. Intrinsic short- and long-term variations of gain are unlikely (P<0.03) to explain the velocity discrepancies.

  5. First gas-phase metallicity gradients of 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 galaxies with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, David; Brinchmann, Jarle; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoît; Finley, Hayley; Richard, Johan; Patrício, Vera; Schaye, Joop; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2018-05-01

    Galaxies at low-redshift typically possess negative gas-phase metallicity gradients (centres more metal-rich than their outskirts). Whereas, it is not uncommon to observe positive metallicity gradients in higher-redshift galaxies (z ≳ 0.6). Bridging these epochs, we present gas-phase metallicity gradients of 84 star-forming galaxies between 0.08 < z < 0.84. Using the galaxies with reliably determined metallicity gradients, we measure the median metallicity gradient to be negative (-0.039^{+0.007}_{-0.009} dex/kpc). Underlying this, however, is significant scatter: (8 ± 3)% [7] of galaxies have significantly positive metallicity gradients, (38 ± 5)% [32] have significantly negative gradients, (31 ± 5)% [26] have gradients consistent with being flat. (The remaining (23 ± 5)% [19] have unreliable gradient estimates.) We notice a slight trend for a more negative metallicity gradient with both increasing stellar mass and increasing star formation rate (SFR). However, given the potential redshift and size selection effects, we do not consider these trends to be significant. Indeed, once we normalize the SFR relative to that of the main sequence, we do not observe any trend between the metallicity gradient and the normalized SFR. This is contrary to recent studies of galaxies at similar and higher redshifts. We do, however, identify a novel trend between the metallicity gradient of a galaxy and its size. Small galaxies (rd < 3 kpc) present a large spread in observed metallicity gradients (both negative and positive gradients). In contrast, we find no large galaxies (rd > 3 kpc) with positive metallicity gradients, and overall there is less scatter in the metallicity gradient amongst the large galaxies. These large (well-evolved) galaxies may be analogues of present-day galaxies, which also show a common negative metallicity gradient.

  6. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, p<0.001). Relatively tolerant mayflies Baetis and Caenis (r=0.64, p=0.04), filtering hydropsychid caddisflies (r=0.73, p=0.01), and chironomid midge densities (r=0.79, p=0.008) also increased in streams where more well pads were closer to stream channels. Macroinvertebrate trophic structure reflected environmental conditions with greater sediment and primary production in streams with more gas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, p<0.001) were the only in-stream variables correlated with gas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas

  7. Fabrication Processes to Generate Concentration Gradients in Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Shusei; Vohra, Varun

    2017-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor. In this review, we relate processes to generate active layers with ED–EA vertical concentration gradients. After summarizing the formation of such concentration gradients in single layer active layers through processes such as annealing or additives, we will verify that sequential deposition of multilayered active layers can be an efficient approach to remarkably increase the fill factor and PCE of PSCs. In fact, applying this challenging approach to fabricate inverted architecture PSCs has the potential to generate low-cost, high efficiency and stable devices, which may revolutionize worldwide energy demand and/or help develop next generation devices such as semi-transparent photovoltaic windows. PMID:28772878

  8. Fabrication Processes to Generate Concentration Gradients in Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Shusei; Vohra, Varun

    2017-05-09

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor. In this review, we relate processes to generate active layers with ED-EA vertical concentration gradients. After summarizing the formation of such concentration gradients in single layer active layers through processes such as annealing or additives, we will verify that sequential deposition of multilayered active layers can be an efficient approach to remarkably increase the fill factor and PCE of PSCs. In fact, applying this challenging approach to fabricate inverted architecture PSCs has the potential to generate low-cost, high efficiency and stable devices, which may revolutionize worldwide energy demand and/or help develop next generation devices such as semi-transparent photovoltaic windows.

  9. Temperature Gradient Effect on Gas Discrimination Power of a Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Sensor Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Sysoev, Victor V.; Kiselev, Ilya; Frietsch, Markus; Goschnick, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents results concerning the effect of spatial inhomogeneous operating temperature on the gas discrimination power of a gas-sensor microarray, with the latter based on a thin SnO2 film employed in the KAMINA electronic nose. Three different temperature distributions over the substrate are discussed: a nearly homogeneous one and two temperature gradients, equal to approx. 3.3 °C/mm and 6.7 °C/mm, applied across the sensor elements (segments) of the array. The gas discrimination power of the microarray is judged by using the Mahalanobis distance in the LDA (Linear Discrimination Analysis) coordinate system between the data clusters obtained by the response of the microarray to four target vapors: ethanol, acetone, propanol and ammonia. It is shown that the application of a temperature gradient increases the gas discrimination power of the microarray by up to 35 %.

  10. Response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaci; Zhang, Zhaoji; Li, Yasong; Wen, Yi; Fei, Yuhong

    2017-07-29

    The extensive use of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry can lead to environmental arsenic contamination. This study was conducted to reveal the response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient. To explore the degradation process and degradation kinetics of roxarsone concentration gradients in soil, the concentration shift of roxarsone at initial concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, as well as that of the arsenic derivatives, was detected. The soil microbial community composition and structure accompanying roxarsone degradation were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that roxarsone degradation was inhibited by a biological inhibitor, confirming that soil microbes were absolutely essential to its degradation. Moreover, soil microbes had considerable potential to degrade roxarsone, as a high initial concentration of roxarsone resulted in a substantially increased degradation rate. The concentrations of the degradation products HAPA (3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), AS(III), and AS(V) in soils were significantly positively correlated. The soil microbial community composition and structure changed significantly across the roxarsone contamination gradient, and the addition of roxarsone decreased the microbial diversity. Some bacteria tended to be inhibited by roxarsone, while Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Lysobacter, and Alkaliphilus played important roles in roxarsone degradation. Moreover, HAPA, AS(III), and AS(V) were significantly positively correlated with Symbiobacterium, which dominated soils containing roxarsone, and their abundance increased with increasing initial roxarsone concentration. Accordingly, Symbiobacterium could serve as indicator of arsenic derivatives released by roxarsone as well as the initial roxarsone concentration. This is the first investigation of microbes closely related to roxarsone

  11. Prediction and validation of concentration gradient generation in a paper-based microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ilhoon; Kim, Gang-June; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    A paper-based microfluidic channel has obtained attention as a diagnosis device that can implement various chemical or biological reactions. With benefits of thin, flexible, and strong features of paper devices, for example, it is often utilized for cell culture where controlling oxygen, nutrients, metabolism, and signaling molecules gradient affects the growth and movement of the cells. Among various features of paper-based microfluidic devices, we focus on establishment of concentration gradient in a paper channel. The flow is subject to dispersion and capillary effects because a paper is a porous media. In this presentation, we describe facile, fast and accurate method of generating a concentration gradient by using flow mixing of different concentrations. Both theoretical prediction and experimental validation are discussed along with inter-diffusion characteristics of porous flows. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  12. Why do disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, R.; Zhang, Shuhui; Shen, Shiyin; Yin, Jun; Hou, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    CALIFA data show that isolated disk galaxies present a common gas-phase metallicity gradient, with a characteristic slope of -0.1dex/re between 0.3 and 2 disk effective radius re (Sanchez et al. 2014). Here we construct a simple model to investigate which processes regulate the formation and evolution.

  13. Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerr, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

  14. Metallicity gradients in local field star-forming galaxies: insights on inflows, outflows, and the coevolution of gas, stars and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kewley, Lisa J.; Zahid, H. Jabran; Dopita, Michael A.; Bresolin, Fabio; Rupke, David S. N.

    2015-04-01

    We present metallicity gradients in 49 local field star-forming galaxies. We derive gas-phase oxygen abundances using two widely adopted metallicity calibrations based on the [O III]/Hβ, [N II]/Hα, and [N II]/[O II] line ratios. The two derived metallicity gradients are usually in good agreement within ± 0.14 dex R_{25}^{-1} (R25 is the B-band iso-photoal radius), but the metallicity gradients can differ significantly when the ionization parameters change systematically with radius. We investigate the metallicity gradients as a function of stellar mass (8 < log (M*/M⊙) < 11) and absolute B-band luminosity (-16 > MB > -22). When the metallicity gradients are expressed in dex kpc-1, we show that galaxies with lower mass and luminosity, on average, have steeper metallicity gradients. When the metallicity gradients are expressed in dex R_{25}^{-1}, we find no correlation between the metallicity gradients, and stellar mass and luminosity. We provide a local benchmark metallicity gradient of field star-forming galaxies useful for comparison with studies at high redshifts. We investigate the origin of the local benchmark gradient using simple chemical evolution models and observed gas and stellar surface density profiles in nearby field spiral galaxies. Our models suggest that the local benchmark gradient is a direct result of the coevolution of gas and stellar disc under virtually closed-box chemical evolution when the stellar-to-gas mass ratio becomes high (≫0.3). These models imply low current mass accretion rates ( ≲ 0.3 × SFR), and low-mass outflow rates ( ≲ 3 × SFR) in local field star-forming galaxies.

  15. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, xylem and phloem transport, water potential and carbohydrate concentration in a realistic 3-D model tree crown.

    PubMed

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Sievänen, Risto; Hölttä, Teemu

    2014-09-01

    Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion-tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics. A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading. Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology.

  16. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Tielin; Xi, Shuang; Lai, Wuxing; Liu, Shiyuan; Li, Xiaoping; Tang, Zirong

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features.

  17. Axial thermal gradients in microchip gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anzi; Hynynen, Sampo; Hawkins, Aaron R; Tolley, Samuel E; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2014-12-29

    Fabrication technologies for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) allow miniaturization of conventional benchtop gas chromatography (GC) to portable, palm-sized microfabricated GC (μGC) devices, which are suitable for on-site chemical analysis and remote sensing. The separation performance of μGC systems, however, has not been on par with conventional GC. Column efficiency, peak symmetry and resolution are often compromised by column defects and non-ideal injections. The relatively low performance of μGC devices has impeded their further commercialization and broader application. In this work, the separation performance of μGC columns was improved by incorporating thermal gradient gas chromatography (TGGC). The analysis time was ∼20% shorter for TGGC separations compared to conventional temperature-programmed GC (TPGC) when a wide sample band was introduced into the column. Up to 50% reduction in peak tailing was observed for polar analytes, which improved their resolution. The signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of late-eluting peaks were increased by 3-4 fold. The unique focusing effect of TGGC overcomes many of the previous shortcomings inherent in μGC analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal concentrations in urban riparian sediments along an urbanization gradient

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Bain; Ian D. Yesilonis; Richard V. Pouyat

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization impacts fluvial systems via a combination of changes in sediment chemistry and basin hydrology. While chemical changes in urban soils have been well characterized, similar surveys of riparian sediments in urbanized areas are rare. Metal concentrations were measured in sediments collected from riparian areas across the urbanization gradient in Baltimore, MD...

  19. Gradient complex protective coatings for single-crystal turbine blades of high-heat gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. P.; Lesnikov, V. P.; Muboyadzhyan, S. A.; Repina, O. V.

    2007-05-01

    Complex diffusion-condensation protective coatings characterized by gradient distribution of alloying elements over the thickness due to formation of a diffusion barrier layer on the surface of blades followed by deposition of condensation alloyed layers based on the Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y system and an external layer based on a NiAl alloyed β-phase and a ZrO2: Y2O3 ceramics are presented. A complex gradient coating possessing unique protective properties at t = 1100-1200°C for single-crystal blades from alloy ZhS36VI for advanced gas turbine engines with gas temperature of 1550°C at the inlet to the turbine is described.

  20. The development of concentration gradients in a suspension of chemotactic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillesdon, A. J.; Pedley, T. J.; Kessler, J. O.

    1995-01-01

    When a suspension of bacterial cells of the species Bacillus subtilis is placed in a chamber with its upper surface open to the atmosphere complex bioconvection patterns are observed. These arise because the cells: (1) are denser than water; and (2) usually swim upwards, so that the density of an initially uniform suspension becomes greater at the top than the bottom. When the vertical density gradient becomes large enough, an overturning instability occurs which ultimately evolves into the observed patterns. The reason that the cells swim upwards is that they are aerotactic, i.e., they swim up gradients of oxygen, and they consume oxygen. These properties are incorporated in conservation equations for the cell (N) and oxygen (C) concentrations, and these are solved in the pre-instability phase of development when N and C depend only on the vertical coordinate and time. Numerical results are obtained for both shallow- and deep-layer chambers, which are intrinsically different and require different mathematical and numerical treatments. It is found that, for both shallow and deep chambers, a thin boundary layer, densely packed with cells, forms near the surface. Beneath this layer the suspension becomes severely depleted of cells. Furthermore, in the deep chamber cases, a discontinuity in the cell concentration arises between this cell-depleted region and a cell-rich region further below, where no significant oxygen concentration gradients develop before the oxygen is fully consumed. The results obtained from the model are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Concentration gradient along the scala tympani after local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Plontke, Stefan K; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea after local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected, and histologic studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex after local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. A recently developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along the scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples that were taken after up to 3 hours of local application to the round window niche. Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of the scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4,000 times greater concentration at the base compared with the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients.

  2. Concentration gradient along scala tympani following the local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane

    PubMed Central

    Plontke, Stefan K.; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M.; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea following local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected and histological studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex following local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. Methods A recently-developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used, in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples which were taken following up to three hours of local application to the round window niche. Results Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4000 times greater concentration at the base compared to the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. Conclusions The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients. PMID:17603318

  3. Laser cross-flow gas system

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A method and laser apparatus are disclosed which provide for a cross-flow of gas near one end of a laser discharge tube. The cross-flow of gas causes a concentration gradient which affects diffusion of contaminants in the discharge tube towards the cross-flow of the gas, which contaminants are then withdrawn from the discharge tube.

  4. Laser cross-flow gas system

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-11-24

    A method and laser apparatus are disclosed which provide for a cross-flow of gas near one end of a laser discharge tube. The cross-flow of gas causes a concentration gradient which affects diffusion of contaminants in the discharge tube towards the cross-flow of the gas, which contaminants are then withdrawn from the discharge tube. 1 figure.

  5. Microfluidic quadrupole and floating concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Gervais, Thomas; Juncker, David

    2011-09-06

    The concept of fluidic multipoles, in analogy to electrostatics, has long been known as a particular class of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation in potential flows; however, experimental observations of fluidic multipoles and of their characteristics have not been reported yet. Here we present a two-dimensional microfluidic quadrupole and a theoretical analysis consistent with the experimental observations. The microfluidic quadrupole was formed by simultaneously injecting and aspirating fluids from two pairs of opposing apertures in a narrow gap formed between a microfluidic probe and a substrate. A stagnation point was formed at the centre of the microfluidic quadrupole, and its position could be rapidly adjusted hydrodynamically. Following the injection of a solute through one of the poles, a stationary, tunable, and movable-that is, 'floating'-concentration gradient was formed at the stagnation point. Our results lay the foundation for future combined experimental and theoretical exploration of microfluidic planar multipoles including convective-diffusive phenomena.

  6. Flow distribution in parallel microfluidic networks and its effect on concentration gradient

    PubMed Central

    Guermonprez, Cyprien; Michelin, Sébastien; Baroud, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of microfluidic networks can significantly impact the flow distribution within its different branches and thereby influence tracer transport within the network. In this paper, we study the flow rate distribution within a network of parallel microfluidic channels with a single input and single output, using a combination of theoretical modeling and microfluidic experiments. Within the ladder network, the flow rate distribution follows a U-shaped profile, with the highest flow rate occurring in the initial and final branches. The contrast with the central branches is controlled by a single dimensionless parameter, namely, the ratio of hydrodynamic resistance between the distribution channel and the side branches. This contrast in flow rates decreases when the resistance of the side branches increases relative to the resistance of the distribution channel. When the inlet flow is composed of two parallel streams, one of which transporting a diffusing species, a concentration variation is produced within the side branches of the network. The shape of this concentration gradient is fully determined by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio of resistances, which determines the flow rate distribution, and the Péclet number, which characterizes the relative speed of diffusion and advection. Depending on the values of these two control parameters, different distribution profiles can be obtained ranging from a flat profile to a step distribution of solute, with well-distributed gradients between these two limits. Our experimental results are in agreement with our numerical model predictions, based on a simplified 2D advection-diffusion problem. Finally, two possible applications of this work are presented: the first one combines the present design with self-digitization principle to encapsulate the controlled concentration in nanoliter chambers, while the second one extends the present design to create a continuous concentration gradient within an open flow

  7. Quantification of susceptibility change at high-concentrated SPIO-labeled target by characteristic phase gradient recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Nie, Binbin; Liu, Hua; Guo, Hua; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Sekino, Masaki; Shan, Baoci

    2016-05-01

    Phase map cross-correlation detection and quantification may produce highlighted signal at superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and distinguish them from other hypointensities. The method may quantify susceptibility change by performing least squares analysis between a theoretically generated magnetic field template and an experimentally scanned phase image. Because characteristic phase recognition requires the removal of phase wrap and phase background, additional steps of phase unwrapping and filtering may increase the chance of computing error and enlarge the inconsistence among algorithms. To solve problem, phase gradient cross-correlation and quantification method is developed by recognizing characteristic phase gradient pattern instead of phase image because phase gradient operation inherently includes unwrapping and filtering functions. However, few studies have mentioned the detectable limit of currently used phase gradient calculation algorithms. The limit may lead to an underestimation of large magnetic susceptibility change caused by high-concentrated iron accumulation. In this study, mathematical derivation points out the value of maximum detectable phase gradient calculated by differential chain algorithm in both spatial and Fourier domain. To break through the limit, a modified quantification method is proposed by using unwrapped forward differentiation for phase gradient generation. The method enlarges the detectable range of phase gradient measurement and avoids the underestimation of magnetic susceptibility. Simulation and phantom experiments were used to quantitatively compare different methods. In vivo application performs MRI scanning on nude mice implanted by iron-labeled human cancer cells. Results validate the limit of detectable phase gradient and the consequent susceptibility underestimation. Results also demonstrate the advantage of unwrapped forward differentiation compared with differential chain algorithms for susceptibility

  8. Elastomeric gradients: a hedge against stress concentration in marine holdfasts?

    PubMed Central

    Waite, J Herbert; Vaccaro, Eleonora; Sun, Chengjun; Lucas, Jared M

    2002-01-01

    The byssal threads of marine mussels are elastomeric fibres with a great capacity for absorbing and dissipating energy. Up to 70% of the total absorbed energy can be dissipated in the byssus. Because byssal threads attach the mussel to hard inert surfaces in its habitat, they must combine the need to be good shock absorbers with appropriate matching of Young's modulus between living tissue and a hard sub-stratum such as stone - stiffnesses that can differ by five orders of magnitude. Recent data suggest that improved modulus matching and decreased stress concentration between different portions of the byssus is achieved by the use of protein gradients. Protein gradients in byssal threads are constructed using natural macromolecular chimeras having a central collagenous domain, variable flanking modules and histidine-rich amino and carboxy termini. Stiff silk-like flanking modules prevail distally, while at the animal end, rubbery modules resembling elastin predominate. In between the two thread ends there is a mix of both module types. The histidine-rich termini provide metal binding/cross-linking sites, while collagen domains may confer self-assembly on all parts of the structure. A graded axial distribution of flanking modules is expected to moderate stress concentration in joined materials having disparate moduli. PMID:11911771

  9. Elastomeric gradients: a hedge against stress concentration in marine holdfasts?

    PubMed

    Waite, J Herbert; Vaccaro, Eleonora; Sun, Chengjun; Lucas, Jared M

    2002-02-28

    The byssal threads of marine mussels are elastomeric fibres with a great capacity for absorbing and dissipating energy. Up to 70% of the total absorbed energy can be dissipated in the byssus. Because byssal threads attach the mussel to hard inert surfaces in its habitat, they must combine the need to be good shock absorbers with appropriate matching of Young's modulus between living tissue and a hard sub-stratum such as stone - stiffnesses that can differ by five orders of magnitude. Recent data suggest that improved modulus matching and decreased stress concentration between different portions of the byssus is achieved by the use of protein gradients. Protein gradients in byssal threads are constructed using natural macromolecular chimeras having a central collagenous domain, variable flanking modules and histidine-rich amino and carboxy termini. Stiff silk-like flanking modules prevail distally, while at the animal end, rubbery modules resembling elastin predominate. In between the two thread ends there is a mix of both module types. The histidine-rich termini provide metal binding/cross-linking sites, while collagen domains may confer self-assembly on all parts of the structure. A graded axial distribution of flanking modules is expected to moderate stress concentration in joined materials having disparate moduli.

  10. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  11. On the Concentration Gradient across a Spherical Source Washed by Slow Flow

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Lionel

    1965-01-01

    A model has been numerically analyzed to help interpret the orienting effects of flow upon cells. The model is a sphere steadily and uniformly emitting a diffusible stuff into a medium otherwise free of it and moving past with Stokes flow. Its properties depend primarily upon the Peclet number, Pe, equal to a · v∞/D, i.e., the sphere's radius, a, times the free stream speed, v∞, over the stuff's diffusion constant, D. As Pe rises, and washing becomes more effective, the average surface concentration, C̄s a falls (Figs. 2 and 5) and the residual material becomes relatively concentrated on the sphere's lee pole (Figs. 2 and 4). Specifically, as Pe rises from 0.1 to 1, the relative concentration gradient, G, rises from 0.7 to 5.0 per cent and to the point where it is rising at about 8 per cent per decade; by Pe 1000, G = 22.1 per cent. From Pe 1 through 1000, G/(1 - C̄s a), or the gradient per concentration deficiency remains at about 26 per cent suggesting that G approaches a ceiling of about 26 per cent. Also from Pe 1 through 1000, the average mass transfer co-efficient nearly equals that previously calculated for spheres maintaining constant surface concentration instead of flux. The complete differential equation without approximations, the Gauss-Seidel method, and an approximation for the outer boundary condition were used. PMID:14268954

  12. Effects of ionic concentration gradient on electroosmotic flow mixing in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ran; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-15

    Effects of ionic concentration gradient on electroosmotic flow (EOF) mixing of one stream of a high concentration electrolyte solution with a stream of a low concentration electrolyte solution in a microchannel are investigated numerically. The concentration field, flow field and electric field are strongly coupled via concentration dependent zeta potential, dielectric constant and electric conductivity. The results show that the electric field and the flow velocity are non-uniform when the concentration dependence of these parameters is taken into consideration. It is also found that when the ionic concentration of the electrolyte solution is higher than 1M, the electrolyte solution essentially cannot enter the channel due to the extremely low electroosmotic flow mobility. The effects of the concentration dependence of zeta potential, dielectric constant and electric conductivity on electroosmotic flow mixing are studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial chemotaxis along vapor-phase gradients of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Hanzel, Joanna; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y

    2010-12-15

    The role of bacterial growth and translocation for the bioremediation of organic contaminants in the vadose zone is poorly understood. Whereas air-filled pores restrict the mobility of bacteria, diffusion of volatile organic compounds in air is more efficient than in water. Past research, however, has focused on chemotactic swimming of bacteria along gradients of water-dissolved chemicals. In this study we tested if and to what extent Pseudomonas putida PpG7 (NAH7) chemotactically reacts to vapor-phase gradients forming above their swimming medium by the volatilization from a spot source of solid naphthalene. The development of an aqueous naphthalene gradient by air-water partitioning was largely suppressed by means of activated carbon in the agar. Surprisingly, strain PpG7 was repelled by vapor-phase naphthalene although the steady state gaseous concentrations were 50-100 times lower than the aqueous concentrations that result in positive chemotaxis of the same strain. It is thus assumed that the efficient gas-phase diffusion resulting in a steady, and possibly toxic, naphthalene flux to the cells controlled the chemotactic reaction rather than the concentration to which the cells were exposed. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of apparent chemotactic behavior of bacteria in response to vapor-phase effector gradients.

  14. Sensitivity of airborne fluorosensor measurements to linear vertical gradients in chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Punjabi, A. R.; Poole, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation model for airborne laser fluorosensors has been extended to investigate the effects of inhomogeneities in the vertical distribution of phytoplankton concentrations in clear seawater. Simulation results for linearly varying step concentrations of chlorophyll are presented. The results indicate that statistically significant differences can be seen under certain conditions in the water Raman-normalized fluorescence signals between nonhomogeneous and homogeneous cases. A statistical test has been used to establish ranges of surface concentrations and/or verticl gradients in which calibration by surface samples would by inappropriate, and the results are discussed.

  15. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  16. Growth of magnetotactic sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxygen concentration gradient medium.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Howse, Paul A; Schmidt, Marian L; Sabaty, Monique; Menguy, Nicolas; Luther, George W; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2016-12-01

    Although dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are generally described as strictly anaerobic organisms with regard to growth, several reports have shown that some SRB, particularly Desulfovibrio species, are quite resistant to O 2 . For example, SRB remain viable in many aerobic environments while some even reduce O 2 to H 2 O. However, reproducible aerobic growth of SRB has not been unequivocally documented. Desulfovibrio magneticus is a SRB that is also a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB). MTB biomineralize magnetosomes which are intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic iron mineral crystals. The ability of D. magneticus to grow aerobically in several different media under air where an O 2 concentration gradient formed, or under O 2 -free N 2 gas was tested. Under air, cells grew as a microaerophilic band of cells at the oxic-anoxic interface in media lacking sulfate. These results show that D. magneticus is capable of aerobic growth with O 2 as a terminal electron acceptor. This is the first report of consistent, reproducible aerobic growth of SRB. This finding is critical in determining important ecological roles SRB play in the environment. Interestingly, the crystal structure of the magnetite crystals of D. magneticus grown under microaerobic conditions showed significant differences compared with those produced anaerobically providing more evidence that environmental parameters influence magnetosome formation. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Krebs cycle metabolon formation: metabolite concentration gradient enhanced compartmentation of sequential enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Pelster, Lindsey N; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-01-25

    Dynamics of metabolon formation in mitochondria was probed by studying diffusional motion of two sequential Krebs cycle enzymes in a microfluidic channel. Enhanced directional co-diffusion of both enzymes against a substrate concentration gradient was observed in the presence of intermediate generation. This reveals a metabolite directed compartmentation of metabolic pathways.

  18. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  19. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dusek, Joseph T.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thadeus P.

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  20. Measurement of radon concentration in super-Kamiokande's buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Tasaka, S.; Takeuchi, Y.; Wendell, R. A.; Matsubara, M.; Nakahata, M.

    2017-09-01

    To precisely measure radon concentrations in purified air supplied to the Super-Kamiokande detector as a buffer gas, we have developed a highly sensitive radon detector with an intrinsic background as low as 0 . 33 ± 0 . 07 mBq /m3. In this article, we discuss the construction and calibration of this detector as well as results of its application to the measurement and monitoring of the buffer gas layer above Super-Kamiokande. In March 2013, the chilled activated charcoal system used to remove radon in the input buffer gas was upgraded. After this improvement, a dramatic reduction in the radon concentration of the supply gas down to 0 . 08 ± 0 . 07 mBq /m3. Additionally, the Rn concentration of the in-situ buffer gas has been measured 28 . 8 ± 1 . 7 mBq /m3 using the new radon detector. Based on these measurements we have determined that the dominant source of Rn in the buffer gas arises from contamination from the Super-Kamiokande tank itself.

  1. Microfluidic dissolved oxygen gradient generator biochip as a useful tool in bacterial biofilm studies.

    PubMed

    Skolimowski, Maciej; Nielsen, Martin Weiss; Emnéus, Jenny; Molin, Søren; Taboryski, Rafael; Sternberg, Claus; Dufva, Martin; Geschke, Oliver

    2010-08-21

    A microfluidic chip for generation of gradients of dissolved oxygen was designed, fabricated and tested. The novel way of active oxygen depletion through a gas permeable membrane was applied. Numerical simulations for generation of O(2) gradients were correlated with measured oxygen concentrations. The developed microsystem was used to study growth patterns of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in medium with different oxygen concentrations. The results showed that attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the substrate changed with oxygen concentration. This demonstrates that the device can be used for studies requiring controlled oxygen levels and for future studies of microaerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  2. Melanin concentration gradients in modern and fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Field, Daniel J; D'Alba, Liliana; Vinther, Jakob; Webb, Samuel M; Gearty, William; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    In birds and feathered non-avian dinosaurs, within-feather pigmentation patterns range from discrete spots and stripes to more subtle patterns, but the latter remain largely unstudied. A ∼55 million year old fossil contour feather with a dark distal tip grading into a lighter base was recovered from the Fur Formation in Denmark. SEM and synchrotron-based trace metal mapping confirmed that this gradient was caused by differential concentration of melanin. To assess the potential ecological and phylogenetic prevalence of this pattern, we evaluated 321 modern samples from 18 orders within Aves. We observed that the pattern was found most frequently in distantly related groups that share aquatic ecologies (e.g. waterfowl Anseriformes, penguins Sphenisciformes), suggesting a potential adaptive function with ancient origins.

  3. Microfluidic device generating stable concentration gradients for long term cell culture: application to Wnt3a regulation of β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Cimetta, Elisa; Cannizzaro, Christopher; James, Richard; Biechele, Travis; Moon, Randall T; Elvassore, Nicola; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-12-07

    In developing tissues, proteins and signaling molecules present themselves in the form of concentration gradients, which determine the fate specification and behavior of the sensing cells. To mimic these conditions in vitro, we developed a microfluidic device designed to generate stable concentration gradients at low hydrodynamic shear and allowing long term culture of adhering cells. The gradient forms in a culture space between two parallel laminar flow streams of culture medium at two different concentrations of a given morphogen. The exact algorithm for defining the concentration gradients was established with the aid of mathematical modeling of flow and mass transport. Wnt3a regulation of β-catenin signaling was chosen as a case study. The highly conserved Wnt-activated β-catenin pathway plays major roles in embryonic development, stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt3a stimulates the activity of β-catenin pathway, leading to translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus where it activates a series of target genes. We cultured A375 cells stably expressing a Wnt/β-catenin reporter driving the expression of Venus, pBARVS, inside the microfluidic device. The extent to which the β-catenin pathway was activated in response to a gradient of Wnt3a was assessed in real time using the BARVS reporter gene. On a single cell level, the β-catenin signaling was proportionate to the concentration gradient of Wnt3a; we thus propose that the modulation of Wnt3a gradients in real time can provide new insights into the dynamics of β-catenin pathway, under conditions that replicate some aspects of the actual cell-tissue milieu. Our device thus offers a highly controllable platform for exploring the effects of concentration gradients on cultured cells.

  4. The suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Popp, Andrea; Zane, Mathew; Clark, Jordan F.

    2018-01-01

    Determining groundwater discharge to streams using dissolved gases is known to be useful over a wide range of streamflow rates but the suitability of dissolved gas methods to determine discharge rates in high gradient mountain streams has not been sufficiently tested, even though headwater streams are critical as ecological habitats and water resources. The aim of this study is to test the suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge rates to high gradient streams by field experiments in a well-characterized, high gradient mountain stream and a literature review. At a reach scale (550 m) we combined stream and groundwater radon activity measurements with an in-stream SF6 tracer test. By means of numerical modeling we determined gas exchange velocities and derived very low groundwater discharge rates (∼15% of streamflow). These groundwater discharge rates are below the uncertainty range of physical streamflow measurements and consistent with temperature, specific conductance and streamflow measured at multiple locations along the reach. At a watershed-scale (4 km), we measured CFC-12 and δ18O concentrations and determined gas exchange velocities and groundwater discharge rates with the same numerical model. The groundwater discharge rates along the 4 km stream reach were highly variable, but were consistent with the values derived in the detailed study reach. Additionally, we synthesized literature values of gas exchange velocities for different stream gradients which show an empirical relationship that will be valuable in planning future dissolved gas studies on streams with various gradients. In sum, we show that multiple dissolved gas tracers can be used to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient mountain streams from reach to watershed scales.

  5. The suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Popp, Andrea; Zane, Matthew; Clark, Jordan F.

    2018-02-01

    Determining groundwater discharge to streams using dissolved gases is known to be useful over a wide range of streamflow rates but the suitability of dissolved gas methods to determine discharge rates in high gradient mountain streams has not been sufficiently tested, even though headwater streams are critical as ecological habitats and water resources. The aim of this study is to test the suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge rates to high gradient streams by field experiments in a well-characterized, high gradient mountain stream and a literature review. At a reach scale (550 m) we combined stream and groundwater radon activity measurements with an in-stream SF6 tracer test. By means of numerical modeling we determined gas exchange velocities and derived very low groundwater discharge rates (∼15% of streamflow). These groundwater discharge rates are below the uncertainty range of physical streamflow measurements and consistent with temperature, specific conductance and streamflow measured at multiple locations along the reach. At a watershed-scale (4 km), we measured CFC-12 and δ18O concentrations and determined gas exchange velocities and groundwater discharge rates with the same numerical model. The groundwater discharge rates along the 4 km stream reach were highly variable, but were consistent with the values derived in the detailed study reach. Additionally, we synthesized literature values of gas exchange velocities for different stream gradients which show an empirical relationship that will be valuable in planning future dissolved gas studies on streams with various gradients. In sum, we show that multiple dissolved gas tracers can be used to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient mountain streams from reach to watershed scales.

  6. Evolution of the Radial Abundance Gradient and Cold Gas along the Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. S.; Chang, R. X.; Yin, J.

    2014-03-01

    We have constructed a phenomenological model of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, and treated the molecular and atomic gas separately. Using this model, we explore the radial profiles of oxygen abundance, the surface density of cold gas, and their time evolutions. It is shown that the model predictions are very sensitive to the adopted infall time-scale. By comparing the model predictions with the observations, we find that the model adopting the star formation law based on H_2 can properly predict the observed radial distributions of cold gas and oxygen abundance gradient along the disk. We also compare the model results with the predictions of the model which adopts the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA), and find that the IRA assumption has little influence on the model results, especially in the low-density gas region.

  7. Impact of radon gas concentration in the aerosoles profile

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lukaj, Edmond, E-mail: mondilukaj@yahoo.com; Vila, Floran, E-mail: floranvila@yahoo.com; Mandija, Florian, E-mail: fmandija@yahoo.com

    Radon gases relased from building materials and from earth surface are the major responsibility of air ionization. Radon nuclear decay can produce an alpha particle with high energy and Radon progeny. This particle and gamma rays can deliver particles in the air and produce ions with different polarities. This ions, because of induced electric charge, can attach with air aerosols and charge them with their electric charge. The charged aerosols can interact with the other aerosols and ions. Because of this exchange, the air conductivity and the aerosol profiles will change dependently by Radon gas concentration and gamma radiation. Observationsmore » show an increase in concentration of Radon during the night, and a decrease during the daylight time. The Radon gas concentration changed hour by hour can induce aerosol profile to change. This dependency between the aerosol profiles and the Radon gas concentrations is discussed.« less

  8. Quantum oscillations in the kinetic energy density: Gradient corrections from the Airy gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindmaa, Alexander; Mattsson, Ann E.; Armiento, Rickard

    2014-03-01

    We show how one can systematically derive exact quantum corrections to the kinetic energy density (KED) in the Thomas-Fermi (TF) limit of the Airy gas (AG). The resulting expression is of second order in the density variation and we demonstrate how it applies universally to a certain class of model systems in the slowly varying regime, for which the accuracy of the gradient corrections of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) model is limited. In particular we study two kinds of related electronic edges, the Hermite gas (HG) and the Mathieu gas (MG), which are both relevant for discussing periodic systems. We also consider two systems with finite integer particle number, namely non-interacting electrons subject to harmonic confinement as well as the hydrogenic potential. Finally we discuss possible implications of our findings mainly related to the field of functional development of the local kinetic energy contribution.

  9. Droplet-based microfluidic flow injection system with large-scale concentration gradient by a single nanoliter-scale injection for enzyme inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Cai, Long-Fei; Zhu, Ying; Du, Guan-Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2012-01-03

    We described a microfluidic chip-based system capable of generating droplet array with a large scale concentration gradient by coupling flow injection gradient technique with droplet-based microfluidics. Multiple modules including sample injection, sample dispersion, gradient generation, droplet formation, mixing of sample and reagents, and online reaction within the droplets were integrated into the microchip. In the system, nanoliter-scale sample solution was automatically injected into the chip under valveless flow injection analysis mode. The sample zone was first dispersed in the microchannel to form a concentration gradient along the axial direction of the microchannel and then segmented into a linear array of droplets by immiscible oil phase. With the segmentation and protection of the oil phase, the concentration gradient profile of the sample was preserved in the droplet array with high fidelity. With a single injection of 16 nL of sample solution, an array of droplets with concentration gradient spanning 3-4 orders of magnitude could be generated. The present system was applied in the enzyme inhibition assay of β-galactosidase to preliminarily demonstrate its potential in high throughput drug screening. With a single injection of 16 nL of inhibitor solution, more than 240 in-droplet enzyme inhibition reactions with different inhibitor concentrations could be performed with an analysis time of 2.5 min. Compared with multiwell plate-based screening systems, the inhibitor consumption was reduced 1000-fold. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Concentration gradients and growth/decay characteristics of the seasonal sea ice cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Zwally, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of sea ice cover in both hemispheres are analyzed and compared. The areal sea ice cover in the entire polar regions and in various geographical sectors is quantified for various concentration intervals and is analyzed in a consistent manner. Radial profiles of brightness temperatures from the poles across the marginal zone are also evaluated at different transects along regular longitudinal intervals during different times of the year. These radial profiles provide statistical information about the ice concentration gradients and the rates at which the ice edge advances or retreats during a complete annual cycle.

  11. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  12. Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-07-01

    Headspace gas composition and bicarbonate concentrations in media can affect methane production and other characteristics of rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production systems, but these 2 important factors have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated with respect to gas and methane production, in vitro digestibility of feed substrate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile using in vitro gas production techniques. Three headspace gas compositions (N2+ CO2+ H2 in the ratio of 90:5:5, CO2, and N2) with 2 substrate types (alfalfa hay only, and alfalfa hay and a concentrate mixture in a 50:50 ratio) in a 3×2 factorial design (experiment 1) and 3 headspace compositions (N2, N2 + CO2 in a 50:50 ratio, and CO2) with 3 bicarbonate concentrations (80, 100, and 120 mM) in a 3×3 factorial design (experiment 2) were evaluated. In experiment 1, total gas production (TGP) and net gas production (NGP) was the lowest for CO2, followed by N2, and then the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas after fermentation was greater for CO2 than for N2 and the gas mixture, whereas total methane production (TMP) and net methane production (NMP) were the greatest for CO2, followed by the gas mixture, and then N2. Headspace composition did not affect in vitro digestibility or the VFA profile, except molar percentages of propionate, which were greater for CO2 and N2 than for the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas, TGP, and NGP were affected by the interaction of headspace gas composition and substrate type. In experiment 2, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the headspace decreased TGP and NGP quadratically, but increased the concentrations of methane, NMP, and in vitro fiber digestibility linearly, and TMP quadratically. Fiber digestibility, TGP, and NGP increased linearly with increasing bicarbonate concentrations in the medium. Concentrations of methane and NMP were unaffected by bicarbonate concentration, but

  13. Concentration and biochemical gradients of seston in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Paufve, Matthew R.; O'Malley, Brian P.; Watkins, James M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial variability in resource quantity and quality may have important implications for the distribution and productivity of primary consumers. In Lake Ontario, ecosystem characteristics suggest the potential for significant spatial heterogeneity in seston quantity and quality, particularly due to the potential for nearshore-offshore gradients in allochthonous nutrient supply, and the formation of a deep chlorophyll layer (DCL) in July. We assessed total and zooplankton food particle size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentrations, as well as carbon-to-phosphorus stoichiometry and essential fatty acid composition of seston across a distance-from-shore and depth transect. We observed time, sampling depth, and distance from shore to be the best predictors of chlorophyll a concentration. Resource quality was much more homogenous in space, but there were strong patterns through time, as both stoichiometric and fatty acid qualities in general were greatest in May, and lowest in July/August. We did observe a peak in essential fatty acid concentration near the DCL in during time of formation, possibly due to differences in phytoplankton community composition between the DCL and epilimnion. These results suggest the potential for a spatially and temporally dynamic resource base for consumers in Lake Ontario, which may be important in developing a broader understanding of variable consumer productivity.

  14. Geochemical constraints on the distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Lorenson, T.; Winters, W.; Dougherty, J.

    2005-01-01

    Gas hydrates are common within near-seafloor sediments immediately surrounding fluid and gas venting sites on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico. However, the distribution of gas hydrates within sediments away from the vents is poorly documented, yet critical for gas hydrate assessments. Porewater chloride and sulfate concentrations, hydrocarbon gas compositions, and geothermal gradients obtained during a porewater geochemical survey of the northern Gulf of Mexico suggest that the lack of bottom simulating reflectors in gas-rich areas of the gulf may be the consequence of elevated porewater salinity, geothermal gradients, and microbial gas compositions in sediments away from fault conduits. 

  15. Factors associated with NO2 and NOX concentration gradients near a highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond-Bryant, J.; Snyder, M. G.; Owen, R. C.; Kimbrough, S.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to learn how the near-road gradient, in which NO2 and NOX (NO + NO2) concentrations are elevated, varies with changes in meteorological and traffic variables. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were obtained east of I-15 in Las Vegas and fit to functions whose slopes (dCNO2/dx and dCNOX/dx, respectively) characterize the size of the near-road zone where NO2 and NOX concentrations from mobile sources on the highway are elevated. These metrics were used to learn about the near-road gradient by modeling dCNO2/dx and dCNOX/dx as functions of meteorological variables (e.g., wind direction, wind speed), traffic (vehicle count), NOX concentration upwind of the road, and O3 concentration at two fixed-site ambient monitors. Generalized additive models (GAM) were used to model dCNO2/dx and dCNOX/dx versus the independent variables because they allowed for nonlinearity of the variables being compared. When data from all wind directions were included in the analysis, variability in O3 concentration comprised the largest proportion of variability in dCNO2/dx, followed by variability in wind direction. In a second analysis constrained to winds from the west, variability in O3 concentration remained the largest contributor to variability in dCNO2/dx, but the relative contribution of variability in wind speed to variability in dCNO2/dx increased relative to its contribution for the all-wind analysis. When data from all wind directions were analyzed, variability in wind direction was by far the largest contributor to variability in dCNOX/dx, with smaller contributions from hour of day and upwind NOX concentration. When only winds from the west were analyzed, variability in upwind NOX concentration, wind speed, hour of day, and traffic count all were associated with variability in dCNOX/dx. Increases in O3 concentration were associated with increased magnitude near-road dCNO2/dx, possibly shrinking the zone of elevated concentrations occurring near roads

  16. Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes along an urbanization gradient.

    PubMed

    Becker, Diego Fedrizzi Petry; Linden, Rafael; Schmitt, Jairo Lizandro

    2017-04-15

    Richness, coverage and concentration of heavy metals in vascular epiphytes were analyzed in isolated trees along an urbanization gradient in Southern Brazil. A total of 20 phorophytes were sampled in the main street of each site. Concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc were measured in the leaves of Tillandsia recurvata L. using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. A decreasing gradient of epiphyte richness and coverage was observed as urbanization increased. Vehicle fleet and demographic density were the parameters most correlated with the reduction of epiphytic diversity. In T. recurvata, significantly higher values of cadmium, lead and zinc were recorded in the most urbanized areas, and were strongly related to the vehicle fleet and to the demographic density in these sites. The results demonstrated that these parameters could be applied to the diagnosis of environmental quality in urban areas, allowing standardized analyses in other regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-06-16

    Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.

  18. Historical greenhouse gas concentrations for climate modelling (CMIP6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinshausen, Malte; Vogel, Elisabeth; Nauels, Alexander; Lorbacher, Katja; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Etheridge, David M.; Fraser, Paul J.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Rayner, Peter J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Beyerle, Urs; Canadell, Josep G.; Daniel, John S.; Enting, Ian G.; Law, Rachel M.; Lunder, Chris R.; O'Doherty, Simon; Prinn, Ron G.; Reimann, Stefan; Rubino, Mauro; Velders, Guus J. M.; Vollmer, Martin K.; Wang, Ray H. J.; Weiss, Ray

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are at unprecedented, record-high levels compared to the last 800 000 years. Those elevated GHG concentrations warm the planet and - partially offset by net cooling effects by aerosols - are largely responsible for the observed warming over the past 150 years. An accurate representation of GHG concentrations is hence important to understand and model recent climate change. So far, community efforts to create composite datasets of GHG concentrations with seasonal and latitudinal information have focused on marine boundary layer conditions and recent trends since the 1980s. Here, we provide consolidated datasets of historical atmospheric concentrations (mole fractions) of 43 GHGs to be used in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 6 (CMIP6) experiments. The presented datasets are based on AGAGE and NOAA networks, firn and ice core data, and archived air data, and a large set of published studies. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, the new datasets are latitudinally resolved and include seasonality. We focus on the period 1850-2014 for historical CMIP6 runs, but data are also provided for the last 2000 years. We provide consolidated datasets in various spatiotemporal resolutions for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as 40 other GHGs, namely 17 ozone-depleting substances, 11 hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 9 perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2). In addition, we provide three equivalence species that aggregate concentrations of GHGs other than CO2, CH4 and N2O, weighted by their radiative forcing efficiencies. For the year 1850, which is used for pre-industrial control runs, we estimate annual global-mean surface concentrations of CO2 at 284.3 ppm, CH4 at 808.2 ppb and N2O at 273.0 ppb. The data are available at

  19. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  20. Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David

    2005-01-01

    We have worked with our collaborators at the University of Milan (Professor Marzio Giglio and his group-supported by ASI) to define the science required to measure gradient driven fluctuations in the microgravity environment. Such a study would provide an accurate test of the extent to which the theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be used to predict the properties of fluids maintained in a stressed, non-equilibrium state. As mentioned above, the results should also provide direct visual insight into the behavior of a variety of fluid systems containing gradients or interfaces, when placed in the microgravity environment. With support from the current grant, we have identified three key systems for detailed investigation. These three systems are: 1) A single-component fluid to be studied in the presence of a temperature gradient; 2) A mixture of two organic liquids to be studied both in the presence of a temperature gradient, which induces a steady-state concentration gradient, and with the temperature gradient removed, but while the concentration gradient is dying by means of diffusion; 3) Various pairs of liquids undergoing free diffusion, including a proteidbuffer solution and pairs of mixtures having different concentrations, to allow us to vary the differences in fluid properties in a controlled manner.

  1. A Technique for Rapidly Deploying a Concentration Gradient with Applications to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2000-01-01

    The latter half of the last century has seen rapid advancements in semiconductor crystal growth powered by the demand for high performance electronics in myriad applications. The reduced gravity environment of space has also been used for crystal growth tests, especially in instances where terrestrial growth has largely been unsuccessful. While reduced gravity crystal growth affords some control of the gravity parameter, many crystals grown in space, to date, have structural flaws believed to result from convective motions during the growth phase. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with thermal and solutal density variations near the solidification interface in the presence of residual gravity and g-jitter. In order to study these instabilities in a separate, controlled space experiment, a concentration gradient would first have to be artificially established in a timely manner as an initial condition. This is generally difficult to accomplish in a microgravity environment because the momentum of the fluid injected into a test cell tends to swirl around and mix in the absence of a restoring force. The use of magnetic fields to control the motion and position of liquids has received growing interest in recent times. The possibility of using the force exerted by a non-uniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid to not only achieve fluid manipulation but also to actively control fluid motion makes it an attractive candidate for space applications. This paper describes a technique for quickly establishing a linear or exponential fluid concentration gradient using a magnetic field in place of gravity to stabilize the deployment. Also discussed is a photometric technique for measuring the concentration profile using light attenuation. Results of the ground-based experiments indicate that the concentration distribution is within 3% of the predicted value. Although any range of concentations can be realized, photometric constraints are

  2. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained...

  3. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained...

  4. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained...

  5. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained...

  6. 40 CFR 52.277 - Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. 52.277 Section 52.277 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Oxides of nitrogen, combustion gas concentration limitations. (a) The following rules are being retained...

  7. Rapid concentration of deoxyribonucleic acid via Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing in poly-dimethylsiloxane microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhengwei; Wang, Wei; Yang, Chun

    2015-02-09

    This paper reports rapid microfluidic electrokinetic concentration of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with the Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing (TGF) by using our proposed combined AC and DC electric field technique. A peak of 480-fold concentration enhancement of DNA sample is achieved within 40s in a simple poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel of a sudden expansion in cross-section. Compared to a sole DC field, the introduction of an AC field can reduce DC field induced back-pressure and produce sufficient Joule heating effects, resulting in higher concentration enhancement. Within such microfluidic channel structure, negative charged DNA analytes can be concentrated at a location where the DNA electrophoretic motion is balanced with the bulk flow driven by DC electroosmosis under an appropriate temperature gradient field. A numerical model accounting for a combined AC and DC field and back-pressure driven flow effects is developed to describe the complex Joule heating induced TGF processes. The experimental observation of DNA concentration phenomena can be explained by the numerical model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The generation of concentration gradients using electroosmotic flow in micro reactors allowing stereoselective chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Skelton, V; Greenway, G M; Haswell, S J; Styring, P; Morgan, D O; Warrington, B H; Wong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The stereoselective control of chemical reactions has been achieved by applying electrical fields in a micro reactor generating controlled concentration gradients of the reagent streams. The chemistry based upon well-established Wittig synthesis was carried out in a micro reactor device fabricated in borosilicate glass using photolithographic and wet etching techniques. The selectivity of the cis (Z) to trans (E) isomeric ratio in the product synthesised was controlled by varying the applied voltages to the reagent reservoirs within the micro reactor. This subsequently altered the relative reagent concentrations within the device resulting in Z/E ratios in the range 0.57-5.21. By comparison, a traditional batch method based on the same reaction length, concentration, solvent and stoichiometry (i.e., 1.0:1.5:1.0 reagent ratios) gave a Z/E in the range 2.8-3.0. However, when the stoichiometric ratios were varied up to ten times as much, the Z/E ratios varied in accordance to the micro reactor i.e., when the aldehyde is in excess, the Z isomer predominates whereas when the aldehyde is in low concentrations, the E isomer is the more favourable form. Thus indicating that localised concentration gradients generated by careful flow control due to the diffusion limited non-turbulent mixing regime within a micro reactor, leads to the observed stereo selectivity for the cis and trans isomers.

  9. Vertical profile of tritium concentration in air during a chronic atmospheric HT release.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2003-03-01

    The vertical profiles of tritium gas and tritiated water concentrations in air, which would have an influence on the assessment of tritium doses as well as on the environmental monitoring of tritium, were measured in a chronic tritium gas release experiment performed in Canada in 1994. While both of the profiles were rather uniform during the day because of atmospheric mixing, large gradients of the profiles were observed at night. The gradient coefficients of the profiles were derived from the measurements. Correlations were analyzed between the gradient coefficients and meteorological conditions: solar radiation, wind speed, and turbulent diffusivity. It was found that the solar radiation was highly correlated with the gradient coefficients of tritium gas and tritiated water profiles and that the wind speed and turbulent diffusivity showed weaker correlations with those of tritiated water profiles. A one-dimensional tritium transport model was developed to analyze the vertical diffusion of tritiated water re-emitted from the ground into the atmosphere. The model consists of processes of tritium gas deposition to soil including oxidation into tritiated water, reemission of tritiated water, dilution of tritiated water in soil by rain, and vertical diffusion of tritiated water in the atmosphere. The model accurately represents the accumulation of tritiated water in soil water and the time variations and vertical profiles of tritiated water concentrations in air.

  10. Factors associated with NO2 and NOX concentration gradients near a highway.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Snyder, M G; Owen, R C; Kimbrough, S

    2017-11-21

    The objective of this research is to learn how the near-road gradient, in which NO 2 and NO X (NO + NO 2 ) concentrations are elevated, varies with changes in meteorological and traffic variables. Measurements of NO 2 and NO X were obtained east of I-15 in Las Vegas and fit to functions whose slopes (dC NO 2 /dx and dC NO X /dx, respectively) characterize the size of the near-road zone where NO 2 and NO X concentrations from mobile sources on the highway are elevated. These metrics were used to learn about the near-road gradient by modeling dC NO 2 /dx and dC NO X /dx as functions of meteorological variables (e.g., wind direction, wind speed), traffic (vehicle count), NO X concentration upwind of the road, and O 3 concentration at two fixed-site ambient monitors. Generalized additive models (GAM) were used to model dC NO 2 /dx and dC NO X /dx versus the independent variables because they allowed for nonlinearity of the variables being compared. When data from all wind directions were included in the analysis, variability in O 3 concentration comprised the largest proportion of variability in dC NO 2 /dx, followed by variability in wind direction. In a second analysis constrained to winds from the west, variability in O 3 concentration remained the largest contributor to variability in dC NO 2 /dx, but the relative contribution of variability in wind speed to variability in dC NO 2 /dx increased relative to its contribution for the all-wind analysis. When data from all wind directions were analyzed, variability in wind direction was by far the largest contributor to variability in dC NO X /dx, with smaller contributions from hour of day and upwind NO X concentration. When only winds from the west were analyzed, variability in upwind NO X concentration, wind speed, hour of day, and traffic count all were associated with variability in dC NO X /dx. Increases in O 3 concentration were associated with increased magnitude near-road dC NO 2 /dx, possibly shrinking the

  11. High-Thermal- and Air-Stability Cathode Material with Concentration-Gradient Buffer for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Qi, Ran; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fu, Wei-Gui; Yin, Ya-Xia; Xu, Jian; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-12-13

    Delivery of high capacity with high thermal and air stability is a great challenge in the development of Ni-rich layered cathodes for commercialized Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we present a surface concentration-gradient spherical particle with varying elemental composition from the outer end LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NCM) to the inner end LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (NCA). This cathode material with the merit of NCM concentration-gradient protective buffer and the inner NCA core shows high capacity retention of 99.8% after 200 cycles at 0.5 C. Furthermore, this cathode material exhibits much improved thermal and air stability compared with bare NCA. These results provide new insights into the structural design of high-performance cathodes with high energy density, long life span, and storage stability materials for LIBs in the future.

  12. In vitro reconstruction of branched tubular structures from lung epithelial cells in high cell concentration gradient environment.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Peng, Fei; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2015-01-27

    We have succeeded in developing hollow branching structure in vitro commonly observed in lung airway using primary lung airway epithelial cells. Cell concentration gradient is the key factor that determines production of the branching cellular structures, as optimization of this component removes the need for heterotypic culture. The higher cell concentration leads to the more production of morphogens and increases the growth rate of cells. However, homogeneous high cell concentration does not make a branching structure. Branching requires sufficient space in which cells can grow from a high concentration toward a low concentration. Simulation performed using a reaction-diffusion model revealed that long-range inhibition prevents cells from branching when they are homogeneously spread in culture environments, while short-range activation from neighboring cells leads to positive feedback. Thus, a high cell concentration gradient is required to make branching structures. Spatial distributions of morphogens, such as BMP-4, play important roles in the pattern formation. This simple yet robust system provides an optimal platform for the further study and understanding of branching mechanisms in the lung airway, and will facilitate chemical and genetic studies of lung morphogenesis programs.

  13. Formation and coalescence of nanobubbles under controlled gas concentration and species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenliang; Zhang, A.-Man; Wang, Shiping; Cui, Pu

    2018-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, the effects of gas concentration and species on the coalescence and growth of nanobubbles were systematically investigated. With increasing gas concentration, not only surface nanobubbles but also bulk nanobubbles are formed. The bulk nanobubble in water is less explored so far. Here, its coalescence, stability, movement trajectory and velocity are discussed. A comparison of the motion and coalescence of the bulk nanobubble to the surface nanobubble, directly demonstrates that the three-phase contact line plays a crucial role for surface nanobubble stability. Compared with the bubble size, the distance between surface nanobubbles is a more important factor to decide the merging order among three nanobubbles. The study also shows that three factors including the oversaturated gas concentration, the distance between surface nanobubbles, and the stronger solid-gas interactions influence the formation of the gas-enrichment layer at the solid-liquid interface. The result has an important significance to enhancing the boundary slip due to the presence of nanobubbles.

  14. Dexamethasone levels and base to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following intracochlear delivery in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N.; Biegner, Thorsten; Kammerer, Bernd; Delabar, Ursular; Hartsock, Jared; Plontke, Stefan K.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis To determine whether intracochlearly applied dexamethasone will lead to better control of drug levels, higher peak concentrations and lower base-to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani (ST) of the guinea pig than after intratympanic (round window, RW) application. Background Local application of drugs to the RW results in substantial variation of intracochlear drug levels and significant base-to apex concentration gradients in ST. Methods Two μL of dexamethasone-phosphate (10 mg/mL) were injected into ST either through the RW membrane which was covered with 1% sodium hyaluronate gel or through a cochleostomy with a fluid tight seal of the micropipette. Perilymph was sequentially sampled from the apex at a single time point for each animal, at 20, 80, or 200 min after the injection ended. Results were mathematically interpreted by the means of an established computer model and compared with prior experiments performed by our group with the same experimental techniques but using intratympanic applications. Results Single intracochlear injections over 20 min resulted in approximately ten times higher peak concentrations (on average) than 2-3 hours of intratympanic application to the round window niche. Intracochlear drug levels were less variable and could be measured for at least up to 220 min. Concentration gradients along scala tympani were less pronounced. The remaining variability in intracochlear drug levels was attributable to perilymph and drug leak from the injection site. Conclusion With significantly higher, less variable drug levels and smaller base-to apex concentration gradients, intracochlear applications have advantages to intratympanic injections. For further development of this technique, it is of importance to control leaks of perilymph and drug from the injection site and to evaluate its clinical feasibility and associated risks. PMID:22588238

  15. Preliminary measurement of gas concentrations of perfluropropane using an analytical weighing balance.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Douglas McG; Manna, Avinish; Hero, Mark

    2014-02-01

    We describe the use of an analytical weighing balance of measurement accuracy 0.00001g for determination of concentrations of perfluropropane (C3F8) gas used in ophthalmic surgical vitrectomy procedures. A range of test eyes corresponding to an eye volume of 6.1ml were constructed using 27 gauge needle exit ducts and separately 20 gauge (straight) and 23 gauge (angled) entrance ports. This method allowed determination of concentration levels in the sample preparation syringe and also levels in test eyes. It was determined that a key factor influencing gas concentrations accuracy related to the method of gas fill and the value of dead space of the gas preparation/delivery system and with a significant contribution arising from the use of the particle filter. The weighing balance technique was identified as an appropriate technique for estimation of gas concentrations. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration-dependence of the explosion characteristics of chlorine dioxide gas.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ri-ya; Hu, Shuang-qi; Zhang, Yin-ghao; Bo, Tao

    2009-07-30

    The explosion characteristics of chlorine dioxide gas have been studied for the first time in a cylindrical exploder with a shell capacity of 20 L. The experimental results have indicated that the lower concentration limit for the explosive decomposition of chlorine dioxide gas is 9.5% ([ClO(2)]/[air]), whereas there is no corresponding upper concentration limit. Under the experimental conditions, and within the explosion limits, the pressure of explosion increases with increasing concentration of chlorine dioxide gas; the maximum pressure of explosion relative to the initial pressure was measured as 0.024 MPa at 10% ClO(2) and 0.641 MPa at 90% ClO(2). The induction time (the time from the moment of sparking to explosion) has also been found to depend on the concentration of chlorine dioxide gas; thus, at 10% ClO(2) the induction time was 2195 ms, but at 90% ClO(2) the induction time was just 8 ms. The explosion reaction mechanism of ClO(2) is of a degenerate chain-branching type involving the formation of a stable intermediate (Cl(2)O(3)), from which the chain-branching occurs. Chain initiation takes place at the point of ignition and termination takes place at the inner walls of the exploder.

  17. Joint inversion of acoustic and resistivity data for the estimation of gas hydrate concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2002-01-01

    Downhole log measurements, such as acoustic or electrical resistivity logs, are frequently used to estimate in situ gas hydrate concentrations in the pore space of sedimentary rocks. Usually the gas hydrate concentration is estimated separately based on each log measurement. However, measurements are related to each other through the gas hydrate concentration, so the gas hydrate concentrations can be estimated by jointly inverting available logs. Because the magnitude of slowness of acoustic and resistivity values differs by more than an order of magnitude, a least-squares method, weighted by the inverse of the observed values, is attempted. Estimating the resistivity of connate water and gas hydrate concentration simultaneously is problematic, because the resistivity of connate water is independent of acoustics. In order to overcome this problem, a coupling constant is introduced in the Jacobian matrix. In the use of different logs to estimate gas hydrate concentration, a joint inversion of different measurements is preferred to the averaging of each inversion result.

  18. Dexamethasone levels and base-to-apex concentration gradients in the scala tympani perilymph after intracochlear delivery in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N; Biegner, Thorsten; Kammerer, Bernd; Delabar, Ursular; Hartsock, Jared J; Plontke, Stefan K

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether intracochlearly applied dexamethasone will lead to better control of drug levels, higher peak concentrations, and lower base-to-apex concentration gradients in the scala tympani (ST) of the guinea pig than after intratympanic (round window [RW]) application. Local application of drugs to the RW results in substantial variation of intracochlear drug levels and significant base-to-apex concentration gradients in ST. Two microliters of dexamethasone-phosphate (10 mg/ml) were injected into ST either through the RW membrane, which was covered with 1% sodium hyaluronate gel or through a cochleostomy with a fluid tight seal of the micropipette. Perilymph was sequentially sampled from the apex at a single time point for each animal, at 20, 80, or 200 min after the injection ended. Results were mathematically interpreted by means of an established computer model and compared with previous experiments performed by our group with the same experimental techniques but using intratympanic applications. Single intracochlear injections of 20 minutes resulted in approximately 10 times higher peak concentrations (on average) than 2 to 3 hours of intratympanic application to the RW niche. Intracochlear drug levels were less variable and could be measured for over 220 minutes. Concentration gradients along the scala tympani were less pronounced. The remaining variability in intracochlear drug levels was attributable to perilymph and drug leak from the injection site. With significantly higher, less variable drug levels and smaller base-to-apex concentration gradients, intracochlear applications have advantages to intratympanic injections. For further development of this technique, it is of importance to control leaks of perilymph and drug from the injection site and to evaluate its clinical feasibility and associated risks.

  19. A coal mine multi-point fiber ethylene gas concentration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Liu, Tongyu

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous combustion of the coal mine goaf is one of the main disasters in the coal mine. The detection technology based on symbolic gas is the main means to realize the spontaneous combustion prediction of the coal mine goaf, and ethylene gas is an important symbol gas of spontaneous combustion in the coal accelerated oxidation stage. In order to overcome the problem of current coal ethylene detection, the paper presents a mine optical fiber multi-point ethylene concentration sensor based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Based on the experiments and analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of ethylene, the system employed the 1.62 μm (DFB) wavelength fiber coupled distributed feedback laser as the light source. By using the wavelength scanning technique and developing a stable fiber coupled Herriot type long path gas absorption cell, a ppm-level high sensitivity detecting system for the concentration of ethylene gas was realized, which could meet the needs of coal mine fire prevention goaf prediction.

  20. Observation and simulation of flow on soap film induced by concentration gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Mitsuru; Yoshihara, Shoichi; Azuma, Hisao

    The behavior of the flow and capillary wave induced on the film surface by the surfactant concentration difference is studied. Flat soap film is used as a model of thin film. The result is applicable to the case of flow by thermal gradient. The Schlieren method is used to observe the flow and the wave on the soap film. It is found that the wave velocities, in the case of a high surface tension difference, are linearly related to the square root of the surface tension difference.

  1. Quality assured measurements of animal building emissions: gas concentrations.

    PubMed

    Heber, Albert J; Ni, Ji-Qin; Lim, Teng T; Tao, Pei-Chun; Schmidt, Amy M; Koziel, Jacek A; Beasley, David B; Hoff, Steven J; Nicolai, Richard E; Jacobson, Larry D; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2006-10-01

    Comprehensive field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter <10 microm in diameter, and total suspended particulate from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper focuses on the quasicontinuous gas concentration measurement at multiple locations among paired barns in seven states. Documented principles, used in air pollution monitoring at industrial sources, were applied in developing quality assurance (QA) project plans for these studies. Air was sampled from multiple locations with each gas analyzed with one high quality commercial gas analyzer that was located in an environmentally controlled on-farm instrument shelter. A nominal 4 L/min gas sampling system was designed and constructed with Teflon wetted surfaces, bypass pumping, and sample line flow and pressure sensors. Three-way solenoids were used to automatically switch between multiple gas sampling lines with > or =10 min sampling intervals. Inside and outside gas sampling probes were between 10 and 115 m away from the analyzers. Analyzers used chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photoacoustic infrared, and photoionization detectors for NH3, H2S, CO2, CH4, and NMHC, respectively. Data were collected using personal computer-based data acquisition hardware and software. This paper discusses the methodology of gas concentration measurements and the unique challenges that livestock barns pose for achieving desired accuracy and precision, data representativeness, comparability and completeness, and instrument calibration and maintenance.

  2. Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogen-Based Direct Visualization of Concentration Gradient Inside an Evaporating Binary Sessile Droplet.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Xie, Ni; Qiu, Zijie; Yang, Junxian; He, Minghao; Wong, Kam Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong; Qiu, Huihe

    2017-08-30

    In this study, the concentration gradient inside evaporating binary sessile droplets of 30, 50, and 60 vol % tetrahydrofuran (THF)/water mixtures was investigated. The 5 μL THF/water droplets were evaporated on a transparent hydrophobic substrate. This is the first demonstration of local concentration mapping within an evaporating binary droplet utilizing the aggregation-induced emission material. During the first two evaporation stages of the binary droplet, the local concentration can be directly visualized by the change of fluorescence emission intensity. Time-resolved average and local concentrations can be estimated by using the pre-established function of fluorescence intensity versus water volume fraction.

  3. A CO2 concentration gradient facility for testing CO2 enrichment and soil effects on grassland ecosystem function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continuing increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations mandate techniques for examining impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Most experiments examine only two or a few levels of CO2 concentration and a single soil type, but if CO2 can be varied as a gradient from subambient to superambient concentra...

  4. Gas hydrate concentration estimated from P- and S-wave velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, J. M.; Gei, D.

    2003-04-01

    We estimate the concentration of gas hydrate at the Mallik 2L-38 research site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, using P- and S-wave velocities obtained from well logging and vertical seismic profiles (VSP). The theoretical velocities are obtained from a poro-viscoelastic model based on a Biot-type approach. It considers the existence of two solids (grains and gas hydrate) and a fluid mixture and is based on the assumption that hydrate fills the pore space and shows interconnection. The moduli of the matrix formed by gas hydrate are obtained from the percolation model described by Leclaire et al., (1994). An empirical mixing law introduced by Brie et al., (1995) provides the effective bulk modulus of the fluid phase, giving Wood's modulus at low frequency and Voigt's modulus at high frequencies. The dry-rock moduli are estimated from the VSP profile where the rock is assumed to be fully saturated with water, and the quality factors are obtained from the velocity dispersion observed between the sonic and VSP velocities. Attenuation is described by using a constant-Q model for the dry rock moduli. The amount of dissipation is estimated from the difference between the seismic velocities and the sonic-log velocities. We estimate the amount of gas hydrate by fitting the sonic-log and seismic velocities to the theoretical velocities, using the concentration of gas hydrate as fitting parameter. We obtain hydrate concentrations up to 75 %, average values of 43 and 47 % from the VSP P- and S-wave velocities, respectively, and 47 and 42 % from the sonic-log P- and S-wave velocities, respectively. These averages are computed from 897 to 1110 m, excluding the zones where there is no gas hydrate. We found that modeling attenuation is important to obtain reliable results. largeReferences} begin{description} Brie, A., Pampuri, F., Marsala A.F., Meazza O., 1995, Shear Sonic Interpretation in Gas-Bearing Sands, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1995. Carcione, J

  5. Atmospheric hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations in the barnett shale natural gas production region.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sullivan, David W; Allen, David T

    2014-05-06

    Hourly ambient hydrocarbon concentration data were collected, in the Barnett Shale Natural Gas Production Region, using automated gas chromatography (auto-GC), for the period from April 2010 to December 2011. Data for three sites were compared: a site in the geographical center of the natural gas production region (Eagle Mountain Lake (EML)); a rural/suburban site at the periphery of the production region (Flower Mound Shiloh), and an urban site (Hinton). The dominant hydrocarbon species observed in the Barnett Shale region were light alkanes. Analyses of daily, monthly, and hourly patterns showed little variation in relative composition. Observed concentrations were compared to concentrations predicted using a dispersion model (AERMOD) and a spatially resolved inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from natural gas production (Barnett Shale Special Emissions Inventory) prepared by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), and other emissions information. The predicted concentrations of VOC due to natural gas production were 0-40% lower than background corrected measurements, after accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. Hourly and daily variations in observed, background corrected concentrations were primarily explained by variability in meteorology, suggesting that episodic emission events had little impact on hourly averaged concentrations. Total emissions for VOC from natural gas production sources are estimated to be approximately 25,300 tons/yr, when accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. This region produced, in 2011, approximately 5 bcf/d of natural gas (100 Gg/d) for a VOC to natural gas production ratio (mass basis) of 0.0006.

  6. Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, William H.

    1976-09-21

    A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

  7. Buoyancy-Marangoni convection in confined volatile binary fluids subject to a horizontal temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tongran; Grigoriev, Roman

    2017-11-01

    We consider convection in a layer of binary fluid with free surface subject to a horizontal temperature gradient in the presence of noncondensable gases, which is driven by a combination of three different forces: buoyancy, thermocapillarity, and solutocapillarity. Unlike buoyancy, both thermo- and solutocapillary stresses depend sensitively on the local phase equilibrium at the liquid-gas interface. In particular, thermocapillarity associated with the interfacial temperature gradient is controlled by the vapors' concentration along the interface, and solutocapillarity associated with the interfacial concentration gradient is controlled by differential phase change of two components of the liquid, which is strongly influenced by the presence of noncondensables. Therefore, flows in both phases, phase change, and effect of noncondensables all have to be considered. Numerical simulations based on a comprehensive model taking these effects into account show qualitative agreement with recent experiments which identified a number of flow regimes at various compositions of both phases. In particular,we find that the composition of both the gas and liquid phase have a significant effect on the observed convection patterns; this dependence can be understood using a simple analytical model. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1511470.

  8. Thermal Gradient Fining of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W.

    1983-01-01

    Molten glass fined (cleared of bubbles) by heating with suitable temperature gradient, according to preliminary experiments. Temperature gradient produces force on gas bubbles trapped in molten glass pushing bubbles to higher temperature region where they are collected. Concept demonstrated in experiments on Earth and on rocket.

  9. Chloride concentration gradients in tank-stored hydraulic fracturing fluids following flowback

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Edwards; Linda L. Tracy; William K. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    A natural gas well in West Virginia was hydraulically fractured and the flowback was recovered and stored in an 18-foot-deep tank. Both in situ field test kit and laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity and chloride concentrations increased substantially with depth, although the laboratory measurements showed a greater increase. The field test kit also...

  10. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  11. Assessing secondary science students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium through multiple contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Background: Studies have shown that students' knowledge of osmosis and diffusion and the concepts associated with these processes is often inaccurate. This is important to address, as these concepts not only provide the foundation for more advanced topics in biology and chemistry, but are also threaded throughout both state and national science standards. Purpose: In this study, designed to determine the completeness and accuracy of three specific students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium, I sought to address the following question: Using multiple evaluative methods, how can students' knowledge of molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium be characterized? Sample: This study focuses on data gathered from three students - Emma, Henry, and Riley - all of whom were gifted/honors ninth-grade biology students at a suburban high school in the southeast United States. Design and Methods: Using various qualitative data analysis techniques, I analyzed multiple sources of data from the three students, including multiple-choice test results, written free-response answers, think-aloud interview responses, and student drawings. Results: Results of the analysis showed that students maintained misconceptions about molecule movement, concentration gradients, and equilibrium. The conceptual knowledge students demonstrated differed depending on the assessment method, with the most distinct differences appearing on the multiple-choice versus the free-response questions, and in verbal versus written formats. Conclusions: Multiple levels of assessment may be required to obtain an accurate picture of content knowledge, as free-response and illustrative tasks made it difficult for students to conceal any misconceptions. Using a variety of assessment methods within a section of the curriculum can arguably help to provide a deeper understanding of student knowledge and learning, as well as illuminate misconceptions that may have

  12. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. An electronic nose for quantitative determination of gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The practical application of human nose for fragrance recognition is severely limited by the fact that our sense of smell is subjective and gets tired easily. Consequently, there is considerable need for an instrument that can be a substitution of the human sense of smell. Electronic nose devices from the mid 1980s are used in growing number of applications. They comprise an array of several electrochemical gas sensors with partial specificity and a pattern recognition algorithms. Most of such systems, however, is only used for qualitative measurements. In this article usage of such system in quantitative determination of gas concentration is demonstrated. Electronic nose consist of a sensor array with eight commercially available Taguchi type gas sensor. Performance of three different pattern recognition algorithms is compared, namely artificial neural network, partial least squares regression and support vector machine regression. The electronic nose is used for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide concentration determination.

  14. Method to make accurate concentration and isotopic measurements for small gas samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. R.; Wahl, E.; Cunningham, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon isotopic ratio measurements of CO2 and CH4 provide valuable insight into carbon cycle processes. However, many of these studies, like soil gas, soil flux, and water head space experiments, provide very small gas sample volumes, too small for direct measurement by current constant-flow Cavity Ring-Down (CRDS) isotopic analyzers. Previously, we addressed this issue by developing a sample introduction module which enabled the isotopic ratio measurement of 40ml samples or smaller. However, the system, called the Small Sample Isotope Module (SSIM), does dilute the sample during the delivery with inert carrier gas which causes a ~5% reduction in concentration. The isotopic ratio measurements are not affected by this small dilution, but researchers are naturally interested accurate concentration measurements. We present the accuracy and precision of a new method of using this delivery module which we call 'double injection.' Two portions of the 40ml of the sample (20ml each) are introduced to the analyzer, the first injection of which flushes out the diluting gas and the second injection is measured. The accuracy of this new method is demonstrated by comparing the concentration and isotopic ratio measurements for a gas sampled directly and that same gas measured through the SSIM. The data show that the CO2 concentration measurements were the same within instrument precision. The isotopic ratio precision (1σ) of repeated measurements was 0.16 permil for CO2 and 1.15 permil for CH4 at ambient concentrations. This new method provides a significant enhancement in the information provided by small samples.

  15. Utilizing patch and site level greenhouse-gas concentration measurements in tandem with the prognostic model, ecosys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, T. H.; Rey Sanchez, C.; Bohrer, G.; Riley, W. J.; Angle, J.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Stefanik, K. C.; Wrighton, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    Estimates of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets currently have large uncertainties. While wetlands are the largest source of natural methane (CH4) emissions worldwide, they are also important carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks. Determining the GHG budget of a wetland is challenging, particularly because wetlands have intrinsically temporally and spatially heterogeneous land cover patterns and complex dynamics of CH4 production and emissions. These issues pose challenges to both measuring and modeling GHG budgets from wetlands. To improve wetland GHG flux predictability, we utilized the ecosys model to predict CH4 fluxes from a natural temperate estuarine wetland in northern Ohio. Multiple patches of terrain (that included Typha spp. and Nelumbo lutea) were represented as separate grid cells in the model. Cells were initialized with measured values but were allowed to dynamically evolve in response to meteorological, hydrological, and thermodynamic conditions. Trace gas surface emissions were predicted as the end result of microbial activity, physical transport, and plant processes. Corresponding to each model gridcell, measurements of dissolved gas concentrations were conducted with pore-water dialysis samplers (peepers). The peeper measurements were taken via a series of tubes, providing an undisturbed observation of the pore water concentrations of in situ dissolved gases along a vertical gradient. Non-steady state chambers and a flux tower provided both patch level and integrated site-level fluxes of CO2 and CH4. New Typha chambers were also developed to enclose entire plants and segregate the plant fluxes from soil/water fluxes. We expect ecosys to predict the seasonal and diurnal fluxes of CH4 from within each land cover type and to resolve where CH4 is generated within the soil column and its transmission mechanisms. We demonstrate the need for detailed information at both the patch and site level when using models to predict whole wetland ecosystem-scale GHG

  16. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). II. Gas-Phase Metallicity and Radial Gradients in an Interacting System At Z ≃ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G. B.; Bradač, M.; Dressler, A.; Henry, A. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Pentericci, L.; Trenti, M.

    2015-03-01

    We present spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity for a system of three galaxies at z = 1.85 detected in the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST’s) diffraction limit and strong gravitational lensing by the cluster MACS J0717+3745 results in a spatial resolution of ≃200-300 pc, enabling good spatial sampling despite the intrinsically small galaxy sizes. The galaxies in this system are separated by ≃50-200 kpc in projection and are likely in an early stage of interaction, evidenced by relatively high specific star formation rates. Their gas-phase metallicities are consistent with larger samples at similar redshift, star formation rate (SFR), and stellar mass. We obtain a precise measurement of the metallicity gradient for one galaxy and find a shallow slope compared to isolated galaxies at high redshift, consistent with a flattening of the gradient due to gravitational interaction. An alternative explanation for the shallow metallicity gradient and elevated SFR is rapid recycling of metal-enriched gas, but we find no evidence for enhanced gas-phase metallicities which should result from this effect. Notably, the measured stellar masses log {{M}*}/{{M}} = 7.2-9.1 probe to an order of magnitude below previous mass-metallicity studies at this redshift. The lowest mass galaxy has properties similar to those expected for Fornax at this redshift, indicating that GLASS is able to directly study the progenitors of local group dwarf galaxies on spatially resolved scales. Larger samples from the full GLASS survey will be ideal for studying the effects of feedback, and the time evolution of metallicity gradients. These initial results demonstrate the utility of HST spectroscopy combined with gravitational lensing for characterizing resolved physical properties of galaxies at high redshift.

  17. Towards high concentration enhancement of microfluidic temperature gradient focusing of sample solutes using combined AC and DC field induced Joule heating.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhengwei; Wang, Wei; Yang, Chun

    2011-04-07

    It is challenging to continuously concentrate sample solutes in microfluidic channels. We present an improved electrokinetic technique for enhancing microfluidic temperature gradient focusing (TGF) of sample solutes using combined AC and DC field induced Joule heating effects. The introduction of an AC electric field component services dual functions: one is to produce Joule heat for generating temperature gradient; the other is to suppress electroosmotic flow. Consequently the required DC voltages for achieving sample concentration by Joule heating induced TGF are reduced, thereby leading to smaller electroosmotic flow (EOF) and thus backpressure effects. As a demonstration, the proposed technique can lead to concentration enhancement of sample solutes of more than 2500-fold, which is much higher than the existing literature reported microfluidic concentration enhancement by utilizing the Joule heating induced TGF technique.

  18. Integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation of saline-sodic soils: effects of voltage gradient and contaminant concentration on soil electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Essa, Mohammed Hussain; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Lukman, Salihu; Bukhari, Alaadin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique which couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic clay soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil electrical conductivity. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used for the experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model, optimize, and interpret the results obtained using Design-Expert version 8 platform. The total number of experiments conducted was 15 with voltage gradient, polarity reversal rate, and initial contaminant concentration as variables. The main target response discussed in this paper is the soil electrical conductivity due to its importance in electrokinetic remediation process. Responses obtained were fitted to quadratic models whose R (2) ranges from 84.66% to 99.19% with insignificant lack of fit in each case. Among the investigated factors, voltage gradient and initial contaminant concentration were found to be the most significant influential factors.

  19. Directional phytoscreening: contaminant gradients in trees for plume delineation.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Matt A; Shetty, Mikhil K; Markus, Samantha; Kroeker, Ryan; Parker, Beth L; Martinez, Camilo; Burken, Joel G

    2013-08-20

    Tree sampling methods have been used in phytoscreening applications to delineate contaminated soil and groundwater, augmenting traditional investigative methods that are time-consuming, resource-intensive, invasive, and costly. In the past decade, contaminant concentrations in tree tissues have been shown to reflect the extent and intensity of subsurface contamination. This paper investigates a new phytoscreening tool: directional tree coring, a concept originating from field data that indicated azimuthal concentrations in tree trunks reflected the concentration gradients in the groundwater around the tree. To experimentally test this hypothesis, large diameter trees were subjected to subsurface contaminant concentration gradients in a greenhouse study. These trees were then analyzed for azimuthal concentration gradients in aboveground tree tissues, revealing contaminant centroids located on the side of the tree nearest the most contaminated groundwater. Tree coring at three field sites revealed sufficiently steep contaminant gradients in trees reflected nearby groundwater contaminant gradients. In practice, trees possessing steep contaminant gradients are indicators of steep subsurface contaminant gradients, providing compass-like information about the contaminant gradient, pointing investigators toward higher concentration regions of the plume.

  20. Large-eddy simulation of dense gas dispersion over a simplified urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingstedt, E. M. M.; Osnes, A. N.; Åkervik, E.; Eriksson, D.; Reif, B. A. Pettersson

    2017-03-01

    Dispersion of neutral and dense gas over a simplified urban area, comprising four cubes, has been investigated by the means of large-eddy simulations (LES). The results have been compared to wind tunnel experiments and both mean and fluctuating quantities of velocity and concentration are in very good agreement. High-quality inflow profiles are necessary to achieve physically realistic LES results. In this study, profiles matching the atmospheric boundary layer flow in the wind tunnel, are generated by means of a separate precursor simulation. Emission of dense gas dramatically alters the flow in the near source region and introduces an upstream dispersion. The resulting dispersion patterns of neutral and dense gas differ significantly, where the plume in the latter case is wider and shallower. The dense gas is highly affected by the cube array, which seems to act as a barrier, effectively deflecting the plume. This leads to higher concentrations outside of the array than inside. On the contrary, the neutral gas plume has a Gaussian-type shape, with highest concentrations along the centreline. It is found that the dense gas reduces the vertical and spanwise turbulent momentum transport and, as a consequence, the turbulence kinetic energy. The reduction coincides with the area where the gradient Richardson number exceeds its critical value, i.e. where the flow may be characterized as stably stratified. Interestingly, this region does not correspond to where the concentration of dense gas is the highest (close to the ground), as this is also where the largest velocity gradients are to be found. Instead there is a layer in the middle of the dense gas cloud where buoyancy is dynamically dominant.

  1. Calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy for gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Min; Kan, RuiFeng; Chen, Bing; Xu, ZhenYu; Yang, ChenGuang; Chen, Xiang; Xia, HuiHui; Hu, Mai; He, Yabai; Liu, JianGuo; Fan, XueLi; Wang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    We report the development of an accurate calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy system based on the temporal wavelength response of a current-modulated quantum cascade laser (QCL) for gas concentration detections. Accurate measurements and determination of the QCL output intensity and wavelength response to current modulation enabled calculations of 1f-normalized 2f signal to obtain spectroscopic information with and without gas absorption in the beam path. The gas concentration was retrieved by fitting a simulation spectrum based on spectral line parameters to the background-subtracted 1f-normalized 2f signal based on measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate the performance of the developed system for the CH4 detection by applying an infrared QCL (at 7.84 µm or 1275 cm-1) to probe its two infrared transition lines at 1275.042 cm-1 and 1275.387 cm-1. The experimental results indicated very good agreements between measurements and modeling, for integrated absorbance ranging from 0.0057 cm-1 to 0.11 cm-1 (or absorbance ranging from 0.029 to 0.57). The extracted integrated absorbance was highly linear ( R = 0.99996) to the gas sample concentration. Deviations between the nominal sample gas concentrations and the extracted gas concentrations calculated based on HITRAN spectroscopic parameters were within 3.5%.

  2. Self-generated concentration and modulus gradient coating design to protect Si nano-wire electrodes during lithiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Yup; Ostadhossein, Alireza; van Duin, Adri C T; Xiao, Xingcheng; Gao, Huajian; Qi, Yue

    2016-02-07

    Surface coatings as artificial solid electrolyte interphases have been actively pursued as an effective way to improve the cycle efficiency of nanostructured Si electrodes for high energy density lithium ion batteries, where the mechanical stability of the surface coatings on Si is as critical as Si itself. However, the chemical composition and mechanical property change of coating materials during the lithiation and delithiation process imposed a grand challenge to design coating/Si nanostructure as an integrated electrode system. In our work, we first developed reactive force field (ReaxFF) parameters for Li-Si-Al-O materials to simulate the lithiation process of Si-core/Al2O3-shell and Si-core/SiO2-shell nanostructures. With reactive dynamics simulations, we were able to simultaneously track and correlate the lithiation rate, compositional change, mechanical property evolution, stress distributions, and fracture. A new mechanics model based on these varying properties was developed to determine how to stabilize the coating with a critical size ratio. Furthermore, we discovered that the self-accelerating Li diffusion in Al2O3 coating forms a well-defined Li concentration gradient, leading to an elastic modulus gradient, which effectively avoids local stress concentration and mitigates crack propagation. Based on these results, we propose a modulus gradient coating, softer outside, harder inside, as the most efficient coating to protect the Si electrode surface and improve its current efficiency.

  3. Hydrogen gas concentration measurement in small area using raman lidar measurement technnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Sachiyo; Asahi, Ippei; Shiina, Tatuso

    2018-04-01

    When change of hydrogen(H2) gas concentration in a certain point is measured, non-contact measurement technology with high temporal and spatial resolution is necessary. In this study, H2 concentration in the small area of <1cm2 under the gas flow was measured by using a Raman lidar. Raman scattering light at the measurement point of 750mm ahead was detected by the Raman lidar. As a result, it was proved that the H2 concentration of more than 100ppm could be successfully measured.

  4. Gas hydrate concentration and characteristics within Hydrate Ridge inferred from multicomponent seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Sen, Mrinal K.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2007-12-01

    A seismic experiment composed of streamer and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) surveys was conducted in the summer of 2002 at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, to map the gas hydrate distribution within the hydrate stability zone. Gas hydrate concentrations within the reservoir can be estimated with P wave velocity (Vp); however, we can further constrain gas hydrate concentrations using S wave velocity (Vs), and use Vs through its relationship to Vp (Vp/Vs) to reveal additional details such as gas hydrate form within the matrix (i.e., hydrate cements the grains, becomes part of the matrix frame or floats in pore space). Both Vp and Vs can be derived simultaneously by inverting multicomponent seismic data. In this study, we use OBS data to estimate seismic velocities where both gas hydrate and free gas are present in the shallow sediments. Once Vp and Vs are estimated, they are simultaneously matched with modeled velocities to estimate the gas hydrate concentration. We model Vp using an equation based on a modification of Wood's equation that incorporates an appropriate rock physics model and Vs using an empirical relation. The gas hydrate concentration is estimated to be up to 7% of the rock volume, or 12% of the pore space. However, Vp and Vs do not always fit the model simultaneously. Vp can vary substantially more than Vs. Thus we conclude that a model, in which higher concentrations of hydrate do not affect shear stiffness, is more appropriate. Results suggest gas hydrates form within the pore space of the sediments and become part of the rock framework in our survey area.

  5. Novel Apparatus for the Real-Time Quantification of Dissolved Gas Concentrations and Isotope Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M.; Leen, J.; Baer, D. S.; Owano, T. G.; Liem, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of dissolved gases and their isotopic composition are critical in studying a variety of phenomena, including underwater greenhouse gas generation, air-surface exchange, and pollution migration. These studies typically involve obtaining water samples from streams, lakes, or ocean water and transporting them to a laboratory, where they are degased. The gases obtained are then generally measured using gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for concentrations and isotope ratios, respectively. This conventional, off-line methodology is time consuming, significantly limits the number of the samples that can be measured and thus severely inhibits detailed spatial and temporal mapping of gas concentrations and isotope ratios. In this work, we describe the development of a new membrane-based degassing device that interfaces directly to Los Gatos Research (cavity enhanced laser absorption or Off-Axis ICOS) gas analyzers (cavity enhanced laser absorption or Off-Axis ICOS analyzers) to create an autonomous system that can continuously and quickly measure concentrations and isotope ratios of dissolved gases in real time in the field. By accurately controlling the water flow rate through the membrane degasser, gas pressure on the outside of the membrane, and water pressure on the inside of the membrane, the system is able to generate precise and highly reproducible results. Moreover, by accurately measuring the gas flow rates in and out of the degasser, the gas-phase concentrations (ppm) could be converted into dissolved gas concentrations (nM). We will present detailed laboratory test data that quantifies the linearity, precision, and dynamic range of the system for the concentrations and isotope ratios of dissolved methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. By interfacing the degassing device to a novel cavity-enhanced spectrometer (developed by LGR), preliminary data will also be presented for dissolved volatile organics (VOC) and other

  6. Effect of gas velocity and influent concentration on biofiltration of gasoline off-gas from soil vapor extraction.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Wan; Park, Joon-Seok; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gas inlet concentration and velocity on the biofiltration of gasoline vapor. Gasoline vapor was treated using a compost biofilter operated in an upflow mode for about 3 months. The inlet concentration of gasoline total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) ranged from about 300 to 7000 mgm(-3) and gas was injected at velocities of 6 and 15 mh(-1) (empty bed residence time (EBRT)=10 and 4 min, respectively). The maximum elimination capacities of TPH at 6 and 15 mh(-1) found in this research were over 24 and 19 gm(-3) of filling material h(-1), respectively. TPH removal data was fit using a first-order kinetic relationship. In the low concentration range of 300-3000 mg m(-3), the first-order kinetic constants varied between about 0.10 and 0.29 min(-1) regardless of gas velocities. At TPH concentrations greater than 3000 mgm(-3), the first-order kinetic constants were about 0.09 and 0.07 min(-1) at gas velocities of 6 mh(-1) and 15 mh(-1), respectively. To evaluate microbial dynamics, dehydrogenase activity, CO2 generation and microbial species diversity were analyzed. Dehydrogenase activity could be used as an indicator of microbial activity. TPH removal corresponded well with CO2 evolution. The average CO2 recovery efficiency for the entire biofilter ranged between 60% and 70%. When the gas velocity was 6 mh(-1), most of the microbial activity and TPH removal occurred in the first quarter of the biofilter. However, when the gas velocity was 15 mh(-1), the entire column contributed to removal. Spatial and temporal variations in the biofilter microbial population were also observed. Nearly 60% of the colonies isolated from the compost media prior to biofiltration were Bacillus. After 90 days of biofiltration, the predominant species in the lower portion (0-50 cm) of the filter were Rhodococcus, while Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter dominated the upper portion (75-100 cm). copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Minissale, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured by the track-etch method in 60 shallow holes, each 70 cm deep and supported by a capped plastic tube, along several major faults in central California during 1975-1985. This set of data was analyzed to investigate the seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in an area which has various geological conditions but similar climate. The results show several different patterns of seasonal variations, but all of which can be largely attributed to the water-saturation and moisture-retention characteristics of the shallow part of the soil. During the rainy winter and spring seasons, radon tended to be confined underground by the water-saturated surface soil which had much reduced gas permeability, while during the sunny summer and autumn seasons, it exhaled more readily as the soil became drier and more permeable. At several sites located on creeping faults, the radon-variation patterns changed with time, possibly because of disturbance of site condition by fault movement. ?? 1994.

  8. Impact of gradient timing error on the tissue sodium concentration bioscale measured using flexible twisted projection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Aiming; Atkinson, Ian C.; Vaughn, J. Thomas; Thulborn, Keith R.

    2011-12-01

    The rapid biexponential transverse relaxation of the sodium MR signal from brain tissue requires efficient k-space sampling for quantitative imaging in a time that is acceptable for human subjects. The flexible twisted projection imaging (flexTPI) sequence has been shown to be suitable for quantitative sodium imaging with an ultra-short echo time to minimize signal loss. The fidelity of the k-space center location is affected by the readout gradient timing errors on the three physical axes, which is known to cause image distortion for projection-based acquisitions. This study investigated the impact of these timing errors on the voxel-wise accuracy of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) bioscale measured with the flexTPI sequence. Our simulations show greater than 20% spatially varying quantification errors when the gradient timing errors are larger than 10 μs on all three axes. The quantification is more tolerant of gradient timing errors on the Z-axis. An existing method was used to measure the gradient timing errors with <1 μs error. The gradient timing error measurement is shown to be RF coil dependent, and timing error differences of up to ˜16 μs have been observed between different RF coils used on the same scanner. The measured timing errors can be corrected prospectively or retrospectively to obtain accurate TSC values.

  9. Shocks and metallicity gradients in normal star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting

    Gas flow is one of the most fundamental processes driving galaxy evolution. This thesis explores gas flows in local galaxies by studying metallicity gradients and galactic-scale outflows in normal star-forming galaxies. This is made possible by new integral field spectroscopy data that provide simultaneously spatial and spectral information of galaxies. First, I measure metallicity gradients in isolated disk galaxies and show that their metallicity gradients are remarkably simple and universal. When the metallicity gradients are normalized to galaxy sizes, all the 49 galaxies studied have virtually the same metallicity gradient. I model the common metallicity gradient using a simple chemical evolution model to understand its origin. The common metallicity gradient is a direct result of the coevolution of gas and stellar disk while galactic disks build up their masses from inside-out. Tight constraints on the mass outflow rates and inflow rates can be placed by the chemical evolution model. Second, I investigate galactic winds in normal star-forming galaxies using data from an integral field spectroscopy survey. I demonstrate how to search for galactic winds by probing emission line ratios, shocks, and gas kinematics. Galactic winds are found to be common even in normal star-forming galaxies that were not expected to host winds. By comparing galaxies with and without hosting winds, I show that galaxies with high star formation rate surface densities and bursty star formation histories are more likely to drive large-scale galactic winds. Finally, lzifu, a toolkit for fitting multiple emission lines simultaneously in integral field spectroscopy data, is developed in this thesis. I describe in detail the structure of the toolkit and demonstrate the capabilities of lzifu.

  10. [Raman Characterization of Hydrate Crystal Structure Influenced by Mine Gas Concentration].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-yong; Zhou, Hong-ji; Wu, Qiang; Gao, Xia

    2016-01-01

    CH4 /C2H6/N2 mixed hydrate formation experiments were performed at 2 degrees C and 5 MPa for three different mine gas concentrations (CH4/C2H6/N2, G1 = 54 : 36 : 10, G2 = 67.5 : 22.5 : 10, G3 = 81 : 9 : 10). Raman spectra for hydration products were obtained by using Microscopic Raman Spectrometer. Hydrate structure is determined by the Raman shift of symmetric C-C stretching vibration mode of C2H6 in the hydrate phase. This work is focused on the cage occupancies and hydration numbers, calculated by the fitting methods of Raman peaks. The results show that structure I (s I) hydrate forms in the G1 and G2 gas systems, while structure II (s II) hydrate forms in the G3 gas system, concentration variation of C2H6 in the gas samples leads to a change in hydrate structure from s I to s II; the percentages of CH4 and C2H6 in s I hydrate phase are less affected by the concentration of gas samples, the percentages of CH4 are respectively 34.4% and 35.7%, C2H6 are respectively 64.6% and 63.9% for gas systems of G1 and G2, the percentages of CH4 and 2 H6 are respectively 73.5% and 22.8% for gas systems of G3, the proportions of object molecules largely depend on the hydrate structure; CH4 and C2H6 molecules occupy 98%, 98% and 92% of the large cages and CH4 molecules occupy 80%, 60% and 84% of the small cages for gas systems of G1, G2 and G3, respectively; additionally, N2 molecules occupy less than 5% of the small cages is due to its weak adsorption ability and the lower partial pressure.

  11. Quantification of the effect of temperature gradients in soils on subsurface radon signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haquin, Gustavo; Ilzycer, Danielle; Kamai, Tamir; Zafrir, Hovav; Weisbrod, Noam

    2017-04-01

    Temperature gradients that develop in soils due to atmospheric temperature cycles are factors of primary importance in determining the rates and directions of subsurface gas flow. Models including mechanisms of thermal convection and thermal diffusion partially explain the impact of temperature gradients on subsurface radon transport. However, the overall impact of temperature gradients on subsurface radon transport is still not well understood. A laboratory setup was designed and built to experimentally investigate the influence of temperature gradients on radon transport under well controlled conditions. A 60 cm diameter and 120 cm tall column was thermally insulated except from the atmosphere-soil interface, such that it was constructed to simulate field conditions where temperature gradients in soils are developed following atmospheric temperature cycles. The column was filled with fine grinded phosphate rock which provided the porous media with radon source. Radon in soil-air was continuously monitored using NaI gamma detectors positioned at different heights along the column. Soil temperature, differential pressure, and relative humidity were monitored along the column. Experiments based on steep and gradual stepwise changes in ambient temperature were conducted. Absolute changes on radon levels in the order of 10-30% were measured at temperature gradients of up to ±20oC/m. Results showed a non-linear correlation between the temperature gradient and the subsurface radon concentration. An asymmetric relationship between the radon concentration and the temperature gradients for ΔT>0 and ΔT<0 was also observed. Laboratory simulations of the time- and depth-dependent temperature wave functions with frequencies ranged from a daily cycle to few days were performed. In response to the harmonic temperature behaviour radon oscillations at similar frequencies were detected correspondingly. In this work a quantitative relationship between radon and temperature

  12. Utilization of nuclear methods for materials analysis and the determination of concentration gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darras, R.

    1979-01-01

    The various types of nuclear chemical analysis methods are discussed. The possibilities of analysis through activation and direct observation of nuclear reactions are described. Such methods make it possible to analyze trace elements and impurities with selectivity, accuracy, and a high degree of sensitivity. Such methods are used in measuring major elements present in materials which are available for analysis only in small quantities. These methods are well suited to superficial analyses and to determination of concentration gradients; provided the nature and energy of the incident particles are chosen judiciously. Typical examples of steels, pure iron and refractory metals are illustrated.

  13. Application of an online ion-chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux

  14. Experimental measurements of the SP response to concentration and temperature gradients in sandstones with application to subsurface geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, E.; Jackson, M. D.

    2014-09-01

    Exclusion-diffusion potentials arising from temperature gradients are widely neglected in self-potential (SP) surveys, despite the ubiquitous presence of temperature gradients in subsurface settings such as volcanoes and hot springs, geothermal fields, and oil reservoirs during production via water or steam injection. Likewise, with the exception of borehole SP logging, exclusion-diffusion potentials arising from concentration gradients are also neglected or, at best, it is assumed that the diffusion potential dominates. To better interpret these SP sources requires well-constrained measurements of the various coupling terms. We report measurements of thermoelectric and electrochemical exclusion-diffusion potentials across sandstones saturated with NaCl brine and find that electrode effects can dominate the measured voltage. After correcting for these, we find that Hittorf transport numbers are the same within experimental error regardless of whether ion transport occurs in response to temperature or concentration gradients over the range of NaCl concentration investigated that is typical of natural systems. Diffusion potentials dominate only if the pore throat radius is more than approximately 4000 times larger than the diffuse layer thickness. In fine-grained sandstones with small pore throat diameter, this condition is likely to be met only if the saturating brine is of relatively high salinity; thus, in many cases of interest to earth scientists, exclusion-diffusion potentials will comprise significant contributions from both ionic diffusion through, and ionic exclusion from, the pore space of the rock. However, in coarse-grained sandstones, or sandstones saturated with high-salinity brine, exclusion-diffusion potentials can be described using end-member models in which ionic exclusion is neglected. Exclusion-diffusion potentials in sandstones depend upon pore size and salinity in a complex way: they may be positive, negative, or zero depending upon sandstone

  15. Role of spatial averaging in multicellular gradient sensing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler; Fancher, Sean; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-05-20

    Gradient sensing underlies important biological processes including morphogenesis, polarization, and cell migration. The precision of gradient sensing increases with the length of a detector (a cell or group of cells) in the gradient direction, since a longer detector spans a larger range of concentration values. Intuition from studies of concentration sensing suggests that precision should also increase with detector length in the direction transverse to the gradient, since then spatial averaging should reduce the noise. However, here we show that, unlike for concentration sensing, the precision of gradient sensing decreases with transverse length for the simplest gradient sensing model, local excitation-global inhibition. The reason is that gradient sensing ultimately relies on a subtraction of measured concentration values. While spatial averaging indeed reduces the noise in these measurements, which increases precision, it also reduces the covariance between the measurements, which results in the net decrease in precision. We demonstrate how a recently introduced gradient sensing mechanism, regional excitation-global inhibition (REGI), overcomes this effect and recovers the benefit of transverse averaging. Using a REGI-based model, we compute the optimal two- and three-dimensional detector shapes, and argue that they are consistent with the shapes of naturally occurring gradient-sensing cell populations.

  16. Role of spatial averaging in multicellular gradient sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tyler; Fancher, Sean; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Gradient sensing underlies important biological processes including morphogenesis, polarization, and cell migration. The precision of gradient sensing increases with the length of a detector (a cell or group of cells) in the gradient direction, since a longer detector spans a larger range of concentration values. Intuition from studies of concentration sensing suggests that precision should also increase with detector length in the direction transverse to the gradient, since then spatial averaging should reduce the noise. However, here we show that, unlike for concentration sensing, the precision of gradient sensing decreases with transverse length for the simplest gradient sensing model, local excitation-global inhibition. The reason is that gradient sensing ultimately relies on a subtraction of measured concentration values. While spatial averaging indeed reduces the noise in these measurements, which increases precision, it also reduces the covariance between the measurements, which results in the net decrease in precision. We demonstrate how a recently introduced gradient sensing mechanism, regional excitation-global inhibition (REGI), overcomes this effect and recovers the benefit of transverse averaging. Using a REGI-based model, we compute the optimal two- and three-dimensional detector shapes, and argue that they are consistent with the shapes of naturally occurring gradient-sensing cell populations.

  17. Toward Adequate Operation of Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors for Low-Concentration Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Su; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Jung, Sung Hyeon; Cho, Sung Woon; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2018-03-28

    We suggest the use of a thin-film transistor (TFT) composed of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) as a channel and a sensing layer for low-concentration NO 2 gas detection. Although amorphous oxide layers have a restricted surface area when reacting with NO 2 gas, such TFT sensors have incomparable advantages in the aspects of electrical stability, large-scale uniformity, and the possibility of miniaturization. The a-IGZO thin films do not possess typical reactive sites and grain boundaries, so that the variation in drain current of the TFTs strictly originates from oxidation reaction between channel surface and NO 2 gas. Especially, the sensing data obtained from the variation rate of drain current makes it possible to monitor efficiently and quickly the variation of the NO 2 concentration. Interestingly, we found that enhancement-mode TFT (EM-TFT) allows discrimination of the drain current variation rate at NO 2 concentrations ≤10 ppm, whereas a depletion-mode TFT is adequate for discriminating NO 2 concentrations ≥10 ppm. This discrepancy is attributed to the ratio of charge carriers contributing to gas capture with respect to total carriers. This capacity for the excellent detection of low-concentration NO 2 gas can be realized through (i) three-terminal TFT gas sensors using amorphous oxide, (ii) measurement of the drain current variation rate for high selectivity, and (iii) an EM mode driven by tuning the electrical conductivity of channel layers.

  18. Analysis of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer during structured electrodeposition of copper in high magnetic gradient fields.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-03-19

    To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.

  19. A modified Holly-Preissmann scheme for simulating sharp concentration fronts in streams with steep velocity gradients using RIV1Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao-wei; Zhu, De-jun; Chen, Yong-can; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2014-12-01

    RIV1Q is the stand-alone water quality program of CE-QUAL-RIV1, a hydraulic and water quality model developed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. It utilizes an operator-splitting algorithm and the advection term in governing equation is treated using the explicit two-point, fourth-order accurate, Holly-Preissmann scheme, in order to preserve numerical accuracy for advection of sharp gradients in concentration. In the scheme, the spatial derivative of the transport equation, where the derivative of velocity is included, is introduced to update the first derivative of dependent variable. In the stream with larger cross-sectional variation, steep velocity gradient can be easily found and should be estimated correctly. In the original version of RIV1Q, however, the derivative of velocity is approximated by a finite difference which is first-order accurate. Its leading truncation error leads to the numerical error of concentration which is related with the velocity and concentration gradients and increases with the decreasing Courant number. The simulation may also be unstable when a sharp velocity drop occurs. In the present paper, the derivative of velocity is estimated with a modified second-order accurate scheme and the corresponding numerical error of concentration decreases. Additionally, the stability of the simulation is improved. The modified scheme is verified with a hypothetical channel case and the results demonstrate that satisfactory accuracy and stability can be achieved even when the Courant number is very low. Finally, the applicability of the modified scheme is discussed.

  20. An in vitro hepatic zonation model with a continuous oxygen gradient in a microdevice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Asako; Kadokura, Kanae; Uchida, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kosuke

    2014-10-31

    In a hepatic lobule, different sets of metabolic enzymes are expressed in the periportal (PP) and pericentral (PC) regions, forming a functional zonation, and the oxygen gradient is considered a determinant of zone formation. It is desirable to reproduce lobular microenvironment in vitro, but incubation of primary hepatocytes in conventional culture dishes has been limited at fixed oxygen concentrations due to technical difficulties. We designed a cell culture microdevice with an oxygen gradient to reproduce the hepatic microenvironment in vitro. The oxygen gradient during cell culture was monitored using a laser-assisted phosphorescence quenching method, and the cellular oxygen consumption rate could be estimated from changes in the gradient. Culture medium was continuously exchanged through microchannels installed in the device to maintain the oxygen gradient for a long term without transient hyper-oxygenation. The oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes at 70.0mmHg and 31.4mmHg of partial oxygen pressure, which correspond to PP and PC regions in the microdevice, were 3.67×10(-10) and 3.15×10(-10)mol/s/10(6) cells, respectively. Antimycin A changed the oxygen gradient profile, indicating that cellular respiration can be estimated during cell culture. RT-PCR analysis of hepatocytes cultured under the oxygen gradient showed that mRNA expression of PEPCK and GK significantly increased in culture areas corresponding to PP and PC regions, respectively. These results indicate that the developed microdevice can reproduce the hepatic lobular microenvironment. The oxygen gradient in the microdevice can be closely controlled by changing the sizes of gas channels and the ambient oxygen concentration around the device; therefore, it could be expected to mimic the oxygen gradient of various organs, and it may be applicable to other pathological models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Researches on Reasonable Well Spacing of Gas Wells in Deep and low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Yu Bei; Hui, Li; Lin, Li Dong

    2018-06-01

    This Gs64 gas reservoir is a condensate gas reservoir which is relatively integrated with low porosity and low permeability found in Dagang Oilfield in recent years. The condensate content is as high as 610g/m3. At present, there are few reports about the well spacing of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad. Therefore, determining the reasonable well spacing of the gas reservoir is important for ensuring the optimal development effect and economic benefit of the gas field development. This paper discusses the reasonable well spacing of the deep and low permeability gas reservoir from the aspects of percolation mechanics, gas reservoir engineering and numerical simulation. considering there exist the start-up pressure gradient in percolation process of low permeability gas reservoir, this paper combined with productivity equation under starting pressure gradient, established the formula of gas well spacing with the formation pressure and start-up pressure gradient. The calculation formula of starting pressure gradient and well spacing of gas wells. Adopting various methods to calculate values of gas reservoir spacing are close to well testing' radius, so the calculation method is reliable, which is very important for the determination of reasonable well spacing in low permeability gas reservoirs.

  2. Confirmation of the sterilization effect using a high concentration of ozone gas for the bio-clean room.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Takuji; Nagano, Katsunori; Nogami, Toshihiro; Matsuki, Noritomo; Kosaka, Noriyoshi; Shintani, Hideharu; Katoh, Miyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A high-level aseptic environment must be maintained in bio-cleanrooms used for the manufacture of sterile products. In the past, formaldehyde gas was most commonly used to sterilize bio-cleanrooms, but due to strict residual limitations there has been a need to develop a less toxic alternative choice. The authors have developed a revolutionary new sterilization system using a high concentration of ozone gas and used this system to sterilize an actual bio-cleanroom. This system integrates the ozone gas generator with the air conditioning system by proper control. The design specifications for the system included an ozone gas concentration of 200 ppm or more, relative humidity of 80% or more, and a sterilizing time of 120 min. Blow vents and suction ports were placed to ensure a uniform airflow which would extend through the entire room during ozone gas sterilization. Tests regarding long-term material exposure to ozone gas were conducted when the system was introduced to distinguish usable and unusable materials. In an actually constructed cleanroom, simulations were used to predict the evenness of the diffusion of ozone gas concentration and relative humidity during ozone gas sterilization, and measurements of the actual indoor ozone gas concentration, temperature and relative humidity during sterilization revealed that the ozone concentration and relative humidity needed for sterilization had been achieved generally throughout the entire environment. In addition, the CT value (mg/m(3) (=ppm) × min) , derived by multiplying the ozone gas concentration during ozone gas sterilization by the sterilization time, was equal to or greater than the target value of 24 × 10(3) (ppm·min) . When the results of sterilization in a cleanroom were confirmed using a biological indicator (BI) , negative results were obtained at all measurement points, demonstrating that sterilization was being performed effectively in the actual factory at which the ozone gas sterilization system

  3. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterization of homogeneous solution concentration gradients near a container wall at different temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, B. H.; Burns, D. H.; Lee, Y. G. L.; Emerson, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to study the solution concentration gradient in succino nitrile-rich and water-rich homogeneous solutions. The spectroscopic data shows significant concentration dependency. Although FTIR-attenuated total reflectance could not yield surface spectra since the evanescent infrared wave penetrated deep into the bulk solution, it showed that water-rich clusters were decreased at higher temperatures. This result is consistent with the calorimetric results reported earlier.

  4. Statistics of chemical gradients in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Borgne, T.; Huck, P. D.; Dentz, M.; Villermaux, E.

    2017-12-01

    As they create chemical disequilibrium and drive mixing fluxes, spatial gradients in solute concentrations exert a strong control on mixing and biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface. Large concentration gradients may develop in particular at interfaces between surface water and groundwater bodies, such as hyporheic zones, sea water - surface water interfaces or recharge areas. They also develop around contaminant plumes and fluids injected in subsurface operations. While macrodispersion theories predict smooth gradients, decaying in time due to dispersive dissipation, we show that concentration gradients are sustained by flow heterogeneity and have broadly distributed values. We present a general theory predicting the statistics of concentration gradients from the flow heterogeneity (Le Borgne et al., 2017). Analytical predictions are validated from high resolution simulations of transport in heterogeneous Darcy fields ranging from low to high permeability variances and low to high Peclet numbers. This modelling framework hence opens new perspectives for quantifying the dynamics of chemical gradients and the kinetics of associated biogeochemical reactions in heterogeneous subsurface environments.Reference:Le Borgne T., P.D. Huck, M. Dentz and E. Villermaux (2017) Scalar gradients in stirred mixtures and the deconstruction of random fields, J. of Fluid Mech. vol. 812, pp. 578-610 doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.799

  5. Systematic interpolation method predicts protein chromatographic elution with salt gradients, pH gradients and combined salt/pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Creasy, Arch; Barker, Gregory; Carta, Giorgio

    2017-03-01

    A methodology is presented to predict protein elution behavior from an ion exchange column using both individual or combined pH and salt gradients based on high-throughput batch isotherm data. The buffer compositions are first optimized to generate linear pH gradients from pH 5.5 to 7 with defined concentrations of sodium chloride. Next, high-throughput batch isotherm data are collected for a monoclonal antibody on the cation exchange resin POROS XS over a range of protein concentrations, salt concentrations, and solution pH. Finally, a previously developed empirical interpolation (EI) method is extended to describe protein binding as a function of the protein and salt concentration and solution pH without using an explicit isotherm model. The interpolated isotherm data are then used with a lumped kinetic model to predict the protein elution behavior. Experimental results obtained for laboratory scale columns show excellent agreement with the predicted elution curves for both individual or combined pH and salt gradients at protein loads up to 45 mg/mL of column. Numerical studies show that the model predictions are robust as long as the isotherm data cover the range of mobile phase compositions where the protein actually elutes from the column. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Fast and Easily-Realized Concentration Sensor for Binary Gas Mixtures and Its Design Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yu; Lu, Song; Zhang, Dan; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Wei

    2018-04-19

    A low-cost and easily-realized sensing device used for the detection of gas mixtures at different concentrations is presented. Its sensing part includes a small critical nozzle, a laminar structure, and a differential pressure sensor. When gas flows through the laminar structure, there is a pressure drop between both ends of it, and for different components of gas, the pressure drop is different. Based on this feature, the concentration detection is achieved. Concentration tests for two types of fire extinguishing agents CBrF₃ and C₃HF₇ are presented. The results show the characteristics of fast response/recovery time, high accuracy, and good repeatability. Based on the theoretical analysis, the effects of the design parameters on the sensing performance to concentration detection are discussed in detail.

  7. The use of the ion probe mass spectrometer in the measurement of hydrogen concentration gradients in Monel K 500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truhan, J. J., Jr.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The ion probe mass spectrometer was used to measure hydrogen concentration gradients in cathodically charged Monel K 500. Initial work with the ion probe involved the calibration of the instrument and the establishment of a suitable experimental procedure for this application. Samples of Monel K 500 were cathodically charged in a weak sulfuric acid solution. By varying the current density, different levels of hydrogen were introduced into the samples. Hydrogen concentration gradients were taken by ion sputtering on the surface of these samples and monitoring the behavior of the hydrogen mass peak as a function of time. An attempt was made to determine the relative amounts of hydrogen in the bulk and grain boundaries by analyzing a fresh fracture surface with a higher proportion of grain boundary area. It was found that substantially more hydrogen was detected in the grain boundaries than in the bulk, confirming the predictions of previous workers. A sputter rate determination was made in order to establish the rate of erosion.

  8. Stability and nuclear dynamics of the Bicoid morphogen gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gregor, Thomas; Wieschaus, Eric F.; McGregor, Alistair P.; Bialek, William; Tank, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Patterning in multicellular organisms results from spatial gradients in morphogen concentration, but the dynamics of these gradients remains largely unexplored. We characterize, through in vivo optical imaging, the development and stability of the Bicoid morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryos that express a Bicoid-eGFP fusion protein. The gradient is established rapidly (~1 hour after fertilization) with nuclear Bicoid concentration rising and falling during mitosis. Interphase levels result from a rapid equilibrium between Bicoid uptake and removal. Initial interphase concentration in nuclei in successive cycles is constant (±10%), demonstrating a form of gradient stability, but subsequently decays by approximately 30%. Both direct photobleaching measurements and indirect estimates of Bicoid-eGFP diffusion constants (D ≤ 1 μm2/s), provide a consistent picture of Bicoid transport on short (~min) time scales, but challenge traditional models of long range gradient formation. A new model is presented emphasizing the possible role of nuclear dynamics in shaping and scaling the gradient. PMID:17632061

  9. Isoflurane waste anesthetic gas concentrations associated with the open-drop method.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2009-01-01

    The open-drop technique is used frequently for anesthetic delivery to small rodents. Operator exposure to waste anesthetic gas (WAG) is a potential occupational hazard if this method is used without WAG scavenging. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of isoflurane by the open-drop technique without exposure controls generates significant WAG concentrations. We placed 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 ml of liquid isoflurane into screw-top 500 or 1000 ml glass jars. WAG concentration was measured at the opening of the container and 20 and 40 cm from the opening, a distance at which users likely would operate, at 1, 2, or 3 min WAG was measured by using a portable infrared gas analyzer. Mean WAG concentrations at the vessel opening were as high as 662 +/- 168 ppm with a 500 ml jar and 122 +/- 87 ppm with a 1000 ml jar. At operator levels, WAG concentrations were always at or near 0 ppm. For measurements made at the vessel opening, time was the only factor that significantly affected WAG concentration when using the 500 ml jar. Neither time nor liquid volume were significant factors when using 1000 ml jar. At all liquid volumes and time points, the WAG concentration associated with using the 500 ml container was marginally to significantly greater than that for the 1000 ml jar.

  10. Preliminary experimental results of gas recycling subsystems except carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, K.; Sawada, T.; Satoh, S.; Kanda, S.; Matsumura, H.; Kondo, S.; Otsubo, K.

    Oxygen concentration and separation is an essential factor for air recycling in a CELSS. Furthermore, if the value of the plant assimilatory quotient is not coincident with that of the animal respiratory quotient, the recovery of O2 from the concentrated CO2 through chemical methods will become necessary to balance the gas contents in a CELSS. Therefore, oxygen concentration and separation equipment using Salcomine and O2 recovery equipment, such as Sabatier and Bosch reactors, were experimentally developed and tested.

  11. Relationship of gas hydrate concentration to porosity and reflection amplitude in a research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, Y.K.; Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Well logs acquired at the Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well. Mackenzie Delta, Canada, reveal a distinct trend showing that the resistivity of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments increases with increases in density porosities. This trend, opposite to the general trend of decrease in resistivity with porosity, implies that gas hydrates are more concentrated in the higher porosity. Using the Mallik 2L-38 well data, a proportional gas hydrate concentration (PGHC) model, which states that the gas hydrate concentration in the sediment's pore space is linearly proportional to porosity, is proposed for the general habitat of gas hydrate in sediments. Anomalous data (less than 6% of the total data) outside the dominant observed trend can be explained by local geological characteristics. The anomalous data analysis indicates that highly concentrated gas-hydrate-bearing layers would be expected where sediments have high proportions of gravel and coarse sand. Using the parameters in the PGHC model determined from resistivity-porosity logs, it is possible to qualitatively predict the degree of reflection amplitude variations in seismic profiles. Moderate-to-strong reflections are expected for the Mallik 2L-38 well. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-gradient permanent magnet apparatus and its use in particle collection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Avens, Larry R.

    A high-gradient permanent magnet apparatus for capturing paramagnetic particles, the apparatus comprising: (i) at least two permanent magnets positioned with like poles facing each other; (ii) a ferromagnetic spacer separating the like poles; and (iii) a magnetizable porous filling material in close proximity to the at least two permanent magnets. Also described is a method for capturing paramagnetic particles in which a gas or liquid sample containing the paramagnetic particles is contacted with the high-gradient permanent magnet apparatus described above; wherein, during the contacting step, the gas or liquid sample contacts the magnetizable porous filling material of the high-gradient permanentmore » magnet apparatus, and at least a portion of the paramagnetic particles in the gas or liquid sample is captured on the magnetizable porous filling material.« less

  13. Argon concentration time-series as a tool to study gas dynamics in the hyporheic zone.

    PubMed

    Mächler, Lars; Brennwald, Matthias S; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-07-02

    The oxygen dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a peri-alpine river (Thur, Switzerland), were studied through recording and analyzing the concentration time-series of dissolved argon, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature during low flow conditions, for a period of one week. The argon concentration time-series was used to investigate the physical gas dynamics in the hyporheic zone. Differences in the transport behavior of heat and gas were determined by comparing the diel temperature evolution of groundwater to the measured concentration of dissolved argon. These differences were most likely caused by vertical heat transport which influenced the local groundwater temperature. The argon concentration time-series were also used to estimate travel times by cross correlating argon concentrations in the groundwater with argon concentrations in the river. The information gained from quantifying the physical gas transport was used to estimate the oxygen turnover in groundwater after water recharge. The resulting oxygen turnover showed strong diel variations, which correlated with the water temperature during groundwater recharge. Hence, the variation in the consumption rate was most likely caused by the temperature dependence of microbial activity.

  14. Decay of the zincate concentration gradient at an alkaline zinc cathode after charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, H. E.; May, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The study was carried out by observing the decay of the zincate concentration gradient at a horizontal zinc cathode after charging. This decay was found to approximate first order kinetics as expected from a proposed boundary layer model. The decay half life was shown to be a linear function of the thickness of porous zinc deposit on the cathode indicating a very rapid transport of zincate through porous zinc metal. The rapid transport is attributed to an electrochemical mechanism. The data also indicated a relatively sharp transition between the diffusion and convection transport regions. The diffusion of zincate ion through asbestos submerged in alkaline electrolyte was shown to be comparable with that predicted from the bulk diffusion coefficient of the zincate ion in alkali.

  15. Preliminary experimental results of gas recycling subsystems except carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otsuji, K.; Sawada, T.; Satoh, S.; Kanda, S.; Matsumura, H.; Kondo, S.; Otsubo, K.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen concentration and separation is an essential factor for air recycling in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Furthermore, if the value of the plant assimilatory quotient is not coincident with that of the animal respiratory quotient, the recovery of oxygen from the concentrated CO2 through chemical methods will become necessary to balance the gas contents in a CELSS. Therefore, oxygen concentration and separation equipment using Salcomine and O2 recovery equipment, such as Sabatier and Bosch reactors, were experimentally developed and tested.

  16. Gradient microstructure and microhardness in a nitrided 18CrNiMo7-6 gear steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R.; Wu, G. L.; Zhang, X.; Fu, W. T.; Huang, X.

    2017-07-01

    A commercial gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) containing a tempered martensite structure was nitrided using a pressurized gas nitriding process under a pressure of 5 atm at 530 °C for 5 hours. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the nitrided sample were characterized by Vickers hardness measurements, X-ray diffraction, and backscatter electron imaging in a scanning electron microscope. A micro-hardness gradient was identified over a distance of 500 μm with hardness values of 900 HV at the top surface and 300 HV in the core. This micro-hardness gradient corresponds to a gradient in the microstructure that changes from a nitride compound layer at the top surface (∼ 20 μm thick) to a diffusion zone with a decreasing nitrogen concentration and precipitate density with distance from the surface, finally reaching the core matrix layer with a recovered martensite structure.

  17. Shadowgraph Study of Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David; Nikolaenko, Gennady; Giglio, Marzio; Vailati, Alberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Meyer, William

    2002-01-01

    A fluid or fluid mixture, subjected to a vertical temperature and/or concentration gradient in a gravitational field, exhibits greatly enhanced light scattering at small angles. This effect is caused by coupling between the vertical velocity fluctuations due to thermal energy and the vertically varying refractive index. Physically, small upward or downward moving regions will be displaced into fluid having a refractive index different from that of the moving region, thus giving rise to the enhanced scattering. The scattered intensity is predicted to vary with scattering wave vector q, as q(sup -4), for sufficiently large q, but the divergence is quenched by gravity at small q. In the absence of gravity, the long wavelength fluctuations responsible for the enhanced scattering are predicted to grow until limited by the sample dimensions. It is thus of interest to measure the mean-squared amplitude of such fluctuations in the microgravity environment for comparison with existing theory and ground based measurements. The relevant wave vectors are extremely small, making traditional low-angle light scattering difficult or impossible because of stray elastically scattered light generated by optical surfaces. An alternative technique is offered by the shadowgraph method, which is normally used to visualize fluid flows, but which can also serve as a quantitative tool to measure fluctuations. A somewhat novel shadowgraph apparatus and the necessary data analysis methods will be described. The apparatus uses a spatially coherent, but temporally incoherent, light source consisting of a super-luminescent diode coupled to a single-mode optical fiber in order to achieve extremely high spatial resolution, while avoiding effects caused by interference of light reflected from the various optical surfaces that are present when using laser sources. Results obtained for a critical mixture of aniline and cyclohexane subjected to a vertical temperature gradient will be presented. The

  18. Microfluidic droplet trapping array as nanoliter reactors for gas-liquid chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingquan; Zeng, Shaojiang; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-09-01

    This article presents a simple method for trapping arrays of droplets relying on the designed microstructures of the microfluidic device, and this has been successfully used for parallel gas-liquid chemical reaction. In this approach, the trapping structure is composed of main channel, lateral channel and trapping region. Under a negative pressure, array droplets can be generated and trapped in the microstructure simultaneously, without the use of surfactant and the precise control of the flow velocity. By using a multi-layer microdevice containing the microstructures, single (pH gradient) and multiple gas-liquid reactions (metal ion-NH3 complex reaction) can be performed in array droplets through the transmembrane diffusion of the gas. The droplets with quantitative concentration gradient can be formed by only replacing the specific membrane. The established method is simple, robust and easy to operate, demonstrating the potential of this device for droplet-based high-throughput screening.

  19. Effect of injection-gas concentration on the electron beam quality from a laser-plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Zhang, Guobo; Li, Song; Gao, Kai; Li, Guangyu; Ain, Quratul; Hafz, Nasr A. M.

    2018-04-01

    By using 25-45 TW ultra-short (30 fs) laser pulses, we report on the effect of the injection gas concentration on the quality of electron beams generated by a laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration employing the ionization-injection. For a plasma formed from helium-nitrogen gas mixture and depending on the concentration of the nitrogen gas, we could distinguish a clear trend for the quality of the generated electron beams in terms of their peak energy, energy-spread, divergence angle, and beam charge. The results clearly showed that the lower the nitrogen concentration, the better the quality (higher peak energy, smaller energy spread, and smaller emittance) of the generated electron beams. The results are in reasonable agreement with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  20. Pedologic and climatic controls on Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas, Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asher-Bolinder, S.; Owen, D.E.; Schumann, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-gas radon concentrations are controlled seasonally by factors of climate and pedology. In a swelling soil of the semiarid Western United States, soil-gas radon concentrations at 100 cm depth increase in winter and spring due to increased emanation with higher soil moisture and the capping effect of surface water or ice. Radon concentrations in soil drop markedly through the summer and fall. The increased insolation of spring and summer warms and dries the soil, limiting the amount of water that reaches 100 cm. Probable controls on the distribution of uranium within the soil column include its downward leaching, its precipitation or adsorption onto B-horizon clays, concretions, or cement, and the uranium content and mineralogy of the soil's granitic and gneissic precursors. -from Authors

  1. Gas sensor characterization at low concentrations of natural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambemana, H.; Siadat, M.; Lumbreras, M.

    2009-05-01

    Inhalation of essential oils can be used in aromatherapy due to their activating or relaxing effects. The study of these effects requires behavioral measurements on living subjects, by varying the nature and also the quantity of the volatile substances to be present in the atmosphere. So, to permit the evaluation of therapeutic effects of a variety of natural oils, we propose to develop an automatic diffusion/detection system capable to create an ambient air with low stabilized concentration of chosen oil. In this work, we discuss the performance of an array of eight gas sensors to discriminate low and constant concentrations of a chosen natural oil.

  2. Using Bayesian Inference Framework towards Identifying Gas Species and Concentration from High Temperature Resistive Sensor Array Data

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yixin; Zhou, Kai; Lei, Yu

    2015-01-01

    High temperature gas sensors have been highly demanded for combustion process optimization and toxic emissions control, which usually suffer from poor selectivity. In order to solve this selectivity issue and identify unknown reducing gas species (CO, CH 4 , and CH 8 ) and concentrations, a high temperature resistive sensor array data set was built in this study based on 5 reported sensors. As each sensor showed specific responses towards different types of reducing gas with certain concentrations, based on which calibration curves were fitted, providing benchmark sensor array response database, then Bayesian inference framework was utilized to process themore » sensor array data and build a sample selection program to simultaneously identify gas species and concentration, by formulating proper likelihood between input measured sensor array response pattern of an unknown gas and each sampled sensor array response pattern in benchmark database. This algorithm shows good robustness which can accurately identify gas species and predict gas concentration with a small error of less than 10% based on limited amount of experiment data. These features indicate that Bayesian probabilistic approach is a simple and efficient way to process sensor array data, which can significantly reduce the required computational overhead and training data.« less

  3. Characterization of a Quadrotor Unmanned Aircraft System for Aerosol-Particle-Concentration Measurements.

    PubMed

    Brady, James M; Stokes, M Dale; Bonnardel, Jim; Bertram, Timothy H

    2016-02-02

    High-spatial-resolution, near-surface vertical profiling of atmospheric chemical composition is currently limited by the availability of experimental platforms that can sample in constrained environments. As a result, measurements of near-surface gradients in trace gas and aerosol particle concentrations have been limited to studies conducted from fixed location towers or tethered balloons. Here, we explore the utility of a quadrotor unmanned aircraft system (UAS) as a sampling platform to measure vertical and horizontal concentration gradients of trace gases and aerosol particles at high spatial resolution (1 m) within the mixed layer (0-100 m). A 3D Robotics Iris+ autonomous quadrotor UAS was outfitted with a sensor package consisting of a two-channel aerosol optical particle counter and a CO2 sensor. The UAS demonstrated high precision in both vertical (±0.5 m) and horizontal positions (±1 m), highlighting the potential utility of quadrotor UAS drones for aerosol- and trace-gas measurements within complex terrain, such as the urban environment, forest canopies, and above difficult-to-access areas such as breaking surf. Vertical profiles of aerosol particle number concentrations, acquired from flights conducted along the California coastline, were used to constrain sea-spray aerosol-emission rates from coastal wave breaking.

  4. The Relationship Between Temperature and Gas Concentration Fluctuation Rates at an Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, W. E.; Jessup, A. T.; Liang, H.; Zappa, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    The air-sea flux, F, of a sparingly soluble nonreactive gas can be expressed as F = kG(CS-CW), where kG is the gas transfer velocity, CS is the concentration of gas that would be expected in the water if the system were in Henry's Gas Law equilibrium, and CW is the gas concentration in the bulk water. An analogous relationship for the net heat flux can also be written using the heat transfer velocity, kH, and the bulk-skin temperature difference in the aqueous phase. Surface divergence theory for the air-water transfer of gas and heat predicts that kG and kH will scale as the square root of the surface divergence rate, r. However, because of the interaction between diffusivity and the scale depth of the surface divergences, the scale factor for heat is likely to be different from the scale factor for gases. Infrared imagery was used to measure the timescales of variations in temperature at a water surface and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to measure temporal fluctuations in aqueous-phase concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a water surface. The rate at which these temperature and concentration fluctuations occur is then assumed to be related to r. The divergence rates derived for temperature from the IR images can be compared to the rates for gas derived from the LIF measurements to understand how r estimated from the two measurements differ. The square root of r is compared to concurrently measured kG for helium and sulfur hexafluoride to test the assumption that r1/2 scales with kG. Additionally, we measured kH using the active controlled flux technique, and those heat transfer velocities can also be used to test for a r1/2 dependence. All measurements reported here were made in the APL-UW synthetic jet array facility.

  5. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  6. High Concentration of Methane and Magnificent gas Plumes Over gas Hydrate Field in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Matsumoto, R.; Hiruta, A.; Aoyama, C.; Tomaru, H.; Hiromatsu, M.

    2005-12-01

    Gas hydrates and prominent pockmarks have been observed on the Umitaka Spur in the eastern margin of Japan Sea, at the depth of about 900 m.Magnificent methane plumes, 550 to 600 m high, were detected by echo sounder for fish school, and massive gas hydrates were recovered by piston coring during the UT04 cruise of R/V Umitaka-maru (2004). The seawater over this area was collected by CTD and the samples of interstitial waters were extracted from sediment cores by hydraulic squeezer. The ratio of methane to ethane concentration (C1/C2) and the isotopic (δ 13C) composition of methane in the plume sites are less than 103 and from -40 to -50 (‰ PDB) respectively, suggesting that the origin of such gases are mostly thermogenic, whereas the gases in the sediments away from plumes are mostly microbial. The seawater samples demonstrated anomalously high concentration of methane over the plume sites. Maximum concentration is 160nmol/L above the methane plume site. The methane concentration values of most samples ranged from 4 to 6nmol/L. When it compared with the Nankai Trough (1 to 4nmol/L), even the base level methane is quite high. Seawater samples collected at the depth of 200 m exhibit sharp anomalies of 16 to 34nmol/L. With the intension to check the possibility of the inflow from the shelf and river waters, we collected surface waters far away from the Umitaka spur. Methane concentration was only 7nmol/L. Therefore, we conclude that anomalously high concentration at 200 m level over the spur is not likely to be explained by inflow of shelf waters, but also by methane seeps. The temperature of waters are extremely low from 0.25°C to 1.0°C below 300 m, then abruptly increases in shallow waters to about 25°C at surface water. Thus, bottom and intermediate waters are within the stability condition of methane hydrate. Under these conditions, gases from the sea floor would form gas hydrate within bottom water mass. Gas hydrate crystals would float up shallow to the

  7. Measurement of absolute concentrations of individual compounds in metabolite mixtures by gradient-selective time-zero 1H-13C HSQC with two concentration references and fast maximum likelihood reconstruction analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L

    2011-12-15

    Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture.

  8. Concentration Gradient Immunoassay I. A Rapid Immunoassay Based on Interdiffusion and Surface Binding in a Microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kjell E.; Foley, Jennifer O.; Yager, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel microfluidic immunoassay method based on the diffusion of a small molecule analyte into a parallel-flowing stream containing cognate antibody. This interdiffusion results in a steady-state gradient of antibody binding site occupancy transverse to convective flow. In contrast to the diffusion immunoassay (Hatch et al. Nature Biotechnology,19:461−465 (2001)), this antibody occupancy gradient is interrogated by a sensor surface coated with a functional analog of the analyte. Antibodies with at least one unoccupied binding site may specifically bind to this functionalized surface, leading to a quantifiable change in surface coverage by the antibody. SPR imaging is used to probe the spatial distribution of antibody binding to the surface and, therefore, the outcome of the assay. We show that the pattern of antibody binding to the SPR sensing surface correlates with the concentration of a model analyte (phenytoin) in the sample stream. Using an inexpensive disposable microfluidic device, we demonstrate assays for phenytoin ranging in concentration from 75 to 1000 nM in phosphate buffer. At a total volumetric flow rate of 90 nL/sec, the assays are complete within 10 minutes. Inclusion of an additional flow stream on the side of the antibody stream opposite to that of the sample enables simultaneous calibration of the assay. This assay method is suitable for rapid quantitative detection of low-molecular weight analytes for point-of-care diagnostic instrumentation. PMID:17437332

  9. Dual concentric gas-lift completion design for the Thistle field

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moore, P.C.; Adair, P.

    1991-02-01

    A unique dual concentric gas-lift completion was installed in two wells in the thistle field during 1987. This paper outlines the completion concept and design, including vertical-lift performance and tubing movement/stress analysis. Results of field performance after 1 year of production history are presented and compared with predicted values.

  10. Study on cyclic injection gas override in condensate gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Zhu, Weiyao; Xia, Jing; Li, Baozhu

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic injection gas override in condensate gas reservoirs for the large density difference between injection gas and condensate gas has been studied, but no relevant mathematical models have been built. In this paper, a mathematical model of cyclic injection gas override in condensate gas reservoir is established, considering density difference between the injected gas and the remaining condensate gas in the formation. The vertical flow ratio and override degree are used to reflect the override law of injected dry gas. Combined with the actual data of Tarim gas condensate reservoir, the parameters of injected dry gas override are calculated and analysed. The results show that the radial pressure rises or falls rapidly and the pressure gradient varies greatly in the near wells. The radial pressure varies slowly and the pressure gradient changes little in the reservoir which is within a certain distance from the wells. In the near injection well, the injected dry gas mainly migrates along the radial direction, and the vertical migration is relatively not obvious. With the distance from the injection well, the vertical flow ratio and override degree of injected dry gas increases, and the vertical flow ratio reaches the maximum in the middle of the injection well and the production well.

  11. Determination of chlorine concentration using single temperature modulated semiconductor gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Ł.; Kalinowski, P.; Jasiński, G.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    A periodic temperature modulation using sinusoidal heater voltage was applied to a commercial SnO2 semiconductor gas sensor. Resulting resistance response of the sensor was analyzed using a feature extraction method based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The amplitudes of the higher harmonics of the FFT from the dynamic nonlinear responses of measured gas were further utilized as an input for Artificial Neuron Network (ANN). Determination of the concentration of chlorine was performed. Moreover, this work evaluates the sensor performance upon sinusoidal temperature modulation.

  12. Optimum concentration gradient of the electrocatalyst, Nafion® and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) in a membrane-electrode-assembly for enhanced performance of direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Hua; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Ki Rak; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2010-12-14

    A combinatorial library of membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) which consisted of 27 different compositions was fabricated to optimize the multilayer structure of direct methanol fuel cells. Each spot consisted of three layers of ink and a gradient was generated by employing different concentrations of the three components (Pt catalyst, Nafion® and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) of each layer. For quick evaluation of the library, a high-throughput optical screening technique was employed for methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR) activity. The screening results revealed that gradient layers could lead to higher MOR activity than uniform layers. It was found that the MOR activity was higher when the concentrations of Pt catalyst and Nafion ionomer decreased downward from the top layer to the bottom layer. On the other hand, higher MOR activity was observed when PTFE concentration increased downward from the top to the bottom layer.

  13. 3D-Simulation Of Concentration Distributions Inside Large-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnewski, R.; Ratschow, L.; Hartge, E. U.; Werthe, J.

    With increasing size of modern CFB combustors the lateral mixing of fuels and secondary air gains more and more importance. Strong concentration gradients, which result from improper lateral mixing, can lead to operational problems, high flue gas emissions and lower boiler efficiencies. A 3D-model for the simulation of local gas and solids concentrations inside industrial-sized CFB boilers has been developed. The model is based on a macroscopic approach and considers all major mechanisms during fuel spreading and subsequent combustion of char and volatiles. Typical characteristics of modern boilers like staged combustion, a smaller cross-sectional area in the lower section of the combustion chamber and the co-combustion of additional fuels with coal can be considered. The 252 MWth combustor of Stadtwerke Duisburg AG is used for the validation of the model. A comprehensive picture of the local conditions inside the combustion chamber is achieved by the combination of local gas measurements and the three-dimensional simulation of concentration distributions.

  14. Augmented switching linear dynamical system model for gas concentration estimation with MOX sensors in an open sampling system.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-07-11

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector.

  15. Estimates of in situ gas hydrate concentration from resistivity monitoring of gas hydrate bearing sediments during temperature equilibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Long, P.E.; Collett, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    As part of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 204 at southern Hydrate Ridge off Oregon we have monitored changes in sediment electrical resistivity during controlled gas hydrate dissociation experiments. Two cores were used, each filled with gas hydrate bearing sediments (predominantly mud/silty mud). One core was from Site 1249 (1249F-9H3), 42.1 m below seafloor (mbsf) and the other from Site 1248 (1248C-4X1), 28.8 mbsf. At Site 1247, a third experiment was conducted on a core without gas hydrate (1247B-2H1, 3.6 mbsf). First, the cores were imaged using an infra-red (IR) camera upon recovery to map the gas hydrate occurrence through dissociation cooling. Over a period of several hours, successive runs on the multi-sensor track (includes sensors for P-wave velocity, resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and gamma-ray density) were carried out complemented by X-ray imaging on core 1249F-9H3. After complete equilibration to room temperature (17-18??C) and complete gas hydrate dissociation, the final measurement of electrical resistivity was used to calculate pore-water resistivity and salinities. The calculated pore-water freshening after dissociation is equivalent to a gas hydrate concentration in situ of 35-70% along core 1249F-9H3 and 20-35% for core 1248C-4X1 assuming seawater salinity of in situ pore fluid. Detailed analysis of the IR scan, X-ray images and split-core photographs showed the hydrate mainly occurred disseminated throughout the core. Additionally, in core 1249F-9H3, a single hydrate filled vein, approximately 10 cm long and dipping at about 65??, was identified. Analyses of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity data revealed a structural dip of 40-80?? in the interval between 40 and 44 mbsf. We further analyzed all resistivity data measured on the recovered core during Leg 204. Generally poor data quality due to gas cracks allowed analyses to be carried out only at selected intervals at Sites 1244, 1245, 1246, 1247, 1248, 1249, and 1252. With a few

  16. Programming of Multicomponent Temporal Release Profiles in 3D Printed Polypills via Core-Shell, Multilayer, and Gradient Concentration Profiles.

    PubMed

    Haring, Alexander P; Tong, Yuxin; Halper, Justin; Johnson, Blake N

    2018-06-10

    Additive manufacturing (AM) appears poised to provide novel pharmaceutical technology and controlled release systems, yet understanding the effects of processing and post-processing operations on pill design, quality, and performance remains a significant barrier. This paper reports a study of the relationship between programmed concentration profile and resultant temporal release profile using a 3D printed polypill system consisting of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved excipient (Pluronic F-127) and therapeutically relevant dosages of three commonly used oral agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes (300-500 mg per pill). A dual-extrusion hydrogel microextrusion process enables the programming of three unique concentration profiles, including core-shell, multilayer, and gradient structures. Experimental and computational studies of diffusive mass transfer processes reveal that programmed concentration profiles are dynamic throughout both pill 3D printing and solidification. Spectrophotometric assays show that the temporal release profiles could be selectively programmed to exhibit delayed, pulsed, or constant profiles over a 5 h release period by utilizing the core-shell, multilayer, and gradient distributions, respectively. Ultimately, this work provides new insights into the mass transfer processes that affect design, quality, and performance of spatially graded controlled release systems, as well as demonstrating the potential to create disease-specific polypill technology with programmable temporal release profiles. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Gas Diffusion in Fluids Containing Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical model describes movement of gases in fluid containing many bubbles. Model makes it possible to predict growth and shrink age of bubbles as function of time. New model overcomes complexities involved in analysis of varying conditions by making two simplifying assumptions. It treats bubbles as point sources, and it employs approximate expression for gas concentration gradient at liquid/bubble interface. In particular, it is expected to help in developing processes for production of high-quality optical glasses in space.

  18. Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  20. Gradient echo quantum memory in warm atomic vapor.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Sparkes, Ben M; Everett, Jesse L; Higginbottom, Daniel; Campbell, Geoff T; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C

    2013-11-11

    Gradient echo memory (GEM) is a protocol for storing optical quantum states of light in atomic ensembles. The primary motivation for such a technology is that quantum key distribution (QKD), which uses Heisenberg uncertainty to guarantee security of cryptographic keys, is limited in transmission distance. The development of a quantum repeater is a possible path to extend QKD range, but a repeater will need a quantum memory. In our experiments we use a gas of rubidium 87 vapor that is contained in a warm gas cell. This makes the scheme particularly simple. It is also a highly versatile scheme that enables in-memory refinement of the stored state, such as frequency shifting and bandwidth manipulation. The basis of the GEM protocol is to absorb the light into an ensemble of atoms that has been prepared in a magnetic field gradient. The reversal of this gradient leads to rephasing of the atomic polarization and thus recall of the stored optical state. We will outline how we prepare the atoms and this gradient and also describe some of the pitfalls that need to be avoided, in particular four-wave mixing, which can give rise to optical gain.

  1. Gradient Echo Quantum Memory in Warm Atomic Vapor

    PubMed Central

    Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Sparkes, Ben M.; Everett, Jesse L.; Higginbottom, Daniel; Campbell, Geoff T.; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C.

    2013-01-01

    Gradient echo memory (GEM) is a protocol for storing optical quantum states of light in atomic ensembles. The primary motivation for such a technology is that quantum key distribution (QKD), which uses Heisenberg uncertainty to guarantee security of cryptographic keys, is limited in transmission distance. The development of a quantum repeater is a possible path to extend QKD range, but a repeater will need a quantum memory. In our experiments we use a gas of rubidium 87 vapor that is contained in a warm gas cell. This makes the scheme particularly simple. It is also a highly versatile scheme that enables in-memory refinement of the stored state, such as frequency shifting and bandwidth manipulation. The basis of the GEM protocol is to absorb the light into an ensemble of atoms that has been prepared in a magnetic field gradient. The reversal of this gradient leads to rephasing of the atomic polarization and thus recall of the stored optical state. We will outline how we prepare the atoms and this gradient and also describe some of the pitfalls that need to be avoided, in particular four-wave mixing, which can give rise to optical gain. PMID:24300586

  2. Demography of SDSS Early-type Galaxies from the Perspective of Radial Color Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Jeong, H.; Oh, K.; Yi, S. K.; Ferreras, I.; Schawinski, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the radial g-r color gradients of early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR6 in the redshift range 0.00 < z < 0.06. The majority of massive early-type galaxies show a negative color gradient (centers being redder). On the other hand, roughly 30 percent of the galaxies in this sample show positive color gradients (centers being bluer). These positive-gradient galaxies often show strong Hβ absorption line strengths and/or emission line ratios that are consistent with containing young stellar populations. Combining the optical data with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV photometry, we find that all positive-gradient galaxies show blue UV-optical colors. This implies that the residual star formation in early-type galaxies is centrally concentrated. These positive-gradient galaxies tend to live in lower density regions. They are also a bit more likely to have a late-type companion galaxy, hinting at a possible role of interactions with a gas-rich companion. A simplistic population analysis shows that these positive color gradients are visible only for half a billion years after a star burst. Moreover, the positive-gradient galaxies occupy different regions in the fundamental planes from the outnumbering negative-gradient galaxies. However, the positions of the positive-gradient galaxies on the fundamental planes cannot be attributed to any reasonable amount of recent star formation alone but require substantially lower velocity dispersions to begin with. Our results based on the optical data are consistent with the residual star formation interpretation which was based on the GALEX UV data. A low-level residual star formation seems continuing in most of the less-massive early-type galaxies in their centers.

  3. Augmented Switching Linear Dynamical System Model for Gas Concentration Estimation with MOX Sensors in an Open Sampling System

    PubMed Central

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector. PMID:25019637

  4. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    PubMed

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Gas Concentration Measurement Based on the Integral Value of Absorptance Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Tao, Shao-hua; Yang, Bing-chu; Deng, Hong-gui

    2015-12-01

    The absorptance spectrum of a gas is the basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas by the law of the Lambert-Beer. The integral value of the absorptance spectrum is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of the gas absorption. Based on the measured absorptance spectrum of a gas, we collected the required data from the database of HIT-RAN, and chose one of the spectral lines and calculated the integral value of the absorptance spectrum in the frequency domain, and then substituted the integral value into Lambert-Beer's law to obtain the concentration of the detected gas. By calculating the integral value of the absorptance spectrum we can avoid the more complicated calculation of the spectral line function and a series of standard gases for calibration, so the gas concentration measurement will be simpler and faster. We studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus temperature. Since temperature variation would cause the corresponding variation in pressure, we studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus both the pressure not changed with temperature and changed with the temperature variation. Based on the two cases, we found that the integral values of the absorptance spectrums both would firstly increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with temperature increasing, but the ranges of specific changing trend were different in the two cases. In the experiments, we found that the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were much higher than 1% and still increased with temperature when we only considered the change of temperature and completely ignored the pressure affected by the temperature variation, and the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were almost constant at about only 1% when we considered that the pressure were affected by the temperature variation. As the integral value

  6. Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leleux, D. P.; Claps, R.; Chen, W.; Tittel, F. K.; Harman, T. L.

    2002-01-01

    A Kalman filtering technique is applied to the simultaneous detection of NH3 and CO2 with a diode-laser-based sensor operating at 1.53 micrometers. This technique is developed for improving the sensitivity and precision of trace gas concentration levels based on direct overtone laser absorption spectroscopy in the presence of various sensor noise sources. Filter performance is demonstrated to be adaptive to real-time noise and data statistics. Additionally, filter operation is successfully performed with dynamic ranges differing by three orders of magnitude. Details of Kalman filter theory applied to the acquired spectroscopic data are discussed. The effectiveness of this technique is evaluated by performing NH3 and CO2 concentration measurements and utilizing it to monitor varying ammonia and carbon dioxide levels in a bioreactor for water reprocessing, located at the NASA-Johnson Space Center. Results indicate a sensitivity enhancement of six times, in terms of improved minimum detectable absorption by the gas sensor.

  7. Effect of temperature gradient on liquid-liquid phase separation in a polyolefin blend.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Dou, Nannan; Fan, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-09-28

    We have investigated experimentally the structure formation processes during phase separation via spinodal decomposition above and below the spinodal line in a binary polymer blend system exposed to in-plane stationary thermal gradients using phase contrast optical microscopy and temperature gradient hot stage. Below the spinodal line there is a coupling of concentration fluctuations and thermal gradient imposed by the temperature gradient hot stage. Also under the thermal gradient annealing phase-separated domains grow faster compared with the system under homogeneous temperature annealing on a zero-gradient or a conventional hot stage. We suggest that the in-plane thermal gradient accelerates phase separation through the enhancement in concentration fluctuations in the early and intermediate stages of spinodal decomposition. In a thermal gradient field, the strength of concentration fluctuation close to the critical point (above the spinodal line) is strong enough to induce phase separation even in one-phase regime of the phase diagram. In the presence of a temperature gradient the equilibrium phase diagrams are no longer valid, and the systems with an upper critical solution temperature can be quenched into phase separation by applying the stationary temperature gradient. The in-plane temperature gradient drives enhanced concentration fluctuations in a binary polymer blend system above and below the spinodal line.

  8. Decay of the zincate concentration gradient at an alkaline zinc cathode after charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, H. E.; May, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The transport of the zincate ion to the alkaline zinc cathode was studied by observing the decay of the zincate concentration gradient at a horizontal zinc cathode after charging. This decay was found to approximate first order kinetics as expected from a proposed boundary layer model. The concentrations were calculated from polarization voltages. The decay half life was shown to be a linear function of the thickness of porous zinc deposit on the cathode indicating a very rapid transport of zincate through porous zinc metal. The rapid transport is attributed to an electrochemical mechanism. From the linear dependence of the half life on the thickness the boundary layer thickness was found to be about 0.010 cm when the cathode was at the bottom of the cell. No significant dependence of the boundary layer thickness on the viscosity of electrolyte was observed. The data also indicated a relatively sharp transition between the diffusion and convection transport regions. When the cathode was at the top of the cell, the boundary layer thickness was found to be roughly 0.080 cm. The diffusion of zincate ion through asbestos submerged in alkaline electrolyte was shown to be comparable with that predicted from the bulk diffusion coefficient of the zincate ion in alkali.

  9. Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Using Microfluidic Device-Generated Growth Factor Gradient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Sim, Jiyeon; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2018-04-11

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple nervous system cell types. During embryonic development, the concentrations of soluble biological molecules have a critical role in controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. In an effort to find optimal culture conditions for the generation of desired cell types in vitro , we used a microfluidic chip-generated growth factor gradient system. In the current study, NSCs in the microfluidic device remained healthy during the entire period of cell culture, and proliferated and differentiated in response to the concentration gradient of growth factors (epithermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor). We also showed that overexpression of ASCL1 in NSCs increased neuronal differentiation depending on the concentration gradient of growth factors generated in the microfluidic gradient chip. The microfluidic system allowed us to study concentration-dependent effects of growth factors within a single device, while a traditional system requires multiple independent cultures using fixed growth factor concentrations. Our study suggests that the microfluidic gradient-generating chip is a powerful tool for determining the optimal culture conditions.

  10. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  11. Temperature Programmed Desorption of Quench-condensed Krypton and Acetone in Air; Selective Concentration of Ultra-trace Gas Components.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taku T; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Selective concentration of ultra-trace components in air-like gases has an important application in analyzing volatile organic compounds in the gas. In the present study, we examined quench-condensation of the sample gas on a ZnO substrate below 50 K followed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) (low temperature TPD) as a selective gas concentration technique. We studied two specific gases in the normal air; krypton as an inert gas and acetone as a reactive gas. We evaluated the relationship between the operating condition of low temperature TPD and the lowest detection limit. In the case of krypton, we observed the selective concentration by exposing at 6 K followed by thermal desorption at about 60 K. On the other hand, no selectivity appeared for acetone although trace acetone was successfully concentrated. This is likely due to the solvent effect by a major component in the air, which is suggested to be water. We suggest that pre-condensation to remove the water component may improve the selectivity in the trace acetone analysis by low temperature TPD.

  12. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers

  13. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  14. A new method research of monitoring low concentration NO and SO2 mixed gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Peng; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai; Chen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce the pollution of the environment, China has implemented a new ultra-low emission control regulations for polluting gas, requiring new coal-fired power plant emissions SO2 less than 30ppm, NO less than 75ppm, NO2 less than 50ppm, Monitoring low concentration of NO and SO2 mixed gases , DOAS technology facing new challenges, SO2 absorb significantly weaken at the original absorption peak, what more the SNR is very low, it is difficult to extract the characteristic signal, and thus cannot obtain its concentration. So it cannot separate the signal of NO from the mixed gas at the wavelength of 200 230nm through the law of spectral superposition, it cannot calculate the concentration of NO. The classical DOAS technology cannot meet the needs of monitoring. In this paper, we found another absorption spectrum segment of SO2, the SNR is 10 times higher than before, Will not be affected by NO, can calculate the concentration of SO2 accurately, A new method of segmentation and demagnetization separation technology of spectral signals is proposed, which achieves the monitoring the low concentration mixed gas accurately. This function cannot be achieved by the classical DOAS. Detection limit of this method is 0.1ppm per meter which is higher than before, The relative error below 5% when the concentration between 0 5ppm, the concentration of NO between 6 75ppm and SO2 between 6 30ppm the relative error below 1.5%, it has made a great breakthrough In the low concentration of NO and SO2 monitoring. It has great scientific significance and reference value for the development of coal-fired power plant emission control, atmospheric environmental monitoring and high-precision on-line instrumentation.

  15. Modeling chemical gradients in sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions: The GRADIENT code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2018-02-01

    Interfaces between sediments and water bodies often represent biochemical hotspots for nutrient reactions and are characterized by steep concentration gradients of different reactive solutes. Vertical profiles of these concentrations are routinely collected to obtain information on nutrient dynamics, and simple codes have been developed to analyze these profiles and determine the magnitude and distribution of reaction rates within sediments. However, existing publicly available codes do not consider the potential contribution of water flow in the sediments to nutrient transport, and their applications to field sites with significant water-borne nutrient fluxes may lead to large errors in the estimated reaction rates. To fill this gap, the present work presents GRADIENT, a novel algorithm to evaluate distributions of reaction rates from observed concentration profiles. GRADIENT is a Matlab code that extends a previously published framework to include the role of nutrient advection, and provides robust estimates of reaction rates in sediments with significant water flow. This work discusses the theoretical basis of the method and shows its performance by comparing the results to a series of synthetic data and to laboratory experiments. The results clearly show that in systems with losing or gaining fluxes, the inclusion of such fluxes is critical for estimating local and overall reaction rates in sediments.

  16. Constraining Gas Diffusivity-Soil Water Content Relationships in Forest Soils Using Surface Chamber Fluxes and Depth Profiles of Multiple Trace Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Seybold, E. C.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Forest soils are sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere and can act as either sources or sinks of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), depending on redox conditions and other factors. Soil moisture is an important control on microbial activity, redox conditions and gas diffusivity. Direct chamber measurements of soil-air CO2 fluxes are facilitated by the availability of sensitive, portable infrared sensors; however, corresponding CH4 and N2O fluxes typically require the collection of time-course physical samples from the chamber with subsequent analyses by gas chromatography (GC). Vertical profiles of soil gas concentrations may also be used to derive CH4 and N2O fluxes by the gradient method; this method requires much less time and many fewer GC samples than the direct chamber method, but requires that effective soil gas diffusivities are known. In practice, soil gas diffusivity is often difficult to accurately estimate using a modeling approach. In our study, we apply both the chamber and gradient methods to estimate soil trace gas fluxes across a complex Rocky Mountain forested watershed in central Montana. We combine chamber flux measurements of CO2 (by infrared sensor) and CH4 and N2O (by GC) with co-located soil gas profiles to determine effective diffusivity in soil for each gas simultaneously, over-determining the diffusion equations and providing constraints on both the chamber and gradient methodologies. We then relate these soil gas diffusivities to soil type and volumetric water content in an effort to arrive at empirical parameterizations that may be used to estimate gas diffusivities across the watershed, thereby facilitating more accurate, frequent and widespread gradient-based measurements of trace gas fluxes across our study system. Our empirical approach to constraining soil gas diffusivity is well suited for trace gas flux studies over complex landscapes in general.

  17. Gas-partitioning tracer test to qualify trapped gas during recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Kip, Solomon D.; Perkins, Kim S.; Ellett, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved helium and bromide tracers were used to evaluate trapped gas during an infiltration pond experiment. Dissolved helium preferentially partitioned into trapped gas bubbles, or other pore air, because of its low solubility in water. This produced observed helium retardation factors of as much as 12 relative to bromide. Numerical simulations of helium breakthrough with both equilibrium and kinetically limited advection/dispersion/retardation did not match observed helium concentrations. However, better fits were obtained by including a decay term representing the diffusive loss of helium through interconnected, gas-filled pores. Calculations indicate that 7% to more than 26% of the porosity beneath the pond was filled with gas. Measurements of laboratory hydraulic properties indicate that a 10% decrease in saturation would reduce the hydraulic conductivity by at least one order of magnitude in the well-sorted sandstone, but less in the overlying soils. This is consistent with in situ measurements during the experiment, which show steeper hydraulic gradients in sandstone than in soil. Intrinsic permeability of the soil doubled during the first six months of the experiment, likely caused by a combination of dissolution and thermal contraction of trapped gas. Managers of artificial recharge basins may consider minimizing the amount of trapped gas by using wet, rather than dry, tilling to optimize infiltration rates, particularly in well-sorted porous media in which reintroduced trapped gas may cause substantial reductions in permeability. Trapped gas may also inhibit the amount of focused infiltration that occurs naturally during ephemeral flood events along washes and playas.

  18. Gas-partitioning tracer test to quantify trapped gas during recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Perkins, K.S.; Ellett, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved helium and bromide tracers were used to evaluate trapped gas during an infiltration pond experiment. Dissolved helium preferentially partitioned into trapped gas bubbles, or other pore air, because of its low solubility in water. This produced observed helium retardation factors of as much as 12 relative to bromide. Numerical simulations of helium breakthrough with both equilibrium and kinetically limited advection/dispersion/retardation did not match observed helium concentrations. However, better fits were obtained by including a decay term representing the diffusive loss of helium through interconnected, gas-filled pores. Calculations indicate that 7% to more than 26% of the porosity beneath the pond was filled with gas. Measurements of laboratory hydraulic properties indicate that a 10% decrease in saturation would reduce the hydraulic conductivity by at least one order of magnitude in the well-sorted sandstone, but less in the overlying soils. This is consistent with in situ measurements during the experiment, which show steeper hydraulic gradients in sandstone than in soil. Intrinsic permeability of the soil doubled during the first six months of the experiment, likely caused by a combination of dissolution and thermal contraction of trapped gas. Managers of artificial recharge basins may consider minimizing the amount of trapped gas by using wet, rather than dry, tilling to optimize infiltration rates, particularly in well-sorted porous media in which reintroduced trapped gas may cause substantial reductions in permeability. Trapped gas may also inhibit the amount of focused infiltration that occurs naturally during ephemeral flood events along washes and playas.

  19. Generating multiplex gradients of biomolecules for controlling cellular adhesion in parallel microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Didar, Tohid Fatanat; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2012-11-07

    Here we present a microfluidic platform to generate multiplex gradients of biomolecules within parallel microfluidic channels, in which a range of multiplex concentration gradients with different profile shapes are simultaneously produced. Nonlinear polynomial gradients were also generated using this device. The gradient generation principle is based on implementing parrallel channels with each providing a different hydrodynamic resistance. The generated biomolecule gradients were then covalently functionalized onto the microchannel surfaces. Surface gradients along the channel width were a result of covalent attachments of biomolecules to the surface, which remained functional under high shear stresses (50 dyn/cm(2)). An IgG antibody conjugated to three different fluorescence dyes (FITC, Cy5 and Cy3) was used to demonstrate the resulting multiplex concentration gradients of biomolecules. The device enabled generation of gradients with up to three different biomolecules in each channel with varying concentration profiles. We were also able to produce 2-dimensional gradients in which biomolecules were distributed along the length and width of the channel. To demonstrate the applicability of the developed design, three different multiplex concentration gradients of REDV and KRSR peptides were patterned along the width of three parallel channels and adhesion of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in each channel was subsequently investigated using a single chip.

  20. Adaptive microfluidic gradient generator for quantitative chemotaxis experiments.

    PubMed

    Anielski, Alexander; Pfannes, Eva K B; Beta, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    Chemotactic motion in a chemical gradient is an essential cellular function that controls many processes in the living world. For a better understanding and more detailed modelling of the underlying mechanisms of chemotaxis, quantitative investigations in controlled environments are needed. We developed a setup that allows us to separately address the dependencies of the chemotactic motion on the average background concentration and on the gradient steepness of the chemoattractant. In particular, both the background concentration and the gradient steepness can be kept constant at the position of the cell while it moves along in the gradient direction. This is achieved by generating a well-defined chemoattractant gradient using flow photolysis. In this approach, the chemoattractant is released by a light-induced reaction from a caged precursor in a microfluidic flow chamber upstream of the cell. The flow photolysis approach is combined with an automated real-time cell tracker that determines changes in the cell position and triggers movement of the microscope stage such that the cell motion is compensated and the cell remains at the same position in the gradient profile. The gradient profile can be either determined experimentally using a caged fluorescent dye or may be alternatively determined by numerical solutions of the corresponding physical model. To demonstrate the function of this adaptive microfluidic gradient generator, we compare the chemotactic motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a static gradient and in a gradient that adapts to the position of the moving cell.

  1. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Modeling sediment concentration of rill flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daming; Gao, Peiling; Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Yuhang; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qingwen

    2018-06-01

    Accurate estimation of sediment concentration is essential to establish physically-based erosion models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flow discharge (Q), slope gradient (S), flow velocity (V), shear stress (τ), stream power (ω) and unit stream power (U) on sediment concentration. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a 10 × 0.1 m rill flume under four flow discharges (2, 4, 8 and 16 L min-1), and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°). The results showed that the measured sediment concentration varied from 87.08 to 620.80 kg m-3 with a mean value of 343.13 kg m-3. Sediment concentration increased as a power function with flow discharge and slope gradient, with R2 = 0.975 and NSE = 0.945. The sediment concentration was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow discharge. The sediment concentration was well predicted by unit stream power (R2 = 0.937, NSE = 0.865), whereas less satisfactorily by flow velocity (R2 = 0.470, NSE = 0.539) and stream power (R2 = 0.773, NSE = 0.732). In addition, using the equations to simulate the measured sediment concentration of other studies, the result further indicated that slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power were good predictors of sediment concentration. In general, slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power seem to be the preferred predictors for estimating sediment concentration.

  3. Impact of stream geomorphology on greenhouse gas concentration in a New York mountain stream

    Treesearch

    Philippe Vidon; Satish Serchan

    2016-01-01

    As increased greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG: N2O, CO2, CH4) in our atmosphere remain a major concern, better quantifying GHG fluxes from natural systems is essential. In this study, we investigate GHG concentrations in saturated riparian sediments (dry, wet, mucky), streambed hyporheic zone...

  4. Assessing denitrification in groundwater using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N: In situ measurement of a sequential multistep reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Böhlke, John Karl; Garabedian, Stephen P.; Revesz, Kinga M.; Yoshinari, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    Denitrification was measured within a nitrate‐contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N nitrate. The aquifer contained zones of relatively high concentrations of nitrite (up to 77 μM) and nitrous oxide (up to 143 μM) and has been the site of previous studies examining ground water denitrification using the acetylene block technique. Small‐scale (15–24 m travel distance) tracer tests were conducted by injecting 15N nitrate and bromide as tracers into a depth interval that contained nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and excess nitrogen gas. The timing of the bromide breakthrough curves at down‐gradient wells matched peaks in 15N abundance above background for nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gas after more than 40 days of travel. Results were simulated with a one‐dimensional transport model using linked reaction kinetics for the individual steps of the denitrification reaction pathway. It was necessary to include within the model spatial variations in background concentrations of all nitrogen oxide species. The model indicated that nitrite production (0.036–0.047 μmol N (L aquifer)−1 d−1) was faster than the subsequent denitrification steps (0.013–0.016 μmol N (L aquifer)−1 d−1 for nitrous oxide and 0.013–0.020 μmol N (L aquifer)−1 d−1 for nitrogen gas) and that the total rate of reaction was slower than indicated by both acetylene block tracer tests and laboratory incubations. The rate of nitrate removal by denitrification was much slower than the rate of transport, indicating that nitrate would migrate several kilometers down‐gradient before being completely consumed.

  5. Notochord-derived Shh concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body in neural target cells and forms a dynamic gradient during neural patterning.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Chester E; Jeong, Juhee; Guo, Chaoshe; Allen, Benjamin L; McMahon, Andrew P

    2008-03-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ligand secreted by the notochord induces distinct ventral cell identities in the adjacent neural tube by a concentration-dependent mechanism. To study this process, we genetically engineered mice that produce bioactive, fluorescently labeled Shh from the endogenous locus. We show that Shh ligand concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body of neural target cells, forming a dynamic, punctate gradient in the ventral neural tube. Both ligand lipidation and target field response influence the gradient profile, but not the ability of Shh to concentrate around the basal body. Further, subcellular analysis suggests that Shh from the notochord might traffic into the neural target field by means of an apical-to-basal-oriented microtubule scaffold. This study, in which we directly observe, measure, localize and modify notochord-derived Shh ligand in the context of neural patterning, provides several new insights into mechanisms of Shh morphogen action.

  6. 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in soil gas of Karkonosze-Izera Block (Sudetes, Poland).

    PubMed

    Malczewski, Dariusz; Zaba, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were measured at 18 locations in the Karkonosze-Izera Block area in southwestern Poland. Measurements were carried out in surface air and at sampling depths of 10, 40 and 80 cm. Surface air 222Rn concentrations ranged from 4 to 2160 Bq m(-3) and 220Rn ranged from 4 to 228 Bq m(-3). The concentrations for 10 and 40 cm varied from 142 Bq m(-3) to 801 kBq m(-3) and 102 Bq m(-3) to 64 kBq m(-3) for 222Rn and 220Rn, respectively. At 80 cm 222Rn concentrations ranged from 94 Bq m(-3) to >1 MBq m(-3). The 220Rn concentrations at 80 cm varied from 45 Bq m(-3) to 48 kBq m(-3). The concentration versus depth profiles for 222Rn differed for soils developed on fault zones, uranium deposits or both. Atmospheric air temperature and soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn were negatively correlated. At sampling sites with steep slopes, 220Rn concentrations decreased with depth.

  7. In vivo degradation behavior and biological activity of some new Mg-Ca alloys with concentration's gradient of Si for bone grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Fântânariu, Mircea; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Burtan, Liviu; Acatrinei, Dumitru Mihai; Stanciu, Sergiu; Istrate, Bogdan; Munteanu, Corneliu

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium based alloys, especially Mg-Ca alloys, are biocompatible substrates with mechanical properties similar to those of bones. The biodegradable alloys of Mg-Ca provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers and also they avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. The main issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca alloy is the fast degradation in the aggressive physiological environment of the body. The alloy's corrosion is proportional with the dissolution of the Mg in the body: the reaction with the water generates magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen. The accelerated corrosion will lead to early loss of the alloy's mechanical integrity. The degradation rate of an alloy can be improved mainly through tailoring the composition and by carrying out surface treatments. This research focuses on the ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys by an original method and studies the biological activity of the resulted specimens. A new Mg-Ca alloy, with a Si gradient concentration from the surface to the interior of the material, was obtained. The surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffraction (X'Pert equipment) and energy dispersive X-ray (Bruker EDS equipment). In vivo degradation behavior, biological compatibility and activity of Mg-Ca alloys with/without Si gradient concentration were studied with an implant model (subcutaneous and bony) in rats. The organism response to implants was characterized by using radiological (plain X-rays and computed tomography), biochemical and histological methods of investigation. The results sustained that Si gradient concentration can be used to control the rate of degradation of the Mg-Ca alloys for enhancing their biologic activity in order to facilitate bone tissue repair.

  8. Discrepant post filter ionized calcium concentrations by common blood gas analyzers in CRRT using regional citrate anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Patrik; Kuhn, Sven-Olaf; Stracke, Sylvia; Gründling, Matthias; Knigge, Stephan; Selleng, Sixten; Helm, Maximilian; Friesecke, Sigrun; Abel, Peter; Kallner, Anders; Nauck, Matthias; Petersmann, Astrid

    2015-09-08

    Ionized calcium (iCa) concentration is often used in critical care and measured using blood gas analyzers at the point of care. Controlling and adjusting regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) involves measuring the iCa concentration in two samples: systemic with physiological iCa concentrations and post filter samples with very low iCa concentrations. However, modern blood gas analyzers are optimized for physiological iCa concentrations which might make them less suitable for measuring low iCa in blood with a high concentration of citrate. We present results of iCa measurements from six different blood gas analyzers and the impact on clinical decisions based on the recommendations of the dialysis' device manufacturer. The iCa concentrations of systemic and post filter samples were measured using six distinct, frequently used blood gas analyzers. We obtained iCa results of 74 systemic and 84 post filter samples from patients undergoing RCA for CRRT at the University Medicine of Greifswald. The systemic samples showed concordant results on all analyzers with median iCa concentrations ranging from 1.07 to 1.16 mmol/L. The medians of iCa concentrations for post filter samples ranged from 0.21 to 0.50 mmol/L. Results of >70% of the post filter samples would lead to major differences in decisions regarding citrate flow depending on the instrument used. Measurements of iCa in post filter samples may give misleading information in monitoring the RCA. Recommendations of the dialysis manufacturer need to be revised. Meanwhile, little weight should be given to post filter iCa. Reference methods for low iCa in whole blood containing citrate should be established.

  9. Breath-by-breath analysis of expiratory gas concentration in chickens.

    PubMed

    Itabisashi, T

    1981-01-01

    Expiratory oxygen and carbon-dioxide concentration were analysed breath by breath in order to examine their wave forms in adult awake hens restrained in various postural positions, including supine, prone and sitting positions. Expired gas was collected at the nostril in almost all the hens. In the sitting position free from vocalization, feeding, drinking, panting, and restlessness, hens showed various forms of stable pattern of oxygen-gas curves. These forms were classified into three types, or the ascending, flat and descending types, with respect to the plateau inclination. The waves of carbon-dioxide were not always a mirror image of those of oxygen. The rate of occurrence of each type varied with the hen's postural position. The wave form was altered with the experimental body-rotation of the hen. When placed between the deflections of stable pattern, the episodes of wave deformation resembling that seen at the time of uneven pulmonary ventilation in mammals could frequently be observed in any hen's posture examined. Cardiogenic oscillation appeared on the plateau of expired-gas curves.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and N turnover along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlein, Adrian; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Zistl-Schlingmann, Marcus; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf; Kolar, Alison; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide climate and land-use change force alterations in various ecosystem properties and functions such as diversity and activity of soil microbial communities which are responsible for biogeochemical processes like soil nitrogen (N) turnover and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange. Tropical deforestation is highest in Africa and despite the importance of those ecosystems to global climate and biogeochemical cycles, data for greenhouse gas exchange is still rare (Serca et al., 1994, Werner et al., 2007) and no study regarding N turnover processes has been published yet. For that reason, we focused on seven different land-use types extending along an altitudinal gradient (950 -- 3880m) at Mt. Kilimanjaro, East Africa, covering (semi-) natural savanna, two montane forests and one afro alpine ecosystem, an extensive agroforest (homegarden) and an intensively managed coffee plantation. On all ecosystems we measured CO_2, CH4 and N_2O fluxes and gross rates of ammonification, nitrification, N immobilization, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). GHG results reveal pronounced N_2O fluxes depending mainly on soil moisture and to a lesser extent on soil temperature. Emissions are highest during the rainy seasons while lowest at dry season conditions. The largest N_2O emissions are recognizable at Ocotea forest, most likely due to the generally higher SOC/ totN and wetter conditions favoring formation and emission of N_2O via denitrification. Soils of the studied ecosystems were a sink of atmospheric CH

  11. Characterization of potential EC flux underestimation of "sticky" trace gas species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Hensen, Arjan; Ibrom, Andreas; Ammann, Christof; Voglmeier, Karl; Brümmer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of "sticky" trace gas species are affected of damping of high frequency variations of the gas concentration. Several approaches have been developed to correct for this effect (see e.g. Ibrom et al., 2007, Ammann et al., 2006). These approaches have in common that the spectral properties of the scalar are compared with the sonic temperature deduced from the Sonic anemometer data that is only marginally damped. A main difference between the two method is that one uses power spectra, while the other is based on co-spectra of the gas concentration with the vertical wind speed. NH3 fluxes used in the analysis stem from two field experiments: a) Posieux intercomparison October 2015: NH3 emissions of a grazed pasture measured with Eddy Covariance using an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser and with a horizontal gradient measurement using MiniDOAS systems (Sintermann et al., 2016) in conjunction with a dispersion model. b) Dronten experiment June 2016 in the Netherlands: NH3 emissions from two manured circles within 40m diameters have been determined with four different approaches (Eddy Covariance, Integrated Horizontal Flux approach, horizontal gradients and plume measurements). Despite correction with standard methods, turbulent NH3 flux measurements with the eddy covariance method seem still be underestimated when, e.g., compared to flux estimated using gradient methods. We discuss possible correction algorithms and how such underestimations can be recognized in the usual case, where no alternative flux estimation methods are available. References: Ammann, C., Brunner, A., Spirig, C., and Neftel, A. 2006: Technical note: Water vapour concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4643-4651 Ibrom, A., Dellwik, E., Jensen, N.O., Flyvbjerg, H. and Pilegaard, K., 2007. Strong low-pass filtering effects on water vapour flux measurements with closed-path eddy correlation systems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

  12. Coupling p+n Field-Effect Transistor Circuits for Low Concentration Methane Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyuan; Yang, Liping; Bian, Yuzhi; Ma, Xiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the detection of low concentration combustible methane gas has attracted great concern. In this paper, a coupling p+n field effect transistor (FET) amplification circuit is designed to detect methane gas. By optimizing the load resistance (RL), the response to methane of the commercial MP-4 sensor can be magnified ~15 times using this coupling circuit. At the same time, it decreases the limit of detection (LOD) from several hundred ppm to ~10 ppm methane, with the apparent response of 7.0 ± 0.2 and voltage signal of 1.1 ± 0.1 V. This is promising for the detection of trace concentrations of methane gas to avoid an accidental explosion because its lower explosion limit (LEL) is ~5%. The mechanism of this coupling circuit is that the n-type FET firstly generates an output voltage (VOUT) amplification process caused by the gate voltage-induced resistance change of the FET. Then, the p-type FET continues to amplify the signal based on the previous VOUT amplification process. PMID:29509659

  13. Coupling p+n Field-Effect Transistor Circuits for Low Concentration Methane Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyuan; Yang, Liping; Bian, Yuzhi; Ma, Xiang; Han, Ning; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-03-06

    Nowadays, the detection of low concentration combustible methane gas has attracted great concern. In this paper, a coupling p+n field effect transistor (FET) amplification circuit is designed to detect methane gas. By optimizing the load resistance ( R L ), the response to methane of the commercial MP-4 sensor can be magnified ~15 times using this coupling circuit. At the same time, it decreases the limit of detection (LOD) from several hundred ppm to ~10 ppm methane, with the apparent response of 7.0 ± 0.2 and voltage signal of 1.1 ± 0.1 V. This is promising for the detection of trace concentrations of methane gas to avoid an accidental explosion because its lower explosion limit (LEL) is ~5%. The mechanism of this coupling circuit is that the n-type FET firstly generates an output voltage ( V OUT ) amplification process caused by the gate voltage-induced resistance change of the FET. Then, the p-type FET continues to amplify the signal based on the previous V OUT amplification process.

  14. Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack

    1981-01-01

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  15. [Distribution characteristics of heavy metals along an elevation gradient of montane forest].

    PubMed

    Wan, Jia-rong; Nie, Ming; Zou, Qin; Hu, Shao-chang; Chen, Jia-kuan

    2011-12-01

    In the present paper, the concentrations of fourteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Cr, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, Cd and As) were determined by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy along an elevation gradient of montane forest. The results show that the elevation gradient had significant effects on the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, V, Pb and As. And the concentrations of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Se and Cd were not significantly affected by the elevation gradient. Because the studying area is red soil, the elevation gradient had significant effects on the concentrations of Fe, Al and Ti which are characteristic heavy metals of red soil, suggesting that the red soil at different elevations has different intensities of weathering desilication and bioaccumulation. Other heavy metals have different relationships with the elevation gradient, such as the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Cd were high at relatively high elevation and Pb and As were high at relatively low elevation. These results suggest that the different elevations of montane forest soils were polluted by differently types of heavy metals.

  16. Effect of canopy structure and open-top chamber techniques on micrometeorological parameters and the gradients and transport of water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone in the canopies of plum trees (`prunus salicina`) in the San Joaquin valley. Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Metheny, P.A.

    1995-03-15

    Plum trees (Prunus salicina cv. Casselman) were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers (OTC) or chamberless plots, and trace gas concentrations and microenvironmental conditions were monitored within tree canopies inside the outside the OTC. Concentrations of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor, leaf and air temperature, light intensity, and wind speed were measured at nine positions in the tree canopies. The objectives were to: (1) map the distribution of microenvironmental parameters within the canopies inside and outside the OTC; (2) determine transport parameters for gas exchange, and (3) calculate ozone flux. Significant vertical and horizontal gradients were observed; gradients weremore » diminished and often inverted inside relative to outside the OTC due to air distribution at the bottom of the OCT. Ozone flux was readily modeled from measures of stomatal conductance, nonstomatal conductance and ozone concentration at the leaf surface.« less

  17. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  18. Measurement of Absolute Concentrations of Individual Compounds in Metabolite Mixtures by Gradient-Selective Time-Zero 1H-13C HSQC (gsHSQC0) with Two Concentration References and Fast Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J.; Chylla, Roger A.; Markley, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-zero 2D 13C HSQC (HSQC0) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC0 spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero 1H-13C HSQC0 in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant time mode. Semi-automatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semi-automated gsHSQC0 with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC0 approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture. PMID:22029275

  19. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  20. Source Characterization and Exposure Modeling of Gas-Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua Tina; Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R 2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  1. Microbial response to environmental gradients in a ceramic-based diffusion system.

    PubMed

    Wolfaardt, G M; Hendry, M J; Birkham, T; Bressel, A; Gardner, M N; Sousa, A J; Korber, D R; Pilaski, M

    2008-05-01

    A solid, porous matrix was used to establish steady-state concentration profiles upon which microbial responses to concentration gradients of nutrients or antimicrobial agents could be quantified. This technique relies on the development of spatially defined concentration gradients across a ceramic plate resulting from the diffusion of solutes through the porous ceramic matrix. A two-dimensional, finite-element numerical transport model was used to predict the establishment of concentration profiles, after which concentration profiles of conservative tracers were quantified fluorometrically and chemically at the solid-liquid interface to verify the simulated profiles. Microbial growth responses to nutrient, hypochloride, and antimicrobial concentration gradients were then quantified using epifluorescent or scanning confocal laser microscopy. The observed microbial response verified the establishment and maintenance of stable concentration gradients along the solid-liquid interface. These results indicate the ceramic diffusion system has potential for the isolation of heterogeneous microbial communities as well as for testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. In addition, the durability of the solid matrix allowed long-term investigations, making this approach preferable to conventional gel-stabilized systems that are impeded by erosion as well as expansion or shrinkage of the gel. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Prasetyaningrum, A., E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Ratnawati,; Jos, B.

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flowmore » rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.« less

  3. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyaningrum, A.; Ratnawati, Jos, B.

    2015-12-01

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O3) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  4. Influence of wind-induced air pressure fluctuations on topsoil gas concentrations within a Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Manuel; Laemmel, Thomas; Maier, Martin; Schindler, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Commonly it is assumed that soil gas transport is dominated by molecular diffusion. Few recent studies indicate that the atmosphere above the soil triggers non-diffusive gas transport processes in the soil, which can enhance soil gas transport and therefore soil gas efflux significantly. During high wind speed conditions, the so called pressure pumping effect has been observed: the enhancement of soil gas transport through dynamic changes in the air pressure field above the soil. However, the amplitudes and frequencies of the air pressure fluctuations responsible for pressure pumping are still uncertain. Moreover, an in situ observation of the pressure pumping effect is still missing. To investigate the pressure pumping effect, airflow measurements above and below the canopy of a Scots pine forest and high-precision relative air pressure measurements were conducted in the below-canopy space and in the soil over a measurement period of 16 weeks. To monitor the soil gas transport, a newly developed gas measurement system was used. The gas measurement system continuously injects helium as a tracer gas into the soil until a diffusive steady state is reached. With the steady state concentration profile of the tracer gas, it is possible to inversely model the gas diffusion coefficient profile of the soil. If the gas diffusion coefficient profile differed from steady state, we deduced that the soil gas transport is not only diffusive, but also influenced by non-diffusive processes. Results show that the occurrence of small air pressure fluctuations is strongly dependent on the mean above-canopy wind speed. The wind-induced air pressure fluctuations have mean amplitudes up to 10 Pa and lie in the frequency range 0.01-0.1 Hz. To describe the pumping motion of the air pressure field, the pressure pumping coefficient (PPC) was defined as the mean change in pressure per second. The PPC shows a clear quadratic dependence on mean above-canopy wind speed. Empirical modelling of

  5. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  6. Analysis of problems and failures in the measurement of soil-gas radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Neznal, Martin; Neznal, Matěj

    2014-07-01

    Long-term experience in the field of soil-gas radon concentration measurements allows to describe and explain the most frequent causes of failures, which can appear in practice when various types of measurement methods and soil-gas sampling techniques are used. The concept of minimal sampling depth, which depends on the volume of the soil-gas sample and on the soil properties, is shown in detail. Consideration of minimal sampling depth at the time of measurement planning allows to avoid the most common mistakes. The ways how to identify influencing parameters, how to avoid a dilution of soil-gas samples by the atmospheric air, as well as how to recognise inappropriate sampling methods are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Probing the regional distribution of pulmonary gas exchange through single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, S Sivaram; Freeman, Matthew S; Cleveland, Zackary I; Davies, John; Stiles, Jane; Virgincar, Rohan S; Robertson, Scott H; He, Mu; Kelly, Kevin T; Foster, W Michael; McAdams, H Page; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2013-09-01

    Although some central aspects of pulmonary function (ventilation and perfusion) are known to be heterogeneous, the distribution of diffusive gas exchange remains poorly characterized. A solution is offered by hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, because this gas can be separately detected in the lung's air spaces and dissolved in its tissues. Early dissolved-phase 129Xe images exhibited intensity gradients that favored the dependent lung. To quantitatively corroborate this finding, we developed an interleaved, three-dimensional radial sequence to image the gaseous and dissolved 129Xe distributions in the same breath. These images were normalized and divided to calculate "129Xe gas-transfer" maps. We hypothesized that, for healthy volunteers, 129Xe gas-transfer maps would retain the previously observed posture-dependent gradients. This was tested in nine subjects: when the subjects were supine, 129Xe gas transfer exhibited a posterior-anterior gradient of -2.00 ± 0.74%/cm; when the subjects were prone, the gradient reversed to 1.94 ± 1.14%/cm (P < 0.001). The 129Xe gas-transfer maps also exhibited significant heterogeneity, as measured by the coefficient of variation, that correlated with subject total lung capacity (r = 0.77, P = 0.015). Gas-transfer intensity varied nonmonotonically with slice position and increased in slices proximal to the main pulmonary arteries. Despite substantial heterogeneity, the mean gas transfer for all subjects was 1.00 ± 0.01 while supine and 1.01 ± 0.01 while prone (P = 0.25), indicating good "matching" between gas- and dissolved-phase distributions. This study demonstrates that single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging yields 129Xe gas-transfer maps that are sensitive to altered gas exchange caused by differences in lung inflation and posture.

  8. Demonstration of a longitudinal concentration gradient along scala tympani by sequential sampling of perilymph from the cochlear apex.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Robert; Hale, Shane A; Gill, Ruth M; Plontke, Stefan K; Salt, Alec N

    2006-06-01

    Local applications of drugs to the inner ear are increasingly being used to treat patients' inner ear disorders. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the inner ear fluids is essential for a scientific basis for such treatments. When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug's kinetics in scala tympani (ST) must be established. Measurement of drug levels in ST is technically difficult because of the known contamination of perilymph samples taken from the basal cochlear turn with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recently, we reported a technique in which perilymph was sampled from the cochlear apex to minimize the influence of CSF contamination (J. Neurosci. Methods, doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.10.008 ). This technique has now been extended by taking smaller fluid samples sequentially from the cochlear apex, which can be used to quantify drug gradients along ST. The sampling and analysis methods were evaluated using an ionic marker, trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA), that was applied to the round window membrane. After loading perilymph with TMPA, 10 1-muL samples were taken from the cochlear apex. The TMPA content of the samples was consistent with the first sample containing perilymph from apical regions and the fourth or fifth sample containing perilymph from the basal turn. TMPA concentration decreased in subsequent samples, as they increasingly contained CSF that had passed through ST. Sample concentration curves were interpreted quantitatively by simulation of the experiment with a finite element model and by an automated curve-fitting method by which the apical-basal gradient was estimated. The study demonstrates that sequential apical sampling provides drug gradient data for ST perilymph while avoiding the major distortions of sample composition associated with basal turn sampling. The method can be used for any substance for which a sensitive assay is available and is therefore of high relevance for the development of preclinical and clinical

  9. Demonstration of a Longitudinal Concentration Gradient Along Scala Tympani by Sequential Sampling of Perilymph from the Cochlear Apex

    PubMed Central

    Mynatt, Robert; Hale, Shane A.; Gill, Ruth M.; Plontke, Stefan K.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Local applications of drugs to the inner ear are increasingly being used to treat patients' inner ear disorders. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the inner ear fluids is essential for a scientific basis for such treatments. When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug's kinetics in scala tympani (ST) must be established. Measurement of drug levels in ST is technically difficult because of the known contamination of perilymph samples taken from the basal cochlear turn with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recently, we reported a technique in which perilymph was sampled from the cochlear apex to minimize the influence of CSF contamination (J. Neurosci. Methods, doi: http://10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.10.008). This technique has now been extended by taking smaller fluid samples sequentially from the cochlear apex, which can be used to quantify drug gradients along ST. The sampling and analysis methods were evaluated using an ionic marker, trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA), that was applied to the round window membrane. After loading perilymph with TMPA, 10 1-μL samples were taken from the cochlear apex. The TMPA content of the samples was consistent with the first sample containing perilymph from apical regions and the fourth or fifth sample containing perilymph from the basal turn. TMPA concentration decreased in subsequent samples, as they increasingly contained CSF that had passed through ST. Sample concentration curves were interpreted quantitatively by simulation of the experiment with a finite element model and by an automated curve-fitting method by which the apical–basal gradient was estimated. The study demonstrates that sequential apical sampling provides drug gradient data for ST perilymph while avoiding the major distortions of sample composition associated with basal turn sampling. The method can be used for any substance for which a sensitive assay is available and is therefore of high relevance for the development of preclinical

  10. Soil gas 222Rn concentration in northern Germany and its relationship with geological subsurface structures.

    PubMed

    Künze, N; Koroleva, M; Reuther, C-D

    2013-01-01

    (222)Rn in soil gas activity was measured across the margins of two active salt diapirs in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, in order to reveal the impact of halokinetic processes on the soil gas signal. Soil gas and soil sampling were carried out in springtime and summer 2011. The occurrence of elevated (222)Rn in soil gas concentrations in Schleswig-Holstein has been ascribed to radionuclide rich moraine boulder material deposits, but the contribution of subsurface structures has not been investigated so far. Reference samples were taken from a region known for its granitic moraine boulder deposits, resulting in (222)Rn in soil gas activity of 40 kBq/m(3). The values resulting from profile sampling across salt dome margins are of the order of twice the moraine boulder material reference values and exceed 100 kBq/m(3). The zones of elevated concentrations are consistent throughout time despite variations in magnitude. One soil gas profile recorded in this work expands parallel to a seismic profile and reveals multiple zones of elevated (222)Rn activities above a rising salt intrusion. The physical and chemical properties of salt have an impact on the processes influencing gas migration and surface near radionuclide accumulations. The rise of salt supports the breakup of rock components thus leading to enhanced emanation. This work provides a first approach regarding the halokinetic contribution to the (222)Rn in soil gas occurrence and a possible theoretical model which summarizes the relevant processes was developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of concentration gradients on biodegradation in bench-scale sand columns with HYDRUS modeling of hydrocarbon transport and degradation.

    PubMed

    Horel, Agota; Schiewer, Silke; Misra, Debasmita

    2015-09-01

    The present research investigated to what extent results obtained in small microcosm experiments can be extrapolated to larger settings with non-uniform concentrations. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was compared for column experiments versus homogenized microcosms with varying concentrations of diesel, Syntroleum, and fish biodiesel as contaminants. Syntroleum and fish biodiesel had higher degradation rates than diesel fuel. Microcosms showed significantly higher overall hydrocarbon mineralization percentages (p < 0.006) than columns. Oxygen levels and moisture content were likely not responsible for that difference, which could, however, be explained by a strong gradient of fuel and nutrient concentrations through the column. The mineralization percentage in the columns was similar to small-scale microcosms at high fuel concentrations. While absolute hydrocarbon degradation increased, mineralization percentages decreased with increasing fuel concentration which was corroborated by saturation kinetics; the absolute CO2 production reached a steady plateau value at high substrate concentrations. Numerical modeling using HYDRUS 2D/3D simulated the transport and degradation of the investigated fuels in vadose zone conditions similar to those in laboratory column experiments. The numerical model was used to evaluate the impact of different degradation rate constants from microcosm versus column experiments.

  12. Discrete unified gas kinetic scheme for all Knudsen number flows. III. Binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Lianhua; Wang, Ruijie; Guo, Zhaoli

    2018-05-01

    Recently a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) in a finite-volume formulation based on the Boltzmann model equation has been developed for gas flows in all flow regimes. The original DUGKS is designed for flows of single-species gases. In this work, we extend the DUGKS to flows of binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules based on the Andries-Aoki-Perthame kinetic model [P. Andries et al., J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002), 10.1023/A:1014033703134. A particular feature of the method is that the flux at each cell interface is evaluated based on the characteristic solution of the kinetic equation itself; thus the numerical dissipation is low in comparison with that using direct reconstruction. Furthermore, the implicit treatment of the collision term enables the time step to be free from the restriction of the relaxation time. Unlike the DUGKS for single-species flows, a nonlinear system must be solved to determine the interaction parameters appearing in the equilibrium distribution function, which can be obtained analytically for Maxwell molecules. Several tests are performed to validate the scheme, including the shock structure problem under different Mach numbers and molar concentrations, the channel flow driven by a small gradient of pressure, temperature, or concentration, the plane Couette flow, and the shear driven cavity flow under different mass ratios and molar concentrations. The results are compared with those from other reliable numerical methods. The results show that the proposed scheme is an effective and reliable method for binary gas mixtures in all flow regimes.

  13. Model of separation performance of bilinear gradients in scanning format counter-flow gradient electrofocusing techniques.

    PubMed

    Shameli, Seyed Mostafa; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L

    2015-03-01

    Counter-flow gradient electrofocusing allows the simultaneous concentration and separation of analytes by generating a gradient in the total velocity of each analyte that is the sum of its electrophoretic velocity and the bulk counter-flow velocity. In the scanning format, the bulk counter-flow velocity is varying with time so that a number of analytes with large differences in electrophoretic mobility can be sequentially focused and passed by a single detection point. Studies have shown that nonlinear (such as a bilinear) velocity gradients along the separation channel can improve both peak capacity and separation resolution simultaneously, which cannot be realized by using a single linear gradient. Developing an effective separation system based on the scanning counter-flow nonlinear gradient electrofocusing technique usually requires extensive experimental and numerical efforts, which can be reduced significantly with the help of analytical models for design optimization and guiding experimental studies. Therefore, this study focuses on developing an analytical model to evaluate the separation performance of scanning counter-flow bilinear gradient electrofocusing methods. In particular, this model allows a bilinear gradient and a scanning rate to be optimized for the desired separation performance. The results based on this model indicate that any bilinear gradient provides a higher separation resolution (up to 100%) compared to the linear case. This model is validated by numerical studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Gas dispersion concentration of trace inorganic contaminants from fuel gas and analysis using head-column field-amplified sample stacking capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmin; Li, Hai-Fang; Li, Meilan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-08-21

    The presence of inorganic elements in fuel gas generally accelerates the corrosion and depletion of materials used in the fuel gas industry, and even leads to serious accidents. For identification of existing trace inorganic contaminants in fuel gas in a portable way, a highly efficient gas-liquid sampling collection system based on gas dispersion concentration is introduced in this work. Using the constructed dual path gas-liquid collection setup, inorganic cations and anions were simultaneously collected from real liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect UV absorbance detection. The head-column field-amplified sample stacking technique was applied to improve the detection limits to 2-25 ng mL(-1). The developed collection and analytical methods have successfully determined existing inorganic contaminants in a real LPG sample in the range of 4.59-138.69 μg m(-3). The recoveries of cations and anions with spiked LPG samples were between 83.98 and 105.63%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 7.19%.

  15. Tricolor emission of a fluorescent heteroditopic ligand over a concentration gradient of zinc(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Sreenath, Kesavapillai; Clark, Ronald J; Zhu, Lei

    2012-09-21

    The internal charge transfer (ICT) type fluoroionophore arylvinyl-bipy (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) is covalently tethered to the spirolactam form of rhodamine to afford fluorescent heteroditopic ligand 4. Compound 4 can be excited in the visible region, the emission of which undergoes sequential bathochromic shifts over an increasing concentration gradient of Zn(ClO(4))(2) in acetonitrile. Coordination of Zn(2+) stabilizes the ICT excited state of the arylvinyl-bipy component of 4, leading to the first emission color shift from blue to green. At sufficiently high concentrations of Zn(ClO(4))(2), the nonfluorescent spirolactam component of 4 is transformed to the fluorescent rhodamine, which turns the emission color from green to orange via intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the Zn(2+)-bound arylvinyl-bipy fluorophore to rhodamine. While this work offers a new design of ratiometric chemosensors, in which sequential analyte-induced emission band shifts result in the sampling of multiple colors at different concentration ranges (i.e., from blue to green to orange as [Zn(2+)] increases in the current case), it also reveals the nuances of rhodamine spirolactam chemistry that have not been sufficiently addressed in the published literature. These issues include the ability of rhodamine spirolactam as a fluorescence quencher via electron transfer, and the slow kinetics of spirolactam ring-opening effected by Zn(2+) coordination under pH neutral aqueous conditions.

  16. Pressure gradient induced generation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse bubbles possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy and industry. Here we provide with a detailed physical description of the bubble formation processes taking place in a type of flow where the liquid pressure gradient can be straightforwardly controlled. In our experiments, a gas flow rate discharges through a cylindrical needle into a pressurized chamber. The pressure gradient created from the exit of the injection needle towards the entrance of a extraction duct promotes the stretching of the gas ligament downstream. In our analysis, which is supported by an exhaustive experimental study in which the liquid viscosity is varied by three orders of magnitude, different regimes can be distinguished depending mainly on the Reynolds number. Through our physical modeling, we provide closed expressions for both the bubbling frequencies and for the bubble diameters as well as the conditions under which a monodisperse generation is obtained in all regimes found. The excellent agreement between our expressions and the experimental data fully validates our physical modeling.

  17. Generation and precise control of dynamic biochemical gradients for cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Yasushi; MacPherson, Murray; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial gradients of diffusible signalling molecules play crucial roles in controlling diverse cellular behaviour such as cell differentiation, tissue patterning and chemotaxis. In this paper, we report the design and testing of a microfluidic device for diffusion-based gradient generation for cellular assays. A unique channel design of the device eliminates cross-flow between the source and sink channels, thereby stabilizing gradients by passive diffusion. The platform also enables quick and flexible control of chemical concentration that makes highly dynamic gradients in diffusion chambers. A model with the first approximation of diffusion and surface adsorption of molecules recapitulates the experimentally observed gradients. Budding yeast cells cultured in a gradient of a chemical inducer expressed a reporter fluorescence protein in a concentration-dependent manner. This microfluidic platform serves as a versatile prototype applicable to a broad range of biomedical investigations.

  18. Soil features and indoor radon concentration prediction: radon in soil gas, pedology, permeability and 226Ra content.

    PubMed

    Lara, E; Rocha, Z; Santos, T O; Rios, F J; Oliveira, A H

    2015-11-01

    This work aims at relating some physicochemical features of soils and their use as a tool for prediction of indoor radon concentrations of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brazil. The measurements of soil gas radon concentrations were performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The (226)Ra content analysis was performed by gamma spectrometry (high pure germanium) and permeabilities were performed by using the RADON-JOK permeameter. The GEORP indicator and soil radon index (RI) were also calculated. Approximately 53 % of the Perferric Red Latosols measurement site could be classified as 'high risk' (Swedish criteria). The Litholic Neosols presented the lowest radon concentration mean in soil gas. The Perferric Red Latosols presented significantly high radon concentration mean in soil gas (60.6 ± 8.7 kBq m(-3)), high indoor radon concentration, high RI, (226)Ra content and GEORP. The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The evolution of the metallicity gradient and the star formation efficiency in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillero, Emanuel; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.; Michel-Dansac, Leo

    2017-12-01

    We study the oxygen abundance profiles of the gas-phase components in hydrodynamical simulations of pre-prepared disc galaxies including major mergers, close encounters and isolated configurations. We analyse the evolution of the slope of oxygen abundance profiles and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) along their evolution. We find that galaxy-galaxy interactions could generate either positive or negative gas-phase oxygen profiles, depending on the state of evolution. Along the interaction, galaxies are found to have metallicity gradients and sSFR consistent with observations, on average. Strong gas inflows produced during galaxy-galaxy interactions or as a result of strong local instabilities in gas-rich discs are able to produce both a quick dilution of the central gas-phase metallicity and a sudden increase of the sSFR. Our simulations show that, during these events, a correlation between the metallicity gradients and the sSFR can be set up if strong gas inflows are triggered in the central regions in short time-scales. Simulated galaxies without experiencing strong disturbances evolve smoothly without modifying the metallicity gradients. Gas-rich systems show large dispersion along the correlation. The dispersion in the observed relation could be interpreted as produced by the combination of galaxies with different gas-richness and/or experiencing different types of interactions. Hence, our findings suggest that the observed relation might be the smoking gun of galaxies forming in a hierarchical clustering scenario.

  20. Evaluation of shale gas potential based on organic matter characteristics and gas concentration in the Devonian Horn River Formation, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Hong, Sung Kyung; Lee, Hyun Suk

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate organic matter characteristics from the analysis of Rock-Eval6 and biomarker, and estimate methane concentration from headspace method in the Devonian Horn River Formation, which is one of the largest shale reservoir in western Canada. The Horn River Formation consists of the Evie, Otterpark and Muskwa members in ascending stratigraphic order. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ranges from 0.34 to 7.57 wt%, with an average of 2.78 wt%. The Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members have an average TOC of more than 3%, whereas those of the lower and upper Otterpark Member are less than 2%. Based on Pristane/n-C17 (0.2 0.6) and Phytane/n-C18 (0.3 0.9) ratios, the organic matter in the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members mainly consists of type II kerogen which are formed in reducing marine environment. Thermal maturity were examined through the use of the distributions of Phenanthrene (P) and Methylphenantrenes (MP) based on m/z 178 and 192 mass chromatograms, respectively (Radke et al., 1982). The methylphenanthrene index (MPI-1) are calculated as follows : MPI-1 = 1.5 × (2MP+3MP)/(P+1MP+9MP), and Ro are calculated as follows : Ro = -0.6 × MPI-1 + 2.3. Estimated Ro ranges between 1.88 and 1.93%, which indicates the last stage of wet gas generation. The methane concentrations in headspace range from 15 to 914 ppmv, with an average of 73.5 ppmv. The methane concentrations in the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members (up to 914 ppmv) are higher than those of the lower and upper Otterpark Member (up to 75 ppmv). Considering the organic geochemical characteristics and gas concentrations, the shale gas potentials of the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members are higher than those of other members.

  1. Evaluation of paper gradient concentration strips for antifungal combination testing of Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Siopi, Maria; Siafakas, Nikolaos; Zerva, Loukia; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    In vitro combination testing with broth microdilution chequerboard (CHEQ) method is widely used although it is time-consuming, cumbersome and difficult to apply in routine setting of clinical microbiology laboratory. A new gradient concentration paper strip method, the Liofilchem(®) MIC test strips (MTS), provides an alternative easy and fast method enabling the simultaneous diffusion of both drugs in combination. We therefore tested a polyene+azole and an azole+echinocandin combination against 18 Candida isolates with the CHEQ method based on EUCAST guidelines and the MTS method in research and routine settings. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated after 24 and 48 h of incubation based on complete and prominent (FIC-2) growth inhibition endpoints. Reproducibility and agreement within 1 twofold dilution was assessed. The FICs of the two methods were correlated quantitatively with t-test and Pearson analysis and qualitatively with Chi-squared test. The reproducibility of the CHEQ and MTS method was 88-100% and their agreement was 80% with 62-77% of MTS FICs being higher than the corresponding CHEQ FICs. A statistically significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.86, P = 0.0003) and association (χ(2) = 17.05, df = 4, P = 0.002) was found between MTS FIC and CHEQ FIC-2 after 24 h. Categorical agreement was 63% with no very major or major errors. All MTS synergistic interactions were also synergistic with the CHEQ method. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  3. Development of metal oxide gas sensors for very low concentration (ppb) of BTEX vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favard, A.; Aguir, K.; Contaret, T.; Caris, L.; Bendahan, M.

    2017-12-01

    The control and analysis of air quality have become a major preoccupation of the last twenty years. In 2008, the European Union has introduced a Directive (2008/50/EC) to impose measurement obligations and thresholds to not exceed for some pollutants, including BTEX gases, in view of their adverse effects on the health. In this paper, we show the ability to detect very low concentrations of BTEX using a gas microsensor based on metal oxide thin-film. A test bench able to generate very low vapors concentrations has been achieved and fully automated. Thin metal oxides layers have been realized by reactive magnetron sputtering. The sensitive layers are functionalized with gold nanoparticles by thermal evaporation technique. Our sensors have been tested on a wide range of concentrations of BTEX (5 - 500 ppb) and have been able to detect concentrations of a few ppb for operating temperatures below 593 K. These results are very promising for detection of very low BTEX concentration for indoor as well as outdoor application. We showed that the addition of gold nanoparticles on the sensitive layers decreases the sensors operating temperature and increases the response to BTEX gas. The best results are obtained with a sensitive layer based on ZnO.

  4. Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to orient in gradients of chemotactic factors

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis has been examined under conditions which allow phase microscope observations of cells responding to controlled gradients of chemotactic factors. With this visual assay, PMNs can be seen to orient rapidly and reversibly to gradients of N-formylmethionyl peptides. The level of orientation depends upon the mean concentration of peptide present as well as the concentration gradient. The response allows an estimation of the binding constant of the peptide to the cell. In optimal gradients, PMNs can detect a 1% difference in the concentration of peptide. At high cell densities, PMNs incubated with active peptides orient their locomotion away from the center of the cell population. This orientation appears to be due to inactivation of the peptides by the cells. Such inactivation in vivo could help to limit an inflammatory response. PMID:264125

  5. Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients under the influence of SDS surfactant

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duangprasert, Tanabordee; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2008-01-15

    Two-phase gas/liquid flows in vertical pipes have been systematically investigated. Water and SDS surfactant solutions at various concentrations were used as the working fluids. In particular, we focus our work on the influence of surfactant addition on the flow regimes, the corresponding pressure gradients, and the bubble sizes and velocity. Adding the surfactant lowers the air critical Reynolds numbers for the bubble-slug flow and the slug flow transitions. The pressure gradients of SDS solutions are lower than those of pure water especially in the slug flow and the slug-churn flow regimes, implying turbulent drag reduction. At low Re{sub air}, themore » bubble sizes of the surfactant solution are lower than those of pure water due to the increase in viscosity. With increasing and at high Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the SDS solution become greater than those of pure water which is attributed to the effect of surface tension. (author)« less

  6. Intelligent optical fiber sensor system for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jingming; Yin, Zongmin

    1991-08-01

    A measuring, controlling, and alarming system for the concentration of a gas or transparent liquid is described. In this system, a Fabry-Perot etalon with an optical fiber is used as the sensor, a charge-coupled device (CCD) is used as the photoelectric converter, and a single- chip microcomputer 8031 along with an interface circuit is used to measure the interference ring signal. The system has such features as real-time and on-line operation, continuous dynamic handling, and intelligent control.

  7. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  8. Investigation of the effects of pressure gradient, temperature and wall temperature ratio on the stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders and gas turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.

  9. Experimental Study of Hydroxy Gas (HHO) Production with Variation in Current, Voltage and Electrolyte Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Noor; Pandey, K. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, work has been carried out experimentally for the investigation of the effects of variation incurrent, voltage, temperature, chemical concentration and reaction time on the amount of hydroxy gas produced. Further effects on the overall electrolysis efficiency of advance alkaline water is also studied. The hydroxy gas (HHO) has been produced experimentally by the electrolysis of alkaline water with parallel plate electrode of 316L-grade stainless steel. The electrode has been selected on the basis of corrosion resistance and inertness with respect to electrolyte (KOH). The process used for the production of HHO is conventional as compared to the other production processes because of reduced energy consumption, less maintenance and low setup cost. From the experimental results, it has been observed that with increase in voltage, temperature and electrolyte concentration of alkaline solution, the production of hydroxy gas has increased about 30 to 40% with reduction in electrical energy consumption.

  10. Investigating the influence of lithologic heterogeneity on gas hydrate formation and methane recycling at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone in channelized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, H.; Nole, M.; Cook, A.; Malinverno, A.

    2017-12-01

    In marine environments, gas hydrate preferentially accumulates in coarse-grained sediments. At the meso- to micro-scale, however, hydrate distribution in these coarse-grained units is often heterogeneous. We employ a methane hydrate reservoir simulator coupling heat and mass transfer as well as capillary effects to investigate how capillary controls on methane solubility affect gas and hydrate accumulations in reservoirs characterized by graded bedding and alternating sequences of coarse-grained sands and fine-grained silt and clay. Simulations bury a channelized reservoir unit encased in homogeneous, fine-grained material characterized by small pores (150 nm) and low permeability ( 1 md in the absence of hydrate). Pore sizes within each reservoir bed between vary between coarse sand and fine silt. Sands have a median pore size of 35 microns and a lognormal pore size distribution. We also investigate how the amount of labile organic carbon (LOC) affects hydrate growth due to microbial methanogenesis within the sediments. In a diffusion-dominated system, methane movies into reservoir layers along spatial gradients in dissolved methane concentration. Hydrate grows in such a way as to minimize these concentration gradients by accumulating slower in finer-grained reservoir layers and faster in coarser-grained layers. Channelized, fining-upwards sediment bodies accumulate hydrate first along their outer surfaces and thence inward from top to bottom. If LOC is present in thin beds within the channel, higher saturations of hydrate will be distributed more homogeneously throughout the unit. When buried beneath the GHSZ, gas recycling can occur only if enough hydrate is present to form a connected gas phase upon dissociation. Simulations indicate that this is difficult to achieve for diffusion-dominated systems, especially those with thick GHSZs and/or small amounts of LOC. However, capillary-driven fracturing behavior may be more prevalent in settings with thick GHSZs.

  11. Investigating the influence of lithologic heterogeneity on gas hydrate formation and methane recycling at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone in channelized systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Daigle, Hugh; Nole, Michael; Cook, Ann

    In marine environments, gas hydrate preferentially accumulates in coarse-grained sediments. At the meso- to micro-scale, however, hydrate distribution in these coarse-grained units is often heterogeneous. We employ a methane hydrate reservoir simulator coupling heat and mass transfer as well as capillary effects to investigate how capillary controls on methane solubility affect gas and hydrate accumulations in reservoirs characterized by graded bedding and alternating sequences of coarse-grained sands and fine-grained silt and clay. Simulations bury a channelized reservoir unit encased in homogeneous, fine-grained material characterized by small pores (150 nm) and low permeability (~1 md in the absence of hydrate). Poremore » sizes within each reservoir bed between vary between coarse sand and fine silt. Sands have a median pore size of 35 microns and a lognormal pore size distribution. We also investigate how the amount of labile organic carbon (LOC) affects hydrate growth due to microbial methanogenesis within the sediments. In a diffusion-dominated system, methane movies into reservoir layers along spatial gradients in dissolved methane concentration. Hydrate grows in such a way as to minimize these concentration gradients by accumulating slower in finer-grained reservoir layers and faster in coarser-grained layers. Channelized, fining-upwards sediment bodies accumulate hydrate first along their outer surfaces and thence inward from top to bottom. If LOC is present in thin beds within the channel, higher saturations of hydrate will be distributed more homogeneously throughout the unit. When buried beneath the GHSZ, gas recycling can occur only if enough hydrate is present to form a connected gas phase upon dissociation. Simulations indicate that this is difficult to achieve for diffusion-dominated systems, especially those with thick GHSZs and/or small amounts of LOC. However, capillary-driven fracturing behavior may be more prevalent in settings with thick

  12. Performance optimization in electric field gradient focusing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Farnsworth, Paul B; Tolley, H Dennis; Warnick, Karl F; Woolley, Adam T; Lee, Milton L

    2009-01-02

    Electric field gradient focusing (EFGF) is a technique used to simultaneously separate and concentrate biomacromolecules, such as proteins, based on the opposing forces of an electric field gradient and a hydrodynamic flow. Recently, we reported EFGF devices fabricated completely from copolymers functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol), which display excellent resistance to protein adsorption. However, the previous devices did not provide the predicted linear electric field gradient and stable current. To improve performance, Tris-HCl buffer that was previously doped in the hydrogel was replaced with a phosphate buffer containing a salt (i.e., potassium chloride, KCl) with high mobility ions. The new devices exhibited stable current, good reproducibility, and a linear electric field distribution in agreement with the shaped gradient region design due to improved ion transport in the hydrogel. The field gradient was calculated based on theory to be approximately 5.76 V/cm(2) for R-phycoerythrin when the applied voltage was 500 V. The effect of EFGF separation channel dimensions was also investigated; a narrower focused band was achieved in a smaller diameter channel. The relationship between the bandwidth and channel diameter is consistent with theory. Three model proteins were resolved in an EFGF channel of this design. The improved device demonstrated 14,000-fold concentration of a protein sample (from 2 ng/mL to 27 microg/mL).

  13. Air concentrations of volatile compounds near oil and gas production: a community-based exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Macey, Gregg P; Breech, Ruth; Chernaik, Mark; Cox, Caroline; Larson, Denny; Thomas, Deb; Carpenter, David O

    2014-10-30

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other drilling and well stimulation technologies are now used widely in the United States and increasingly in other countries. They enable increases in oil and gas production, but there has been inadequate attention to human health impacts. Air quality near oil and gas operations is an underexplored human health concern for five reasons: (1) prior focus on threats to water quality; (2) an evolving understanding of contributions of certain oil and gas production processes to air quality; (3) limited state air quality monitoring networks; (4) significant variability in air emissions and concentrations; and (5) air quality research that misses impacts important to residents. Preliminary research suggests that volatile compounds, including hazardous air pollutants, are of potential concern. This study differs from prior research in its use of a community-based process to identify sampling locations. Through this approach, we determine concentrations of volatile compounds in air near operations that reflect community concerns and point to the need for more fine-grained and frequent monitoring at points along the production life cycle. Grab and passive air samples were collected by trained volunteers at locations identified through systematic observation of industrial operations and air impacts over the course of resident daily routines. A total of 75 volatile organics were measured using EPA Method TO-15 or TO-3 by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Formaldehyde levels were determined using UMEx 100 Passive Samplers. Levels of eight volatile chemicals exceeded federal guidelines under several operational circumstances. Benzene, formaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide were the most common compounds to exceed acute and other health-based risk levels. Air concentrations of potentially dangerous compounds and chemical mixtures are frequently present near oil and gas production sites. Community-based research can provide an

  14. Gas/liquid sensing via chemotaxis of Euglena cells confined in an isolated micro-aquarium.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Hara, Masahiko; Maeda, Mizuo

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate on-chip gas/liquid sensing by using the chemotaxis of live bacteria (Euglena gracilis) confined in an isolated micro-aquarium, and gas/liquid permeation through porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The sensing chip consisted of one closed micro-aquarium and two separated bypass microchannels along the perimeter of the micro-aquarium. Test gas/liquid and reference samples were introduced into the two individual microchannels separately, and the gas/liquid permeated through the PDMS walls and dissolved in the micro-aquarium water, resulting in a chemical concentration gradient in the micro-aquarium. By employing the closed micro-aquarium isolated from sample flows, we succeeded in measuring the chemotaxis of Euglena for a gas substance quantitatively, which cannot be achieved with the conventional flow-type or hydro-gel-type microfluidic devices. We found positive (negative) chemotaxis for CO2 concentrations below (above) 15%, with 64 ppm as the minimum concentration affecting the cells. We also observed chemotaxis for ethanol and H2O2. By supplying culture medium via the microchannels, the Euglena culture remained alive for more than 2 months. The sensing chip is thus useful for culturing cells and using them for environmental toxicity/nutrition studies by monitoring their motion.

  15. Pilot study on feasibility of application of gas chromatography for the assessment of acrylamide concentration in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia; Wojtal, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using gas chromatography to measurement of the acrylamide concentration in sewage sludge. Acrylamide, as a toxic substance, is not indifferent to human health, but it is used in the production of plastics, dyes, adhesives, cosmetics, mortar, as well as a coagulant for water treatment, wastewater or sewage sludge conditioning. Determination of acrylamide by gas chromatography was based on standard: EPA Method 8032A "Acrylamid by gas chromatography." It consists of a bromination reaction of the compound in the presence of dibromopropendial derivative, a triple extraction with the ethyl acetate, a concentration of the eluate sample up to the 1 ml volume, and an analysis by the gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (ECD). The acrylamide concentration of was calculated according to the formula presented in the mentioned standard. All samples were performed twice (the difference between the results was not greater than 10%), and the average value of the four samples was 17.64 µg/L(-1). The presence of acrylamide in sewage sludge has been confirmed.

  16. Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Powder with High Gas Selectivity towards Wide Range Concentration of C₂H₅OH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxiang; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Lianfeng; Yao, Youwei

    2017-05-24

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) powder was prepared by typical solution-based process and post-annealing process. The sample was used as sensor for detecting C₂H₅OH, H₂, and CO. Gas-sensing performance was found to be highly sensitive to C₂H₅OH gas in a wide range of concentration (0.5-1250 ppm) with the response of 2.0 towards 0.5 ppm and 89.2 towards 1250 ppm. Obvious difference of response towards C₂H₅OH, H₂, and CO was found that the response e.g., was 33.20, 6.64, and 2.84 respectively at the concentration of 200 ppm. The response time and recovery time of was 32 s and 14 s respectively towards 200 ppm concentration of C₂H₅OH gas under heating voltage of 6.5 V.

  17. The Impact of Diffuse Ionized Gas on Emission-line Ratios and Gas Metallicity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies observed by MaNGA, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impact the measurements of emission line ratios, hence the gas-phase metallicity measurements and the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams. We demonstrate that emission line surface brightness (SB) is a reasonably good proxy to separate HII regions from regions dominated by diffuse ionized gas. For spatially-adjacent regions or regions at the same radius, many line ratios change systematically with emission line surface brightness, reflecting a gradual increase of dominance by DIG towards low SB. DIG could significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradient. Because DIG tend to have a higher temperature than HII regions, at fixed metallicity DIG displays lower [NII]/[OII] ratios. DIG also show lower [OIII]/[OII] ratios than HII regions, due to extended partially-ionized regions that enhance all low-ionization lines ([NII], [SII], [OII], [OI]). The contamination by DIG is responsible for a substantial portion of the scatter in metallicity measurements. At different surface brightness, line ratios and line ratio gradients can differ systematically. As DIG fraction could change with radius, it can affect the metallicity gradient measurements in systematic ways. The three commonly used strong-line metallicity indicators, R23, [NII]/[OII], O3N2, are all affected in different ways. To make robust metallicity gradient measurements, one has to properly isolate HII regions and correct for DIG contamination. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves HII regions towards composite or LINER-like regions.

  18. [Influencing factors in preparation of brucine liposomes by ammonium sulfate transmembrane gradients].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Jun; Cai, Bao-Chang; Fang, Yun

    2008-09-01

    To study the influencing factors in preparation of brucine liposomes by ammonium sulfate transmembrane gradients. The brucine liposomes were separated by Sephadex G-50, and the influence of various factors on the entrapment efficiencies were investigated. The entrapment efficiency was enhanced by increased ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol volume and PC concentration. Burcine liposomes prepared by ammonium sulfate transmembrance gradients can get a high entrapment efficiency, the main influencing factors were ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol volume and PC concentration.

  19. Pressure gradients fail to predict diffusio-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawei; Ganti, Raman; Frenkel, Daan

    2018-05-01

    We present numerical simulations of diffusio-osmotic flow, i.e. the fluid flow generated by a concentration gradient along a solid-fluid interface. In our study, we compare a number of distinct approaches that have been proposed for computing such flows and compare them with a reference calculation based on direct, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. As alternatives, we consider schemes that compute diffusio-osmotic flow from the gradient of the chemical potentials of the constituent species and from the gradient of the component of the pressure tensor parallel to the interface. We find that the approach based on treating chemical potential gradients as external forces acting on various species agrees with the direct simulations, thereby supporting the approach of Marbach et al (2017 J. Chem. Phys. 146 194701). In contrast, an approach based on computing the gradients of the microscopic pressure tensor does not reproduce the direct non-equilibrium results.

  20. Temperature gradient effects on vapor diffusion in partially-saturated porous media

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Webb, S.W.

    1999-07-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid may be enhanced due to pore-scale processes, such as condensation and evaporation across isolated liquid islands. Webb and Ho (1997) developed one-and two-dimensional mechanistic pore-scale models of these processes in an ideal porous medium. For isothermal and isobaric boundary conditions with a concentration gradient, the vapor diffusion rate was significantly enhanced by these liquid island processes compared to a dry porous media. The influence of a temperature gradient on the enhanced vapor diffusion rate is considered in this paper. The two-dimensional pore network model which is used inmore » the present study is shown. For partially-saturated conditions, a liquid island is introduced into the top center pore. Boundary conditions on the left and right sides of the model are specified to give the desired concentration and temperature gradients. Vapor condenses on one side of the liquid island and evaporates off the other side due to local vapor pressure lowering caused by the interface curvature, even without a temperature gradient. Rather than acting as an impediment to vapor diffusion, the liquid island actually enhances the vapor diffusion rate. The enhancement of the vapor diffusion rate can be significant depending on the liquid saturation. Vapor diffusion is enhanced by up to 40% for this single liquid island compared to a dry porous medium; enhancement factors of up to an order of magnitude have been calculated for other conditions by Webb and Ho (1997). The dominant effect on the enhancement factor is the concentration gradient; the influence of the temperature gradient is smaller. The significance of these results, which need to be confirmed by experiments, is that the dominant model of enhanced vapor diffusion (EVD) by Philip and deVries (1957) predicts that temperature gradients must exist for EVD to occur. If there is no temperature gradient, there is no enhancement. The present

  1. The metallicity and elemental abundance gradients of simulated galaxies and their environmental dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2017-11-01

    The internal distribution of heavy elements, in particular the radial metallicity gradient, offers insight into the merging history of galaxies. Using our cosmological, chemodynamical simulations that include both detailed chemical enrichment and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN), we find that stellar metallicity gradients in the most massive galaxies (≳3 × 1010M⊙) are made flatter by mergers and are unable to regenerate due to the quenching of star formation by AGN feedback. The fitting range is chosen on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis in order to mask satellite galaxies. The evolutionary paths of the gradients can be summarized as follows: (I) creation of initial steep gradients by gas-rich assembly, (II) passive evolution by star formation and/or stellar accretion at outskirts, and (III) sudden flattening by mergers. There is a significant scatter in gradients at a given mass, which originates from the last path, and therefore from galaxy type. Some variation remains at given galaxy mass and type because of the complexity of merging events, and hence we find only a weak environmental dependence. Our early-type galaxies (ETGs), defined from the star formation main sequence rather than their morphology, are in excellent agreement with the observed stellar metallicity gradients of ETGs in the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys. We find small positive [O/Fe] gradients of stars in our simulated galaxies, although they are smaller with AGN feedback. Gas-phase metallicity and [O/Fe] gradients also show variation, the origin of which is not as clear as for stellar populations.

  2. Mercury in the Arctic tundra snowpack: temporal and spatial concentration patterns and trace gas exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnan, Yannick; Douglas, Thomas A.; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Obrist, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In the Arctic, the snowpack forms the major interface between atmospheric and terrestrial cycling of mercury (Hg), a global pollutant. We investigated Hg dynamics in an interior Arctic tundra snowpack in northern Alaska during two winter seasons. Using a snow tower system to monitor Hg trace gas exchange, we observed consistent concentration declines of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0gas) from the atmosphere to the snowpack to soils. The snowpack itself was unlikely a direct sink for atmospheric Hg0gas. In addition, there was no evidence of photochemical reduction of HgII to Hg0gas in the tundra snowpack, with the exception of short periods during late winter in the uppermost snow layer. The patterns in this interior Arctic snowpack thus differ substantially from observations in Arctic coastal and temperate snowpacks. We consistently measured low concentrations of both total and dissolved Hg in snowpack throughout the two seasons. Chemical tracers showed that Hg was mainly associated with local mineral dust and regional marine sea spray inputs. Mass balance calculations show that the snowpack represents a small reservoir of Hg, resulting in low inputs during snowmelt. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that interior Arctic snowpacks are negligible sources of Hg to the Arctic.

  3. Gradient elution behavior of proteins in hydrophobic interaction chromatography with U-shaped retention factor curves.

    PubMed

    Creasy, Arch; Lomino, Joseph; Barker, Gregory; Khetan, Anurag; Carta, Giorgio

    2018-04-27

    Protein retention in hydrophobic interaction chromatography is described by the solvophobic theory as a function of the kosmostropic salt concentration. In general, an increase in salt concentration drives protein partitioning to the hydrophobic surface while a decrease reduces it. In some cases, however, protein retention also increases at low salt concentrations resulting in a U-shaped retention factor curve. During gradient elution the salt concentration is gradually decreased from a high value thereby reducing the retention factor and increasing the protein chromatographic velocity. For these conditions, a steep gradient can overtake the protein in the column, causing it to rebind. Two dynamic models, one based on the local equilibrium theory and the other based on the linear driving force approximation, are presented. We show that the normalized gradient slope determines whether the protein elutes in the gradient, partially elutes, or is trapped in the column. Experimental results are presented for two different monoclonal antibodies and for lysozyme on Capto Phenyl (High Sub) resin. One of the mAbs and lysozyme exhibit U-shaped retention factor curves and for each, we determine the critical gradient slope beyond which 100% recovery is no longer possible. Elution with a reverse gradient is also demonstrated at low salt concentrations for these proteins. Understanding this behavior has implications in the design of gradient elution since the gradient slope impacts protein recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystals For an Energy Storage Concentration Cell.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qilin; Patel, Ketan; Donatelli, Greg; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-08-22

    Energy-storage concentration cells are based on the concentration gradient of redox-active reactants; the increased entropy is transformed into electric energy as the concentration gradient reaches equilibrium between two half cells. A recyclable and flow-controlled magnetic electrolyte concentration cell is now presented. The hybrid inorganic-organic nanocrystal-based electrolyte, consisting of molecular redox-active ligands adsorbed on the surface of magnetic nanocrystals, leads to a magnetic-field-driven concentration gradient of redox molecules. The energy storage performance of concentration cells is dictated by magnetic characteristics of cobalt ferrite nanocrystal carriers. The enhanced conductivity and kinetics of redox-active electrolytes could further induce a sharp concentration gradient to improve the energy density and voltage switching of magnetic electrolyte concentration cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Review of Mitigation Costs for Stabilizing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; O'Neill, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid future climate change comes at a cost, because low-emission technologies are more expensive than GHG-emitting technology options. The increase in mitigation cost is not linearly related to the stabilization level, though: the first emission reductions are relatively cheap, but deeper emission reductions become more expensive. Therefore, emission reduction to medium levels of GHG concentrations , such as 4.5 or 6 W/m2, is considerably cheaper than emission reduction to low levels of GHG concentrations, such as 2.6 or 3.7 W/m2. Moreover, mitigation costs are influenced by many other aspects than the targeted mitigation level alone, such as whether or not certain technologies are available or societally acceptable (Kriegler et al., 2014); the rate of technological progress and cost reduction of low-emission technologies; the level of final energy demand (Riahi et al., 2011), and the level of global cooperation and trade in emission allowances (den Elzen and Höhne, 2010). This paper reviews the existing literature on greenhouse gas mitigation costs. We analyze the available data on mitigation costs and draw conclusions on how these change for different stabilization levels of GHG concentrations. We will take into account the aspects of technology, energy demand, and cooperation in distinguishing differences between scenarios and stabilization levels. References: den Elzen, M., Höhne, N., 2010. Sharing the reduction effort to limit global warming to 2C. Climate Policy 10, 247-260. Kriegler, E., Weyant, J., Blanford, G., Krey, V., Clarke, L., Edmonds, J., Fawcett, A., Luderer, G., Riahi, K., Richels, R., Rose, S., Tavoni, M., Vuuren, D., 2014. The role of technology for achieving climate policy objectives: overview of the EMF 27 study on global technology and climate policy strategies. Climatic Change, 1-15. Riahi, K., Dentener, F., Gielen, D., Grubler, A., Jewell, J., Klimont, Z., Krey, V., McCollum, D., Pachauri, S

  6. How to Enhance Gas Removal from Porous Electrodes?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyk, Thomas; Bruce, David; Eikerling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a structure-based modeling approach to optimize gas evolution at an electrolyte-flooded porous electrode. By providing hydrophobic islands as preferential nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode, it is possible to nucleate and grow bubbles outside of the pore space, facilitating their release into the electrolyte. Bubbles that grow at preferential nucleation sites act as a sink for dissolved gas produced in electrode reactions, effectively suctioning it from the electrolyte-filled pores. According to the model, high oversaturation is necessary to nucleate bubbles inside of the pores. The high oversaturation allows establishing large concentration gradients in the pores that drive a diffusion flux towards the preferential nucleation sites. This diffusion flux keeps the pores bubble-free, avoiding deactivation of the electrochemically active surface area of the electrode as well as mechanical stress that would otherwise lead to catalyst degradation. The transport regime of the dissolved gas, viz. diffusion control vs. transfer control at the liquid-gas interface, determines the bubble growth law. PMID:28008914

  7. Coordination of leaf structure and gas exchange along a height gradient in a tall conifer.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, D R; Meinzer, F C; Lachenbruch, B; Johnson, D M

    2009-02-01

    The gravitational component of water potential and frictional resistance during transpiration lead to substantial reductions in leaf water potential (Psi(l)) near the tops of tall trees, which can influence both leaf growth and physiology. We examined the relationships between morphological features and gas exchange in foliage collected near the tops of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees of different height classes ranging from 5 to 55 m. This sampling allowed us to investigate the effects of tree height on leaf structural characteristics in the absence of potentially confounding factors such as irradiance, temperature, relative humidity and branch length. The use of cut foliage for measurement of intrinsic gas-exchange characteristics allowed identification of height-related trends without the immediate influences of path length and gravity. Stomatal density, needle length, needle width and needle area declined with increasing tree height by 0.70 mm(-2) m(-1), 0.20 mm m(-1), 5.9 x 10(-3) mm m(-1) and 0.012 mm(2) m(-1), respectively. Needle thickness and mesophyll thickness increased with tree height by 4.8 x 10(-2) mm m(-1) and 0.74 microm m(-1), respectively. Mesophyll conductance (g(m)) and CO(2) assimilation in ambient [CO(2)] (A(amb)) decreased by 1.1 mmol m(-2) s(-1) per m and 0.082 micromol m(-2) s(-1) per m increase in height, respectively. Mean reductions in g(m) and A(amb) of foliage from 5 to 55 m were 47% and 42%, respectively. The observed trend in A(amb) was associated with g(m) and several leaf anatomic characteristics that are likely to be determined by the prevailing vertical tension gradient during foliar development. A linear increase in foliar delta(13)C values with height (0.042 per thousand m(-1)) implied that relative stomatal and mesophyll limitations of photosynthesis in intact shoots increased with height. These data suggest that increasing height leads to both fixed structural constraints on leaf gas exchange and

  8. Spiral stellar density waves and the flattening of abundance gradients in the warm gas component of spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.

    2006-08-01

    Motivated by recent observations of plateaus and minima in the radial abundance distributions of heavy elements in the Milky Way and some other spiral galaxies, we propose a dynamical mechanism for the formation of such features around corotation. Our numerical simulations show that the non-axisymmetric gravitational field of spiral density waves generates cyclone and anticylone gas flows in the vicinity of corotation. The anticyclones flatten the pre-existing negative abundance gradients by exporting many more atoms of heavy elements outside corotation than importing inside it. This process is very efficient and forms plateaus of several kiloparsec in size around corotation after two revolution periods of a galaxy. The strength of anticyclones and, consequently, the sizes of plateaus depend on the pitch angle of spiral arms and are expected to increase along the Hubble sequence.

  9. Versatile Action of Picomolar Gradients of Progesterone on Different Sperm Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Uñates, Diego Rafael; Guidobaldi, Héctor Alejandro; Gatica, Laura Virginia; Cubilla, Marisa Angélica; Teves, María Eugenia; Moreno, Ayelén; Giojalas, Laura Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    High step concentrations of progesterone may stimulate various sperm physiological processes, such as priming and the acrosome reaction. However, approaching the egg, spermatozoa face increasing concentrations of the hormone, as it is secreted by the cumulus cells and then passively diffuses along the cumulus matrix and beyond. In this context, several questions arise: are spermatozoa sensitive to the steroid gradients as they undergo priming and the acrosome reaction? If so, what are the functional gradual concentrations of progesterone? Do spermatozoa in different physiological states respond differentially to steroid gradients? To answer these questions, spermatozoa were confronted with progesterone gradients generated by different hormone concentrations (1 pM to 100 µM). Brief exposure to a 10 pM progesterone gradient stimulated priming for the acrosome reaction in one sperm subpopulation, and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction in a different sperm subpopulation. This effect was not observed in non-capacitated cells or when progesterone was homogeneously distributed. The results suggest a versatile role of the gradual distribution of very low doses of progesterone, which selectively stimulate the priming and the acrosome reaction in different sperm subpopulations. PMID:24614230

  10. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagnik, S. K.

    1982-09-01

    High level nuclear waste disposal in a geologic repository was proposed. Natural salt deposits which are considered contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all liquid and gas liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusion shape and size are discussed.

  11. A new method for inferring carbon monoxide concentrations from gas filter radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Gormsen, B. B.

    1981-01-01

    A method for inferring carbon monoxide concentrations from gas filter radiometer data is presented. The technique can closely approximate the results of more costly line-by-line radiative transfer calculations over a wide range of altitudes, ground temperatures, and carbon monoxide concentrations. The technique can also be used over a larger range of conditions than those used for the regression analysis. Because the influence of the carbon monoxide mixing ratio requires only addition, multiplication and a minimum of logic, the method can be implemented on very small computers or microprocessors.

  12. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visualization of an endogenous retinoic acid gradient across embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Satoshi; Iimura, Tadahiro; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-04-18

    In vertebrate development, the body plan is determined by primordial morphogen gradients that suffuse the embryo. Retinoic acid (RA) is an important morphogen involved in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of structures, including the hindbrain and paraxial mesoderm. RA diffuses over long distances, and its activity is spatially restricted by synthesizing and degrading enzymes. However, gradients of endogenous morphogens in live embryos have not been directly observed; indeed, their existence, distribution and requirement for correct patterning remain controversial. Here we report a family of genetically encoded indicators for RA that we have termed GEPRAs (genetically encoded probes for RA). Using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer we engineered the ligand-binding domains of RA receptors to incorporate cyan-emitting and yellow-emitting fluorescent proteins as fluorescence resonance energy transfer donor and acceptor, respectively, for the reliable detection of ambient free RA. We created three GEPRAs with different affinities for RA, enabling the quantitative measurement of physiological RA concentrations. Live imaging of zebrafish embryos at the gastrula and somitogenesis stages revealed a linear concentration gradient of endogenous RA in a two-tailed source-sink arrangement across the embryo. Modelling of the observed linear RA gradient suggests that the rate of RA diffusion exceeds the spatiotemporal dynamics of embryogenesis, resulting in stability to perturbation. Furthermore, we used GEPRAs in combination with genetic and pharmacological perturbations to resolve competing hypotheses on the structure of the RA gradient during hindbrain formation and somitogenesis. Live imaging of endogenous concentration gradients across embryonic development will allow the precise assignment of molecular mechanisms to developmental dynamics and will accelerate the application of approaches based on morphogen gradients to tissue engineering and

  14. Atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs around Hochiminh city.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Minh Man; Tsai, Ching Lan; Hien, To Thi; Thuan, Ngo Thi; Chi, Kai Hsien; Lien, Chien Guo; Chang, Moo Been

    2018-07-01

    Atmospheric PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs samples were collected in Hochiminh city, Vietnam to address the effect of meteorological parameters, especially rainfall, on the occurrence and gas/particle partitioning of these persistent organic pollutants. The results indicate that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs concentrations in industrial site are higher than those measured in commercial and rural sites during both rainy and dry seasons. In terms of mass concentration, ambient PCDD/F levels measured in dry season are significantly higher than those measured in rainy season while dl-PCB levels do not vary significantly between rainy and dry seasons. The difference could be attributed to different gas/particle partitioning characteristics between PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. PCDD/Fs are found to be mainly distributed in particle phase while dl- PCBs are predominantly distributed in gas phase in both rainy and dry seasons. Additionally, Junge-Pankow and Harner-Bidleman models are applied to better understand the gas/particle partitioning of these pollutants in atmosphere. As a results, both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs are under non-equilibrium gas/particle partitioning condition, and PCDD/Fs tend to reach equilibrium easier in rainy season while there are no clear trend for dl-PCBs. Harner-Bidleman model performs better in evaluating the gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs while Junge-Pankow model results in better prediction for dl-PCBs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Raman lidar for hydrogen gas concentration monitoring and future radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Liméry, Anasthase; Cézard, Nicolas; Fleury, Didier; Goular, Didier; Planchat, Christophe; Bertrand, Johan; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2017-11-27

    A multi-channel Raman lidar has been developed, allowing for the first time simultaneous and high-resolution profiling of hydrogen gas and water vapor. The lidar measures vibrational Raman scattering in the UV (355 nm) domain. It works in a high-bandwidth photon counting regime using fast SiPM detectors and takes into account the spectral overlap between hydrogen and water vapor Raman spectra. Measurement of concentration profiles of H 2 and H 2 O are demonstrated along a 5-meter-long open gas cell with 1-meter resolution at 85 meters. The instrument precision is investigated by numerical simulation to anticipate the potential performance at longer range. This lidar could find applications in the French project Cigéo for monitoring radioactive waste disposal cells.

  16. Escalation of polymerization in a thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Christof B.; Schink, Severin; Gerland, Ulrich; Braun, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    For the emergence of early life, the formation of biopolymers such as RNA is essential. However, the addition of nucleotide monomers to existing oligonucleotides requires millimolar concentrations. Even in such optimistic settings, no polymerization of RNA longer than about 20 bases could be demonstrated. How then could self-replicating ribozymes appear, for which recent experiments suggest a minimal length of 200 nt? Here, we demonstrate a mechanism to bridge this gap: the escalated polymerization of nucleotides by a spatially confined thermal gradient. The gradient accumulates monomers by thermophoresis and convection while retaining longer polymers exponentially better. Polymerization and accumulation become mutually self-enhancing and result in a hyperexponential escalation of polymer length. We describe this escalation theoretically under the conservative assumption of reversible polymerization. Taking into account the separately measured thermophoretic properties of RNA, we extrapolate the results for primordial RNA polymerization inside a temperature gradient in pores or fissures of rocks. With a dilute, nanomolar concentration of monomers the model predicts that a pore length of 5 cm and a temperature difference of 10 K suffice to polymerize 200-mers of RNA in micromolar concentrations. The probability to generate these long RNAs is raised by a factor of >10600 compared with polymerization in a physical equilibrium. We experimentally validate the theory with the reversible polymerization of DNA blocks in a laser-driven thermal trap. The results confirm that a thermal gradient can significantly enlarge the available sequence space for the emergence of catalytically active polymers. PMID:23630280

  17. Soil gas radon concentrations measurements in terms of great soil groups.

    PubMed

    Içhedef, Mutlu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay; Bolca, Mustafa; Harmanşah, Çoşkun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, soil gas radon concentrations were investigated according to locations, horizontal soil layers and great soil groups around Tuzla Fault, Seferihisar-İzmir. Great soil groups are a category that described the horizontal soil layers under soil classification system and distributions of radon concentration in the great soil groups are firstly determined by the present study. According to the obtained results, it has been showed that the radon concentrations in the Koluvial soil group are higher than the other soil groups in the region. Also significant differences on location in same great soil group were determined. The radon concentrations in the Koluvial soil groups were measured with respect to soil layers structures (A, B, C1, and C2). It has been observed that the values increase with depth of soil (C2>C1>B>A). The main reason may be due to the meteorological factors that have limited effect on radon escape from deep layers. Although fault lines pass thought the study area radon concentrations were varied location to location, layer to layer and great group to great group. The study shows that a detailed location description should be performed before soil radon measurements for earthquake predictions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On-chip gradient generation in 256 microfluidic cell cultures: simulation and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Somaweera, Himali; Haputhanthri, Shehan O; Ibraguimov, Akif; Pappas, Dimitri

    2015-08-07

    A microfluidic diffusion diluter was used to create a stable concentration gradient for dose response studies. The microfluidic diffusion diluter used in this study consisted of 128 culture chambers on each side of the main fluidic channel. A calibration method was used to find unknown concentrations with 12% error. Flow rate dependent studies showed that changing the flow rates generated different gradient patterns. Mathematical simulations using COMSOL Multi-physics were performed to validate the experimental data. The experimental data obtained for the flow rate studies agreed with the simulation results. Cells could be loaded into culture chambers using vacuum actuation and cultured for long times under low shear stress. Decreasing the size of the culture chambers resulted in faster gradient formation (20 min). Mass transport into the side channels of the microfluidic diffusion diluter used in this study is an important factor in creating the gradient using diffusional mixing as a function of the distance. To demonstrate the device's utility, an H2O2 gradient was generated while culturing Ramos cells. Cell viability was assayed in the 256 culture chambers, each at a discrete H2O2 concentration. As expected, the cell viability for the high concentration side channels increased (by injecting H2O2) whereas the cell viability in the low concentration side channels decreased along the chip due to diffusional mixing as a function of distance. COMSOL simulations were used to identify the effective concentration of H2O2 for cell viability in each side chamber at 45 min. The gradient effects were confirmed using traditional H2O2 culture experiments. Viability of cells in the microfluidic device under gradient conditions showed a linear relationship with the viability of the traditional culture experiment. Development of the microfluidic device used in this study could be used to study hundreds of concentrations of a compound in a single experiment.

  19. Imaging the Buried Chicxulub Crater with Gravity Gradients and Cenotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Pilkington, M.; Halpenny, J. F.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Connors, M.; Graniel-Castro, E.; Camara-Zi, A.; Vasquez, J.

    1995-09-01

    Differing interpretations of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the Chicxulub crater, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, have yielded diameter estimates of 170 to 320 km. Knowing the crater's size is necessary to quantify the lethal perturbations to the Cretaceous environment associated with its formation. The crater's size (and internal structure) is revealed by the horizontal gradient of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the structure, and by mapping the karst features of the Yucatan region. To improve our resolution of the crater's gravity signature we collected additional gravity measurements primarily along radial profiles, but also to fill in previously unsurveyed areas. Horizontal gradient analysis of Bouguer gravity data objectively highlights the lateral density contrasts of the impact lithologies and suppresses regional anomalies which may obscure the gravity signature of the Chicxulub crater lithologies. This gradient technique yields a striking circular structure with at least 6 concentric gradient features between 25 and 85 km radius. These features are most distinct in the southwest probably because of denser sampling of the gravity field. Our detailed profiles detected an additional feature and steeper gradients (up to 5 mGal/km) than the original survey. We interpret the outer four gradient maxima to represent concentric faults in the crater's zone of slumping as is also revealed by seismic reflection data. The inner two probably represent the margin of the central uplift and the peak ring and or collapsed transient cavity. Radial gradients in the SW quadrant over the inferred ~40 km-diameter central uplift (4) may represent structural "puckering" as revealed at eroded terrestrial craters. Gradient features related to regional gravity highs and lows are visible outside the crater, but no concentric gradient features are apparent at distances > 90 km radius. The marginal gradient features may be modelled by slump faults as observed in large complex craters on

  20. A Three-Dimensional Multiscale Model for Gas Exchange in Fruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Quang Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Herremans, Els; Wevers, Martine; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2011-01-01

    Respiration of bulky plant organs such as roots, tubers, stems, seeds, and fruit depends very much on oxygen (O2) availability and often follows a Michaelis-Menten-like response. A multiscale model is presented to calculate gas exchange in plants using the microscale geometry of the tissue, or vice versa, local concentrations in the cells from macroscopic gas concentration profiles. This approach provides a computationally feasible and accurate analysis of cell metabolism in any plant organ during hypoxia and anoxia. The predicted O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure profiles compared very well with experimental data, thereby validating the multiscale model. The important microscale geometrical features are the shape, size, and three-dimensional connectivity of cells and air spaces. It was demonstrated that the gas-exchange properties of the cell wall and cell membrane have little effect on the cellular gas exchange of apple (Malus × domestica) parenchyma tissue. The analysis clearly confirmed that cells are an additional route for CO2 transport, while for O2 the intercellular spaces are the main diffusion route. The simulation results also showed that the local gas concentration gradients were steeper in the cells than in the surrounding air spaces. Therefore, to analyze the cellular metabolism under hypoxic and anoxic conditions, the microscale model is required to calculate the correct intracellular concentrations. Understanding the O2 response of plants and plant organs thus not only requires knowledge of external conditions, dimensions, gas-exchange properties of the tissues, and cellular respiration kinetics but also of microstructure. PMID:21224337

  1. Method and system for fiber optic determination of gas concentrations in liquid receptacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system for determining gas compositions includes a probe, inserted into a source of gaseous material, the probe having a gas permeable sensor tip and being capable of sending and receiving light to and from the gaseous material, a sensor body, connected to the probe, situated outside of the source and a fiber bundle, connected to the sensor body and communicating light to and from the probe. The system also includes a laser source, connected to one portion of the fiber bundle and providing laser light to the fiber bundle and the probe a Raman spectrograph, connected to another portion of the fiber bundle, receiving light from the probe and filtering the received light into specific channels and a data processing unit, receiving and analyzing the received light in the specific channels and outputting concentration of specific gas species in the gaseous material based on the analyzed received light.

  2. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be < 4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  3. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be <4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyl and hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations near the Great Lakes: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Stephanie S; Basu, Ilora; Hites, Ronald A

    2002-12-01

    The Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) has been measuring gas-phase, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations at sites near Lakes Michigan and Superior for over a decade. Data through 2000 were used in this study to investigate PCB temporal trends in the Great Lakes atmosphere. Decreasing trends were found at both sites, and half-lives of approximately 20 yr were calculated using IADN data. However, when these data were supplemented by historical data for Lakes Michigan and Superior dating back to 1977, half-lives dropped to 10 and 6 yr, respectively. These latter half-lives agreed well with half-lives in other environmental compartments. Exponential curves fitted to the historical and IADN data indicated little decline in PCB concentrations in the basin since the mid-1990s. A similar historical analysis of alpha-and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) data indicated that IADN data were the best predictor of trends, resulting in half-lives of around 4 yr for both compounds. Gamma-HCH concentrations, however, have shown little decline in recent years, most likely because of its continuing use. PCB and alpha-HCH temporal trends indicated that bans on these substances have helped to remove them from the atmosphere. This work also showed that decades of data may be necessary to properly interpret long-term temporal trends in gas-phase organochlorine concentrations.

  5. Effect of glow DBD modulation on gas and thin film chemical composition: case of Ar/SiH4/NH3 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallade, Julien; Bazinette, Remy; Gaudy, Laura; Massines, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been identified as a convenient way to deposit good quality thin films. With this type of process, where the gas mixture is injected on one side of the electrodes, the chemical composition of the gas evolves with the gas residence time in the plasma. The consequence is a possible gradient in the chemical composition over the thickness of in-line coatings. The present work shows that the modulation of the plasma with a square signal significantly reduces this gradient while the drawback of low growth rate is avoided by increasing the discharge power. This study deals with plane/plane glow dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in an Ar/NH3/SiH4 gas mixture to make thin films. The 50 kHz discharge power of the glow DBD was varied by increasing voltage and modulating excitation. The impact on (i) the plasma development was observed through emission spectroscopy and (ii) the thin film coating through Fourier transform infrared measurements. It is shown that the modulation significantly decreases the time and the energy needed to achieve stable chemistry, enhances secondary chemistry and limits disturbance induced by impurities because of a slower decrease of SiH4 concentration and thus a higher ratio of SiH4/impurities, all very important points for in-line AP-PECVD development. When the growth rate is limited by diffusion, coating growth continues when the discharge is off, so long as there is a precursor gradient between the surface and the gas bulk. A higher discharge power steepens this gradient, which enhances diffusion from the bulk and thus growth rate.

  6. The stellar metallicity gradients in galaxy discs in a cosmological scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, Patricia B.; Machado, Rubens E. G.; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Snaith, Owain; Vilchez, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Context. The stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies provide information on disc assembly, star formation processes, and chemical evolution. They also might store information on dynamical processes that could affect the distribution of chemical elements in the gas phase and the stellar components. Understanding their joint effects within a hierarchical clustering scenario is of paramount importance. Aims: We studied the stellar metallicity gradients of simulated discs in a cosmological simulation. We explored the dependence of the stellar metallicity gradients on stellar age and on the size and mass of the stellar discs. Methods: We used a catalogue of galaxies with disc components selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation performed including a physically motivated supernova feedback and chemical evolution. Disc components were defined based on angular momentum and binding energy criteria. The metallicity profiles were estimated for stars with different ages. We confront our numerical findings with results from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) Survey. Results: The simulated stellar discs are found to have metallicity profiles with slopes in global agreement with observations. Low stellar mass galaxies tend to have a larger variety of metallicity slopes. When normalized by the half-mass radius, the stellar metallicity gradients do not show any dependence and the dispersion increases significantly, regardless of the galaxy mass. Galaxies with stellar masses o f around 1010M⊙ show steeper negative metallicity gradients. The stellar metallicity gradients correlate with the half-mass radius. However, the correlation signal is not present when they are normalized by the half-mass radius. Stellar discs with positive age gradients are detected to have negative and positive metallicity gradients, depending on the relative importance of recent star formation activity in the central regions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that inside

  7. Potential to Detect Hydrogen Concentration Gradients with Palladium Infused Mesoporous-Titania on D-Shaped Optical Fiber.

    PubMed

    Poole, Zsolt L; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Yan, Aidong; Lin, Yuankun; Chen, Kevin P

    2017-01-27

    A distributed sensing capable high temperature D-shaped optical fiber modified with a palladium nanoparticle sensitized mesoporous (∼5 nm) TiO 2 film, is demonstrated. The refractive index of the TiO 2 film was reduced using block copolymer templating in order to realize a mesoporous matrix, accommodating integration with optical fiber. The constructed sensor was analyzed by performing direct transmission loss measurements, and by analyzing the behavior of an integrated fiber Bragg grating. The inscribed grating should reveal whether the refractive index of the composite film experiences changes upon exposure to hydrogen. In addition, with frequency domain reflectometry the distributed sensing potential of the developed sensor for hydrogen concentrations of up to 10% is examined. The results show the possibility of detecting chemical gradients with sub-cm resolution at temperatures greater than 500 °C.

  8. Concentration and Velocity Gradients in Fluidized Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClymer, James P.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we focus on the height dependence of particle concentration, average velocity components, fluctuations in these velocities and, with the flow turned off, the sedimentation velocity. The latter quantities are measured using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The PIV technique uses a 1-megapixel camera to capture two time-displaced images of particles in the bed. The depth of field of the imaging system is approximately 0.5 cm. The camera images a region with characteristic length of 2.6 cm for the small particles and 4.7 cm. for the large particles. The local direction of particle flow is determined by calculating the correlation function for sub-regions of 32 x 32 pixels. The velocity vector map is created from this correlation function using the time between images (we use 15 to 30 ms). The software is sensitive variations of 1/64th of a pixel. We produce velocity maps at various heights, each consisting of 3844 velocities. We break this map into three vertical zones for increased height information. The concentration profile is measured using an expanded (1 cm diameter) linearly polarized HeNe Laser incident on the fluidized bed. A COHU camera (gamma=1, AGC off) with a lens and a polarizer images the transmitted linearly polarized light to minimize the effects of multiply scattered light. The intensity profile (640 X 480 pixels) is well described by a Gaussian fit and the height of the Gaussian is used to characterize the concentration. This value is compared to the heights found for known concentrations. The sedimentation velocity is estimated using by imaging a region near the bottom of the bed and using PIV to measure the velocity as a function of time. With a nearly uniform concentration profile, the time can be converted to height information. The stable fluidized beds are made from large pseudo-monodisperse particles (silica spheres with radii (250-300) microns and (425-500) microns) dispersed in a glycerin/water mix. The Peclet number is

  9. Concentration dependent survival and neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells cultured on polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogels possessing a continuous concentration gradient of n-cadherin derived peptide His-Ala-Val-Asp-Lle.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Mosley, Matthew C; Kurosu, Yuki; Smith Callahan, Laura A

    2017-07-01

    N-cadherin cell-cell signaling plays a key role in the structure and function of the nervous system. However, few studies have incorporated bioactive signaling from n-cadherin into tissue engineering matrices. The present study uses a continuous gradient approach in polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogels to identify concentration dependent effects of n-cadherin peptide, His-Ala-Val-Asp-Lle (HAVDI), on murine embryonic stem cell survival and neural differentiation. The n-cadherin peptide was found to affect the expression of pluripotency marker, alkaline phosphatase, in murine embryonic stem cells cultured on n-cadherin peptide containing hydrogels in a concentration dependent manner. Increasing n-cadherin peptide concentrations in the hydrogels elicited a biphasic response in neurite extension length and mRNA expression of neural differentiation marker, neuron-specific class III β-tubulin, in murine embryonic stem cells cultured on the hydrogels. High concentrations of n-cadherin peptide in the hydrogels were found to increase the expression of apoptotic marker, caspase 3/7, in murine embryonic stem cells compared to that of murine embryonic stem cell cultures on hydrogels containing lower concentrations of n-cadherin peptide. Increasing the n-cadherin peptide concentration in the hydrogels facilitated greater survival of murine embryonic stem cells exposed to increasing oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. The combinatorial approach presented in this work demonstrates concentration dependent effects of n-cadherin signaling on mouse embryonic stem cell behavior, underscoring the need for the greater use of systematic approaches in tissue engineering matrix design in order to understand and optimize bioactive signaling in the matrix for tissue formation. Single cell encapsulation is common in tissue engineering matrices. This eliminates cellular access to cell-cell signaling. N-cadherin, a cell-cell signaling molecule, plays a vital role in

  10. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit with nerve growth factor gradient.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Tae Ho; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation. From the in vivo animal experiment using a long gap (20 mm) sciatic nerve defect model of rats, the NGC with NGF concentration gradient allowed more rapid nerve regeneration through the NGC than the NGC itself and NGC immobilized with uniformly distributed NGF. The NGC with NGF concentration gradient seems to be a promising strategy for the peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 52-64, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A latitudinal gradient in seed nutrients of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, P; Kolb, A; Graae, B J; Decocq, G; Baltora, S; De Schrijver, A; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; Dhondt, R; Diekmann, M; Gruwez, R; Heinken, T; Hermy, M; Liira, J; Saguez, R; Shevtsova, A; Baskin, C C; Verheyen, K

    2011-05-01

    The nutrient concentration in seeds determines many aspects of potential success of the sexual reproductive phase of plants, including the seed predation probability, efficiency of seed dispersal and seedling performance. Despite considerable research interest in latitudinal gradients of foliar nutrients, a similar gradient for seeds remains unexplored. We investigated a potential latitudinal gradient in seed nutrient concentrations within the widespread European understorey forest herb Anemone nemorosa L. We sampled seeds of A. nemorosa in 15 populations along a 1900-km long latitudinal gradient at three to seven seed collection dates post-anthesis and investigated the relative effects of growing degree-hours >5 °C, soil characteristics and latitude on seed nutrient concentrations. Seed nitrogen, nitrogen:phosphorus ratio and calcium concentration decreased towards northern latitudes, while carbon:nitrogen ratios increased. When taking differences in growing degree-hours and measured soil characteristics into account and only considering the most mature seeds, the latitudinal decline remained particularly significant for seed nitrogen concentration. We argue that the decline in seed nitrogen concentration can be attributed to northward decreasing seed provisioning due to lower soil nitrogen availability or greater investment in clonal reproduction. This pattern may have large implications for the reproductive performance of this forest herb as the degree of seed provisioning ultimately co-determines seedling survival and reproductive success. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. A microfluidic multi-injector for gradient generation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bong Geun; Lin, Francis; Jeon, Noo Li

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes a microfluidic multi-injector (MMI) that can generate temporal and spatial concentration gradients of soluble molecules. Compared to conventional glass micropipette-based methods that generate a single gradient, the MMI exploits microfluidic integration and actuation of multiple pulsatile injectors to generate arbitrary overlapping gradients that have not previously been possible. The MMI device is fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using multi-layer soft lithography and consists of fluidic channels and control channels with pneumatically actuated on-chip barrier valves. Repetitive actuation of on-chip valves control pulsatile release of solution that establishes microscopic chemical gradients around the orifice. The volume of solution released per actuation cycle ranged from 30 picolitres to several hundred picolitres and increased linearly with the duration of valve opening. The shape of the measured gradient profile agreed closely with the simulated diffusion profile from a point source. Steady state gradient profiles could be attained within 10 minutes, or less with an optimized pulse sequence. Overlapping gradients from 2 injectors were generated and characterized to highlight the advantages of MMI over conventional micropipette assays. The MMI platform should be useful for a wide range of basic and applied studies on chemotaxis and axon guidance.

  13. Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, K.; Grant, R. H.; Emeis, S.; Raabe, A.; von der Heide, C.; Schmid, H. P.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2) are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods like flux-gradient methods which were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Non-intrusive path-integrating measurements are utilized. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind, and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory; consequently the procedures to qualify measurements that can be used to determine the flux is critical. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s-1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study of N2O emissions of flat grassland and NH3 emissions from a cattle lagoon involves quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that following the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus flux in the stable boundary layer. An alternative approach is considered on the basis of turbulent diffusivity, i.e. the measured friction velocity as well as height gradients of horizontal wind speeds and concentrations without MOST correction for stability. It is shown that this is the most accurate of the flux-gradient methods under stable conditions.

  14. Lateral transport of solutes in microfluidic channels using electrochemically generated gradients in redox-active surfactants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2011-04-15

    We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (<1 V) that are sufficiently small to avoid electrolysis of water, can be performed in solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Fgf8 morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuizi Rachel; Burkhardt, Markus; Nowak, Matthias; Ries, Jonas; Petrásek, Zdenek; Scholpp, Steffen; Schwille, Petra; Brand, Michael

    2009-09-24

    It is widely accepted that tissue differentiation and morphogenesis in multicellular organisms are regulated by tightly controlled concentration gradients of morphogens. How exactly these gradients are formed, however, remains unclear. Here we show that Fgf8 morphogen gradients in living zebrafish embryos are established and maintained by two essential factors: fast, free diffusion of single molecules away from the source through extracellular space, and a sink function of the receiving cells, regulated by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Evidence is provided by directly examining single molecules of Fgf8 in living tissue by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, quantifying their local mobility and concentration with high precision. By changing the degree of uptake of Fgf8 into its target cells, we are able to alter the shape of the Fgf8 gradient. Our results demonstrate that a freely diffusing morphogen can set up concentration gradients in a complex multicellular tissue by a simple source-sink mechanism.

  16. Neutrophil migration under spatially-varying chemoattractant gradient profiles.

    PubMed

    Halilovic, Iris; Wu, Jiandong; Alexander, Murray; Lin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis plays an important role in biological processes such as cancer metastasis, embryogenesis, wound healing, and immune response. Neutrophils are the frontline defenders against invasion of foreign microorganisms into our bodies. To achieve this important immune function, a neutrophil can sense minute chemoattractant concentration differences across its cell body and effectively migrate toward the chemoattractant source. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in various studies that neutrophils are highly sensitive to changes in the surrounding chemoattractant environments, suggesting the role of a chemotactic memory for processing the complex spatiotemporal chemical guiding signals. Using a microfluidic device, in the present study we characterized neutrophil migration under spatially varying profiles of interleukine-8 gradients, which consist of three spatially ordered regions of a shallow gradient, a steep gradient and a nearly saturated gradient. This design allowed us to examine how neutrophils migrate under different chemoattractant gradient profiles, and how the migratory response is affected when the cell moves from one gradient profile to another in a single experiment. Our results show robust neutrophil chemotaxis in the shallow and steep gradient, but not the saturated gradient. Furthermore, neutrophils display a transition from chemotaxis to flowtaxis when they migrate across the steep gradient interface, and the relative efficiency of this transition depends on the cell's chemotaxis history. Finally, some neutrophils were observed to adjust their morphology to different gradient profiles.

  17. Bulk diffusion in a kinetically constrained lattice gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone

    2018-03-01

    In the hydrodynamic regime, the evolution of a stochastic lattice gas with symmetric hopping rules is described by a diffusion equation with density-dependent diffusion coefficient encapsulating all microscopic details of the dynamics. This diffusion coefficient is, in principle, determined by a Green-Kubo formula. In practice, even when the equilibrium properties of a lattice gas are analytically known, the diffusion coefficient cannot be computed except when a lattice gas additionally satisfies the gradient condition. We develop a procedure to systematically obtain analytical approximations for the diffusion coefficient for non-gradient lattice gases with known equilibrium. The method relies on a variational formula found by Varadhan and Spohn which is a version of the Green-Kubo formula particularly suitable for diffusive lattice gases. Restricting the variational formula to finite-dimensional sub-spaces allows one to perform the minimization and gives upper bounds for the diffusion coefficient. We apply this approach to a kinetically constrained non-gradient lattice gas in two dimensions, viz. to the Kob-Andersen model on the square lattice.

  18. Numerical simulation of gas-phonon coupling in thermal transpiration flows.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaohui; Singh, Dhruv; Murthy, Jayathi; Alexeenko, Alina A

    2009-10-01

    Thermal transpiration is a rarefied gas flow driven by a wall temperature gradient and is a promising mechanism for gas pumping without moving parts, known as the Knudsen pump. Obtaining temperature measurements along capillary walls in a Knudsen pump is difficult due to extremely small length scales. Meanwhile, simplified analytical models are not applicable under the practical operating conditions of a thermal transpiration device, where the gas flow is in the transitional rarefied regime. Here, we present a coupled gas-phonon heat transfer and flow model to study a closed thermal transpiration system. Discretized Boltzmann equations are solved for molecular transport in the gas phase and phonon transport in the solid. The wall temperature distribution is the direct result of the interfacial coupling based on mass conservation and energy balance at gas-solid interfaces and is not specified a priori unlike in the previous modeling efforts. Capillary length scales of the order of phonon mean free path result in a smaller temperature gradient along the transpiration channel as compared to that predicted by the continuum solid-phase heat transfer. The effects of governing parameters such as thermal gradients, capillary geometry, gas and phonon Knudsen numbers and, gas-surface interaction parameters on the efficiency of thermal transpiration are investigated in light of the coupled model.

  19. Nebulization reflux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, V. G.; Cofer, W. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A nebulization reflux concentrator for removing trace gas contaminants from a sample gas is described. Sample gas from a gas supply is drawn by a suction source into a vessel. The gas enters the vessel through an atomizing nozzle, thereby atomizing and entraining a scrubbing liquid solvent drawn through a siphon tube from a scrubbing liquid reservoir. The gas and entrained liquid rise through a concentrator and impinge upon a solvent phobic filter, whereby purified gas exits through the filter housing and contaminated liquid coalesces on the solvent phobic filter and falls into the reservoir.

  20. Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blasing, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Gases typically measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt) are presented separately to facilitate comparison of numbers. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and atmospheric lifetimes are from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013, Table 8.A.1), except for the atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is explained in footnote 4. Additional material on greenhouse gases can be found in CDIAC's Reference Tools. To find out how CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and halons are named, see Name that compound: The numbers game for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and Halons. Concentrations given apply to the lower 75-80 percent of the atmosphere, known as the troposphere. Sources of the current and preindustrial concentrations of the atmospheric gases listed in the table below are given in the footnotes. Investigators at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have provided the recent concentrations. Much of the data provided results from the work of various investigators at institutions other than CDIAC, and represent considerable effort on their part. We ask as a basic professional courtesy that you acknowledge the primary sources, indicated in the footnotes below, or in the links given in the footnotes. Concentrations of ozone and water vapor are spatially and temporally variable due to their short atmospheric lifetimes. A vertically and horizontally averaged water vapor concentration is about 5,000 ppm. Globally averaged water vapor concentration is difficult to measure precisely because it varies from one place to another and from one season to the next. This precludes a precise determination of changes in water vapor since pre-industrial time. However, a warmer atmosphere will likely contain more water vapor than at present. For a more detailed statement on water vapor from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, see the "water vapor" page at http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/gases.html

  1. The Effect of Hydraulic Gradient and Pattern of Conduit Systems on Tracing Tests: Bench-Scale Modeling.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zargham; Gharaat, Mohammad Javad; Field, Malcolm

    2018-03-13

    Tracer breakthrough curves provide valuable information about the traced media, especially in inherently heterogeneous karst aquifers. In order to study the effect of variations in hydraulic gradient and conduit systems on breakthrough curves, a bench scale karst model was constructed. The bench scale karst model contains both matrix and a conduit. Eight tracing tests were conducted under a wide range of hydraulic gradients from 1 to greater than 5 for branchwork and network-conduit systems. Sampling points at varying distances from the injection point were utilized. Results demonstrate that mean tracer velocities, tracer mass recovery and linear rising slope of the breakthrough curves were directly controlled by hydraulic gradient. As hydraulic gradient increased, both one half the time for peak concentration and one fifth the time for peak concentration decreased. The results demonstrate the variations in one half the time for peak concentration and one fifth the time for peak concentration of the descending limb for different sampling points under differing hydraulic gradients are mainly controlled by the interactions of advection with dispersion. The results are discussed from three perspectives: different conduit systems, different hydraulic-gradient conditions, and different sampling points. The research confirmed the undeniable role of hydrogeological setting (i.e., hydraulic gradient and conduit system) on the shape of the breakthrough curve. The extracted parameters (mobile-fluid velocity, tracer-mass recovery, linear rising limb, one half the time for peak concentration, and one fifth the time for peak concentration) allow for differentiating hydrogeological settings and enhance interpretations the tracing tests in karst aquifers. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Least Square Regression Method for Estimating Gas Concentration in an Electronic Nose System

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Walaa; Pace, Calogero; Gaudioso, Manlio

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Electronic Nose (ENose) system which is able to identify the type of analyte and to estimate its concentration. The system consists of seven sensors, five of them being gas sensors (supplied with different heater voltage values), the remainder being a temperature and a humidity sensor, respectively. To identify a new analyte sample and then to estimate its concentration, we use both some machine learning techniques and the least square regression principle. In fact, we apply two different training models; the first one is based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach and is aimed at teaching the system how to discriminate among different gases, while the second one uses the least squares regression approach to predict the concentration of each type of analyte. PMID:22573980

  3. Effects of dietary concentration of wet distillers grains on performance by newly received beef cattle, in vitro gas production and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and in vitro dry matter disappearance.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Ponce, C H; Dilorenzo, N; Quinn, M J; May, M L; MacDonald, J C; Luebbe, M K; Bondurant, R G; Galyean, M L

    2013-06-01

    Three studies were designed to evaluate effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on health and performance of newly received beef cattle, in vitro gas production, molar proportions and total concentrations of VFA, and IVDMD. In Exp. 1 and 2, 219 (BW = 209 kg, SE = 2.2 kg; Exp. 1) and 200 beef steers (BW = 186 kg, SE = 3.2 kg; Exp. 2) were used in randomized complete block design receiving studies. The 4 dietary treatments (DM basis) were a 65% concentrate, steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based receiving diet without WDGS (CON) or diets that contained 12.5, 25.0, or 37.5% WDGS. There were no differences among the 4 receiving diets in BW (P ≥ 0.61), ADG (P ≥ 0.75), DMI (P ≥ 0.27), and G:F (P ≥ 0.35), or in the proportion of cattle treated for morbidity from bovine respiratory disease in either of the 2 experiments. In Exp. 3, in vitro methods were used to determine the effects of WDGS on IVDMD, total gas production, and molar proportions and total concentrations of VFA. Substrates used for the incubations contained the same major components as the diets used in Exp. 1, with ruminal fluid obtained from steers fed a 60% concentrate diet. Total gas production was less (P = 0.03) for the average of the 3 WDGS substrates than for CON, with a linear decrease (P = 0.01) in total gas production as WDGS concentration increased in the substrates. In contrast to gas production, IVDMD was greater for the average of the 3 WDGS concentrations vs. CON (P ≤ 0.05) at 6 and 12 h and increased (P ≤ 0.02) with increasing WDGS concentration at 6 (linear and quadratic) and 12 h (linear) of incubation. At 48 h, there was a quadratic effect (P = 0.05) on IVDMD, with the greatest value for 25% WDGS. Molar proportion of butyrate increased linearly (P < 0.01) as the concentration of WDGS increased in the substrate, and the average of the 3 substrates containing WDGS had a greater proportion of butyrate (P = 0.03) than CON. Performance data from Exp. 1 and 2 indicate that

  4. Measurement of gas-liquid partition coefficient and headspace concentration profiles of perfume materials by solid-phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Liu; Wene

    2000-09-01

    An empirical model describing the relationship between the partition coefficients (K) of perfume materials in the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber stationary phase and the Linearly Temperature Programmed Retention Index (LTPRI) is obtained. This is established using a mixture of eleven selected fragrance materials spiked in mineral oil at different concentration levels to simulate liquid laundry detergent matrices. Headspace concentrations of the materials are measured using both static headspace and SPME-gas chromatography analysis. The empirical model is tested by measuring the K values for fourteen perfume materials experimentally. Three of the calculated K values are within 2-19% of the measured K value, and the other eleven calculated K values are within 22-59%. This range of deviation is understandable because a diverse mixture was used to cover most chemical functionalities in order to make the model generally applicable. Better prediction accuracy is expected when a model is established using a specific category of compounds, such as hydrocarbons or aromatics. The use of this method to estimate distribution constants of fragrance materials in liquid matrices is demonstrated. The headspace SPME using the established relationship between the gas-liquid partition coefficient and the LTPRI is applied to measure the headspace concentration of fragrances. It is demonstrated that this approach can be used to monitor the headspace perfume profiles over consumer laundry and cleaning products. This method can provide high sample throughput, reproducibility, simplicity, and accuracy for many applications for screening major fragrance materials over consumer products. The approach demonstrated here can be used to translate headspace SPME results into true static headspace concentration profiles. This translation is critical for obtaining the gas-phase composition by correcting for the inherent differential partitioning of analytes into the fiber stationary

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of tracer gas concentration profiles in a room with the use of a single OP-FTIR and two iterative algorithms: ART and PWLS.

    PubMed

    Park, D Y; Fessler, J A; Yost, M G; Levine, S P

    2000-03-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) reconstructions of air contaminant concentration fields were conducted in a room-sized chamber employing a single open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) instrument and a combination of 52 flat mirrors and 4 retroreflectors. A total of 56 beam path data were repeatedly collected for around 1 hr while maintaining a stable concentration gradient. The plane of the room was divided into 195 pixels (13 x 15) for reconstruction. The algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) failed to reconstruct the original concentration gradient patterns for most cases. These poor results were caused by the "highly underdetermined condition" in which the number of unknown values (156 pixels) exceeds that of known data (56 path integral concentrations) in the experimental setting. A new CT algorithm, called the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS), was applied to remedy this condition. The peak locations were correctly positioned in the PWLS-CT reconstructions. A notable feature of the PWLS-CT reconstructions was a significant reduction of highly irregular noise peaks found in the ART-CT reconstructions. However, the peak heights were slightly reduced in the PWLS-CT reconstructions due to the nature of the PWLS algorithm. PWLS could converge on the original concentration gradient even when a fairly high error was embedded into some experimentally measured path integral concentrations. It was also found in the simulation tests that the PWLS algorithm was very robust with respect to random errors in the path integral concentrations. This beam geometry and the use of a single OP-FTIR scanning system, in combination with the PWLS algorithm, is a system applicable to both environmental and industrial settings.

  6. Tomographic Reconstruction of Tracer Gas Concentration Profiles in a Room with the Use of a Single OP-FTIR and Two Iterative Algorithms: ART and PWLS.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo Y; Fessier, Jeffrey A; Yost, Michael G; Levine, Steven P

    2000-03-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) reconstructions of air contaminant concentration fields were conducted in a room-sized chamber employing a single open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) instrument and a combination of 52 flat mirrors and 4 retroreflectors. A total of 56 beam path data were repeatedly collected for around 1 hr while maintaining a stable concentration gradient. The plane of the room was divided into 195 pixels (13 × 15) for reconstruction. The algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) failed to reconstruct the original concentration gradient patterns for most cases. These poor results were caused by the "highly underdetermined condition" in which the number of unknown values (156 pixels) exceeds that of known data (56 path integral concentrations) in the experimental setting. A new CT algorithm, called the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS), was applied to remedy this condition. The peak locations were correctly positioned in the PWLS-CT reconstructions. A notable feature of the PWLS-CT reconstructions was a significant reduction of highly irregular noise peaks found in the ART-CT reconstructions. However, the peak heights were slightly reduced in the PWLS-CT reconstructions due to the nature of the PWLS algorithm. PWLS could converge on the original concentration gradient even when a fairly high error was embedded into some experimentally measured path integral concentrations. It was also found in the simulation tests that the PWLS algorithm was very robust with respect to random errors in the path integral concentrations. This beam geometry and the use of a single OP-FTIR scanning system, in combination with the PWLS algorithm, is a system applicable to both environmental and industrial settings.

  7. Chemotaxis of Molecular Dyes in Polymer Gradients in Solution.

    PubMed

    Guha, Rajarshi; Mohajerani, Farzad; Collins, Matthew; Ghosh, Subhadip; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell

    2017-11-08

    Chemotaxis provides a mechanism for directing the transport of molecules along chemical gradients. Here, we show the chemotactic migration of dye molecules in response to the gradients of several different neutral polymers. The magnitude of chemotactic response depends on the structure of the monomer, polymer molecular weight and concentration, and the nature of the solvent. The mechanism involves cross-diffusion up the polymer gradient, driven by favorable dye-polymer interaction. Modeling allows us to quantitatively evaluate the strength of the interaction and the effect of the various parameters that govern chemotaxis.

  8. Validation of a simple HPLC-UV method for rifampicin determination in plasma: Application to the study of rifampicin arteriovenous concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Goutal, Sébastien; Auvity, Sylvain; Legrand, Tiphaine; Hauquier, Fanny; Cisternino, Salvatore; Chapy, Hélène; Saba, Wadad; Tournier, Nicolas

    2016-05-10

    In clinical practice, rifampicin exposure is estimated from its concentration in venous blood samples. In this study, we hypothesized that differences in rifampicin concentration may exist between arterial and venous plasma. An HPLC-UV method for determining rifampicin concentration in plasma using rifapentine as an internal standard was validated. The method, which requires a simple protein precipitation procedure as sample preparation, was performed to compare venous and arterial plasma kinetics after a single therapeutic dose of rifampicin (8.6 mg/kg i.v, infused over 30 min) in baboons (n=3). The method was linear from 0.1 to 40 μg mL(-1) and all validation parameters fulfilled the international requirements. In baboons, rifampicin concentration in arterial plasma was higher than in venous plasma. Arterial Cmax was 2.1±0.2 fold higher than venous Cmax. The area under the curve (AUC) from 0 to 120 min was ∼80% higher in arterial plasma, indicating a significant arteriovenous concentration gradient in early rifampicin pharmacokinetics. Arterial and venous plasma concentrations obtained 6h after rifampicin injection were not different. An important arteriovenous equilibration delay for rifampicin pharmacokinetics is reported. Determination in venous plasma concentrations may considerably underestimate rifampicin exposure to organs during the distribution phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Yeast Cell Polarization Induced by Pheromone Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tau-Mu; Chen, Shanqin; Chou, Ching-Shan; Nie, Qing

    2007-07-01

    Yeast cells respond to spatial gradients of mating pheromones by polarizing and projecting up the gradient toward the source. It is thought that they employ a spatial sensing mechanism in which the cell compares the concentration of pheromone at different points on the cell surface and determines the maximum point, where the projection forms. Here we constructed the first spatial mathematical model of the yeast pheromone response that describes the dynamics of the heterotrimeric and Cdc42p G-protein cycles, which are linked in a cascade. Two key performance objectives of this system are (1) amplification—converting a shallow external gradient of ligand to a steep internal gradient of protein components and (2) tracking—following changes in gradient direction. We used simulations to investigate amplification mechanisms that allow tracking. We identified specific strategies for regulating the spatial dynamics of the protein components (i.e. their changing location in the cell) that would enable the cell to achieve both objectives.

  10. Aqueous Rare Earth Element Patterns and Concentration in Thermal Brines Associated With Oil and Gas Production

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nye, Charles; Quillinan, Scott Austin; Neupane, Ghanashyam

    This study is part of a joint effort by the University of Wyoming (UW) School of Energy Resources (SER), the UW Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratories (INL), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to describe rare earth element concentrations in oil and gas produced waters and in coal-fired power station ash ponds. In this work we present rare earth element (REE) and trace metal behavior in produced water from four Wyoming oil and gas fields and surface ash pond water from two coal-fired power stations. The concentration of REEs in oil and gas produced waters is largely unknown. Formore » example, of the 150,000 entries in the USGS National Produced Waters Geochemical Database less than 5 include data for REEs. Part of the reason for this scarcity is the analytical challenge of measuring REEs in high salinity, hydrocarbon-bearing waters. The industry standard for water analysis struggles to detect REEs in natural waters under ideal conditions. The detection of REEs in oil and gas field samples becomes all but impossible with the background noise and interferences caused by high concentrations of non-REE ions and residual hydrocarbons. The INL team members have overcome many of these challenges (e.g. McLing, 2014), and continue to develop their methods. Using the methods of the INL team members we measured REEs in high salinity oil and gas produced waters. Our results show that REEs exist as a dissolved species in all waters measured for this project, typically within the parts per trillion range. The samples may be grouped into two broad categories analytically, and these categories match their genesis: Wyoming oil and gas brines contain elevated levels of Europium, and Wyoming industrial pond waters show elevation in heavy REEs (HREEs). While broadly true, important variations exist within both groups. In the same field Europium can vary by more than an order of magnitude, and likewise HREEs in industrial ponds at the same site can vary by

  11. Yeast G-proteins mediate directional sensing and polarization behaviors in response to changes in pheromone gradient direction

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Travis I.; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jeon, Noo Li; Yi, Tau-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Yeast cells polarize by projecting up mating pheromone gradients, a classic cell polarity behavior. However, these chemical gradients may shift direction. We examine how yeast cells sense and respond to a 180o switch in the direction of microfluidically generated pheromone gradients. We identify two behaviors: at low concentrations of α-factor, the initial projection grows by bending, whereas at high concentrations, cells form a second projection toward the new source. Mutations that increase heterotrimeric G-protein activity expand the bending-growth morphology to high concentrations; mutations that increase Cdc42 activity result in second projections at low concentrations. Gradient-sensing projection bending requires interaction between Gβγ and Cdc24, whereas gradient-nonsensing projection extension is stimulated by Bem1 and hyperactivated Cdc42. Of interest, a mutation in Gα affects both bending and extension. Finally, we find a genetic perturbation that exhibits both behaviors. Overexpression of the formin Bni1, a component of the polarisome, makes both bending-growth projections and second projections at low and high α-factor concentrations, suggesting a role for Bni1 downstream of the heterotrimeric G-protein and Cdc42 during gradient sensing and response. Thus we demonstrate that G-proteins modulate in a ligand-dependent manner two fundamental cell-polarity behaviors in response to gradient directional change. PMID:23242998

  12. Modeling soil gas dynamics in the context of noble gas tracer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Peregovich, Bernhard; Machado, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Noble gas tracer applications show a particular relevance for the investigation of gas dynamics in the unsaturated zone, but also for a treatment of soil contamination as well as concerning exchange processes between soil and atmosphere. In this context, reliable conclusions require a profound understanding of underlying biogeochemical processes. With regard to noble gas tracer applications, the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the unsaturated zone is investigated. Based on long-term trends and varying climatic conditions, this is the first study providing general insights concerning the role of unsaturated zone processes. Modeling approaches are applied, in combination with an extensive set of measured soil air composition data from appropriate sampling sites. On the one hand, a simple modeling approach allows to identify processes which predominantly determine inert gas mixing ratios in soil air. On the other hand, the well-proven and sophisticated modeling routine Min3P is applied to describe the measured data by accounting for the complex nature of subsurface gas dynamics. Both measured data and model outcomes indicate a significant deviation of noble gas mixing ratios in soil air from the respective atmospheric values, occurring on seasonal scale. Observed enhancements of noble gas mixing ratios are mainly caused by an advective balancing of depleted sum values of O2+CO2, resulting from microbial oxygen depletion in combination with a preferential dissolution of CO2. A contrary effect, meaning an enhanced sum value of O2+CO2, is shown to be induced at very dry conditions due to the different diffusivities of O2 and CO2. Soil air composition data show a yearlong mass-dependent fractionation, occurring as a relative enhancement of heavier gas species with respect to lighter ones. The diffusive balancing of concentration gradients between soil air and atmosphere is faster for lighter gas species compared to heavier ones. The rather uniform fractionation is

  13. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Concentric Annular Flows of Binary Inert Gas Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, R. S.; Martin, J. J.; Yocum, D. J.; Stewart, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of heat transfer and pressure drop of binary inert gas mixtures flowing through smooth concentric circular annuli, tubes with fully developed velocity profiles, and constant heating rate are described. There is a general lack of agreement among the constant property heat transfer correlations for such mixtures. No inert gas mixture data exist for annular channels. The intent of this study was to develop highly accurate and benchmarked pressure drop and heat transfer correlations that can be used to size heat exchangers and cores for direct gas Brayton nuclear power plants. The inside surface of the annular channel is heated while the outer surface of the channel is insulated. Annulus ratios range 0.5 < r* < 0.83. These smooth tube data may serve as a reference to the heat transfer and pressure drop performance in annuli, tubes, and channels having helixes or spacer ribs, or other surfaces.

  14. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O Powder with High Gas Selectivity towards Wide Range Concentration of C2H5OH

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxiang; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Lianfeng; Yao, Youwei

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) powder was prepared by typical solution-based process and post-annealing process. The sample was used as sensor for detecting C2H5OH, H2, and CO. Gas-sensing performance was found to be highly sensitive to C2H5OH gas in a wide range of concentration (0.5–1250 ppm) with the response of 2.0 towards 0.5 ppm and 89.2 towards 1250 ppm. Obvious difference of response towards C2H5OH, H2, and CO was found that the response e.g., was 33.20, 6.64, and 2.84 respectively at the concentration of 200 ppm. The response time and recovery time of was 32 s and 14 s respectively towards 200 ppm concentration of C2H5OH gas under heating voltage of 6.5 V. PMID:28538686

  15. Photoacoustic as a unique tool for studying multicomponent gas transport processes through rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    András Simon, Károly; Puskás, Sándor; Ricza, Tamás; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Improvement of natural gas extraction is one of the constant challenges of gas industry. Gas transport through the material of the reservoir is driven by two forces. Conventional diffusion driven by the concentration gradient and the Darcy flow driven by the differential pressure at the two ends of the material. Their segregated yield and their interrelation is largely influenced by the intrinsic structure of the sample so their measurement can yield important information There are multiple methods for measuring these parameters (Sander et al, 2017). We present a measurement set-up which uses photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of the transported components. It is a highly sensitive and selective measurement method (Bozóki et al., 2011) and can be used to measure concentration through 4-5 orders of magnitudes. Furthermore it can be operated fully automatically, has response time in the second range and outstanding long term stability. This allows us to perform measurements on a wide variety of samples either in static or in dynamic mode under different conditions and various analytes. Furthermore transport of several gas components can be measured simultaneously. Our set-up facilities measurements in a wide pressure, temperature and concentration range. Bozóki Z., Pogány A., Szabó G. (2011), Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 46, 1-37 Sander, R., Pan, Z. and Connell, Luke D. (2017), Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 37, 248-279.

  16. Macro-kinetic investigation on phenol uptake from air by biofiltration: Influence of superficial gas flow rate and inlet pollutant concentration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zilli, M.; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.

    1996-02-20

    The macro-kinetic behavior of phenol removal from a synthetic exhaust gas was investigated theoretically as well as experimentally by means of two identical continuously operating laboratory-scale biological filter bed columns. A mixture of peat and glass beads was used as filter material. After sterilization it was inoculated with a pure strain of Pseudomonas putida, as employed in previous experimental studies. To determine the influence of the superficial gas flow rate on biofilter performance and to evaluate the phenol concentration profiles along the column, two series of continuous tests were carried out varying either the inlet phenol concentration, up to 1,650more » mg {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3}, or the superficial gas flow rate, from 30 to 460 m{sup 3} {center_dot} m{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} h{sup {minus}1}. The elimination capacity of the biofilter is proved by a maximum volumetric phenol removal rate of 0.73 kg {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center_dot} h{sup {minus}1}. The experimental results are consistent with a biofilm model incorporating first-order substrate elimination kinetics. The model may be considered a useful tool in scaling-up a biofiltration system. Furthermore, the deodorization capacity of the biofilter was investigated, at inlet phenol concentrations up to 280 mg {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3} and superficial gas flow rates ranging from 30 to 92 m{sup 3} {center_dot} m{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} h{sup {minus}1}. The deodorization of the gas was achieved at a maximum inlet phenol concentration of about 255 mg {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3}, operating at a superficial gas flow rate of 30 m{sup 3} {center_dot} m{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} h{sup {minus}1}.« less

  17. Microfluidic Synthesis of Composite Cross-Gradient Materials for Investigating Cell–Biomaterial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiankang; Du, Yanan; Guo, Yuqi; Hancock, Matthew J.; Wang, Ben; Shin, Hyeongho; Wu, Jinhui; Li, Dichen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial material synthesis is a powerful approach for creating composite material libraries for the high-throughput screening of cell–material interactions. Although current combinatorial screening platforms have been tremendously successful in identifying target (termed “hit”) materials from composite material libraries, new material synthesis approaches are needed to further optimize the concentrations and blending ratios of the component materials. Here we employed a microfluidic platform to rapidly synthesize composite materials containing cross-gradients of gelatin and chitosan for investigating cell–biomaterial interactions. The microfluidic synthesis of the cross-gradient was optimized experimentally and theoretically to produce quantitatively controllable variations in the concentrations and blending ratios of the two components. The anisotropic chemical compositions of the gelatin/chitosan cross-gradients were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The three-dimensional (3D) porous gelatin/chitosan cross-gradient materials were shown to regulate the cellular morphology and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in a gradient-dependent manner. We envision that our microfluidic cross-gradient platform may accelerate the material development processes involved in a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:20721897

  18. Measurement of gas viscosity using photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.-K.; Sheehe, S. L.; Kurtz, J.; O'Byrne, S.

    2016-11-01

    A new measurement technique for gas viscosity coefficient is designed and demonstrated using the technique of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Gas flow is driven by a pressure gradient between two gas cells, through a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) surrounded by a furnace for temperature adjustment. PCF with 20-micron diameter affords physical space for gas-light interaction and provides a basis for gas viscosity measurement by determining the time for flow to exit a capillary tube under the influence of a pressure gradient. Infrared radiation from a diode laser is coupled into the fiber to be guided through the gas, and the light attenuation due to absorption from the molecular absorbing species is measured by a photo detector placed at the exit of the fiber. A numerical model from Sharipov and Graur describing local number density distribution in a unsteady state is applied for the determination of gas viscosity, based on the number density of gas measured by the absorption of the laser light, using the Beer-Lambert law. The measurement system is confirmed by measuring the viscosity of CO2 as a reference gas.

  19. Pleistocene tropical Pacific temperature sensitivity to radiative greenhouse gas forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, K. A.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    How high will Earth's global average surface temperature ultimately rise as greenhouse gas concentrations increase in the future? One way to tackle this question is to compare contemporaneous temperature and greenhouse gas concentration data from paleoclimate records, while considering that other radiative forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in the amount and distribution of incoming solar radiation associated with changes in the Earth's orbital configuration) also contribute to surface temperature change. Since the sensitivity of surface temperature varies with location and latitude, here we choose a central location representative of the west Pacific warm pool, far from upwelling regions or surface temperature gradients in order to minimize climate feedbacks associated with high-latitude regions or oceanic dynamics. The 'steady-state' or long-term temperature change associated with greenhouse gas radiative forcing is often labeled as equilibrium (or 'Earth system') climate sensitivity to the doubling of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. Climate models suggest that Earth system sensitivity does not change dramatically over times when CO2 was lower or higher than the modern atmospheric value. Thus, in our investigation of the changes in tropical SST, from the glacial to interglacial states when greenhouse gas forcing nearly doubled, we use Late Pleistocene paleoclimate records to constrain earth system sensitivity for the tropics. Here we use Mg/Ca-paleothermometry using the foraminifera G. ruber from ODP Site 871 from the past 500 kyr in the western Pacific warm pool to estimate tropical Pacific equilibrium climate sensitivity to a doubling of greenhouse gas concentrations to be ~4°C. This tropical SST sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing is ~1-2°C higher than that predicted by climate models of past glacial periods or future warming for the tropical Pacific. Equatorial Pacific SST sensitivity may be higher than predicted by models for a number of reasons

  20. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals. [Synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of bothmore » all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables.« less

  1. Gradient biomaterials and their influences on cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jindan; Mao, Zhengwei; Tan, Huaping; Han, Lulu; Ren, Tanchen; Gao, Changyou

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration participates in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. The cells specifically migrate to destiny sites induced by the gradually varying concentration (gradient) of soluble signal factors and the ligands bound with the extracellular matrix in the body during a wound healing process. Therefore, regulation of the cell migration behaviours is of paramount importance in regenerative medicine. One important way is to create a microenvironment that mimics the in vivo cellular and tissue complexity by incorporating physical, chemical and biological signal gradients into engineered biomaterials. In this review, the gradients existing in vivo and their influences on cell migration are briefly described. Recent developments in the fabrication of gradient biomaterials for controlling cellular behaviours, especially the cell migration, are summarized, highlighting the importance of the intrinsic driving mechanism for tissue regeneration and the design principle of complicated and advanced tissue regenerative materials. The potential uses of the gradient biomaterials in regenerative medicine are introduced. The current and future trends in gradient biomaterials and programmed cell migration in terms of the long-term goals of tissue regeneration are prospected. PMID:23741610

  2. Improved enrichment culture technique for methane-oxidizing bacteria from marine ecosystems: the effect of adhesion material and gas composition.

    PubMed

    Vekeman, Bram; Dumolin, Charles; De Vos, Paul; Heylen, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation. This positive effect was attributed to bacterial adhesion on the particles via extracellular compounds, with a minimum amount of particles required for effect. As a result, the particles were immobilized, thus creating a stratified environment in which a limited diffusive gas gradients could build up and various microniches were formed. Such diffusive gas gradient might necessitate high headspace concentrations of CH 4 and CO 2 for sufficient concentrations to reach the methane-oxidizing bacteria in the enrichment culture technique. Therefore, high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide, in addition to the addition of adhesion material, were tested and indeed further stimulated methane oxidation. Use of adhesion material in combination with high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide might thus facilitate the cultivation and subsequent enrichment of environmentally important members of this functional guild. The exact mechanism of the observed positive effects on methane oxidation and the differential effect on methanotrophic diversity still needs to be explored.

  3. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Radial pressure in the solar nebula as affecting the motions of planetesimals. [toroidal particle concentration in planetary evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Growing planetesimals and a range of drag laws depending on the Reynolds number and on the ratio of particle size to mean free path are considered. Particles spiral in the direction of positive gradient, thus being concentrated toward toroidal concentrations of gas. The effect increases with decreasing rates of particle growth, i.e., with increasing time scales of planet formation by accretion. In the outer regions, where evidence suggests that comets were formed and Uranus and Neptune were so accumulated, the effect of the pressure gradient is to clear the forming comets from those regions. The large mass of Neptune may have developed because of this effect, perhaps Neptune's solar distance was reduced from Bode's law, and perhaps no comet belt exists beyond Neptune. In the asteroid belt, on a slow time scale, the effect may have spiraled planetesimals toward Mars and Jupiter, thus contributing to the lack of planet formation in this region.

  5. Density-driven transport of gas phase chemicals in unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fen, Chiu-Shia; Sun, Yong-tai; Cheng, Yuen; Chen, Yuanchin; Yang, Whaiwan; Pan, Changtai

    2018-01-01

    in terms of molar concentration, molar fraction and mass density fraction gradient were almost the same. However, they were greater than the result computed with the mass fraction gradient for > 24% and the DGM-based result for more than one time. As a consequence, the DGM-based total flux of SF6 was in magnitude greatly less than the Fickian result not only for horizontal transport (diffusion-dominating) but also for vertical transport (advection and diffusion) of dense gas. Particularly, the Fickian-based total flux was more than two times in magnitude as much as the DGM result for vertically upward transport of dense gas.

  6. Hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers with ultra-high ethanol gas-sensing at low concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liming; Yue, He; Li, Haiying; Liu, Li; Li, Yu; Du, Liting; Duan, Haojie; Klyui, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchical porous and non-porous ZnO microflowers have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, morphology and gas-sensing properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical gas sensing intelligent analysis system (CGS). Compared with hierarchical non-porous ZnO microflowers, hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers exhibited ultra-high sensitivity with 50 ppm ethanol at 260 °C and the response is 110, which is 1.8 times higher than that of non-porous ZnO microflowers. Moreover, the lowest concentration limit of hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers (non-porous ZnO microflowers) to ethanol is 0.1 (1) ppm, the response value is 1.6 (1).

  7. Methanethiol Concentrations and Sea-Air Fluxes in the Subarctic NE Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiene, R. P.; Williams, T. E.; Esson, K.; Tortell, P. D.; Dacey, J. W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of volatile organic sulfur from the ocean to the atmosphere impacts the global sulfur cycle and the climate system and is thought to occur mainly via the gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMS is produced during degradation of the abundant phytoplankton osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) but bacteria can also convert dissolved DMSP into the sulfur gas methanethiol (MeSH). MeSH has been difficult to measure in seawater because of its high chemical and biological reactivity and, thus, information on MeSH concentrations, distribution and sea-air fluxes is limited. We measured MeSH in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean in July 2016, along transects with strong phytoplankton abundance gradients. Water samples obtained with Niskin bottles were analyzed for MeSH by purge-and-trap gas chromatography. Depth profiles showed that MeSH concentrations were high near the surface and declined with depth. Surface waters (5 m depth) had an average MeSH concentration of 0.75 nM with concentrations reaching up to 3nM. MeSH concentrations were correlated (r = 0.47) with microbial turnover of dissolved DMSP which ranged up to 236 nM per day. MeSH was also correlated with total DMSP (r = 0.93) and dissolved DMS (r = 0.63), supporting the conclusion that DMSP was a major precursor of MeSH. Surface water MeSH:DMS concentration ratios averaged 0.19 and ranged up to 0.50 indicating that MeSH was a significant fraction of the volatile sulfur pool in surface waters. Sea-air fluxes of MeSH averaged 15% of the combined DMS+MeSH flux, therefore MeSH contributed an important fraction of the sulfur emitted to the atmosphere from the subarctic NE Pacific Ocean.

  8. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  9. Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed.

  10. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  11. Automatable Measurement of Gas Exchange Rate in Streams: Oxygen-Carbon Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, R.; Haggerty, R.; Argerich, A.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Gas exchange rates between streams and the atmosphere are critically important to measurement of in-stream ecologic processes, as well as fate and transport of hazardous pollutants such as mercury and PCBs. Methods to estimate gas exchange rates include empirical relations to hydraulics, and direct injection of a tracer gas such as propane or SF6. Empirical relations are inconsistent and inaccurate, particularly for lower order, high-roughness streams. Gas injections are labor-intensive, and measured gas exchange rates are difficult to extrapolate in time since they change with discharge and stream geometry. We propose a novel method for calculation of gas exchange rates utilizing O2, pCO2, pH, and temperature data. Measurements, which can be automated using data loggers and probes, are made on the upstream and downstream end of the study reach. Gas exchange rates are then calculated from a solution to the transport equations for oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon. Field tests in steep, low order, high roughness streams of the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest indicate the method to be viable along stream reaches with high downstream gas concentration gradients and high rates of gas transfer velocity. Automated and continuous collection of oxygen and carbonate chemistry data is increasingly common, thus the method may be used to estimate gas exchange rates through time, and is well suited for interactivity with databases.

  12. Ionised gas kinematics in bipolar H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgleish, Hannah S.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peters, Thomas; Henshaw, Jonathan D.; Veitch-Michaelis, Joshua L.; Urquhart, James S.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar feedback plays a fundamental role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. Here we explore the use of ionised gas kinematics in young, bipolar H II regions as a probe of early feedback in these star-forming environments. We have undertaken a multi-wavelength study of a young, bipolar H II region in the Galactic disc, G316.81-0.06, which lies at the centre of a massive (˜103 M⊙) infrared-dark cloud filament. It is still accreting molecular gas as well as driving a ˜0.2 pc ionised gas outflow perpendicular to the filament. Intriguingly, we observe a large velocity gradient (47.81 ± 3.21 km s-1 pc-1) across the ionised gas in a direction perpendicular to the outflow. This kinematic signature of the ionised gas shows a reasonable correspondence with the simulations of young H II regions. Based on a qualitative comparison between our observations and these simulations, we put forward a possible explanation for the velocity gradients observed in G316.81-0.06. If the velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow is caused by rotation of the ionised gas, then we infer that this rotation is a direct result of the initial net angular momentum in the natal molecular cloud. If this explanation is correct, this kinematic signature should be common in other young (bipolar) H II regions. We suggest that further quantitative analysis of the ionised gas kinematics of young H II regions, combined with additional simulations, should improve our understanding of feedback at these early stages.

  13. Pockels-effect cell for gas-flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D.

    1982-05-01

    A Pockels effect cell using a 75 cu cm DK*P crystal was developed and used as a gas flow simulator. Index of refraction gradients were produced in the cell by the fringing fields of parallel plate electrodes. Calibration curves for the device were obtained for index of refraction gradients in excess of .00025 m.

  14. Methane concentrations in water wells unrelated to proximity to existing oil and gas wells in northeastern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Donald I; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Smith, Bert J; Perry, A Elizabeth; Bothun, Rikka L

    2015-04-07

    Recent studies in northeastern Pennsylvania report higher concentrations of dissolved methane in domestic water wells associated with proximity to nearby gas-producing wells [ Osborn et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2011 , 108 , 8172 ] and [ Jackson et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. , 2013 , 110 , 11250 ]. We test this possible association by using Chesapeake Energy's baseline data set of over 11,300 dissolved methane analyses from domestic water wells, densely arrayed in Bradford and nearby counties (Pennsylvania), and near 661 pre-existing oil and gas wells. The majority of these, 92%, were unconventional wells, drilled with horizontal legs and hydraulically fractured. Our data set is hundreds of times larger than data sets used in prior studies. In contrast to prior findings, we found no statistically significant relationship between dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater from domestic water wells and proximity to pre-existing oil or gas wells. Previous analyses used small sample sets compared to the population of domestic wells available, which may explain the difference in prior findings compared to ours.

  15. Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES Campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    MONTES (“Woodlands”) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Wester...

  16. Theory of Epithelial Cell Shape Transitions Induced by Mechanoactive Chemical Gradients.

    PubMed

    Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Hannezo, Edouard; Gov, Nir S

    2018-02-27

    Cell shape is determined by a balance of intrinsic properties of the cell as well as its mechanochemical environment. Inhomogeneous shape changes underlie many morphogenetic events and involve spatial gradients in active cellular forces induced by complex chemical signaling. Here, we introduce a mechanochemical model based on the notion that cell shape changes may be induced by external diffusible biomolecules that influence cellular contractility (or equivalently, adhesions) in a concentration-dependent manner-and whose spatial profile in turn is affected by cell shape. We map out theoretically the possible interplay between chemical concentration and cellular structure. Besides providing a direct route to spatial gradients in cell shape profiles in tissues, we show that the dependence on cell shape helps create robust mechanochemical gradients. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Treesearch

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  18. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159

  19. Temperature and nitrogen supply interact to determine protein distribution gradients in the wheat grain endosperm.

    PubMed

    Savill, George P; Michalski, Adam; Powers, Stephen J; Wan, Yongfang; Tosi, Paola; Buchner, Peter; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2018-05-25

    Gradients exist in the distribution of storage proteins in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm and determine the milling properties and protein recovery rate of the grain. A novel image analysis technique was developed to quantify both the gradients in protein concentration, and the size distribution of protein bodies within the endosperm of wheat plants grown under two different (20 or 28 °C) post-anthesis temperatures, and supplied with a nutrient solution with either high or low nitrogen content. Under all treatment combinations, protein concentration was greater in the endosperm cells closest to the aleurone layer and decreased towards the centre of the two lobes of the grain, i.e. a negative gradient. This was accompanied by a decrease in size of protein bodies from the outer to the inner endosperm layers in all but one of the treatments. Elevated post-anthesis temperature had the effect of increasing the magnitude of the negative gradients in both protein concentration and protein body size, whilst limiting nitrogen supply decreased the gradients.

  20. Theoretical analysis of degradation mechanisms in the formation of morphogen gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgui, Behnaz; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental biological processes of development of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms are governed by various signaling molecules, which are called morphogens. It is known that spatial and temporal variations in the concentration profiles of signaling molecules, which are frequently referred as morphogen gradients, lead to a cell differentiation via activating specific genes in a concentration-dependent manner. It is widely accepted that the establishment of the morphogen gradients involves multiple biochemical reactions and diffusion processes. One of the critical elements in the formation of morphogen gradients is a degradation of signaling molecules. We develop a new theoretical approach that provides a comprehensive description of the degradation mechanisms. It is based on the idea that the degradation works as an effective potential that drives the signaling molecules away from the source region. Utilizing the method of first-passage processes, the dynamics of the formation of morphogen gradients for various degradation mechanisms is explicitly evaluated. It is found that linear degradation processes lead to a dynamic behavior specified by times to form the morphogen gradients that depend linearly on the distance from the source. This is because the effective potential due to the degradation is quite strong. At the same time, nonlinear degradation mechanisms yield a quadratic scaling in the morphogen gradients formation times since the effective potentials are much weaker. Physical-chemical explanations of these phenomena are presented.

  1. The influence of submarine groundwater discharge on greenhouse gas evasion from coastal waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal waters are thought to play a major role on global carbon budgets but we still lack a quantitative understanding about some mechanisms driving greenhouse gas cycling in coastal waters. Very little is known about the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in delivering carbon to rivers, estuaries and coastal waters even though the concentrations of most carbon species in groundwater are often much higher than those in surface waters. I hypothesize that SGD plays a significant role in coastal carbon and greenhouse gas budgets even if the volumetric SGD contribution is small. I will report new, detailed observations of radon (a natural groundwater tracer) and carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and stable isotopes in tidal rivers, estuaries, coastal wetlands, mangroves and coral reef lagoons. Groundwater exchange at these contrasting sites was driven by a wide range of processes, including terrestrial hydraulic gradients, tidal pumping, and convection. In all systems, SGD was an important source of carbon dioxide, DIC, and methane to surface waters. In some cases, groundwater seepage alone could account for 100% of carbon dioxide evasion from surface waters to the atmosphere. Combining high precision in situ radon and greenhouse gas concentration and stable isotope observations allows for an effective, unambiguous assessment of how groundwater seepage drives carbon dynamics in surface waters.

  2. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    concentrations and subsequent risks in soils of Paris and Paris region (Île-de-France). Our study aims at filling this knowledge gap, focusing on contamination and pollution by TMs in lawns and forests that constitute the main types of vegetation in urban areas of Paris region. Considering the rational described above, the aims of the present study were (i) to examine the concentration of eight selected TMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of two land-uses (public lawns and woods) along an urban pressure gradient in Paris region, (ii) to distinguish origins and sources of contamination or pollution, (iii) to evaluate the individual and overall TM contamination degree as well as the individual and overall TM pollution degree, (iiii) to use soil characteristics to better understand soil origins and histories along the urban pressure gradient and the relationship between these characteristics and TM concentrations. Ultimately, this study provides a baseline TM assessment for the long-term monitoring of the evolution of TM soil contents in urban area of the Paris region.

  3. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-06-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  4. Gradient and size effects on spinodal and miscibility gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagrakis, Ioannis; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2018-05-01

    A thermodynamically consistent model of strain gradient elastodiffusion is developed. Its formulation is based on the enhancement of a robust theory of gradient elasticity, known as GRADELA, to account for a Cahn-Hilliard type of diffusion. Linear stability analysis is employed to determine the influence of concentration and strain gradients on the spinodal decomposition. For finite domains, spherically symmetric conditions are considered, and size effects on spinodal and miscibility gaps are discussed. The theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimental trends, i.e., both gaps shrink as the grain diameter decreases and they are completely eliminated for crystals smaller than a critical size.

  5. Room-Temperature Determination of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Concentration and Mobility in Heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schacham, S. E.; Mena, R. A.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for determination of room-temperature two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentration and mobility in heterostructures is presented. Using simultaneous fits of the longitudinal and transverse voltages as a function of applied magnetic field, we were able to separate the parameters associated with the 2DEG from those of the parallel layer. Comparison with the Shubnikov-de Haas data derived from measurements at liquid helium temperatures proves that the analysis of the room-temperature data provides an excellent estimate of the 2DEG concentration. In addition we were able to obtain for the first time the room-temperature mobility of the 2DEG, an important parameter to device application. Both results are significantly different from those derived from conventional Hall analysis.

  6. Gravitational Thermodynamics for Interstellar Gas and Weakly Degenerate Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ding Yu; Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-03-01

    The temperature distribution of an ideal gas in gravitational fields has been identified as a longstanding problem in thermodynamics and statistical physics. According to the principle of entropy increase (i.e., the principle of maximum entropy), we apply a variational principle to the thermodynamical entropy functional of an ideal gas and establish a relationship between temperature gradient and gravitational field strength. As an illustrative example, the temperature and density distributions of an ideal gas in two simple but typical gravitational fields (i.e., a uniform gravitational field and an inverse-square gravitational field) are considered on the basis of entropic and hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. The effect of temperature inhomogeneity in gravitational fields is also addressed for a weakly degenerate quantum gas (e.g., Fermi and Bose gas). The present gravitational thermodynamics of a gas would have potential applications in quantum fluids, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates in Earth’s gravitational field and the temperature fluctuation spectrum in cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. Concentration of Natural Gas Hydrate Beneath the Permafrost Zone: Implications for Geochemical and Hydrologic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A.; Namikawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids made of water molecules containing various gas molecules. The geological evaluations have suggested worldwide methane contents of gas hydrate beneath deep sea floors as well as permafrost-related zones to about twice the total reserves of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon. Scientific and economic interests are increasing in gas hydrate as a new energy resource and a potential greenhouse gas. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled in the Canadian Arctic that clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. Continuous downhole well log data, anomalies of chloride contents in pore waters, core temperature depression as well as visible gas hydrates have confirmed the highly saturated pore-space hydrate as intergranular pore filling within sandy layers, whose saturations are higher than 70% in pore volume. Muddy sediments scarcely contain gas hydrate. The Nankai Trough runs along the Japanese Island, where forearc basins and accretionary prisms developed extensively and BSRs (bottom simulating reflectors) have been recognized widely. The METI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 also revealed the presence of pore-space hydrate filling intergranular pore of sandy layers. It is remarked that there are many similar features in appearance and characteristics between the Mallik and Nankai Trough areas with observations of well-interconnected and highly saturated pore-space hydrate. It is necessary for evaluating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to know both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and measurements of water permeability for them indicate that highly saturated sands may have permeability of a few millidarcies. Subsequent analyses in sedimentology and geochemistry performed on gas hydrate-bearing sands revealed important geologic and sedimentologic controls on the formation and concentration of gas hydrate. It is suggested that the

  8. Spherical gradient-index lenses as perfect imaging and maximum power transfer devices.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J M

    2000-08-01

    Gradient-index lenses can be viewed from the perspectives of both imaging and nonimaging optics, that is, in terms of both image fidelity and achievable flux concentration. The simple class of gradient-index lenses with spherical symmetry, often referred to as modified Luneburg lenses, is revisited. An alternative derivation for established solutions is offered; the method of Fermat's strings and the principle of skewness conservation are invoked. Then these nominally perfect imaging devices are examined from the additional vantage point of power transfer, and the degree to which they realize the thermodynamic limit to flux concentration is determined. Finally, the spherical gradient-index lens of the fish eye is considered as a modified Luneburg lens optimized subject to material constraints.

  9. Increased dimensionality of cell-cell communication can decrease the precision of gradient sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tyler; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew

    Gradient sensing is a biological computation that involves comparison of concentrations measured in at least two different locations. As such, the pre- cision of gradient sensing is limited by the intrinsic stochasticity in the com- munication that brings such distributed information to the same location. We have recently analyzed such limitations experimentally and theoretically in multicellular gradient sensing in mammary epithelial cell organoids. For 1d chains of collectively sensing cells, the communication noise puts a se- vere constraint on how the accuracy of gradient sensing increases with the number of cells in the sensor. A question remains as to whether the effect of the noise can be mitigated by the extra spatial averaging allowed in sensing by 2d and 3d cellular organoids. Here we show using computer simulations that, counterintuitively, such spatial averaging decreases gradient sensitiv- ity (while it increases concentration sensitivity). We explain the findings analytically and propose that a recently introduced Regional Excitation - Global Inhibition model of gradient sensing can overcome this limitation and use 2d or 3d spatial averaging to improve the sensing accuracy. Supported by NSF Grant PHY/1410978 and James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant # 220020321.

  10. Method of and apparatus for measuring the mean concentration of thoron and/or radon in a gas mixture

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Henry

    1990-01-01

    A method of and an apparatus for detecting and accurately measuring the mean concentrations of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in a gas mixture, such as the ambient atmosphere in a mine, is provided. The apparatus includes an alpha target member which defines at least one operative target surface and which is preferably fabricated from a single piece of an alpha particle sensitive material. At least one portion of the operative target surface is covered with an alpha particle filter. The uncovered and filter covered operative surface is exposed to the gas mixture containing the .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn. In the radioactive decay series of these isotopes the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of .sup.222 Rn is about 1.1 MeV less than the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of a .sup.220 Tn. The alpha particle filter has a predetermined mass per unit area of the covered portion of the operative target surface that prevents penetration of alpha particles which originate from .sup.222 Rn decay, but which allows passage therethrough of the maximum kinetic energy alpha particles from .sup.220 Tn decay. Thus, a count of the alpha particle tracks in the uncovered portion of the target member is proportional to the mean concentration of sum of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture, while the count of alpha tracks in the target member under the filter is proportional to the concentration of only the .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture.

  11. Velocity Gradient Power Functional for Brownian Dynamics.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-01-12

    We present an explicit and simple approximation for the superadiabatic excess (over ideal gas) free power functional, admitting the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of overdamped Brownian many-body systems. The functional depends on the local velocity gradient and is systematically obtained from treating the microscopic stress distribution as a conjugate field. The resulting superadiabatic forces are beyond dynamical density functional theory and are of a viscous nature. Their high accuracy is demonstrated by comparison to simulation results.

  12. Velocity Gradient Power Functional for Brownian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    We present an explicit and simple approximation for the superadiabatic excess (over ideal gas) free power functional, admitting the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of overdamped Brownian many-body systems. The functional depends on the local velocity gradient and is systematically obtained from treating the microscopic stress distribution as a conjugate field. The resulting superadiabatic forces are beyond dynamical density functional theory and are of a viscous nature. Their high accuracy is demonstrated by comparison to simulation results.

  13. Cell-Surface Bound Nonreceptors and Signaling Morphogen Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Frederic Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    The patterning of many developing tissues is orchestrated by gradients of signaling morphogens. Included among the molecular events that drive the formation of morphogen gradients are a variety of elaborate regulatory interactions. Such interactions are thought to make gradients robust, i.e. insensitive to change in the face of genetic or environmental perturbations. But just how this is accomplished is a major unanswered question. Recently extensive numerical simulations suggest that robustness of signaling gradients can be achieved through morphogen degradation mediated by cell surface bound non-signaling receptor molecules (or nonreceptors for short) such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). The present paper provides a mathematical validation of the results from the aforementioned numerical experiments. Extension of a basic extracellular model to include reversible binding with nonreceptors synthesized at a prescribed rate and mediated morphogen degradation shows that the signaling gradient diminishes with increasing concentration of cell-surface nonreceptors. Perturbation and asymptotic solutions obtained for i) low (receptor and nonreceptor) occupancy, and ii) high nonreceptor concntration permit more explicit delineation of the effects of nonreceptors on signaling gradients and facilitate the identification of scenarios in which the presence of nonreceptors may or may not be effective in promoting robustness. PMID:25232201

  14. Potassium concentration effect on growth, gas exchange and mineral accumulation in potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of potatoes to six K solution concentrations maintained with a flow-through nutrient film system. Potato plants were grown for 42 days in sloping shallow trays containing a 1 cm layer of quartz gravel with a continuous flow of 4 ml min-1 of nutrient solutions having K concentrations of 0.10, 0.55, 1.59, 3.16, 6.44, 9.77 meq L-1. Plant leaf area, total and tuber dry weights were reduced over 25% at 0.10 meq L-1 of K and over 17% at 9.77 meq L-1 of K compared to concentrations of 0.55, 1.59, 3.16 and 6.44 meq L-1 of K. Gas exchange measurements on leaflets in situ after 39 days of growth demonstrated no significant differences among different K treatments in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration. Further measurements made only on plants grown at 0.10, 1.59, 6.44 meq L-1 of K showed similar responses of CO2 assimilation rate to different intercellular CO2 concentrations. This suggested that the photosynthetic systems were not affected by different K nutrition. The leaves of plants accumulated about 60% less K at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. However, Ca and Mg levels in the leaves were higher at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. This indicates that low K nutrition not only reduced plant growth, but also affected nutrient balance between major cations.

  15. Spatially Resolved Measurements of CO2 and CH4 Concentration and Gas-Exchange Velocity Highly Influence Carbon-Emission Estimates of Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission from man-made reservoirs is uncertain because the spatial variability generally is not well-represented. Here, we examine the spatial variability and its drivers for partial pressure, gas-exchange velocity (k), and diffusive flux of CO2 and CH4 in three tropical reservoirs using spatially resolved measurements of both gas concentrations and k. We observed high spatial variability in CO2 and CH4 concentrations and flux within all three reservoirs, with river inflow areas generally displaying elevated CH4 concentrations. Conversely, areas close to the dam are generally characterized by low concentrations and are therefore not likely to be representative for the whole system. A large share (44–83%) of the within-reservoir variability of gas concentration was explained by dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll, water depth, and within-reservoir location. High spatial variability in k was observed, and kCH4 was persistently higher (on average, 2.5 times more) than kCO2. Not accounting for the within-reservoir variability in concentrations and k may lead to up to 80% underestimation of whole-system diffusive emission of CO2 and CH4. Our findings provide valuable information on how to develop field-sampling strategies to reliably capture the spatial heterogeneity of diffusive carbon fluxes from reservoirs. PMID:29257874

  16. Single fiber lignin distributions based on the density gradient column method

    Treesearch

    Brian Boyer; Alan W. Rudie

    2007-01-01

    The density gradient column method was used to determine the effects of uniform and non-uniform pulping processes on variation in individual fiber lignin concentrations of the resulting pulps. A density gradient column uses solvents of different densities and a mixing process to produce a column of liquid with a smooth transition from higher density at the bottom to...

  17. The innate origin of radial and vertical gradients in a simulated galaxy disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Julio F.; Yozin, Cameron; Loewen, Nic; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Fattahi, Azadeh; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2018-05-01

    We examine the origin of radial and vertical gradients in the age/metallicity of the stellar component of a galaxy disc formed in the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Some of these gradients resemble those in the Milky Way, where they have sometimes been interpreted as due to internal evolution, such as scattering off giant molecular clouds, radial migration driven by spiral patterns, or orbital resonances with a bar. Secular processes play a minor role in the simulated galaxy, which lacks strong spiral or bar patterns, and where such gradients arise as a result of the gradual enrichment of a gaseous disc that is born thick but thins as it turns into stars and settles into centrifugal equilibrium. The settling is controlled by the feedback of young stars; which links the star formation, enrichment, and equilibration time-scales, inducing radial and vertical gradients in the gaseous disc and its descendent stars. The kinematics of coeval stars evolve little after birth and provide a faithful snapshot of the gaseous disc structure at the time of their formation. In this interpretation, the age-velocity dispersion relation would reflect the gradual thinning of the disc rather than the importance of secular orbit scattering; the outward flaring of stars would result from the gas disc flare rather than from radial migration; and vertical gradients would arise because the gas disc gradually thinned as it enriched. Such radial and vertical trends might just reflect the evolving properties of the parent gaseous disc, and are not necessarily the result of secular evolutionary processes.

  18. A Gas Chromatographic System for the Detection of Ethylene Gas Using Ambient Air as a Carrier Gas

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Nayyer Abbas; Tahir, Muhammad Waseem; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Lang, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene gas is a naturally occurring gas that has an influence on the shelf life of fruit during their transportation in cargo ships. An unintentional exposure of ethylene gas during transportation results in a loss of fruit. A gas chromatographic system is presented here for the detection of ethylene gas. The gas chromatographic system was assembled using a preconcentrator, a printed 3D printed gas chromatographic column, a humidity sensor, solenoid valves, and an electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. Ambient air was used as a carrier gas in the gas chromatographic system. The flow rate was fixed to 10 sccm. It was generated through a mini-pump connected in series with a mass flow controller. The metal oxide gas sensor is discussed with its limitation in ambient air. The results show the chromatogram obtained from metal oxide gas sensor has low stability, drifts, and has uncertain peaks, while the chromatogram from the electrochemical sensor is stable and precise. Furthermore, ethylene gas measurements at higher ppb concentration and at lower ppb concentration were demonstrated with the electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. The system separates ethylene gas and humidity. The chromatograms obtained from the system are stable, and the results are 1.2% repeatable in five similar measurements. The statistical calculation of the gas chromatographic system shows that a concentration of 2.3 ppb of ethylene gas can be detected through this system. PMID:28991173

  19. A Gas Chromatographic System for the Detection of Ethylene Gas Using Ambient Air as a Carrier Gas.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Nayyer Abbas; Tahir, Muhammad Waseem; Vellekoop, Michael J; Lang, Walter

    2017-10-07

    Ethylene gas is a naturally occurring gas that has an influence on the shelf life of fruit during their transportation in cargo ships. An unintentional exposure of ethylene gas during transportation results in a loss of fruit. A gas chromatographic system is presented here for the detection of ethylene gas. The gas chromatographic system was assembled using a preconcentrator, a printed 3D printed gas chromatographic column, a humidity sensor, solenoid valves, and an electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. Ambient air was used as a carrier gas in the gas chromatographic system. The flow rate was fixed to 10 sccm. It was generated through a mini-pump connected in series with a mass flow controller. The metal oxide gas sensor is discussed with its limitation in ambient air. The results show the chromatogram obtained from metal oxide gas sensor has low stability, drifts, and has uncertain peaks, while the chromatogram from the electrochemical sensor is stable and precise. Furthermore, ethylene gas measurements at higher ppb concentration and at lower ppb concentration were demonstrated with the electrochemical ethylene gas sensor. The system separates ethylene gas and humidity. The chromatograms obtained from the system are stable, and the results are 1.2% repeatable in five similar measurements. The statistical calculation of the gas chromatographic system shows that a concentration of 2.3 ppb of ethylene gas can be detected through this system.

  20. Higs-instrument: design and demonstration of a high performance gas concentration imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Klop, W. A.; Visser, H.; van Brug, H.; Human, J.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and environmental conditions are high on the political agenda of international governments. Laws and regulations are being setup all around the world to improve the air quality and to reduce the impact. The growth of a number of trace gasses, including CO2, Methane and NOx are especially interesting due to their environmental impact. The regulations made are being based on both models and measurements of the trend of those trace gases over the years. Now the regulations are in place also enforcement and therewith measurements become more and more important. Instruments enabling high spectral and spatial resolution as well as high accurate measurements of trace gases are required to deliver the necessary inputs. Nowadays those measurements are usually performed by space based spectrometers. The requirement for high spectral resolution and measurement accuracy significantly increases the size of the instruments. As a result the instrument and satellite becomes very expensive to develop and to launch. Specialized instruments with a small volume and the required performance will offer significant advantages in both cost and performance. Huib's Innovative Gas Sensor (HIGS, named after its inventor Huib Visser), currently being developed at TNO is an instrument that achieves exactly that. Designed to measure only a single gas concentration, opposed to deriving it from a spectrum, it achieves high performance within a small design volume. The instrument enables instantaneous imaging of the gas distribution of the selected gas. An instrument demonstrator has been developed for NO2 detection. Laboratory measurements proved the measurement technique to be successful. An on-sky measurement campaign is in preparation. This paper addresses both the instrument design as well as the demonstrated performances.

  1. Compound Specific Concentration and Stable Isotope Ratio Measurements of Atmospheric Particulate Organic Matter and Gas Phase Nitrophenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, R.; Saccon, M.; Moukhtar, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) adversely affects health and climate. One of the still poorly understood sources of secondary organic matter (SOM) is the formation of secondary POM from the photo- oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC). Nitrophenols, which are toxic semi-volatile compounds, are formed in the atmosphere by OH-radical initiated photo-oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene. A method was developed to determine concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of particulate methyl nitrophenols in the atmosphere. This method has been used to quantify methyl nitrophenols, specifically 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol and 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol, found in atmospheric PM samples in trace quantities. Using this method, we conducted measurements of methyl nitrophenols in atmospheric PM in rural and suburban areas in Southern Ontario. The results of these measurements showed that the concentration of methyl nitrophenols in atmospheric PM is much lower than expected from the extrapolation of laboratory experiments and measured atmospheric toluene concentrations. In order to better understand the reasons for these findings, an analytical method for the analysis of nitrophenols in the gas phase is currently being developed. Similarly, the measurement technique is modified to allow analysis of other phenolic products of the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons in PM as well as in the gas phase. In this poster, sampling techniques for collection and GC-MS analysis of nitrophenols in gas phase and PM will be presented along with preliminary results from summer 2008 and spring 2009 studies.

  2. Enhanced energy harvesting by concentration gradient-driven ion transport in SBA-15 mesoporous silica thin films.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Junho; Kataoka, Sho; Endo, Akira; Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2016-09-21

    Nanofluidic energy harvesting systems have attracted interest in the field of battery application, particularly for miniaturized electrical devices, because they possess excellent energy conversion capability for their size. In this study, a mesoporous silica (MPS)-based nanofluidic energy harvesting system was fabricated and selective ion transport in mesopores as a function of the salt gradient was investigated. Aqueous solutions with three different kinds of monovalent electrolytes-KCl, NaCl, and LiCl-with different diffusion coefficients (D + ) were considered. The highest power density was 3.90 W m -2 for KCl, followed by 2.39 W m -2 for NaCl and 1.29 W m -2 for LiCl. Furthermore, the dependency of power density on the type of cation employed indicates that the harvested energy increases as the cation mobility increases, particularly at high concentrations. This cation-specific dependency suggests that the maximum power density increases by increasing the diffusion coefficient ratio of cations to anions, making this ratio a critical parameter in enhancing the performance of nanofluidic energy harvesting systems with extremely small pores ranging from 2 to 3 nm.

  3. Probing Lung Microstructure with Hyperpolarized 3He Gradient Echo MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sukstanskii, Alexander L; Quirk, James D; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that Gradient Echo MRI with hyperpolarized 3He gas can be used for simultaneously extracting in vivo information about lung ventilation properties, alveolar geometrical parameters, and blood vessel network structure. This new approach is based on multi-gradient-echo experimental measurements of hyperpolarized 3He gas MRI signal from human lungs and a proposed theoretical model of this signal. Based on computer simulations of 3He atoms diffusing in the acinar airway tree in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the susceptibility differences between lung tissue (alveolar septa, blood vessels) and lung airspaces we derive analytical expressions relating the time-dependent MR signal to the geometrical parameters of acinar airways and blood vessel network. Data obtained on 8 healthy volunteers are in good agreement with literature values. This information is complementary to the information that is obtained by means of in vivo lung morphometry technique with hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI previously developed by our group and opens new opportunities to study lung microstructure in health and disease. PMID:24920182

  4. Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials.

    PubMed

    Nastev, M; Therrien, R; Lefebvre, R; Gélinas, P

    2001-11-01

    Landfill gas, originating from the anaerobic biodegradation of the organic content of waste, consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, with traces of volatile organic compounds. Pressure, concentration and temperature gradients that develop within the landfill result in gas emissions to the atmosphere and in lateral migration through the surrounding soils. Environmental and safety issues associated with the landfill gas require control of off-site gas migration. The numerical model TOUGH2-LGM (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat-Landfill Gas Migration) has been developed to simulate landfill gas production and migration processes within and beyond landfill boundaries. The model is derived from the general non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2, to which a new equation of state module is added. It simulates the migration of five components in partially saturated media: four fluid components (water, atmospheric air, methane and carbon dioxide) and one energy component (heat). The four fluid components are present in both the gas and liquid phases. The model incorporates gas-liquid partitioning of all fluid components by means of dissolution and volatilization. In addition to advection in the gas and liquid phase, multi-component diffusion is simulated in the gas phase. The landfill gas production rate is proportional to the organic substrate and is modeled as an exponentially decreasing function of time. The model is applied to the Montreal's CESM landfill site, which is located in a former limestone rock quarry. Existing data were used to characterize hydraulic properties of the waste and the limestone. Gas recovery data at the site were used to define the gas production model. Simulations in one and two dimensions are presented to investigate gas production and migration in the landfill, and in the surrounding limestone. The effects of a gas recovery well and landfill cover on gas migration are also discussed.

  5. Hepatic sinusoid is not well-stirred: estimation of the degree of axial mixing by analysis of lobular concentration gradients formed during uptake of thyroxine by the perfused rat liver

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weisiger, R.A.; Mendel, C.M.; Cavalieri, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    Two general models have been proposed for predicting the effects of metabolism, protein binding, and plasma flow on the removal of drugs by the liver. These models differ in the degree of plasma mixing assumed to exist within each hepatic sinusoid. The venous equilibrium model treats the sinusoid as a single well-stirred compartment, whereas the sinusoidal model effectively breaks up the sinusoid into a large number of sequentially perfused compartments which do not exchange their contents except through plasma flow. As a consequence, the sinusoidal model, but not the venous equilibrium model, predicts that the concentration of highly extracted drugsmore » will decline as the plasma flows through the hepatic lobule. To determine which of these alternative models best describes the hepatic uptake process, we looked for evidence that concentration gradients are formed during the uptake of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine by the perfused rat liver. Autoradiography of tissue slices after perfusion of the portal vein at physiologic flow rates with protein-free buffer containing (/sup 125/I)thyroxine demonstrated a rapid exponential fall in grain density with distance from the portal venule, declining by half for each 8% of the mean length of the sinusoid. Reversing the direction of perfusate flow reversed the direction of the autoradiographic gradients, indicating that they primarily reflect differences in the concentration of thyroxine within the hepatic sinusoids rather than differences in the uptake capacity of portal and central hepatocytes. Analysis of the data using models in which each sinusoid was represented by different numbers of sequentially perfused compartments (1-20) indicated that at least eight compartments were necessary to account for the magnitude of the gradients seen.« less

  6. Sensor Analytics: Radioactive gas Concentration Estimation and Error Propagation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anderson, Dale N.; Fagan, Deborah K.; Suarez, Reynold

    2007-04-15

    This paper develops the mathematical statistics of a radioactive gas quantity measurement and associated error propagation. The probabilistic development is a different approach to deriving attenuation equations and offers easy extensions to more complex gas analysis components through simulation. The mathematical development assumes a sequential process of three components; I) the collection of an environmental sample, II) component gas extraction from the sample through the application of gas separation chemistry, and III) the estimation of radioactivity of component gases.

  7. Breakdown and Limit of Continuum Diffusion Velocity for Binary Gas Mixtures from Direct Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert Scott; Najmabadi, Farrokh

    2011-05-01

    This work investigates the breakdown of the continuum relations for diffusion velocity in inert binary gas mixtures. Values of the relative diffusion velocities for components of a gas mixture may be calculated using of Chapman-Enskog theory and occur not only due to concentration gradients, but also pressure and temperature gradients in the flow as described by Hirschfelder. Because Chapman-Enskog theory employs a linear perturbation around equilibrium, it is expected to break down when the velocity distribution deviates significantly from equilibrium. This breakdown of the overall flow has long been an area of interest in rarefied gas dynamics. By comparing the continuum values to results from Bird's DS2V Monte Carlo code, we propose a new limit on the continuum approach specific to binary gases. To remove the confounding influence of an inconsistent molecular model, we also present the application of the variable hard sphere (VSS) model used in DS2V to the continuum diffusion velocity calculation. Fitting sample asymptotic curves to the breakdown, a limit, Vmax, that is a fraction of an analytically derived limit resulting from the kinetic temperature of the mixture is proposed. With an expected deviation of only 2% between the physical values and continuum calculations within ±Vmax/4, we suggest this as a conservative estimate on the range of applicability for the continuum theory.

  8. Numerical evaluation of static-chamber measurements of soil-atmospheric gas exchange--Identification of physical processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Striegl, Robert G.; Russell, Thomas F.; Hutchinson, Gordon L.; Livingston, Gerald P.

    1996-01-01

    The exchange of gases between soil and atmosphere is an important process that affects atmospheric chemistry and therefore climate. The static-chamber method is the most commonly used technique for estimating the rate of that exchange. We examined the method under hypothetical field conditions where diffusion was the only mechanism for gas transport and the atmosphere outside the chamber was maintained at a fixed concentration. Analytical and numerical solutions to the soil gas diffusion equation in one and three dimensions demonstrated that gas flux density to a static chamber deployed on the soil surface was less in magnitude than the ambient exchange rate in the absence of the chamber. This discrepancy, which increased with chamber deployment time and air-filled porosity of soil, is attributed to two physical factors: distortion of the soil gas concentration gradient (the magnitude was decreased in the vertical component and increased in the radial component) and the slow transport rate of diffusion relative to mixing within the chamber. Instantaneous flux density to a chamber decreased continuously with time; steepest decreases occurred so quickly following deployment and in response to such slight changes in mean chamber headspace concentration that they would likely go undetected by most field procedures. Adverse influences of these factors were reduced by mixing the chamber headspace, minimizing deployment time, maximizing the height and radius of the chamber, and pushing the rim of the chamber into the soil. Nonlinear models were superior to a linear regression model for estimating flux densities from mean headspace concentrations, suggesting that linearity of headspace concentration with time was not necessarily a good indicator of measurement accuracy.

  9. Reconnaissance techniques for determining soil-gas radon concentrations: an example from Prince Georges County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radon reconnaissance requires some special considerations because a large area must be covered in a short period of time and analyses must be made soon after collection because of Rn decay. A simple approach to collection and field analysis consists of a small-diameter probe pounded into the ground to a depth of at least 0.75 m. Analysis is by an alpha-scintillometer. Soil-gas samples collected along a traverse in Prince Georges County, Maryland, demonstrates the utility of the technique. The reconnaissance sampling revealed Rn soil-gas concentrations of up to 2500 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) indicating that the potential exists for indoor accumulations in excess of 4 pCi/L. -from Author

  10. The effect of fresh gas flow rate and type of anesthesia machine on time to reach target sevoflurane concentration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Won; Yu, Hae Na; Bae, Go Eun; Huh, Hyub; Park, Ji Yong; Kim, Ji Young

    2017-01-19

    Anesthesia machines have been developed by the application of new technology for rapid and easier control of anesthetic concentration. In this study, we used a test lung to investigate whether the time taken to reach the target sevoflurane concentration varies with the rate of fresh gas flow (FGF) and type of anesthesia machine (AM). We measured the times taken to reach the target sevoflurane concentration (2 minimum alveolar concentration = 4%) at variable rates of FGF (0.5, 1, or 3 L/min) and different types of AM (Primus ® , Perseus ® , and Zeus ® [Zeus ® -F; Zeus ® fresh gas mode, Zeus ® -A; Zeus ® auto-mode]). Concomitant ventilation was supplied using 100% O 2. The AMs were connected to a test lung. A sevoflurane vaporizer setting of 6% was used in Primus ® , Perseus ® , and Zeus ® -F; a target end-tidal setting of 4% was used in Zeus ® -A (from a vaporizer setting of 0%). The time taken to reach the target concentration was measured in every group. When the same AM was used (Primus ® , Perseus ® , or Zeus ® -F), the times to target concentration shortened as the FGF rate increased (P < 0.05). Conversely, when the same FGF rate was used, but with different AMs, the time to target concentration was shortest in Perseus ® , followed by Primus ® , and finally by Zeus ® -F (P < 0.05). With regards to both modes of Zeus ® , at FGF rates of 0.5 and 1 L/min, the time to target concentration was shorter in Zeus ® -A than in Zeus ® -F; however, the time was longer in Zeus ® -A than in Zeus ® -F at FGF rate of 3 L/min (P < 0.05). Shorter times taken to reach the target concentration were associated with high FGF rates, smaller internal volume of the AM, proximity of the fresh gas inlets to patients, absence of a decoupling system, and use of blower-driven ventilators in AM.

  11. A spatiotemporally controllable chemical gradient generator via acoustically oscillating sharp-edge structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Chan, Chung Yu; Li, Peng; Nama, Nitesh; Xie, Yuliang; Wei, Cheng-Hsin; Chen, Yuchao; Ahmed, Daniel; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-11-07

    The ability to generate stable, spatiotemporally controllable concentration gradients is critical for resolving the dynamics of cellular response to a chemical microenvironment. Here we demonstrate an acoustofluidic gradient generator based on acoustically oscillating sharp-edge structures, which facilitates in a step-wise fashion the rapid mixing of fluids to generate tunable, dynamic chemical gradients. By controlling the driving voltage of a piezoelectric transducer, we demonstrated that the chemical gradient profiles can be conveniently altered (spatially controllable). By adjusting the actuation time of the piezoelectric transducer, moreover, we generated pulsatile chemical gradients (temporally controllable). With these two characteristics combined, we have developed a spatiotemporally controllable gradient generator. The applicability and biocompatibility of our acoustofluidic gradient generator are validated by demonstrating the migration of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) in response to a generated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gradient, and by preserving the viability of HMVEC-d cells after long-term exposure to an acoustic field. Our device features advantages such as simple fabrication and operation, compact and biocompatible device, and generation of spatiotemporally tunable gradients.

  12. Spatial variation of charge and sulfur oxidation state in a surface gradient affects plasma proteins adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yong-Xue; Streitmatter, Seth; Wright, Bryon E.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    A gradient of negative surface charge based on 1-D spatial variation from surface sulfhydryl to mixed sulfhydryl-sulfonate moities was prepared by controlled UV oxidation of 3-mercaptopropylsilane monolayer on fused silica. Adsorption of three human plasma proteins, albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and fibrinogen (Fgn) onto such surface gradient was studied using spatially-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and autoradiography. Adsorption was measured from dilute solutions equivalent to 1/100 (TIRF, autoradiography), and 1/500 and 1/1000 (autoradiography) of protein’s physiological concentrations in plasma. All three proteins adsorbed more to the non-oxidized sulfhydryl region than to the oxidized, mixed sulfhydryl-sulfonate region of the gradient. In the case of HSA the adsorption contrast along the gradient was largest when the adsorption took place from more dilute protein solutions. Increasing the concentration to 1/100 of protein plasma concentration eliminated the effect of the gradient on HSA adsorption and to the lesser extent on IgG adsorption. In the case of Fgn the greatest adsorption contrast was observed at the highest concentration used. Based on adsorption kinetics, the estimated binding affinity of HSA for the sulfhydryl region what twice the affinity for the mixed sulfhydryl-sulfonate region of the gradient. For IgG and Fgn the initial adsorption was transport-limited and the initial adsorption rates approached the computed flux of the protein to the surface. PMID:20568822

  13. Effects of annealing gas and drain doping concentration on electrical properties of Ge-source/Si-channel heterojunction tunneling FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Tae-Eon; Wakabayashi, Yuki; Nakane, Ryosho; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Improvement in the performance of Ge-source/Si-channel heterojunction tunneling FETs (TFETs) with high on-current/off-current (I on/I off) ratio and steep subthreshold swing (SS) is demonstrated. In this paper, we experimentally examine the effects of gas ambient [N2 and forming gas (4% H2/N2)] and a doping concentration in the drain regions on the electrical characteristics of Ge/Si heterojunction TFETs. The minimum SS (SSmin) of 70.9 mV/dec and the large I on/I off ratio of 1.4 × 107 are realized by postmetallization annealing in forming gas. Also, the steep SSmin and averaged SS (SSavr) values of 64.2 and 78.4 mV/dec, respectively, are obtained in low drain doping concentration. This improvement is attributable to the reduction in interface state density (D it) in the channel region and to the low leakage current in the drain region.

  14. Measurements of alkali concentrations in an oxygen-natural gas-fired soda-lime-silica glass furnace

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    S. G. Buckley; P. M. Walsh; D. w. Hahn

    1999-10-18

    Sodium species vaporized from melting batch and molten glass in tank furnaces are the principal agents of corrosion of superstructure refractory and main contributors to emissions of particulate matter from glass melting. The use of oxygen in place of air for combustion of natural gas reduces particulate emissions, but is thought to accelerate corrosion in some melting tanks. Methods for measuring sodium are under investigation as means for identifying the volatilization, transport, and deposition mechanisms and developing strategies for control. Three separate methods were used to measure the concentrations of sodium species at various locations in an oxygen-natural gas-fired soda-lime-silicamore » glass melting tank. Measurements were made inside the furnace using the absorption of visible light and in the flue duct using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Measurements in both the furnace and flue were also made by withdrawing and analyzing samples of the furnace gas.« less

  15. Comparison of AERMOD and CALPUFF models for simulating SO2 concentrations in a gas refinery.

    PubMed

    Atabi, Farideh; Jafarigol, Farzaneh; Moattar, Faramarz; Nouri, Jafar

    2016-09-01

    In this study, concentration of SO2 from a gas refinery located in complex terrain was calculated by the steady-state, AERMOD model, and nonsteady-state CALPUFF model. First, in four seasons, SO2 concentrations emitted from 16 refinery stacks, in nine receptors, were obtained by field measurements, and then the performance of both models was evaluated. Then, the simulated results for SO2 ambient concentrations made by each model were compared with the results of the observed concentrations, and model results were compared among themselves. The evaluation of the two models to simulate SO2 concentrations was based on the statistical analysis and Q-Q plots. Review of statistical parameters and Q-Q plots has shown that, according to the evaluation of estimations made, performance of both models to simulate the concentration of SO2 in the region can be considered acceptable. The results showed the AERMOD composite ratio between simulated values made by models and the observed values in various receptors for all four average times is 0.72, whereas CALPUFF's ratio is 0.89. However, in the complex conditions of topography, CALPUFF offers better agreement with the observed concentrations.

  16. Two-dimensional imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on hyperspectral tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ming-yuan; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Junling

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional imaging of gas temperature and concentration is realized by hyperspectral tomography, which has the characteristics of using multi-wavelengths absorption spectral information, so that the imaging could be accomplished in a small number of projections and viewing angles. A temperature and concentration model is established to simulate the combustion conditions and a total number of 10 near-infrared absorption spectral information of H2O is used. An improved simulated annealing algorithm by adjusting search step is performed the main search algorithm for the tomography. By adding random errors into the absorption area information, the stability of the algorithm is tested, and the results are compared with the reconstructions provided by algebraic reconstruction technique which takes advantage of 2 spectral information contents in imaging. The results show that the two methods perform equivalent in low-level noise environment, but at high-level, hyperspectral tomography turns out to be more stable.

  17. High resolution temperature mapping of gas turbine combustor simulator exhaust with femtosecond laser induced fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert B.; Yun, Sangsig; Ding, Huimin; Charbonneau, Michel; Coulas, David; Lu, Ping; Mihailov, Stephen J.; Ramachandran, Nanthan

    2017-04-01

    Femtosecond infrared (fs-IR) laser written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), have demonstrated great potential for extreme sensing. Such conditions are inherent in advanced gas turbine engines under development to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and the ability to measure temperature gradients in these harsh environments is currently limited by the lack of sensors and controls capable of withstanding the high temperature, pressure and corrosive conditions present. This paper discusses fabrication and deployment of several fs-IR written FBG arrays, for monitoring exhaust temperature gradients of a gas turbine combustor simulator. Results include: contour plots of measured temperature gradients, contrast with thermocouple data.

  18. Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

  19. Chemical discrimination in turbulent gas mixtures with MOX sensors validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-10-16

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance.

  20. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  1. Simulations of Flame Acceleration and DDT in Mixture Composition Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Kaplan, Carolyn; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Unsteady, multidimensional, fully compressible numerical simulations of methane-air in an obstructed channel with spatial gradients in equivalence ratios have been carried to determine the effects of the gradients on flame acceleration and transition to detonation. Results for gradients perpendicular to the propagation direction were considered here. A calibrated, optimized chemical-diffusive model that reproduces correct flame and detonation properties for methane-air over a range of equivalence ratios was derived from a combination of a genetic algorithm with a Nelder-Mead optimization scheme. Inhomogeneous mixtures of methane-air resulted in slower flame acceleration and longer distance to DDT. Detonations were more likely to decouple into a flame and a shock under sharper concentration gradients. Detailed analyses of temperature and equivalence ratio illustrated that vertical gradients can greatly affect the formation of hot spots that initiate detonation by changing the strength of leading shock wave and local equivalence ratio near the base of obstacles. This work is supported by the Alpha Foundation (Grant No. AFC215-20).

  2. A new in-situ method to determine the apparent gas diffusion coefficient of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laemmel, Thomas; Paulus, Sinikka; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Maier, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soil aeration is an important factor for the biological activity in the soil and soil respiration. Generally, gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is assumed to be governed by diffusion and Fick's Law is used to describe the fluxes in the soil. The "apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient" represents the proportional factor between the flux and the gas concentration gradient in the soil and reflects the ability of the soil to "transport passively" gases through the soil. One common way to determine this coefficient is to take core samples in the field and determine it in the lab. Unfortunately this method is destructive and needs laborious field work and can only reflect a small fraction of the whole soil. As a consequence insecurity about the resulting effective diffusivity on the profile scale must remain. We developed a new in-situ method using new gas sampling device, tracer gas and inverse soil gas modelling. The gas sampling device contains several sampling depths and can be easily installed into vertical holes of an auger, which allows for fast installation of the system. At the lower end of the device inert tracer gas is injected continuously. The tracer gas diffuses into the surrounding soil. The resulting distribution of the tracer gas concentrations is used to deduce the diffusivity profile of the soil. For Finite Element Modeling of the gas sampling device/soil system the program COMSOL is used. We will present the results of a field campaign comparing the new in-situ method with lab measurements on soil cores. The new sampling pole has several interesting advantages: it can be used in-situ and over a long time; so it allows following modifications of diffusion coefficients in interaction with rain but also vegetation cycle and wind.

  3. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Garabedian, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluoroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A V(max) for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The K(m) values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 ??M for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems.

  4. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R L; Howes, B L; Garabedian, S P

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A Vmax for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional adevection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The Km values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 microM for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems. PMID:1892389

  5. Cover of coastal vegetation as an indicator of eutrophication along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Sofia A; Carstensen, Jacob; Blomqvist, Mats; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Coastal vegetation communities are important for primary production, biodiversity, coastal protection, carbon and nutrient cycling which, in combination with their sensitivity to eutrophication, render them potential indicators of environmental status for environmental policies like the EU Water and Marine Strategy Framework Directives. We evaluated one potential indicator for coastal vegetation, the cumulative cover at depths where the vegetation is light limited, by investigating its response to eutrophication along gradients in natural conditions. We used a large data set covering the Swedish coastline, spanning broad gradients in nutrient level, water clarity, seabed substrate, physical exposure and climate in addition to a salinity gradient from 0.5 to 30.5. Macroalgal cover increased significantly along gradients of declining nutrient concentration and increasing water clarity when we had accounted for diver effects, spatio-temporal sampling variability, salinity gradients, wave exposure and latitude. The developed empirical model explained 79% of the variation in algal cover across 130 areas. Based on this, we identified macroalgal cover as a promising indicator across the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. A parallel analysis of soft-substrate macrophytes similarly identified significant increases in cover with decreasing concentrations of total nitrogen and increasing salinity, but the resulting empirical model explained only 52% of the variation in cover, probably due to the spatially more variable nature of soft-substrate vegetation. The identified general responses of vegetation cover to gradients of eutrophication across wide ranges in environmental settings may be useful for monitoring and management of marine vegetation in areas with strong environmental gradients.

  6. RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

  7. Concentration gradients at the mineral-solution interface: implications for understanding dissolution mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Patiño-López, Luis David; Putnis, Christine V.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Dissolution is a key process in fluid-rock interactions, such as in chemical weathering, CO2 carbonation reactions, metasomatism, and metamorphism. Many multicomponent rock-forming minerals are reported to dissolve incongruently, because the elemental molar ratios, measured in the fluid during dissolution experiments, that differ from those in the solid. This frequently results in the formation of chemically and structurally altered zones at the fluid-solid interface of varying thickness that are depleted in some elements relative to the bulk mineral composition. Although the mechanisms of the formation of these altered layers is still a matter of debate (see e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2012 and Schott et al. 2012), recent AFM studies on the dissolution of two multicomponent minerals, dolomite, Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 (Urosevic et al. 2012), and wollastonite, CaSiO3 (Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2012), provide experimental evidence showing that these layers are formed in a two-step process: (i) stoichiometric dissolution of the pristine mineral surfaces and (ii) precipitation of a secondary phase. This occurs despite the fact that the bulk solution is undersaturated with respect to such a phase. It has been suggested that after stoichiometric dissolution of the mineral, a boundary layer of fluid in contact with the surface becomes supersaturated with respect to a secondary phase that then precipitates. Here we present in situ observations of the evolution of the fluid composition at the interface during dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 1.5) of dolomite and wollastonite using real-time phase-shift interferometry. We show that immediately when the sparingly soluble dolomite or wollastonite crystals are in contact with the solution, the refractive index of the solution at the crystal surface sharply increases. A steep refractive index gradient (i.e., concentration gradient) develops as a consequence of mineral dissolution producing an interfacial fluid with a different composition to the

  8. A growth inhibitory model with SOx influenced effective growth rate for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A theoretical model for the prediction of biomass concentration under real flue gas emission has been developed. The model considers the CO2 mass transfer rate, the critical SOx concentration and its role on pH based inter-conversion of bicarbonate in model building. The calibration and subsequent v...

  9. Latitudinal Gradients in Induced and Constitutive Resistance against Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Chen, Wen; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-08-01

    Plants are hypothesized to evolve increased defense against herbivores at lower latitudes, but an increasing number of studies report evidence that contradicts this hypothesis. Few studies have examined the evolution of constitutive and induced resistance along latitudinal gradients. When induction is not considered, underlying patterns of latitudinal clines in resistance can be obscured because plant resistance represents a combination of induced and constitutive resistance, which may show contrasting patterns with latitude. Here, we asked if there are latitudinal gradients in constitutive versus induced resistance by using genotypes of Oenothera biennis (Onagraceae) sampled along an 18° latitudinal gradient. We conducted two bioassay experiments to compare the resistance of plant genotypes against one generalist (Spodoptera exigua) and one specialist (Acanthoscelidius acephalus) herbivore. These insects were assayed on: i) undamaged control plants, ii) plants that had been induced with jasmonic acid, and iii) plants induced with herbivore damage. Additionally, we examined latitudinal gradients of constitutive and induced chemical resistance by measuring the concentrations of total phenolics, the concentration of oxidized phenolics, and the percentage of phenolics that were oxidized. Spodoptera exigua showed lower performance on plants from lower latitudes, whereas A. acephalus showed no latitudinal pattern. Constitutive total phenolics were greater in plants from lower latitudes, but induced plants showed higher total phenolics at higher latitudes. Oxidative activity was greatest at higher latitudes regardless of induction. Overall, both latitude and induction have an impact on different metrics of plant resistance to herbivory. Further studies should consider the effect of induction and herbivore specialization more explicitly, which may help to resolve the controversy in latitudinal gradients in herbivory and defense.

  10. A new portable generator to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for VOCs and water vapour at atmospheric concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillevic, Myriam; Pascale, Céline; Ackermann, Andreas; Leuenberger, Daiana; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KEY-VOCs and AtmoChem-ECV projects, we are currently developing new facilities to dynamically generate reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds, at concentrations measured in the atmosphere and in a SI-traceable way (i.e. the amount of substance fraction in mole per mole is traceable to SI-units). Here we present the realisation of such standards for water vapour in the range 1-10 μmol/mol and for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as limonene, alpha-pinene, MVK, MEK, in the nmol/mol range. The matrix gas can be nitrogen or synthetic air. Further development in gas purification techniques could make possible to use purified atmospheric air as carrier gas. The method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution: one permeator containing a pure substance (either water, limonene, MVK, MEK or α-pinene) is kept into a permeation chamber with a constant gas flow. The mass loss is precisely calibrated using a magnetic suspension balance. The carrier gas is purified beforehand from the compounds of interest to the required level, using commercially available purification cartridges. This primary mixture is then diluted to reach the required amount of substance fraction. All flows are piloted by mass flow controllers which makes the production process flexible and easily adaptable to generate the required concentration. All parts in contact with the gas mixture are passivated using coated surfaces, to reduce adsorption/desorption processes as much as possible. Two setups are currently developed: one already built and fixed in our laboratory in Bern as well as a portable generator that is still under construction and that could be used anywhere in the field. The permeation chamber of the portable generator has multiple individual cells allowing the generation of mixtures up to 5 different components if needed. Moreover the presented technique can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g., NO2, BTEX, CFCs

  11. Stabilizing gas bearing in free piston machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhar, Manmohan (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In a free piston engine, to reduce dynamic loads on the reciprocating elements caused by a time varying pressure gradient across the gas bearing and close clearance seals provided therein, drain galleries are incorporated at the ends of the gas bearings to isolate the same, and circumferentially spaced grooves are incorporated in the close clearance seal region.

  12. Dynamic in-plane potential gradients for actively controlling electrochemical reactions: Part I. Characterization of 1- and 2-component alkanethiol monolayer gradients on thin gold films. Part II. Applications of in-plane potential gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balss, Karin Maria

    gradients is discussed. Electrochemical reactions other than electrosorption of alkanethiols were demonstrated with over-potential deposition of copper onto gold films. One application of these patterns is to control the movement of supermolecular objects. As a first step towards this goal, biological cells were seeded onto gradient patterns containing adhesion promoters and inhibitors. The morphology and adhesion was investigated as a function of concentration along the gradient.

  13. Alcohol Oxidation at Platinum–Gas and Platinum–Liquid Interfaces: The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Size, Water Coadsorption, and Alcohol Concentration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tatsumi, Hironori; Liu, Fudong; Han, Hui-Ling

    Platinum nanoparticles size range from 1 to 8 nm deposited on mesoporous silica MCF-17 catalyzed alcohol oxidations were studied in the gas and liquid phases. Among methanol, ethanol, 2- propanol and 2-butanol reactions, the turnover frequency increased with Pt nanoparticle size for all the alcohols utilized. The activation energies for the oxidations were almost same among all alcohol species, but higher in the gas phase than those in the liquid phase. Water coadsorption poisoned the reaction in the gas phase, while it increased the reaction turnover rates in the liquid phase. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies and DFTmore » calculations revealed that the alcohol molecules pack horizontally on the metal surface in low concentrations and stand up in high concentrations, which affect the dissociation of β-hydrogen of the alcohols as the critical step in alcohol oxidations.« less

  14. Alcohol Oxidation at Platinum–Gas and Platinum–Liquid Interfaces: The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Size, Water Coadsorption, and Alcohol Concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Tatsumi, Hironori; Liu, Fudong; Han, Hui-Ling; ...

    2017-03-21

    Platinum nanoparticles size range from 1 to 8 nm deposited on mesoporous silica MCF-17 catalyzed alcohol oxidations were studied in the gas and liquid phases. Among methanol, ethanol, 2- propanol and 2-butanol reactions, the turnover frequency increased with Pt nanoparticle size for all the alcohols utilized. The activation energies for the oxidations were almost same among all alcohol species, but higher in the gas phase than those in the liquid phase. Water coadsorption poisoned the reaction in the gas phase, while it increased the reaction turnover rates in the liquid phase. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies and DFTmore » calculations revealed that the alcohol molecules pack horizontally on the metal surface in low concentrations and stand up in high concentrations, which affect the dissociation of β-hydrogen of the alcohols as the critical step in alcohol oxidations.« less

  15. Salinity Gradient Energy from Expansion and Contraction of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tri Quang; Cao, Vinh Duy; Do, Nu Bich Duyen; Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Wang, Wei; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena

    2018-06-22

    Salinity gradients exhibit a great potential for production of renewable energy. Several techniques such as pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis have been employed to extract this energy. Unfortunately, these techniques are restricted by the high costs of membranes and problems with membrane fouling. However, the expansion and contraction of hydrogels can be a new and cheaper way to harvest energy from salinity gradients since the hydrogels swell in freshwater and shrink in saltwater. We have examined the effect of cross-linker concentration and different external loads on the energy recovered for this type of energy-producing systems. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) hydrogels were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to produce hydrogels with excellent expansion and contraction properties. Increasing the cross-linker concentration markedly improved the energy that could be recovered from the hydrogels, especially at high external loads. A swollen hydrogel of 60 g could recover more than 1800 mJ when utilizing a high cross-linker concentration, and the maximum amount of energy produced per gram of polymer was 3.4 J/g. Although more energy is recovered at high cross-linking densities, the maximum amount of energy produced per gram of polymer is highest at an intermediate cross-linking concentration. Energy recovery was reduced when the salt concentration was increased for the low-concentration saline solution. The results illustrate that hydrogels are promising for salinity gradient energy recovery, and that optimizing the systems significantly increases the amount of energy that can be recovered.

  16. Development of a shear stress-free microfluidic gradient generator capable of quantitatively analyzing single-cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Barata, David; Spennati, Giulia; Correia, Cristina; Ribeiro, Nelson; Harink, Björn; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela; van Rijt, Sabine

    2017-09-07

    Microfluidics, the science of engineering fluid streams at the micrometer scale, offers unique tools for creating and controlling gradients of soluble compounds. Gradient generation can be used to recreate complex physiological microenvironments, but is also useful for screening purposes. For example, in a single experiment, adherent cells can be exposed to a range of concentrations of the compound of interest, enabling high-content analysis of cell behaviour and enhancing throughput. In this study, we present the development of a microfluidic screening platform where, by means of diffusion, gradients of soluble compounds can be generated and sustained. This platform enables the culture of adherent cells under shear stress-free conditions, and their exposure to a soluble compound in a concentration gradient-wise manner. The platform consists of five serial cell culture chambers, all coupled to two lateral fluid supply channels that are used for gradient generation through a source-sink mechanism. Furthermore, an additional inlet and outlet are used for cell seeding inside the chambers. Finite element modeling was used for the optimization of the design of the platform and for validation of the dynamics of gradient generation. Then, as a proof-of-concept, human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells were cultured inside the platform and exposed to a gradient of Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor. This set-up allowed us to analyze cell morphological changes over time, including cell area and eccentricity measurements, as a function of Cytochalasin D concentration by using fluorescence image-based cytometry.

  17. Evaluation of optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover based complete rations for efficient microbial biomass production using in vitro gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y Ramana; Kumari, N Nalini; Monika, T; Sridhar, K

    2016-06-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover (MS) based complete diets for efficient microbial biomass production (EMBP) using in vitro gas production technique. MS based complete diets with roughage to concentrate ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were formulated, and 200 mg of oven-dried sample was incubated in water bath at 39°C along with media (rumen liquor [RL] - buffer) in in vitro gas syringes to evaluate the gas production. The gas produced was recorded at 8 and 24 h of incubation. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), truly digestible organic matter (TDOM), partitioning factor (PF), and EMBP were calculated using appropriate formulae. Ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) production were analyzed in RL fluid-media mixture after 24 h of incubation. In vitro gas production (ml) at 24 h incubation, IVOMD, ME, TDOM, TVFA concentration, and ammonia nitrogen production were increased (p<0.01) in proportion to the increase in the level of concentrate in the diet. Significantly (p<0.01) higher PF and EMBP was noticed in total mixed ration with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 followed by 70:30 and 40:60. Based on the results, it was concluded that the MS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 50-60% for better microbial biomass synthesis which in turn influences the performance of growing sheep.

  18. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  19. ASCA observation of NGC 4636: Dark matter and metallicity gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Loewenstein, M.; Awaki, H.; Makishima, K.; Matsushita, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    We present our analysis of ASCA PV phase observation of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4636. Solid state imaging spectrometer (SIS) spectra in six concentric annuli centered on NGC 4636 are used to derive temperature, metallicity, and column density profiles for the hot interstellar medium. Outside of the central 3 min the temperature is roughly constant at approximately 0.85 keV, while the metallicity decreases from greater than 0.36 solar at the center to less than 0.12 solar at R approximately 9 min. The implications of this gradient for elliptical galaxy formation and the enrichment of intracluster gas are discussed. We derive a detailed mass profile consistent with the stellar velocity dispersion and with ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) and ASCA SIS X-ray temperature profiles. We find that NGC 4636 becomes dark matter dominated at roughly the de Vaucouleurs radius, and, at r approximately 100 kpc, the ratio of dark to luminous matter density is approximately 80 and solar mass/solar luminosity approximately equal to 150. Evidence for the presence of a cooling flow is also discussed.

  20. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width. PMID:28796167

  1. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-08-10

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width.

  2. Investigation of the magnetic properties of Si-gradient steel sheet by comparison with 6.5%Si steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratani, T.; Zaizen, Y.; Oda, Y.; Yoshizaki, S.; Senda, K.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the magnetic properties of Si-gradient steel sheet produced by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) siliconizing process, comparing with 6.5% Si steel sheet. The Si-gradient steel sheet having silicon concentration gradient in the thickness direction, has larger hysteresis loss and smaller eddy current loss than the 6.5% Si steel sheet. In such a loss configuration, the iron loss of the Si-gradient steel sheet becomes lower than that of the 6.5% Si steel sheet at high frequencies. The experiment suggests that tensile stress is formed at the surface layer and compressive stress is formed at the inner layer in the Si gradient steel sheet. The magnetic anisotropy is induced by the internal stress and it is considered to affect the magnetization behavior of the Si-gradient steel sheet. The small eddy current loss of Si-gradient steel sheet can be explained as an effect of magnetic flux concentration on the surface layer.

  3. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2004-06-22

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  4. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mixed microalgae consortia growth under higher concentration of CO2 from unfiltered coal fired flue gas: Fatty acid profiling and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Manzoor, Maleeha; Jabeen, Faiza; Iqbal, Munawar; Uz Zaman, Qamar; Schenk, Peer M; Asif Tahir, M

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Biodiesel fuel properties were studied and compared with biodiesel standards. Qualitative analysis of FAME was done while cultivating mixed microalgae consortia under three concentrations of coal fired flue gas (1%, 3.0% and 5.5% CO 2 ). Under 1% CO 2 concentration (flue gas), the FAME content was 280.3 μg/mL, whereas the lipid content was 14.03 μg/mL/D (day). Both FAMEs and lipid contents were low at other CO 2 concentrations (3.0 and 5.5%). However, mixed consortia in the presence of phosphate buffer and flue gas (PB + FG) showed higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) (36.28%) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (63.72%) versus 5.5% CO 2 concentration, which might be responsible for oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, higher cetane number (52) and low iodine value (136.3 gI 2 /100 g) biodiesel produced from mixed consortia (PB + FG) under 5.5% CO 2 along with 50 mM phosphate buffer were found in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard. Results revealed that phosphate buffer significantly enhanced the biodiesel quality, but reduced the FAME yield. This study intended to develop an integrated approach for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus by utilizing waste flue gas (as CO 2 source) using microalgae. The CO 2 sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduced greenhouse gases, but may also ensure the sustainable and eco-benign production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Measurement of the concentration of radon gas in the Toirano's caves (Liguria).

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Diego; Bussallino, Massimo; Castello, Gianrico; Maggiolo, Stefano; Rossi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive gas radon, intermediate term of the decay series of uranium and thorium, is the main contamination source of underground places and may be a risk for high concentration and long exposure time. European and Italian law requires radon concentration to be measured in workplaces and, if the "action level" of 500 Bq/m3 is reached, proper actions must be made in order to decrease the dose commitment. Considering natural showcaves or artificial cavities open to public, the exposition of the visitors is frequently small, due to the short residence time, but accompanying people, remaining underground for long time, may be subject to appreciable dose and the radon concentration should therefore be monitored. The high humidity in natural caves may impair the use of some measuring devices. Therefore, different detection methods were compared (ZnS scintillation counters, E-PERM electret ionisation chambers, cellulose nitrate alpha-track dosimeters) to select the best procedure for long-term investigation. The LR-115 (Kodak) alpha-track dosimeters were insensitive to humidity and permitted to monitor a great number of places at the same time. Measurements have been carried out in the speleological and archaeological site of the Toirano's Caves (Savona, Liguria, Italy) and several points were monitored for two years. Radon concentration strongly depends on the site and changes during the year, due to the difference between internal and external temperature. The maximum dose commitment during the visitors tour, considering the average yearly value of radon concentration, was found to be between 1.5 and 4 microSv. It was found that no risk exists for visitors, but the evaluation of the dose absorbed by the guides and their classification according to the radiation protection law requires a complete monitoring of the average yearly concentration of radon and of the total time spent by each worker into the cave.

  7. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  8. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  9. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Cao, Axiang; Feng, Xinbin; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Meng, Bo; Quan, Rui-Chang; Sun, Jing; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1202-1210. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. The value and limitations of global air-sampling networks for improving our understanding trace gas behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements from global surface-based air sampling networks provide a fundamental understanding of how and why concentrations of long-lived trace gases are changing over time. Results from these networks are used to quantify trace-gas concentrations and their time-dependent changes on global and smaller scales, and thus provide a means to quantify emission rates, loss frequencies, and mixing processes. Substantial advances in measurement and sampling technologies and the ability of these programs to create and maintain reliable gas standards mean that spatial concentration gradients and time-dependent changes are often very reliably measured. The presence of multiple independent networks allows an assessment of this reliability. Furthermore, recent global `snap-shot' surveys (e.g., HIPPO and ATom) and ongoing atmospheric profiling programs help us assess the ability of surface-based data to describe concentration distributions throughout most of the atmosphere ( 80% of its mass). In this overview talk, I'll explore the usefulness and limitations of existing long-term, ongoing sampling network programs and their advantages and disadvantages for characterizing concentrations on global and regional scales, and how recent advances (and short-term sampling programs) help us assess the accuracy of the surface networks to provide estimates of source and sink magnitudes, and inter-annual variability in both.

  11. Adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli to Ciprofloxacin in controlled stress environments: emergence of tolerance in spatial and temporal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J.; Sanford, R. A.; Dong, Y.; Shechtman, L. A.; Zhou, L.; Alcalde, R.; Werth, C. J.; Fouke, B. W.

    2016-12-01

    Microorganisms in nature have evolved in response to a variety of environmental stresses, including gradients of temperature, pH, substrate availability and aqueous chemistry. While environmental stresses are considered to be the driving forces of adaptive evolution, the impact and extent of any specific stress needed to drive such changes has not been well characterized. In this study, the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin was used as a stressor and systematically applied to E. coli st. 307 cells via a spatial gradient in a microfluidic pore network and a temporal gradient in batch cultures. The microfluidic device facilitated in vitro real-time tracking of bacterial abundances and dynamic spatial distributions in response to the gradients of both the antibiotic and nutrients. Cells collected from the microfluidic device showed growth on plates containing up to 10-times the original minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). In batch systems, Ciprofloxacin was used to evaluate adaptive responses via temporal gradients, in which the stressor concentration was incrementally increased over time with each transfer of the culture after 24 hours of growth. Responses of E. coli 307 to these stress patterns were measured by quantifying changes in the MIC for Ciprofloxacin. Over a period of 18 days of step-wise concentration increments, bacterial cells were observed to acquire tolerance gradually and eventually adapt to a 28-fold increase in the original MIC. Samples at different stages within the temporal Ciprofloxacin gradient treatment show different extents of resistance. All samples exhibited resistance exceeding the highest exposure stress concentration. In combination with the spatial and temporal gradient systems, this work provides the first comprehensive measure of the dynamic resistance of E. coli in response to Ciprofloxacin concentration gradients. These will provide invaluable insights to understand the effects of antibiotic stresses on bacterial adaptive evolution in

  12. Distributions and fate of chlorinated pesticides, biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments along a contamination gradient from a point-source in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution and fate of chlorinated pesticides, biomarkers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surficial sediments along a contamination gradient in the Lauritzen Canal and Richmond Harbor in San Francisco Bay was investigated. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Biomarkers and PAHs were derived primarily from weathered petroleum. DDT was reductively dechlorinated under anoxic conditions to DDD and several minor degradation products, DDMU, DDMS, and DDNU. Under aerobic conditions, DDT was dehydrochlorinated to DDE and DBP. Aerobic degradation of DDT was diminished or inhibited in zones of high concentration, and increased significantly in zones of lower concentration: Other chlorinated pesticides identified in sediment included dieldrin and chlordane isomers. Multivariate analysis of the distributions of the DDTs suggested that there are probably two sources of DDD. In addition, DDE and DDMU are probably formed by similar mechanisms, i.e. dehydrochlorination. A steep concentration gradient existed from the Canal to the Outer Richmond Harbor, but higher levels of DDD than those found in the remainder of the Bay indicated that these contaminants are transported on particulates and colloidal organic matter from this source into San Francisco Bay. Chlorinated pesticides and PAHs may pose a potential problem to biota in San Francisco Bay.

  13. MASSIV: Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. III. Evidence for positive metallicity gradients in z ~ 1.2 star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queyrel, J.; Contini, T.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Moultaka, J.; Paioro, L.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Perez-Montero, E.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The estimate of radial abundance gradients in high-redshift galaxies allows to constrain their star formation history and their interplay with the surrounding intergalactic medium. Methods: We present VLT/SINFONI integral-field spectroscopy of a first sample of 50 galaxies at z ~ 1.2 in the MASSIV survey. Using the N2 ratio between the [N ii]6584 and Hα rest-frame optical emission lines as a proxy for oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium, we measured the metallicity of the sample galaxies. We developed a tool to extract spectra in annular regions, leading to a spatially resolved estimate of the oxygen abundance in each galaxy. We were able to derive a metallicity gradient for 26 galaxies in our sample and discovered a significant fraction of galaxies with a "positive" gradient. Using a simple chemical evolution model, we derived infall rates of pristine gas onto the disks. Results: Seven galaxies display a positive gradient at a high confidence level. Four out of these are interacting, and one is a chain galaxy. We suggest that interactions might be responsible for shallowing and even inverting the abundance gradient. We also identify two interesting correlations in our sample: a) galaxies with higher gas velocity dispersion have shallower/positive gradients; and b) metal-poor galaxies tend to show a positive gradient, whereas metal-rich ones tend to show a negative one. This last observation can be explained by the infall of metal-poor gas into the center of the disks. We address the question of the origin of this infall under the influence of gas flows triggered by interactions and/or cold gas accretion. All the data published in this paper are publicly available at the time of publication following this link: http://cosmosdb.lambrate.inaf.it/VVDS-SINFONI. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very

  14. Collective gradient sensing and chemotaxis: modeling and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian A.

    2018-06-01

    Cells measure a vast variety of signals, from their environment’s stiffness to chemical concentrations and gradients; physical principles strongly limit how accurately they can do this. However, when many cells work together, they can cooperate to exceed the accuracy of any single cell. In this topical review, I will discuss the experimental evidence showing that cells collectively sense gradients of many signal types, and the models and physical principles involved. I also propose new routes by which experiments and theory can expand our understanding of these problems.

  15. Daily variation of radon gas and its short-lived progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its short-lived progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The short-lived 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its short-lived progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).

  16. Color gradients in cooling flow cluster central galaxies and the ionization of cluster emission line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are given for a program to measure color gradients in the central galaxies in clusters with a variety of cooling flow rates. The objectives are to search for extended blue continuum regions indicative of star formation, to study the spatial distribution of star formation, and to make a quantitative measure of the amount of light from young stars, which can lead to a measure of the star formation rate (for an assumed initial mass function). Four clusters with large masses and large cluster H-alpha emission fluxes are found to have an excess of blue light concentrated to the centers of the cluster central galaxy. Assumption of a disk IMF leads to the conclusion that the starlight might play a major role in ionizing the emission line gas in these clusters.

  17. Bifurcation of potential vorticity gradients across the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Jonathan; Bodeker, Greg; Cameron, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The wintertime stratospheric westerly winds circling the Antarctic continent, also known as the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex, create a barrier to mixing of air between middle and high latitudes. This dynamical isolation has important consequences for export of ozone-depleted air from the Antarctic stratosphere to lower latitudes. The prevailing view of this dynamical barrier has been an annulus compromising steep gradients of potential vorticity (PV) that create a single semi-permeable barrier to mixing. Analyses presented here show that this barrier often displays a bifurcated structure where a double-walled barrier exists. The bifurcated structure manifests as enhanced gradients of PV at two distinct latitudes - usually on the inside and outside flanks of the region of highest wind speed. Metrics that quantify the bifurcated nature of the vortex have been developed and their variation in space and time has been analysed. At most isentropic levels between 395 and 850 K, bifurcation is strongest in mid-winter and decreases dramatically during spring. From August onwards a distinct structure emerges, where elevated bifurcation remains between 475 and 600 K, and a mostly single-walled barrier occurs at other levels. While bifurcation at a given level evolves from month to month, and does not always persist through a season, interannual variations in the strength of bifurcation display coherence across multiple levels in any given month. Accounting for bifurcation allows the region of reduced mixing to be better characterised. These results suggest that improved understanding of cross-vortex mixing requires consideration of the polar vortex not as a single mixing barrier but as a barrier with internal structure that is likely to manifest as more complex gradients in trace gas concentrations across the vortex barrier region.

  18. Long-term stability measurements of low concentration Volatile Organic Compound gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Nick; Amico di Meane, Elena; Brewer, Paul; Ferracci, Valerio; Corbel, Marivon; Worton, David

    2017-04-01

    VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are a class of compounds with significant influence on the atmosphere due to their large anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. VOC emissions have a significant impact on the atmospheric hydroxyl budget and nitrogen reservoir species, while also contributing indirectly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol. However, the global budget of many of these species are poorly constrained. Moreover, the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) have set challenging data quality objectives for atmospheric monitoring programmes for these classes of traceable VOCs, despite the lack of available stable gas standards. The Key-VOCs Joint Research Project is an ongoing three-year collaboration with the aim of improving the measurement infrastructure of important atmospheric VOCs by providing traceable and comparable reference gas standards and by validating new measurement systems in support of the air monitoring networks. It focuses on VOC compounds that are regulated by European legislation, that are relevant for indoor air monitoring and for air quality and climate monitoring programmes like the VOC programme established by the WMO GAW and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). These VOCs include formaldehyde, oxy[genated]-VOCs (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and terpenes (a-pinene, 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and R-limonene). Here we present the results of a novel long term stability study for low concentration formaldehyde, oxy-VOC and terpenes gas mixtures produced by the Key-VOCs consortium with discussion regarding the implementation of improved preparation techniques and the use of novel cylinder passivation chemistries to guarantee mixture stability.

  19. Quantifying Dynamic Changes in Plantar Pressure Gradient in Diabetics with Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lung, Chi-Wen; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Burns, Stephanie; Lin, Fang; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Peak plantar pressure (PPP) and peak pressure gradient (PPG) during walking have been shown to be associated with the development of diabetic foot ulcers. To gain further insight into the mechanical etiology of diabetic foot ulcers, examination of the pressure gradient angle (PGA) has been recently proposed. The PGA quantifies directional variation or orientation of the pressure gradient during walking and provides a measure of whether pressure gradient patterns are concentrated or dispersed along the plantar surface. We hypothesized that diabetics at risk of foot ulceration would have smaller PGA in key plantar regions, suggesting less movement of the pressure gradient over time. A total of 27 participants were studied, including 19 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 non-diabetic control subjects. A foot pressure measurement system was used to measure plantar pressures during walking. PPP, PPG, and PGA were calculated for four foot regions - first toe (T1), first metatarsal head (M1), second metatarsal head (M2), and heel (HL). Consistent with prior studies, PPP and PPG were significantly larger in the diabetic group compared with non-diabetic controls in the T1 and M1 regions, but not M2 or HL. For example, PPP was 165% (P = 0.02) and PPG was 214% (P < 0.001) larger in T1. PGA was found to be significantly smaller in the diabetic group in T1 (46%, P = 0.04), suggesting a more concentrated pressure gradient pattern under the toe. The proposed PGA may improve our understanding of the role of pressure gradient on the risk of diabetic foot ulcers.

  20. Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S

    2004-01-01

    MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Magnetophoresis of iron oxide nanoparticles at low field gradient: the role of shape anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jitkang; Yeap, Swee Pin; Leow, Chee Hoe; Toh, Pey Yi; Low, Siew Chun

    2014-05-01

    Magnetophoresis of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (IOMNP) under low magnetic field gradient (<100 T/m) is significantly enhanced by particle shape anisotropy. This unique feature of magnetophoresis is influenced by the particle concentration and applied magnetic field gradient. By comparing the nanosphere and nanorod magnetophoresis at different concentration, we revealed the ability for these two species of particles to achieve the same separation rate by adjusting the field gradient. Under cooperative magnetophoresis, the nanorods would first go through self- and magnetic field induced aggregation followed by the alignment of the particle clusters formed with magnetic field. Time scale associated to these two processes is investigated to understand the kinetic behavior of nanorod separation under low field gradient. Surface functionalization of nanoparticles can be employed as an effective strategy to vary the temporal evolution of these two aggregation processes which subsequently influence the magnetophoretic separation time and rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous species concentration and temperature measurements using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with direct spectrum matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, Brendan J.

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to simultaneously measure hydrocarbon fuel concentration and temperature in high temperature, high speed, compressible, and reacting flows, a regime in which LIBS has not been done previously. Emission spectra from the plasma produced from a focused laser pulse is correlated in the combustion region of a model scramjet operating in supersonic wind tunnel. A 532 nm Nd:YAG laser operating at 10 Hz is used to induce break-down. The emissions are captured during a 10 ns gate time approximately 75 ns after the first arrival of photons at the measurement location in order to minimize the measurement uncertainty in the turbulent, compressible, high-speed, and reacting environment. Three methods of emission detection are used and a new backward scattering direction method is developed that is beneficial in reducing the amount of optical access needed to perform LIBS measurements. Measurements are taken in the model supersonic combustion and the ignition process is shown to be highly dependent on fuel concentration and gas density as well as combustion surface temperature, concentration gradient, and flow field. Direct spectrum matching method is developed and used for quantitative measurements. In addition, a comprehensive database of spectra covering the fuel concentrations and gas densities found in the wind tunnel of Research Cell 19 at Wright Patterson Air Force Base is created which can be used for further work.

  3. Gas exchange kinetics following concentric-eccentric isokinetic arm and leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Drescher, U; Mookerjee, S; Steegmanns, A; Knicker, A; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise velocity (60, 150, 240deg∙s -1 ) and muscle mass (arm vs leg) on changes in gas exchange and arterio-venous oxygen content difference (avDO 2 ) following high-intensity concentric-eccentric isokinetic exercise. Fourteen subjects (26.9±3.1years) performed a 3×20-repetition isokinetic exercise protocol. Recovery beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO) and breath-by-breath gas exchange were recorded to determine post-exercise half-time (t 1/2 ) for oxygen uptake (V˙O 2 pulm), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO 2 pulm), and ventilation (V˙ E ). Significant differences of the t 1/2 values were identified between 60 and 150deg∙s -1 . Significant differences in the t 1/2 values were observed between V˙O 2 pulm and V˙CO 2 pulm and between V˙CO 2 pulm and V˙ E . The time to attain the first avDO 2 -peak showed significant differences between arm and leg exercise. The present study illustrates, that V˙O 2 pulm kinetics are distorted due to non-linear CO dynamics. Therefore, it has to be taken into account, that V˙O 2 pulm may not be a valuable surrogate for muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in the recovery phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Projected changes of the southwest Australian wave climate under two atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandres, Moritz; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Hemer, Mark A.

    2017-09-01

    Incident wave energy flux is responsible for sediment transport and coastal erosion in wave-dominated regions such as the southwestern Australian (SWA) coastal zone. To evaluate future wave climates under increased greenhouse gas concentration scenarios, past studies have forced global wave simulations with wind data sourced from global climate model (GCM) simulations. However, due to the generally coarse spatial resolution of global climate and wave simulations, the effects of changing offshore wave conditions and sea level rise on the nearshore wave climate are still relatively unknown. To address this gap of knowledge, we investigated the projected SWA offshore, shelf, and nearshore wave climate under two potential future greenhouse gas concentration trajectories (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). This was achieved by downscaling an ensemble of global wave simulations, forced with winds from GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5), into two regional domains, using the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model. The wave climate is modeled for a historical 20-year time slice (1986-2005) and a projected future 20-year time-slice (2081-2100) for both scenarios. Furthermore, we compare these scenarios to the effects of considering sea-level rise (SLR) alone (stationary wave climate), and to the effects of combined SLR and projected wind-wave change. Results indicated that the SWA shelf and nearshore wave climate is more sensitive to changes in offshore mean wave direction than offshore wave heights. Nearshore, wave energy flux was projected to increase by ∼10% in exposed areas and decrease by ∼10% in sheltered areas under both climate scenarios due to a change in wave directions, compared to an overall increase of 2-4% in offshore wave heights. With SLR, the annual mean wave energy flux was projected to increase by up to 20% in shallow water (< 30 m) as a result of decreased wave dissipation. In winter

  5. Experimental generation and computational modeling of intracellular pH gradient