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Sample records for gas desulfurization technology

  1. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  2. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H2S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H2S followed by direct oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out.

  3. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  4. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  5. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2H{sub 2}S {yields} 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O; Regeneration: 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 3O{sub 2} {yields} Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2SO{sub 2} The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  6. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  7. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey W. Portzer; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs.

  8. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

  9. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. The goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP) technologies by (1) scaling up the zinc titanate reactor system; (2) developing an integrated skid-mounted zinc titanate desulfurization-DSRP reactor system; (3) testing the integrated system over an extended period with real coal-gas from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradative effect, if any, of the trace contaminants present in coal gas; (4) developing an engineering database suitable for system scaleup; and (5) designing, fabricating and commissioning a larger DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold greater volume of gas than the DSRP reactor used in the bench-scale field test. The work performed during the October 1 through December 31, 1995 is described.

  10. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents which can reduce the sulfur in coal gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. This report summarizes the highlights and accomplishments of the October slipstream test run of the Zinc Titanate Fluid Bed Desulfurization/Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (ZTFBD/DSRP) Mobile Laboratory at the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Although the run had to be shortened due to mechanical problems with METC`s gasifier, there was sufficient on-stream time to demonstrate highly successful operation of both the zinc titanate fluid bed desulfurization and the DSRP with actual coal gas.

  11. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  12. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Favorable results were achieved in the sulfidation of CeO{sub 2} by H{sub 2}S and the regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S by SO{sub 2}. Successful removal of approximately 99% of the H{sub 2}S from the sulfidation gas to levels of about 100 ppmv (or lower), and the production of approximately 12% elemental sulfur (as S{sub 2}) in the regeneration product gas were highlights. Final effort in the preliminary phase included a ten-cycle test at standard sulfidation and regeneration conditions with little or no sorbent deterioration. In the initial test of the detailed experimental phase of the program, the authors investigated the effect of temperature on the regeneration reaction. Results of preliminary tests showed that the Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} reaction did not occur at 350 C, and all subsequent regeneration tests were at 600 C where the reaction was rapid. Significant progress has been made on the process analysis effort during the quarter. Detailed process flow diagrams along with material and energy balance calculations for six design case studies were completed in the previous quarter. Two of the cases involved two-stage desulfurization with steam regeneration, three used two-stage desulfurization with SO{sub 2} regeneration, and the sixth was based on single-stage desulfurization with elemental sulfur recovery using the DSRP concept. In the present quarter, major process equipment was sized for each of the six cases. Preliminary annual operating and levelized total cost estimates were then completed for two design cases--one involving two-stage desulfurization with SO{sub 2} regeneration and the second based on single-stage desulfurization with DSRP.

  13. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose is to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents which can reduce the sulfur in coal gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently the leading sorbent. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration, and all three types of reactors are slated for demonstration in the DOE Clean Coal Technology program. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  14. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with DOE/METC sponsorship has been developing zinc titanate sorbent technology since 1986. In addition, RTI has been developing the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) with DOE/METC sponsorship since 1988. Fluidized-bed zinc titanate desulfurization coupled to the DSRP is currently the most advanced and attractive technology for sulfur removal/recovery for IGCC systems, and it has recently been proposed in a Clean Coal Technology project. The goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by: scaling up the zinc titanate reactor system; developing an integrated skid-mounted zinc titanate desulfurization-DSRP reactor system; testing the integrated system over an extended period with real coal-gas from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradative effect, if any, of the trace contaminants present in coal gas; developing an engineering database suitable for system scaleup; and designing, fabricating and commissioning a larger DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold greater volume of gas than the DSRP reactor used in the bench-scale field test. During this reporting period the Construction Permit Application was completed and approved by the Process Safety Committee, and a final revised Application has been submitted to DOE/METC. A draft Test Plan for the field test was formulated. Finally, progress was made in the reactor system fabrication with the submission of purchase orders for nearly all major equipment, and with the final design of the trailer (mobile laboratory).

  15. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W.; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  16. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 1, Feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; White, J.; Groves, F.R.; Harrison, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This topical report de-scribes the results of Phase 1 research performed during the first six months of a three-year contract to study the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Much effort has gone into the development of a high-temperature meal oxide sorbent process for removal of H{sub 2}S from the coal gas. A number of sorbents based upon metals such as zinc, iron, manganese and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is preferable. The overall objective of the current research is to study simpler and economically superior processing of known sorbents capable of producing elemental sulfur during regeneration. This topical report summarizes the first steps of this effort. A literature search has been completed to identify possible regeneration concepts and to collect relevant thermodynamic, kinetic, and process data. Three concepts involving reaction with SO{sub 2}, partial oxidation using an O{sub 2} {minus} H{sub 2}O mixture, and steam regeneration have been identified. The first two concepts result in the direct production of elemental sulfur while H{sub 2}S is the product of steam regeneration. This concept is of potential interest, however, since existing Claus technology can be used to convert H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. Following the literature search, a thermodynamic analysis, based upon free-energy minimization was carried out to evaluate candidate sorbents for possible use with the three regeneration concepts.

  17. Hot Gas Desulfurization Using Transport Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moorehead, E.L.

    1996-12-31

    Sierra Pacific Power Company is building a 100 MW, IGCC power plant based on KRW fluid bed gasifier technology that utilizes transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Use of a transport absorber avoids the need for pre-filtration of dust-laden gasifier effluent, while a transport regenerator allows for the use of 100% air without the need for heat exchange equipment. Selection of transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization using a proprietary sorbent, based on testing performed in a transport reactor test unit (TRTU) at the M. W. Kellogg Technology Development Center and in a fixed bed reactor at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is outlined. The results obtained in these two test facilities and reasons for selecting transport reactors for the IGCC power plant in preference to either fixed bed or fluidized bed reactors are discussed. This paper reviews the evolution of the hot gas desulfurization system designs and includes selected results on H{sub 2}S absorption and regeneration of sulfided sorbent over several absorption/regeneration cycles conducted in the TRTU and the METC fixed bed reactor. The original design for the Sierra Pacific Project was based on fixed bed reactors with zinc ferrite as the sorbent. Owing to the high steam requirements of this sorbent, zinc titanate was selected and tested in a fixed bed reactor and was found unacceptable due to loss of strength on cyclic absorption/regeneration operation. Another sorbent evaluated was Z-Sorb{reg_sign}, a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company, was found to have excellent sulfur capacity, structural strength and regenerability. Steam was found unsuitable as fixed bed regenerator diluent, this results in a requirement for a large amount of inert gas, whereas a transport regenerator requires no diluent. The final Sierra design features transport reactors for both desulfurization and regeneration steps using neat air. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-08-05

    The method of reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel is described. The method comprises: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide slaked with an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, the sorbent being added in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium and the solubilizing agent selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas a humidifying agent selected from water and steam; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from addition of the sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 30/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion in a combustion zone of a sulfur-containing fuel, which method comprises: (a) injecting into the combustion zone a finely divided dry sorbent comprising calcium carbonate in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5:1; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas at a point where the flue gas has a temperature of between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/C. an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from drying of the droplets and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (c) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/C. and about 35/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-07-15

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of a sulfur-containing fuel. The method consists of: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt: sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the sorbent in flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids comprising sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 35/sup 0/ C. above its saturation temperature.

  3. Fuel gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-Shing

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Confined zone dispersion low-NO sub x flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a project selected for funding under the US Clean Coal Technology Program. This project will demonstrate the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a utility coal-fired boiler retrofitted with the confined zone dispersion-flue gas desulfurization (CZD-FGD) process. In the CZD-FGD process, a finely atomized slurry of a highly reactive pressure hydrated dolomitic lime is sprayed into the flue gas stream between the boiler air heater(s) and the particulate collection equipment. The lime slurry is injected into the center of the duct and the type and position of the spray nozzles are designed to produce a cone of fine spray. As the cone of spray moves nozzles are designed to produce a cone of fine spray. As the cone of spray moves downstream and expands, the gas within the cone cools and the SO{sub 2} is rapidly absorbed by the liquid droplets. This fast drying time precludes wet particle build-up in the duct and allows carry-over of the dry reaction products and the unreacted lime in the flue gas, which will be removed by the particulate collection equipment. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  7. METC hot gas desulfurization program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, D.C.

    1994-10-01

    This overview provides a frame of reference for the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`S) on-going hot gas desulfurization research. Although there are several methods to separate contaminant gases from fuel gases, that method receiving primary development is absorption through the use of metal oxides. Research into high-temperature and high-pressure control of sulfur species includes primarily those sorbents made of mixed-metal oxides, which offer the advantages of regenerability. These are predominantly composed of zinc and are made into media that can be utilized in reactors of either fixed-bed, moving-bed, fluidized-bed, or transport configurations. Zinc Ferrite (ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), Zinc Titanate (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}), Z-SORP{reg_sign}, and METC-2/METC-6 are the current mixed-metal sorbents being investigated. The METC desulfurization program is composed of three major components: bench-scale research, pilot-plant operation, and demonstration that is a portion of the Clean Coal Demonstration projects.

  8. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  9. Process for desulfurizing an exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinoda, N.; Okino, S.; Oshima, M.; Shigeta, S.; Tatani, A.; Ukawa, N.

    1983-12-13

    A process is disclosed for desulfurizing an exhaust gas which comprises desulfurizing an exhaust gas containing SO/sub 2/ by bringing it into contact with a slurry containing calcium compounds and aluminum compounds, characterized in that the concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion in said slurry is detected and a manganese compound is supplied into said slurry in such a manner that the ratio of the concentration of manganese (including both solid and liquid) to said concentration of the dissolved aluminum ion may be maintained in a molar ratio of less than 1 in said slurry.

  10. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of this research project is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of known high temperature desulfurization sorbents. The contract was awarded to LSU on April 12, 1994, and this quarterly report covers accomplishments during the first 2 1/2 months of the project. Effort during the initial 2 1/2 month period has been limited to Tasks 1 and 2, and involves a search of the literature to identify concepts for producing elemental sulfur during regeneration of known metal oxide sorbents and a thermodynamic evaluation of these concepts. While searching and evaluating the literature is a continuing process, concentrated effort on that phase is now complete and a detailed summary is included in this report. Three possible concepts for the direct production of elemental sulfur were identified in the LSU proposal, and the literature search has not uncovered any additional concepts. Thus, the three concepts being investigated involve: (1) regeneration with SO{sub 2}, (2) regeneration with mixtures Of 02 and H{sub 2}O, and (3) regeneration with H{sub 2}O. While concept (3) directly produces H{sub 2}S instead of elemental sulfur, the concept is included because the possibility exists for converting H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. Each of the concepts will ultimately be compared to the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) under development by RTI. DSRP involves initial sorbent regeneration to SO{sub 2}, and the inclusion of additional processing steps to reduce the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  12. Gas suspension absorption demonstrated for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of gas suspension absorption (GSA), a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology developed in Europe, has been conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Center for Emissions Research (NCER) in Paducah, Kentucky. The technology was developed by the Danish company FLS miljo a/s. GSA is an attractive FGD candidate technology because, unlike conventional wet scrubbing, GSA requires no chemical analyses as part of its routine operation and maintenance. The 10-MW GSA demonstration plant was constructed by AirPol, Inc. (Teterboro, New Jersey), a U.S. subsidiary of FLS miljo a/s. The project was partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its clean coal technology program. GSA technology and results of the demonstration project are discussed in this paper in brief. The factorial tests conducted on the GSA demonstration plant at NCER showed that, using a modest Ca/S ratio, the system can achieve high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, low particulate emissions, and a low-moisture solid waste by-product. 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  14. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  15. Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents for relatively low temperature application that show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 {degrees}C. A number of zinc-based formulations will be prepared and screened for testing in a fixed-bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel gases. One of the superior formulations will be tested for long- term durability and chemical reactivity in the reactor. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives will be investigated, which would promote a lower regeneration temperature.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  20. Limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Kanda, O.; Nishimura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Nozawa, S.

    1984-12-11

    A flue gas desulfurization process capable of producing a high purity gypsum and also making equipment employed as minimum as possible is provided, which process comprises the steps of cooling and dedusting flue gas containing SO /SUB x/ ; contacting the cooled gas with a slurry containing limestone to remove SO /SUB x/ by absorption and also form CaSO/sub 3/; controlling the pH of the resulting slurry and then blowing air therein to form gypsum; and separating gypsum from the resulting slurry. As a modification of the above process, the slurry of the above second absorption step is further fed to the above first cooling step where unreacted limestone and SO /SUB x/ are reacted to form CaSO/sub 3/.

  1. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  3. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit full desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that may be exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S are constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time is determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations (<{approx}10 ppmv) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, have been obtained. Much of the work during year 02 consisted of

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit full testing in our desulfurization reactor. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that may be exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S are constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time is determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations ({approx}< 10 ppmv) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, have been obtained. Characterization and desulfurization

  5. Method for operating a flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, R.; Weinzierl, K.

    1983-02-01

    A method of operating a flue gas desulfurization with a steam power plant heated with fossil fuels. The sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas is removed in a wash tower by means of an excess of milk of lime or limestone, and the resulting sulfite is oxidized with air at a low ph-value into calcium sulfate. The non-converted milk of lime or limestone is neutralized at least partially by an addition of acid waste waters from a complete desalination plant for the supply water, and/or by an addition of acid condensate from the flue or chimney of the steam power plant. An installation for carrying out the method of the present invention includes a wash tower having flue gas flowing therethrough, an oxidation tower having air flowing therethrough, milk of lime or limestone supply into the wash tower, and a delivery device for the wash liquid in the wash tower and in the oxidation tower, with the device having a pump for liquid drawn off from the sump of the wash tower. The sump of the wash tower is connected with a supply line for acid waste water from a complete desalination plant, and/or with a supply line for acid condensate from the chimney or flue of the steam power plant.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  7. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  8. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Chen, L.; Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

  9. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    Twenty-five reduction/sulfidation tests plus one sulfidation/regeneration test were completed during the quarter. The reduction/sulfidation tests examined the behavior of six cerium oxide sorbents from different sources with reaction variables of temperature, pressure, gas composition and flow rate. Most significantly, steam was added to the sulfidation feed gas for the first time. Tests using pre-reduced sorbents and tests in which reduction and sulfidation occurred simultaneously were performed. Prebreakthrough H{sub 2}S concentrations less than 10 ppmv were obtained over a range of reaction conditions with prebreakthrough concentrations as low as 1 ppmv achieved at the most favorable conditions. The general response to reaction variables was as expected except when feed rate was varied. In some of these cases the FPD breakthrough time did not correspond to expectation. The single regeneration run was conducted at 600 C and 2 atm using 12% SO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at a feet rate of 400 sccm. This was the first regeneration test at other than 1 atm pressure; favorable results were obtained. The only experimental objective remaining is additional high pressure regeneration testing.

  10. IHI in-line type flue gas desulfurization system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, F.; Kanamori, A.; Fujino, Y.

    1995-06-01

    Desulfurization systems are indispensable for reducing air pollution caused by flue gas from power plants. It is essential that the cost for constructing and operating such systems is low. IHI has developed such a system based on its expertise gathered over the years. The test results and outline of the system are presented in this paper.

  11. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  12. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  13. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  14. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  15. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1995-10-01

    Both the Antek total sulfur analyzer and the modifications to the Shimadzu GC-14A gas chromatograph to be used for analysis for SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were delivered during the quarter. Problems were faced during the installation and calibration phases of both instruments. By the end of the quarter we believe that the GC problems have been solved, but problems remain with the Antek analyzer. It appears that too much sulfur (as SO{sub 2}) reaches the UV detector and causes it to become saturated. This shows up as a maximum in the instrument calibration curve. At 200 psia, the capillary flow restrictor allows a total flow rate of about 180 sccm, and the maximum occurs at about 1 % H{sub 2}S in the calibration gas. Reducing the pressure so that the total flow is reduced to about 25 sccm shifts the calibration curve maximum to about 5.7% H{sub 2}S. It appears that we must reduce the total flow rate to the detector or provide additional dilution. This may be accomplished by increasing the resistance of the capillary restrictor, by diverting a portion of the flow leaving the pyrotube to vent, or adding an inert such as N{sub 2} to the gases exiting the pyrotube. We are in contact with Antek representatives about the problem. Both the atmospheric pressure and high pressure electrobalances were used during the quarter to study the regeneration of FeS in atmospheres of O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}. In the atmospheric pressure unit the effects of temperature (600 - 800{degrees}C), flow rate (130 - 500 sccm), and reactive gas mol fraction (0.005 to 0.03 O{sub 2} and 0.1 to 0.5 H{sub 2}O) are being studied. Regeneration tests completed to date in the high pressure unit have utilized only O{sub 2}/N. and the parameters studied include temperature (600 - 800{degrees}C), flow rate (500 - 1000 sccm), pressure (1 - 15 atm) ad O{sub 2} mol fraction (0.005 - 0.03).

  16. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report 14, July--October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1997-10-01

    Experimental work during the quarter was limited to a series of CeO{sub 2} reduction tests using an atmospheric pressure electrobalance reactor. Both Rhonc-Poulenc and Molycorp CeO{sub 2} were tested over a temperature range of 600 to 1000{degrees}C in various reducing gas compositions. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with equilibrium calculations of the oxygen partial pressure from CHEMQ coupled with earlier experimental results from Bevan and Kordis. Weight loss corresponding to the reduction of CeO{sub 2} to CeO{sub 1.86} was observed at 1000{degrees} in an atmosphere of 40% H{sub 2}, 3.5% CO{sub 2}, balance He. Helium was used as the carrier gas instead of nitrogen to reduce aerodynamic noise, and the H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations were chosen since this mixture results in oxygen partial pressure similar to those expected in Shell gas. The experimental value of CeO{sub 1.86} compares quite favorably to the predicted value of CeO{sub 1.83}. One unexpected results was a weight loss of about 9% from Rhone-Poulenc CeO{sub 2} in an inert atmosphere at 600{degrees}C. BET surface area measurements of nine samples were performed consisting of as-received CeO{sub 2} (both Rhone Poulenc and Molycorp), as-received Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, both CeO{sub 2} samples with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as initially charged to the reactor, and both CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixtures after multicycle sulfidation-regeneration tests. The BET surface area of the Rhone-Poulenc CeO{sub 2} was about 20 times larger than the surface area of Molycorp CeO{sub 2} which explains differences in sulfidation performance reported earlier. Finally a more complete search of the literature for thermodynamic data for cerium compounds was carried out. It appears that the free energy of formation of CeO{sub 2} as a function of temperature is well defined.

  17. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  18. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  19. Unusual chemical compounds in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems continue to have deposits formed on internal surfaces of the materials of which the FGD systems are fabricated. These compounds contribute to crevice corrosion of the alloys of which some of the FGD systems are made. In the process of performing the failure analysis of the FGD fabrication materials, new compounds were discovered. This paper discusses two corrosion failure analysis case histories and the new compounds that were discovered and the chemical environment in which they were discovered.

  20. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  1. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT N-93 September 1980 ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) PROCESSES FOR POTENTIAL USE ON ARMY COAL-FIRED BOILERS TECHNICAL LIBRARY...REFERENCE: Technical Report N-93, Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Ppooesses for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers Please take a few...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER CERL-TR-N-93 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO «. TITLE (end Subtitle) ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD

  2. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  3. Spray tower: the workhorse of flue-gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, A.

    1980-10-01

    A recently developed spray tower system for use in a utility flue gas desulfurization system is simple, durable, and capable of achieving very high sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies, possibly approaching 100%. The principles behind the design and operation of the spray tower are discussed. The quality of water used for washing, tower size limitations, construction materials liquid distribution, gas-inlet design, gas distribution, mass transfer, and operating characteristics are examined. Procedures to maintain the reliability and high performance of the spray tower are described. (5 diagrams, 5 photos, 12 references, 1 table)

  4. METC`s pilot-scale hot-gas desulfurization Process Development Unit

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.H.; Bissett, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    801The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has designed and is currently constructing an on-site, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) Process Development Unit (PDU). The PDU is designed to use regenerable solid metal oxide sorbents that absorb hydrogen sulfide from high-temperature, high-pressure simulated coal-gasification fuel gas that is generated by a METC-designed syngas generator. The simulated coal gas is a mixture of partially combusted natural gas, water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. PDU process conditions will be representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling. The PDU supports the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) mission at METC by providing a test bed for development of IGCC cleanup systems that offer low capital cost, operating costs, and costs of electricity. METC intends to develop additional industrial involvement opportunities as the project progresses towards operations. Objectives The primary objectives of the PDU are to: (1) fill the gap between small-scale testing and large-scale demonstration projects by providing a cost effective test site for transport and fluid-bed desulfurization reactor and sorbent development, (2) demonstrate sorbent suitability over a wide range of parameters and (3) generate significant information on process control for transport and fluidized bed based desulfurization. PDU data is expected to be used to optimize process performance by expanding the experience for larger-scale demonstration projects, such as Sierra Pacific Power Company`s Clean Coal Technology project.

  5. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  6. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment.

  7. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  8. The mechanism of coal gas desulfurization by iron oxide sorbents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Chiao; Chu, Hsin

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to understand the roles of hydrogen and carbon monoxide during the desulfurization process in a coal gasification system that H2S of the syngas was removed by Fe2O3/SiO2 sorbents. The Fe2O3/SiO2 sorbents were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. Through the breakthrough experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, the overall desulfurization mechanism of the Fe2O3/SiO2 sorbents was proposed in this study. The results show that the major reaction route is that Fe2O3 reacts with H2S to form FeS, and the existence of CO and H2 in the simulated gas significantly affects equilibrium concentrations of H2S and COS. The formation of COS occurs when the feeding gas is blended with CO and H2S, or CO2 and H2S. The pathways in the formation of products from the desulfurization process by the reaction of Fe2O3 with H2S have been successfully established.

  9. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  10. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Jozewicz, W

    2001-12-01

    Coal-fired electricity-generating plants may use SO2 scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of Hg and other emissions from combustion sources. It is timely, therefore, to examine the current status of SO2 scrubbing technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies for coal-fired boilers. Data on worldwide FGD applications reveal that wet FGD technologies, and specifically wet limestone FGD, have been predominantly selected over other FGD technologies. However, lime spray drying (LSD) is being used at the majority of the plants employing dry FGD technologies. Additional review of the U.S. FGD technology applications that began operation in 1991 through 1995 reveals that FGD processes of choice recently in the United States have been wet limestone FGD, magnesium-enhanced lime (MEL), and LSD. Further, of the wet limestone processes, limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) has been used most often in recent applications. The SO2 removal performance of scrubbers has been reviewed. Data reflect that most wet limestone and LSD installations appear to be capable of approximately 90% SO2 removal. Advanced, state-of-the-art wet scrubbers can provide SO2 removal in excess of 95%. Costs associated with state-of-the-art applications of LSFO, MEL, and LSD technologies have been analyzed with appropriate cost models. Analyses indicate that the capital cost of an LSD system is lower than those of same capacity LSFO and MEL systems, reflective of the relatively less complex hardware used in LSD. Analyses also reflect that, based on total annualized cost and SO2 removal requirements: (1) plants up to approximately 250 MWe in size and firing low- to medium-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur content of 2% or lower) may use LSD; and (2) plants larger than 250 MWe and firing medium- to high-sulfur coals (i

  12. Flue Gas Desulfurization: The State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Jozewicz, W

    2001-12-01

    Coal-fired electricity-generating plants may use SO2 scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of Hg and other emissions from combustion sources. It is timely, therefore, to examine the current status of SO2 scrubbing technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies for coal-fired boilers. Data on worldwide FGD applications reveal that wet FGD technologies, and specifically wet limestone FGD, have been predominantly selected over other FGD technologies. However, lime spray drying (LSD) is being used at the majority of the plants employing dry FGD technologies. Additional review of the U.S. FGD technology applications that began operation in 1991 through 1995 reveals that FGD processes of choice recently in the United States have been wet limestone FGD, magnesium-enhanced lime (MEL), and LSD. Further, of the wet limestone processes, limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) has been used most often in recent applications. The SO2 removal performance of scrubbers has been reviewed. Data reflect that most wet limestone and LSD installations appear to be capable of ~90% SO2 removal. Advanced, state-of-the-art wet scrubbers can provide SO2 removal in excess of 95%. Costs associated with state-of-the-art applications of LSFO, MEL, and LSD technologies have been analyzed with appropriate cost models. Analyses indicate that the capital cost of an LSD system is lower than those of same capacity LSFO and MEL systems, reflective of the relatively less complex hardware used in LSD. Analyses also reflect that, based on total annualized cost and SO2 removal requirements: (1) plants up to ~250 MWe in size and firing low- to medium-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur content of 2% or lower) may use LSD; and (2) plants larger than 250 MWe and firing medium- to high-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur

  13. Desulfurization of flue gas from multiple boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-07-29

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a plurality of combustion zones, which method comprises: (a) injecting into a first of the combustion zones a finely divided sorbent comprising calcium carbonate; (b) recovering from the first combustion zone a first flue gas having suspended therein particles of spent sorbent and particles of calcined sorbent; (c) separating from the first flue gas a mixture of particles comprising the spent sorbent and the calcined sorbent; (d) reacting a portion of the mixture with water to provide a finely divided dry slaked sorbent; (e) combusting a portion of the sulfur-containing fuel in a second combustion zone to produce a second flue gas containing sulfur dioxide; (f) mixing into the second flue gas at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C. slaked sorbent from step (d) to produce a suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas wherein water is added to the suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas of step (f) in amount sufficient to reduce the temperature of the suspension to between about 10/sup 0/ and about 30/sup 0/C. above its dew point wherein the water comprises an aqueous solution of at least one solubilizing agent selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (g) separating solids from the suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas; and (h) collecting from the separating of steps (c) and (g) flue gases of reduced sulfur dioxide content.

  14. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  15. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  16. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    PubMed

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  17. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Wolfenbarger, James K.; Najjar, Mitri S.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  18. Cost effective materials for flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.; Brady, B.

    1996-10-01

    Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) is an effective way to remove sulfur dioxide from coal combustion processes and reduce the potential for acid rain. However, wet FGD processes often require highly corrosion resistant construction materials such as high alloys for adequate service life. An excellent material for wet FGD applications at about one half the cost of high alloys is fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) based on epoxy vinyl ester resin. This paper discusses the background and improvements that have led to the use of some of the world`s largest composite structures in FGD service.

  19. Hot-Gas Desulfurization with Sulfur Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Damle, Ashok S.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a second generation HGD process that regenerates the sulfided sorbent directly to elemental sulfur using SO{sub 2}, with minimal consumption of coal gas. The goal is to have better overall economics than DSRP when integrated with the overall IGCC system.

  20. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  1. Ductwork: Materials of construction for flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donnell, R.J.; Khederian, J.C.; Martin, J.E.; Watson, W.K.

    1995-09-01

    This paper identifies the ductwork materials required for the various service conditions in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system (FGDS) at Indianapolis Power and Light Company`s (IPL) Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base-loaded units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output. The flue gas conditions include hot unscrubbed gas (bypass), hot unscrubbed gas mixed with cool ambient air (normal), a mixing zone of gas only/air only associated with an open bypass system (no damper), and cool, wet scrubbed gas (outlet ducts). In addition, there are upset conditions associated with the loss of an air preheater. This system is somewhat unique, in that each unit has its own separate open or undampered bypass system, including separate stack liners. While a separate bypass system eliminates the extremely severe corrosion problems associated with mixing unscrubbed gas and scrubbed gas in a common bypass flue, it does create potential problems mixing cool ambient air with hot flue gas.

  2. Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Development of a hot-gas desulfurization system for IGCC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; McMichael, W.J.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.; Dorchak, T.P.

    1992-12-31

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are being advanced worldwide to produce electricity from coal because of their superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. One key component of an advanced IGCC power plant is a hot-gas desulfurization system employing regenerable sorbents. To carry out hot-gas desulfurization in a fluidized-bed reactor, it is necessary that the sorbents have high attrition resistance, while still maintaining high chemical reactivity and sulfur absorption capacity. Also, efficient processes are needed for the treatment of SO{sub 2}-containing regeneration off-gas to produce environmentally benign waste or useful byproducts. A series of durable zinc titanate sorbents were formulated and tested in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor system. Reactive sorbents were developed with addition resistance comparable to fluid-bed cracking (FCC) catalysts used in petroleum refineries. In addition, progress continues on the development of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for converting SO{sub 2} in the regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Plans are under way to test these bench-scale systems at gasifier sites with coal gas. This paper describes the status and future plans for the demonstration of these technologies.

  4. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  5. The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  7. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  8. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  9. SCALE-UP OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop advanced regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective was to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high sulfidation activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). Twenty sorbents were synthesized in this work. Details of the preparation technique and the formulations are proprietary, pending a patent application, thus no details regarding the technique are divulged in this report. Sulfidations were conducted with a simulated gas containing (vol %) 10 H{sub 2}, 15 CO, 5 CO{sub 2}, 0.4-1 H{sub 2}S, 15 H{sub 2}O, and balance N{sub 2} in the temperature range of 343-538 C. Regenerations were conducted at temperatures in the range of 400-600 C with air-N{sub 2} mixtures. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives were investigated that promote regeneration at lower temperatures. Characterization were performed for fresh, sulfided and regenerated sorbents.

  10. Application research of integrated desulfurization and dust removal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, S.; Hongsun, J.

    1999-07-01

    The conclusion about the emission control characteristics of the coal-fired power plants is drawn on the basis of investigation in Northeast of China. A simple, reliable and low cost integrated technology instead of many mature but expensive FGD technologies was developed to achieve overall desulfurization and dust removal qualification simultaneously. With the adoption of limestone injection into furnace and three-phase fluidized packing column transformation, the technology is especially suitable for retrofit of existing units between 50MW and 200MW that are commonly equipped with wet scrubbers. The feasibility of retrofit application to a 220t/h boiler is demonstrated according to technical and economic research and design. The new FGD project is capable of meeting environment demand with minimal modification and capital and operating cost, while ensuring uninterrupted and safe power generation.

  11. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  12. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  14. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  15. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

  16. Shawnee flue gas desulfurization computer model users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhoff, F.A.; Torstrick, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    In conjunction with the US Enviromental Protection Agency sponsored Shawnee test program, Bechtel National, Inc., and the Tennessee Valley Authority jointly developed a computer model capable of projecting preliminary design and economics for lime- and limestone-scrubbing flue gas desulfurization systems. The model is capable of projecting relative economics for spray tower, turbulent contact absorber, and venturi-spray tower scrubbing options. It may be used to project the effect on system design and economics of variations in required SO/sub 2/ removal, scrubber operating parameters (gas velocity, liquid-to-gas (L/G) ration, alkali stoichiometry, liquor hold time in slurry recirculation tanks), reheat temperature, and scrubber bypass. It may also be used to evaluate alternative waste disposal methods or additives (MgO or adipic acid) on costs for the selected process. Although the model is not intended to project the economics of an individual system to a high degree of accuracy, it allows prospective users to quickly project comparative design and costs for limestone and lime case variations on a common design and cost basis. The users manual provides a general descripton of the Shawnee FGD computer model and detailed instructions for its use. It describes and explains the user-supplied input data which are required such as boiler size, coal characteristics, and SO/sub 2/ removal requirments. Output includes a material balance, equipment list, and detailed capital investment and annual revenue requirements. The users manual provides information concerning the use of the overall model as well as sample runs to serve as a guide to prospective users in identifying applications. The FORTRAN-based model is maintained by TVA, from whom copies or individual runs are available. 25 refs., 3 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Characteristics of pneumatically-emplaced dry flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    The University of Kentucky in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Addington, Inc. and Costain Coal is currently developing a commercial concept for the haul back of dry flue gas desulfurization materials (FGDM) into highwall mine adits. The University`s Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is investigating emplacement systems for a mine demonstration which is planned for the third quarter of 1996. A laboratory-scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for FGDM emplacement. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems in which water is mixed with cement (FGDM) in a nozzle at the end of the pneumatic pipe. Solids travel approximately 70 ft in the lab-scale system at a rate of up to 6 lb FGDM/minute prior to impingement onto a sample collector. Prehydrated FGDM from a circulating fluidized bed combustor has been successfully emplaced onto vertically positioned sample surfaces without excessive dust liberation. The test program is focussed on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. The mineralogy and strength of a pneumatically created sample are described following curing for 60 days.

  18. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  19. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  20. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  1. Key factor in rice husk ash/CaO sorbent for high flue gas desulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Irvan Dahlan; Keat Teong Lee; Azlina Harun Kamaruddin; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2006-10-01

    Siliceous materials such as rice husk ash (RHA) have potential to be utilized as high performance sorbents for the flue gas desulfurization process in small-scale industrial boilers. This study presents findings on identifying the key factor for high desulfurization activity in sorbents prepared from RHA. Initially, a systematic approach using central composite rotatable design was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the sorbent preparation variables to the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The sorbent preparation variables studied are hydration period, x{sub 1} (6-16 h), amount of RHA, x{sub 2} (5-15 g), amount of CaO, x{sub 3} (2-6 g), amount of water, x{sub 4} (90-110 mL), and hydration temperature, x{sub 5} (150-250{sup o}C). The mathematical model developed was subjected to statistical tests and the model is adequate for predicting the SO{sub 2} desulfurization activity of the sorbent within the range of the sorbent preparation variables studied. Based on the model, the amount of RHA, amount of CaO, and hydration period used in the preparation step significantly influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The ratio of RHA and CaO used in the preparation mixture was also a significant factor that influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. A RHA to CaO ratio of 2.5 leads to the formation of specific reactive species in the sorbent that are believed to be the key factor responsible for high desulfurization activity in the sorbent. Other physical properties of the sorbent such as pore size distribution and surface morphology were found to have insignificant influence on the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents

  3. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, July 15, 1995--September 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-09-15

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively pursuing the development of reliable and cost-effective processes to clean coal gasifier gases for application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. A large portion of gas cleanup research has been directed towards hot gas desulfurization using Zn-based sorbents. However, zinc titinate sorbents undergo reduction to the metal at temperatures approaching 700{degrees}C. In addition, sulfate formation during regeneration leads to spalling of reactive 293 surfaces. Due to zinc-based sorbent performance, METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based sorbents. Westmoreland and Harrison evaluated numerous candidate sulfur sorbents and identified Mn as a good candidate. Later, Turkdogan and Olsson tested manganese-based sorbents which demonstrated superior desulfurization capacity under high temperatures, and reducing conditions. Recently, Ben-Slimane and Hepworth conducted several studies on formulating Mn-sorbents and desulfurizing a simulated fuel gas. Although thermodynamics predicts higher over-pressures with Mn verses Zn, under certain operating conditions Mn-based sorbents may obtain < 20 ppmv. In addition, the manganese-sulfur-oxygen (Mn-S-O) system does not reduce to the metal under even highly reducing gases at high temperatures (550-900{degrees}C). Currently, many proposed IGCC processes include a water quench prior to desulfurization. This is for two reasons; limitations in the process hardware (1000{degrees}C), and excessive Zn-based sorbent loss (about 700{degrees}C). With manganese the water quench is obviated due to sorbent loss, as Mn-based sorbents have been shown to retain reactivity under cycling testing at 900{degrees}C. This reduces system hardware, and increases thermal efficiency while decreasing the equilibrium H{sub 2}S over-pressure obtainable with a manganese sorbent.

  4. Field studies on the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a product of precipitation of sulfur from stack gases from coal-fired electric power plants. This material is produced in increasingly large quantities by electric power companies to meet clean air standards. We have evaluated this material for beneficial us...

  5. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  6. Use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic as an absorber in limestone wet flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haibo

    2008-10-01

    The choice of materials for the spraying and oxidation of pipes directly affect the operation in limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). There is reason to consider using glass fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) instead of expensive high nickel alloy for the spraying and oxidation of pipes.

  7. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  8. Elemental sulfur-producing high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.L.; Garrigan, P.C.; Berry, F.O.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary studies have shown that certain materials when added to air-regenerable, high-temperature, fuel gas desulfurization sorbents, such as iron oxide or zinc oxide, significantly increase elemental sulfur formation during regeneration. Although the full range of conditions under which these materials can be applied remains to be determined, successful applications could eliminate a costly SO/sub 2/ reduction step.

  9. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  10. Comparison of soil applied flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and agricultural gypsum on soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gypsum can come from different sources. Agricultural gypsum is typically mined and used to supply calcium to crops. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of coal power plants. Although their chemical formulas are the same, different trace elements and materials are present in them....

  11. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  12. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  13. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  14. State-of-the-art review of materials-related problems in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P. S.

    1980-10-01

    This report characterizes the chemical and mechanical environments to which the structural components used in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) are exposed. It summarizes the necessary background information pertinent to various FGD processes currently in use, with particular emphasis on lime/limestone scrubbing technology, so that the materials problems and processing variables encountered in FGD systems can be better defined and appreciated. The report also describes the materials currently used and their performance to date in existing wet scrubbers. There is little doubt that with more extensive use of coal and flue-gas scrubbers by utilities and other segments of private industry, a better understanding of the material failure mechanisms, performance limitations, and potential problem areas is required for the design of more reliable and cost-effective FGD systems. To meet the above objectives, a materials evaluation program is proposed. The important experimental variables and the number of tests required to evaluate a given material are discussed. 55 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  15. Semi-wet flue gas desulfurization with a multi-solid fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Z.; Wu, C.; Xu, B.; Chen, Y.; Liu, B.

    1997-12-31

    In this study, the authors put forward a new flue gas desulfurization process with a Multi-Solid Fluidized Bed. The principle of the method is as follows. The flue gas is supplied to the bottom of the fluidized bed and lime/limestone slurry is dropped from the top to a bed of the coarse particles. The slurry is uniformly dispersed in the bed by the fluidizing coarse particles, so that the slurry can make contact with the flue gas sufficiently. Dried fine particles of desulfurization product are entrained to the gas-solid separator. In this system, the drying process of the slurry is a key point. During the primary work, they investigated the drying mechanism of the limestone slurry containing fine particles in the coarse particle bed. The desulfurization performance of a simulated flue gas has been carried out. It is concluded that: (1) the drying process of the slurry is mainly one of the water involved; (2) the slurry drying process can be separated into two steps with constant and decreasing velocity, respectively; and (3) using this apparatus, more than 95% SO{sub 2} removal can be obtained when Ca/S equals 2.

  16. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, J.G.; Vilala, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  17. Characterization and fixed-bed testing of a nickel-based hot gas desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Swisher, J.H.; Hammerbeck, K.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project was to (1) extend a preliminary investigation completed earlier on dispersed nickel sorbents by developing new processing methods, characterizing sorbent materials more extensively, and evaluating the materials in fixed bed reactor tests, and (2) to determine the feasibility of using dispersed nickel sorbents with reductive regeneration for hot gas desulfurization. One of the properties of nickel that is somewhat unique is that it forms a liquid sulfide at sufficiently high temperatures with high sulfur potentials or H{sub 2}S levels. A eutectic exists in the Ni-S phase diagram at 637 C and a composition of 33.4 wt% or 21.5 wt% S. Under controlled conditions, the formation of a liquid phase can be used to advantage in hot gas desulfurization. Sorbent preparation, the experimental unit, and experimental procedure are described. Results from the sorbent, 24Ni-7Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, are given.

  18. Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1991-05-01

    The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

  19. Thermal preparation effects on the x-ray diffractograms of compounds produced during flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wertz, D.L.; Burns, K.H.; Keeton, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    The diffractograms of syn-gypsum and of flue gas desulfurization products indicate that CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O is converted to other phase(s) when heated to 100{degrees}C. Syn-hannebachite CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O is unaffected by similar thermal treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Test and Characterization of Some Zeolite Supported Gas Phase Desulfurization Sorbents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of-the-art SOFC electrode material is improving, the gas phase desulfurization step at high temperature is still essential to SOFCs . Our report ...NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so...the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD

  1. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi

    2008-03-01

    The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  3. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, June--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of work being performed on hot coal gas desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Eighth Quarterly Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  4. Limestone scrubbing for 2000 flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-16

    As emission limits for sulfur dioxide from utility coal-fired boilers become lower due to increased regulation and environmental concern around the globe, power generating companies require increasingly cost-effective pollution control technology in order to maintain or reduce the cost of electricity to the end user. Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization, or WFGD, is the preferred sulfur dioxide removal technology for utilities in the US and worldwide. This is a result of its extensive reference list, lower risks, and lower evaluated overall costs. For more than two decades ABB has supplied WFGD systems and currently has greater than 29,000 MWe of scrubbing capacity in operation. Given the industry`s ever-present need for lower costs, ABB funds a continuous research and development program focused on technology advancements that will reduce both capital and operating costs for its customers. As a result of this effort the LS-2 Concept WFGD System was developed through revolutionary design changes in every significant subprocess of conventional WFGD technology. To demonstrate the cumulative effects of all the individual advancements of the LS-2 Concept and to prove the process`s viability and cost-efficiency under representative US power plant conditions, the Limestone Scrubbing for 2000 project was initiated. This report is the final submittal to the Ohio Coal Development Office to document the results of this demonstrate project. The four-phase project execution, from the initial design and procurement through erection and extensive testing, proceeded as scheduled and on budget. The project resulted in a successful reference program that illustrates, in detail, the improved efficiencies and costs of the LS-2 advancements.

  5. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  6. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  7. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F M; Liu, B S; Zhang, Y; Guo, Y H; Wan, Z Y; Subhan, Fazle

    2012-09-30

    A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700-850°C. The successive nine desulfurization-regeneration cycles at 800°C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn(2)O(3) particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800°C is 13.8 g S/100g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO(3)/SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe(2)O(x)/MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100g sorbents) used only at 500-550°C. This suggested that the loading of Mn(2)O(3) active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  8. Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A.

    2009-07-01

    Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Preparation of sodium humate/{alpha}-aluminum oxide adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.G.; Gao, H.Y.; Hu, G.X.; Li, Y.H.

    2009-06-15

    A new composite adsorbent of sodium humate (HNa)=alpha-aluminium oxide ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) was prepared using the impregnation method. Both the adsorbent of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HNa={alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Desulfurization activity of the adsorbent impregnated with ammonia (NH{sub 4}OH) was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. Experimental results indicate that HNa, which coats the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers impregnated with HNa solution, improved the property of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support for FGD. On the other hand, the HNa-coating on the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} impregnated with NH{sub 4}OH played an important role in enhancing the desulfurization property of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Due to the strong adsorption capability of HNa, more NH{sub 4}OH was adsorbed in the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} the longer a high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) conversation rate was maintained. In addition, because the desulfurization product was a compound fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), ammonium humate (HNH{sub 4}), and HNa, the recycling use of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also easily achieved. Thus, this study can provide a new cost-effective way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas.

  10. Technical description of parameters influencing the pH value of suspension absorbent used in flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Głomba, Michał

    2010-08-01

    As a result of the large limestone deposits available in Poland, the low cost of reagent acquisition for the largescale technological use and relatively well-documented processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfurization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several technological and kinetic parameters, particularly on the pH value of the sorbent (i.e., ground limestone suspended in water). Consequently, many studies in Poland and abroad address the impact of various parameters on the pH value of the sorbent suspension, such as the average diameter of sorbent particles (related to the limestone pulverization degree), sorbent quality (in terms of pure calcium carbonate [CaCO3] content of the sorbent material), stoichiometric surfeit of CaCO3 in relation to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbed from flue gas circulating in the absorption node, time of absorption slurry retention in the absorber tank, chlorine ion concentration in sorbent slurry, and concentration of dissolved metal salts (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Al, and others). This study discusses the results of laboratory-scale tests conducted to establish the effect of the above parameters on the pH value of limestone slurry circulating in the SO2 absorption node. On the basis of the test results, a correlation equation was postulated to help maintain the desirable pH value at the design phase of the wet FGD process. The postulated equation displays good coincidence between calculated pH values and those obtained using laboratory measurements.

  11. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  12. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  13. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900–1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900–927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries. PMID:25371652

  14. Sodium-limestone double alkali flue gas desulfurization process with improved limestone utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Biolchini, R.J.; Boward, W.L. Jr.; Wang, K.H.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a sodium-limestone double alkali process for the continuous desulfurization of flue gas, having the steps of absorbing sulfur dioxide from an SO/sub 2/-containing gas stream in an absorber with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, diverting at least a portion of the absorber effluent solution for regeneration with limestone, introducing limestone into the diverted absorber effluent solution to convert bisulfite to sulfite, separating by-product solids from the limestone-treated solution, and returning regenerated solution to the absorber, the improvement for increasing the utilization of the limestone used during the regeneration operation.

  15. Development and testing of regenerable hot-coal-gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Grindley, T.; Steinfeld, G.

    1981-10-01

    Investigations over several years at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center have been concerned with the development of a regenerable metal oxide desulfurization sorbent which would function on hot coal-derived fuel gas. In the latest phase of testing, a combination of zinc oxide with iron oxide as zinc ferrite has produced a sorbent which has demonstrated regenerability and capability of removing sulfur from simulated hot coal gas to a level of 1 to 10 ppM by volume. The principal finding at this stage of the project is that the compound zinc ferrite and also iron oxide containing some zinc ferrite have hydrogen sulfide absorption performances very similar to those of zinc oxide. Extruded sorbents made from these compounds have been demonstrated to perform with varying ability in the temperature range 800/sup 0/F (427/sup 0/C) to 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) at a space velocity of 2000 hourly and a hydrogen sulfide concentration of 2.7 percent. They have also been shown to be regenerable with a 50/50 percent v/v steam-air mixture at 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) and 600 hourly space velocity with no loss of absorptive power. Both zinc ferrite and zinc oxide appear to perform optimally in the middle of the temperature range, where absorption capacity is greatest. Surprisingly, the experimental results indicate no trend to a lower degree of hydrogen sulfide removal with rise in temperature. Zinc ferrite appears to be superior to zinc oxide in terms of its absorption capacity and resistance to sintering at higher temperatures.

  16. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  17. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  19. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  20. Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

  1. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  2. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, August 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-10-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermogravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. Preliminary results indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  3. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  4. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  5. Adipic acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization system commercial demonstration. [Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Colley, J.D.; Mobley, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration carried out at Springfield, Mo City Utilities Southwest Power Plant in 1980-1981 on adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization system is reported. The major process findings during the demonstration are discussed. It is found that adipic acid is a viable means for improving SO/sub 2/ removal in scrubbers which are limited from a dissolved alkalinity standpoint. Dibasic acid (a mixture of glutaric, adipic, and succinic acids) is a technically viable alternative to adipic acid. 6 refs.

  6. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (bermudagrass)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic gypsum is being produced in large quantities each year as a byproduct of SO2 removal from flue gas stream at coal-fired utility plants. This synthetic gypsum which is believed to be comparable or better than mined gypsum may enhance crop production. However, there is a paucity of informati...

  8. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  10. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  11. Composition of matter useful in flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, D.

    1983-05-03

    Flue gas having a content of sulfur dioxide is passed upwardly through a scrubbing tower against a descending flow of recycled aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide liquor. The sulfur dioxide in the gas is converted to sodium and aluminum sulfates and sulfites and the liquor removes any fly ash present in the gas. Underflow is continuously discharged from the tower and is sent to an evaporator for removal of excess water. Make-up solutions of sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate are added, as necessary. Carbonaceous reducing agent is added to the discharge from the evaporator. The mixture is continuously fed into a reducing furnace where the sulfates and sulfites are reduced to sulfides. The product of the furnace (Molten sodium and aluminum sulfides) is charged into a continuous hydrolyzer. Hydrogen sulfide is evolved and collected, and, if desired, its sulfur content is converted to elementary sulfur. The underflow from the hydrolyzer is filtered. The filtrate is aqueous sodium aluminate sodium hydroxide solution which is recycled to the scrubbing tower.

  12. Pilot-plant technical assessment of wet flue gas desulfurization using limestone

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, F.J.G.; Vidal, F.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Cortes, V.; Gimenez, A.

    2006-02-15

    An experimental study was performed on a countercurrent pilot-scale packed scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The flow rate of the treated flue gas was around 300 Nm{sup 3}/h, so the pilot-plant capacity is one of the largest with respect to other published studies on a pilot-plant wet FGD. The tests were carried out at an SO{sub 2} inlet concentration of 2000 ppm by changing the recycle slurry pH to around 4.8 and the L/G ratio to between 7.5 and 15. Three types of limestone were tested, obtaining desulfurization efficiencies from 59 to 99%. We show the importance of choosing an appropriate limestone in order to get a better performance from the FGD plant. Thus, it is important to know the reactivity (on a laboratory scale) and the sorbent utilization (on a pilot-plant scale) in order to identify if a limestone is reactive enough and to compare it with another type. In addition, by using the transfer-unit concept, a function has been obtained for the desulfurization efficiency, using the L/G ratio and the recycle slurry pH as independent variables. The Ca/S molar ratio is related to these and to the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. This function, together with a simplified function of the operation variable cost, allows us to determine the pair (L/G ratio and pH) to achieve the desired SO{sub 2} removal with the minimum operation cost. Finally, the variable operation costs between packed towers and spray scrubbers have been compared, using as a basis the pilot packed tower and the industrial spray column at the Compostilla Power Station's FGD plant (in Leon, Spain).

  13. Use of adipic acid to enhance flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroff, N.; Laslo, D.

    1984-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, FGD is an acid-base neutralization reaction where the overall rate is balanced by the dissolution of (limestone) alkali, and the absorption of sulfur dioxide. The former occurs at a solid/liquid interface, and the latter occurs at a liquid/gas interface. The rate of each of these processes is determined by local conditions, notably, pH. The introduction of a buffering agent lowers the pH at the solid-liquid interface, thereby increasing the rate of limestone dissolution, and simultaneously, raises the pH at the liquid/gas interface, thereby increasing the rate of absorption. Studies performed during the past several years have established that adipic acid is the best available choice for application because of its unique combination of physical and chemical properties, and its price and availability. This paper discusses the theory of adipic acid enhancement and the mathematics used to describe these phenomena trace its history from the laboratory through full scale trials.

  14. [Reactivity of the limestone in wet flue gas desulfurization].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian-le; Li, Yao; Ling, Xuan; Liu, Hong-ju; Xu, Feng-gang; Liu, Han-qiang

    2005-11-01

    On the basis of the analysis of chemical components of the natural limestones from different deposits in China, the pore structures of the typical limestones, with the different CaCO3 content, were examined. The reactivity of the limestones was investigated by sulfuric acid titration and gas-liquid absorption methods. The research results showed that the specific surface area of the natural limestones studied in this work was about 1.8 m2/g. It was seen that the pH of the limestone slurry rapidly decreased and then back up when the sulfuric acid was added. The higher the CaCO3 content was, or the smaller the particle size was, the larger the pH back-up rate was, and similarly the faster the SO2 concentration of the reactor outlet increased. The Reactivity of the limestone obtained by the sulfuric acid titration had the same features as that obtained by the gas liquid absorption. Compared with the specific surface area, the CaCO3 content had more effect on the reactivity of the limestones. The particle size of the limestones had a significant effect on the reactivity when the particle size was relatively large, that is less than 300-360 mesh, vice versa.

  15. Calcium bisulfite oxidation rate in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lancia, A.; Musmarra, D.

    1999-06-01

    In this paper oxidation of calcium bisulfite in aqueous solutions was studied, in connection with the limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process. Experimental measurements of the oxidation rate were carried out in a laboratory scale stirred reactor with continuous feeding of both gas and liquid phase. A calcium bisulfite clear solution was used as liquid phase, and pure oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen were used as gas phase. Experiments were carried out at T = 45 C varying the composition of the liquid phase and the oxygen partial pressure. Manganous sulfate was used as catalyst. The analysis of the experimental results showed that the kinetics of bisulfite oxidation in the presence of MnSO{sub 4} follow a parallel reaction mechanism, in which the overall reaction rate can be calculated as the sum between the uncatalyzed rate (3/2 order in bisulfite ion) and the catalyzed reaction rate (first order in manganous ion).

  16. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop hot-gas cleanup sorbents for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature applications, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. A number of formulations will be prepared and screened for testing in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343 C to 538 C. Each formulation will be tested for up to 5 cycles of absorption and regeneration. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives will be investigated, which would promote a lower ignition of the regeneration. Selected superior formulation will be tested for long term (up to at least 30 cycles) durability and chemical reactivity in the reactor. Zinc oxide based sorbents were prepared and characterized as fresh, sulfided, and regenerated sorbents. Results are presented.

  17. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J.

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  18. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  20. Chemical formulation and combined process for inhibiting deposition and corrosion in cooling water and gypsum scaling in flue gas desulfurization scrubber systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mouche, R.J.; Lin, M.L.; Ekis, E.W. Jr.

    1989-05-30

    A combined cooling water/flue gas desulfurization process is described comprising: (a) contacting a gas with water in a cooling tower the gas having a lower temperature than the water such that upon contact the water is cooled by the transfer of thermal energy from the water to the gas. The water comprising between about 0.2 and about 100 ppm active by weight of an inhibitor formulation comprising polyacrylate, polymaleic anhydride, and phosphonate; (b) contacting a sulfur-containing gas with reagent slurry in a flue gas desulfurizer thereby desulfurizing the sulfur containing gas; and (c) supplying at least a portion of the water from the cooling tower to make up at least a portion of wash water in the desulfurizer, the water being supplied in an amount sufficient to maintain between about 0.01 and about 20 ppm active by weight of the inhibitor formulation in the reagent wash water.

  1. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A.

    2009-06-15

    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  2. Experimental investigation and modeling of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kiil, S.; Michelsen, M.L.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-07-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate-determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallization of gypsum were included. Population balance equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas-phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid-phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modeling tools developed may be applicable to other wet FGD plants.

  3. Transport—Reaction process in the reaction of flue gas desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Peng, Xiaofeng; Lee, Duu Jong

    2000-12-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed, which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time. Based on this model, the reaction rate and the absorbent utilization can be calculated. The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time, the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa, the optimum initial radius and absorbent concentration are 210 310 µ m and 23% respectively. The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  4. Carbonation of gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization process: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenyi; Zhang, Zixin; Li, Hongyi; Li, Youxu; Shen, Zewen

    2017-02-13

    In this paper, waste gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) mixed with NH3·H2O was applied for CO2 absorption in the solid-liquid-gas phase system. The effects of operation temperature, CO2 flow rates, and ammonia-to-gypsum ratio on carbonation process were discussed. Meanwhile, a model for CO2 absorption in the suspension of WFGD gypsum and ammonia was established. The results indicate that higher temperature favors the reaction, and WFGD gypsum conversion can be achieved above 90% even at lower ammonia-to-gypsum ratio, while CO2 conversion reaches 90% and ammonia utilization is up to 83.69%. The model fits well with the experimental results at various CO2 flow rates and predicts the concentration distribution of the main species, including CO2 absorbed, NH2COO(-), and HCO3(-).

  5. Impact of Leaching Conditions on Constituents Release from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) and FGDG-Soil Mixture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interest in using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum(FGDG) has increased recently. This study evaluates the leaching characteristics of trace elements in "modern" FGDG (produced after fly ash removal) and FGDG-mixed soil (SF) under different environmental conditions using rece...

  6. Use of animal waste and flue gas desulfurized gypsum to improve forage production on reclaimed mine soil in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reclaimed mine soils amended with flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum may tolerate higher levels of animal manure, and would therefore be more productive in the long-term. Studies were conducted in respread soil during the first year of land reclamation at Red Hills Mine, a surface lignite mine in no...

  7. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  8. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  9. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization of high sulfur coals retrofit costs, lime consumption and removal efficiencies 10 Mwe DOE demonstrate plant

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, W.L.

    1993-12-31

    AirPol, with the assistance of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), is demonstrating the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) technology in the Clean Coal Technology project entitled {open_quote}10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption.{close_quote} AirPol is performing this demonstration under a Cooperative Agreement awarded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in October 1990, in Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. This project will be the first North American demonstration of the GSA system in its application for flue gas desulfurization. This low-cost retrofit project seeks to demonstrate the GSA system which is expected to remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a high utilization of reagent lime. TVA has provided its National Center for Emissions Research (NCER) as the host site and will provide operation and testing services during the operations and testing phase. The TVA NCER is located at the TVA Shawnee Fossil Plant in West Paducah, Kentucky. This Clean Coal Technology project is designed to demonstrate the GSA system`s performance in a coal-fired boiler application, and its suitability for retrofit at existing boiler plants. Air foxics testing and operation and testing of a 1 Mwe fabric filter were added to the operation/testing phase of the project. The additional testing work will be conducted for the purpose of determining the GSA`s performance in removal of air toxics and the significance of replacing the electrostatic precipitator with a fabric filter. The experience gained by AirPol in designing, manufacturing, and constructing the GSA equipment through executing this project will be used for future commercialization of the GSA system. Results of the operation and testing phase will be used to further improve the GSA system design and operation.

  11. Hg2+ reduction and re-emission from simulated wet flue gas desulfurization liquors.

    PubMed

    Wo, Jingjing; Zhang, Meng; Cheng, Xiaoya; Zhong, Xiaohang; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Xinhua

    2009-12-30

    In this study, considering that Hg(2+) in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems can easily be reduced and then released into atmosphere, causing secondary pollution, the researches about Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission mechanism were carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters on the reduction were studied, including initial pH, temperature, and concentrations of Cl(-) and S(IV). Our experimental results indicated that Cl(-) had a restraining effect on the Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission, after 24h reaction, only 20.5% of Hg(2+) was reduced with 100mM Cl(-) in simulated desulfurization solution. Cl(-) can slow Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emissions dramatically through changing reaction mechanism, with formation of new intermediate: ClHgSO(3)(-), which can decompose to Hg(0), but much more slowly than Hg(SO(3))(2)(2-) or HgSO(3). Simulating the conditions of the practical application (initial pH 5, T=50 degrees C, S(IV)=5 mM, Cl(-)=100 mM), we also found that Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), F(-), etc. all had obvious effects on reduction rates. Based on the material balance and characteristic of the reactants, the reduction emission mechanism of Hg(2+) has been established, providing theoretical basis for industrial application of mercury control in wet FGD systems.

  12. Use Of limestone resources in flue-gas desulfurization power plants in the Ohio River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Barsotti, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, more than 41 of the approximately 160 coal-fired, electrical- power plants within the six-state Ohio River Valley region used flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) units to desulfurize their emissions, an approximately 100% increase over the number of plants using FGD units in 1989. This increase represents a trend that may continue with greater efforts to meet Federal Clean Air Act standards. Abundant limestone resources exist in the Ohio River Valley and are accessed by approximately 975 quarries. However, only 35 of these are believed to have supplied limestone for FGD electrical generating facilities. The locations of these limestone suppliers do not show a simple spatial correlation with FGD facilities, and the closest quarries are not being used in most cases. Thus, reduction in transportation costs may be possible in some cases. Most waste generated by FGD electrical-generating plants is not recycled. However, many FGD sites are relatively close to gypsum wallboard producers that may be able to process some of their waste.

  13. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Study of gypsum crystal nucleation and growth rates in simulated flue gas desulfurization liquors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.; Etherton, D.

    1981-06-01

    The kinetics of gypsum crystal nucleation and growth rates were measured in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber liquors. Variables studied were parent seed crystal size and mass; the organic additives citric acid, adipic acid, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and Calgon CL246 polyacrylic acid formulation; and pH. Citric acid produced gypsum crystals with a more favorable columnar structure. Lower pH resulted in increased nucleation rates. Stable secondary nucleation was observed in the presence of retained parent gypsum seed crystals of size >150 ..mu..m. Growth and nucleation rates were correlated using reaction kinetic models. These kinetics were then used in rigorous computer simulations to predict crystal-size distribution (CSD) with different scrubber configurations. Scrubber process configurations employing classified product removal were calculated to produce a gypsum sludge having a mean particle size up to twice as large as the particle size with unclassified operation.

  16. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.; Rockey, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  17. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  18. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M.

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  19. Identification and determination of selenosulfate and selenocyanate in flue gas desulfurization waters.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Panayot K; Charters, Jeffrey W; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2012-02-07

    In this work, 13 selenium species in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waters from coal-fired power plants were separated and quantified using anion-exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the first time, we identified both selenosulfate (SeSO(3)(2-)) and selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) in such waters, using retention time matching and confirmation by electrospray mass spectrometry. Besides selenite and selenate, selenosulfate was the most frequently occurring selenium species. It occurred in most samples and constituted a major fraction (up to 63%) of the total selenium concentration in waters obtained from plants employing inhibited oxidation scrubbers. Selenocyanate occurred in about half of the tested samples, but was only a minor species (up to 6% of the total selenium concentration). Nine additional Se-containing compounds were found in FGD waters, but they remain unidentified at this point.

  20. The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13

    SciTech Connect

    Haemapun, C.

    1993-12-31

    As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

  1. Dry injection flue gas desulfurization process using absorptive soda ash sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Cyran, M.J.; Copenhafer, W.C.

    1986-05-13

    A dry injection flue gas desulfurization process is described which comprises injecting a dry soda ash sorbent, which is a particulate solid derived from calcination under non-sintering conditions of a NaHCO/sub 3/-containing compound, into a SO/sub 2/-contaminated flue gas stream that contains moisture in an amount of 0.5-10 wt% H/sub 2/O and is at a temperature of 100/sup 0/-175/sup 0/C; providing an amount of injected sorbent and sufficient gas-sorbent contact time such that a substantial portion, at least 40%, of the sorbent sodium content is utilized at NSR=1, in reducing the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the gas stream, collecting the sorbent in a solids-collection device which is a fabric filter baghouse or an electrostatic precipitator; discharging collected sorbent from the solids-collection device; the dry soda ash sorbent being a porous calcine obtained from calcination of sodium sesquicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, Wegscheider's salt or mixtures of these, and further characterized by having a minimum surface area of at least 2 m/sup 2//g and a residual bicarbonate content of less than 10 wt% NaHCO/sub 3/.

  2. High H2O-resistance CaO-MnOx/MSU-H sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong; Liu, Bingsi

    2017-02-15

    A series of xMnyCa/MSU-H sorbents with various Mn/Ca molar ratio were first designed and synthesized with a sol-gel method. The desulfurization performance of the new sorbent was investigated at 600-800°C in hot coal gas. 90Mn10Ca/MSU-H exhibited better desulfurization performance at 750°C with a breakthrough sulfur capacity (BSC) of 18.69g S/100g sorbent compared to other supported Mn-based sorbents (13.2g S/100g sorbent) in similar desulfurization condition, and strong durability in multiple sulfidation-regeneration cycles using oxidation/reduction regeneration method which resolved the scientific issue of that CaSO4 is hardly decomposed to CaO. The introduction of Ca species effectively promoted the dispersion of active constituents, which improved the desulfurization activity. More importantly, 90Mn10Ca/MSU-H showed excellent H2O-resistance ability due to the fact that CaO enhanced the sorption of H2O. Moreover, the utilization of MSU-H with large pore size and excellent thermal stability effectively assured fast mass-transfer and confined the migration of active particles, which led to long lifetime stability of sorbents.

  3. Sulfite oxidation catalyzed by cobalt ions in flue gas desulfurization processes.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of calcium bisulfite oxidation, a key step in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, in the presence of catalysts (e.g., cobalt ions and a mixture of ferrous and cobalt ions). A fundamental approach is followed, by reproducing a simplified synthetic FGD liquor in which both catalyst ions, alone or mixed together, are present. A laboratory-scale apparatus is used, in which sulfurous solution is contacted with a gas phase at a fixed oxygen partial pressure (21.3 kPa) and at different temperature levels (25, 45, and 55 degrees C). The experimental results are analyzed using the theory of gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction, showing that the slow reaction regime is explored and the transition from the kinetic to the diffusional subregime is identified. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in the presence of other catalytic species (manganese and ferrous ions), showing that cobalt is effective in catalyzing the oxidation of calcium bisulfite to sulfate, but to a minor extent with respect to iron and manganese.

  4. Investigation on mercury reemission from limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization slurry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Liu, Songtao; Gao, Yang; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg(0) reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl(-) concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discussed. The experimental results indicated that the Hg(0) reemission rate from WFGD slurry increased as the operational temperatures and pH values increased. The Hg(0) reemission rates decreased as the O2 concentration of flue gas and Cl(-) concentration of WFGD slurry increased. The concentrations of O2 in flue gas have an evident effect on the mercury retention in the solid byproducts. The temperature and Cl(-) concentration have a slight effect on the mercury partitioning in the byproducts. No evident relation was found between mercury retention in the solid byproducts and the pH. The present findings could be valuable for industrial application of characterizing and optimizing mercury control in wet FGD systems.

  5. Investigation on Mercury Reemission from Limestone-Gypsum Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Songtao; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg0 reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl− concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discussed. The experimental results indicated that the Hg0 reemission rate from WFGD slurry increased as the operational temperatures and pH values increased. The Hg0 reemission rates decreased as the O2 concentration of flue gas and Cl− concentration of WFGD slurry increased. The concentrations of O2 in flue gas have an evident effect on the mercury retention in the solid byproducts. The temperature and Cl− concentration have a slight effect on the mercury partitioning in the byproducts. No evident relation was found between mercury retention in the solid byproducts and the pH. The present findings could be valuable for industrial application of characterizing and optimizing mercury control in wet FGD systems. PMID:24737981

  6. Development of economical compact type wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Shigeru; Kaku, Hiroyuki

    1995-06-01

    In the last quarter of this century Environmental Protection has become a major global issue. For the removal of SO{sub 2} emitted from thermal power plants, the wet limestone-gypsum process has widely been adopted. However, a more noteworthly economical method has been desired for its spreading. Under these circumstances, Babcock-Hitachi has developed a new compact type Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system by improving the conventional type wet limestone-gypsum process incorporating its advantages. The compact absorber was realized by increasing its gas velocity and the flue gas duct has been minimized by adopting a horizontal flow spray tower instead of a vertical flow spray tower which is commonly adopted in the conventional type. Through this a considerable reduction in construction costs have been achieved. The design study of this compact type FGD plant shows that it can be applied not only new plants but also existing power plants, Features of this compact type FGD, pilot plant test results and examples of the design study are introduced in this paper.

  7. Effects of salts on limestone dissolution rate in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ukawa, Naohiko; Takashina, Toru; Oshima, Michio; Oishi, Tsuyoshi )

    1993-11-01

    To understand how the dissolution rate of limestone used for absorbent in a wet flue gas desulfurization plant is affected by the soluble salts formed from hydrogen chloride gas in flue gas as well as from the impurities contained in the used raw material limestone itself, various limestone slurries each supplemented with a single salt of CaCl[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], NaCl, Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and MgSO[sub 4] were titrated with sulfuric acid. From the titration results the dissolution rate was found to vary greatly with the kind and the concentration of the salts with a general tendency to decrease in chloride solution but to increase in sulfate solutions. Based on this finding, the authors proposed a semi-empirical simplified model. The evaluated results using this model closely agreed with the measured values of the limestone dissolution rate both in single-salt solutions and mixed salt solutions. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Quantification of gypsum crystal nucleation, growth, and breakage rates in a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.B.; Kiil, S.; Johnsson, J.E.

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this work is to study the influence of nucleation, growth and breakage on the particle size distribution (PSD) of gypsum crystals produced by the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. The steady state PSD, obtained in a falling film wet FGD pilot plant during desulfurization of a 1000 ppm(V) SO{sub 2} gas stream, displayed a strong nonlinear behaviour (in a ln(n(l)) vs. I plot) at the lower end of the particle size range, compared to the well-known linear mixed suspension mixed product removal model. A transient population balance breakage model, fitted to experimental data, was able to model an increase in the fraction of small particles, but not to the extent observed experimentally. A three-parameter, size-dependent growth model, previously used for sodium sulphate decahydrate and potash alum, was able to describe the experimental data, indicating either size-dependent integration kinetics or growth rate dispersion.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  10. Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, September 1987--January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1991-05-01

    The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

  11. [TDA`s hot gas desulfurization sorbent]. TDA Inc./FETC CRADA No. 97-F003, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D A

    1997-11-14

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between TDA Incorporated and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The objective of this CRADA was to evaluate the performance of TDA`s hot gas desulfurization (HGD) sorbent for use in fossil fuel gasification processes. This particular sorbent, TNT-MB was developed for use in moving-bed HGD reactors in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. Two separate tests were conducted; a 10-cycle test, and a low-temperature scoping test. All 10 cycles absorbed H{sub 2}S for the prescribed 125 minutes without breakthrough. The H{sub 2}S concentration remained below 50 ppmv throughout the 125 minute test period. The sorbent showed an increase in attrition resistance from 1.8% (fresh) to 0.87% (reactor inlet) and 0.64% (reactor outlet) after 10 cycles. The results of an additional attrition test are also contained in this report.

  12. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  13. Study on a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization with multifluid alkaline spray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.G.; Zhang, M.C.; Wang, D.F.; Wang, L.

    2005-11-09

    The advantages and disadvantages of the typical semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are analyzed, and a novel semidry FGD process with multifluid alkaline spray generator is first proposed to improve the colliding contact efficiency between sorbent particles and spray water droplets, and to form a large amount of aqueous lime slurry. The experimental results show that the colliding contact efficiency between lime particles and water droplets in the prefix alkaline spray generator may reach about 70%, which is significantly higher than the colliding contact efficiency of 25% in duct sorbent injection. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can reach 64.5% when the Ca/S molar ratio is 1.5, the approach to the saturation temperature is 10.3{sup o}C, and the flue gas residence time is 2.25 s. It is higher than that of in-duct sorbent injection under similar conditions, and the sorbent utilization is improved to 43%. Therefore, the FGD process with a prefix alkaline spray generator can greatly improve SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization and it will be a new, simple and efficient semidry FGD process for industrial application in the future.

  14. Fixed bed testing of a molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate for hot gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Mei, J.S.; Everitt, C.E.; Katta, S.

    1993-09-01

    The following conclusions were made, based upon this study of T-2535 molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate: (1) Results of the half-cycle sulfidation experiments showed that sorbent efficiency and capacity of this formulation of zinc titanate were weak functions of operating-bed temperature. Evidence of diffusion limitations on the sulfidation reaction were observed, particularly at superficial velocities greater than 30 cm/s (1 ft/s). Sorbent performance appeared to be affected by the concentration of reducing gases and/or water content of the simulated coal gas mixtures. Sorbent capacity and efficiency deteriorated during the first three cycles, but stabilized thereafter. (2) Sorbent spalling was observed and appeared to increase with sulfur loading. Possible causes of spalling may be attributed to the induced crystal lattice stresses due to the formation of ZnS and especially ZnSO{sub 4}, which have relative molar volumes that are approximately 1-1/2 and 3 times larger, respectively, than that of the original ZnO. (3) Based on these results, it is apparent that the molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate with Zn/Ti molar ratio of 1.91 may not be a suitable sorbent for hot gas desulfurization in the fixed bed reactor for the Pinon Pine project, due to problems with spalling and loss of reactivity during sulfidation/regeneration cycling.

  15. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  16. Full-scale dual alkali fgd (flue gas desulfurization) demonstration at Louisville Gas and Electric Company. Final report Mar 79-May 81

    SciTech Connect

    VanNess, R.P.; Woodland, L.R.; Gibson, E.D.

    1983-08-01

    The report summarizes the 1-year demonstration of the full-scale dual-alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric Co.'s (LG/E's) Cane Run Unit 6. Systems performance is described in terms of performance guarantees and other parameters that were monitored throughout the demonstration. The report gives a detailed history of operation, including problems encountered in system operation and how they were solved. Capital and operating costs (estimated and incurred) are also reviewed.

  17. Effects of salts on preparation and use of calcium silicates for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Kind, K.K.; Wassermann, P.D.; Rochelle, G.T. )

    1994-02-01

    High surface area calcium silicate hydrates that are highly reactive with SO[sub 2] can be made by slurrying fly ash and lime in water at elevated temperatures for several hours. This concept is the basis for the ADVACATE (ADVAnced siliCATE) process for flue gas desulfurization. This paper examines the impact of salts on such a system. Two low calcium fly ashes, from the Shawnee and Clinch River power plants, were examined. The addition of gypsum (CaSO[sub 4][center dot]2H[sub 2]O) or calcium chloride to the slurry system increased the dissolved calcium concentration, allowing the reaction rate to increase and the maximum surface area to more than double in some cases. This increase came despite a lower solution hydroxide level. The salts also enhanced the reaction of the sorbent with sulfur dioxide. This resulted from the higher equilibrium moisture on the sorbent at any humidity due to the deliquescent properties of some of the salts used (calcium chloride and calcium nitrate). Solids made without the deliquescent salts exhibited equilibrium moisture adsorption consistent with a type-II BET isotherm while the deliquescent salts caused hysteresis in the adsorption/desorption isotherm. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The effects of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system additives on solid by-products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huyck, K.A.; Tatum, G.S.; DeKraker, D.P.

    1995-12-01

    This study was designed to examine characteristics of by-products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems that use performance-enhancing additives. The by-products were evaluated for handling, disposal, properties, and utilization potential. This study was designed to identify potential operation-limiting consequences (fatal flaws) caused by using FGD system additives. It was not intended to be an all-encompassing study of the possible process, environmental, and utilization circumstances at each plant. Seven utilities conducting additive testing agreed to provide samples for this study both before and during their testing. Solid samples were collected from FGD systems using the following additives: di-basic acid (DBA), which is a mixture of succinic, glutaric, and adipic acids; formate; sulfur; ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA); and chloride. Changes in handling properties that may alter process operations were observed at sites where DBS was used. Changes in leaching behavior, permeability and unconfined compressive strength (properties that affect by-product disposal properties) showed no clear trend for additive or system type. The intent of this study is to provide an overall assessment of potential system-limiting effects of FGD additive use. There were no overriding problems relating to disposal with the use of additives. However, properties of solids produced with and without additives should be tested at each site prior to use of an FGD system additive. This is necessary because of the variability in state disposal and permitting requirements and the influence of specific operating conditions on by-product properties.

  19. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Plant species for revegetation of a saline flue gas desulfurization sludge pond

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, L.F.; Artiola, J.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Codisposing saline wastewater from electrical generating stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber sludge simplifies waste disposal but produces a saline waste that will later require revegetation. This waste is low in macronutrients, contains high levels of salts and B, and has a fine texture. This study identified plants, based on germination test results, that show promise for sowing at an evaporation pound in eastern Arizona where scrubber sludge and wastewater are codisposed. Forty-four grass, forb, and shrub accessions germinated on filter paper in saline water from the disposal pond. Dilutions of disposal pone water with untreated well water from the site ranged in EC from 0.17 to 3.03 S m{sup {minus}1}. Our criteria for evaluating plants to be used in revegetating saline FGD sludge were: (1) ability to germinate in increasing levels of disposal pond water and (2) ease of establishment from seed. The percentage of pond water that would reduce germination to 50% that of well-water controls (P{sub 50}) ranged as high as >100 for the most tolerant plants. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Cho, Kyungmin; Cheng, Lei; Keener, Tim C; Jegadeesan, Gautham; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2009-08-01

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride (HgCl2), mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2), mercury oxide (HgO), mercury sulfide (HgS), and mercuric sulfate (HgSO4) were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg2Cl2 and HgCl2 could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury.

  2. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R.

    2009-08-15

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Experiences concerning the service life of rubber linings applied in flue gas desulfurization plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, W.

    1999-11-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties scrubbers and other components in European FGD plants have been protected against corrosion using rubber lining. Extensive experience is available based on service lives of rubber lining of more than 15 years. The paper will consider the various rubber types and curing systems used. While the USA and Japan had already begun retrofitting their existing coal-fired power stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants in the seventies, Germany followed suit in the eighties as a result of the decree issued for large-scale firing plants. Concurrent with this development retrofitting has also been enhanced in other European countries like Austria and the Netherlands, later followed by Denmark, Finland and England. After the collapse of the Eastern Bloc retrofitting work has been implemented in Eastern Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Today FGD plants are being put into operation in Spain, Italy, Turkey and Greece or are on the verge of being put into service. More than 150 plants of this kind are operated by using the wet-scrubbing process with limestone or calcium hydroxide suspensions.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Dick, W A; Nelson, S

    2001-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha(-1). Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  5. Landfill disposal of limestone dual-alkali flue-gas-desulfurization waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, L.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Pierson, J.F.; Brown, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    A landfill disposal test program was undertaken to demonstrate the addition of fly ash and lime to calcium sulfite-sulfate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and to establish design and operating guidelines for an environmentally acceptable waste disposal system. A lined, diked landfill disposal site was partially filled with waste mixtures of FGD filter cake, fly ash, and lime. Field samples were assessed in terms of engineering properties and leachate quality. Laboratory mixtures were analyzed for comparison with field samples. Revegetation studies were performed with laboratory mixtures to determine how fly ash and FGD sludge affect plant growth and to identify candidate species for on-site testing. Fixation and stabilization improved the shear strength and reduced the compressibility of the laboratory mixtures tested. Laboratory testing of the properties of fixed filter cake indicated that mixtures of filter cake with a solids content of 56%, a fly ash-to-filter cake ratio of 1:1, and a lime content of 3% have a natural water content below the liquid limit and appear to be suitable for landfill. Lime fixation also reduced steady-state leachate concentrations of major constituents (total solids, sulfate, and calcium) and may help to minimize trace metal concentrations. Grasses were identified as the preferred species for vegetating landfills.

  6. Method for removing sulfur oxides from combusting gases in wet, calcium-based flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, R.E.; Meserole, F.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a method for reducing accumulation of solid sulfate-containing deposits in apparatus for storing, transporting or utilizing wet lime or limestone for combustion gas desulfurization. It comprises: the step of contact the combustion gas in a reaction zone in the presence of the wet lime or limestone with thiosulfate and an organic polyacid chelating agent. The thiosulfate and chelating agent being present in sufficient concentrations to diminish the amount of sulfate formed as the result of oxidation of sulfite to sulfate.

  7. Characterization and comparative study of coal combustion residues from a primary and additional flue gas secondary desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, S.; Francois, M.; Evrard, O.; Pellissier, C.

    1998-11-01

    An extensive characterization and comparative study was done on two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residues derived from the same coal. LR residues (originated from Loire/Rhone in the south of Lyon, France) are obtained after a primary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is trapped by reaction with CaO at a temperature of about 1100 C), and LM residues (originating from La Maxe, near Metz in the east of France) are obtained after an additional secondary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is removed further by reaction with Ca(OH){sub 2} at a temperature of about 120 C). Various and complementary investigation methods were used to determine their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties: x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis, granulometric distribution, pycnometric density, BET specific surface area and pH, conductivity measurements, and chemical analysis of their insoluble fraction. The FGD residues contain basically two main components: a silico-aluminous fly ash part and calcic FGD phases. In the LR residues the two components can be considered as independent, whereas they are linked in the LM residues because chemical reactions have occurred, leading to the formation of silico-calcic gel CSH, hydrated aluminate AFm, and AFt phases.

  8. Fluidized bed desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  9. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  10. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (EGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k/sub 12/, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate after being normalized by the concentrations of organic acid and dissolved S(IV). K/sub 12/, not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen, is around 10/sup -3/ in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Co, Ni, and Fe and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnified these effects. No k/sub 12/ greater than 4 x 10/sup -3/ or smaller than 0.1 x 10/sup -3/ has been observed. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics: (1) sulfate free radical is the major radical responsible to the degradation of organic acid; (2) ferrous generates sulfate radical by reacting with monoxypersulfate to enhance k/sub 12/; (3) manganous consumes sulfate radical to decrease k/sub 12/; (4) dissolved S(IV) competes with ferrous for monoxypersulfate and with manganous for sulfate radical to demonstrate the effects of dissolved S(IV) on k/sub 12/. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product, glutaric semialdehyde - the major retained product with low manganese, glutaric acid and valeric acids - the major retained product with high manganese, lower molecular weight mono- and dicarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  11. Marketable products from gypsum, a coal combustion byproduct derived from a wet flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Ghiassi, K.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1998-07-01

    For two years the authors have been developing a process to produce two marketable products, ammonium sulfate fertilizer and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), from wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product gypsum. Phase 1 of the project focused on the process for converting FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with PCC produced as a by-product during the conversion. Early cost estimates suggested that the process was economically feasible when granular size ammonium sulfate crystals were produced. However, sale of the by-product PCC for high-value commercial application could further improve the economics of the process. The results of their evaluation of the market potential of the PCC by-product are reported in this paper. The most significant attributes of carbonate fillers that determine their usefulness in industry are particle size (i.e, fineness) and shape, whiteness (brightness), and mineralogical and chemical purity. The PCC produced from the FGD dypsum obtained from the Abbott Power Plant at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign campus are pure calcite with a CaCO{sub 3} content greater than 98%, 3% higher than the minimum requirement of 95%. However, the size, shape, and brightness of the PCC particles are suitable only for certain applications. Impurities in the gypsum from Abbott power plant influence the whiteness of the PCC products. Test results suggested that, to obtain gypsum that is pure enough to produce a high whiteness PCC for high value commercial applications, limestone with minimum color impurities should be used during the FGD process. Alternatively, purification procedures to obtain the desired whiteness of the FGD-gypsum can be used. Further improvement in the overall qualities of the PCC products should lead to a product that is adequate for high-value paper applications.

  12. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038

  13. Marketable products from gypsum, a coal combustion byproduct derived from a wet flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Ghiassi, K.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    For two years the authors have been developing a process to produce two marketable products, ammonium sulfate fertilizer and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), from wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product gypsum. Phase I of the project focused on the process for converting FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with PCC produced as a by-product during the conversion. Early cost estimates suggested that the process was economically feasible when granular size ammonium sulfate crystals were produced. However, sale of the by-product PCC for high-value commercial application could further improve the economics of the process. The results of our evaluation of the market potential of the PCC by-product are reported in this paper. The most significant attributes of carbonate fillers that determine their usefulness in industry are particle size (i.e. fineness) and shape, whiteness (brightness), and mineralogical and chemical purity. The PCC produced from the FGD gypsum obtained from the Abbott Power Plant at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign campus are pure calcite with a CaCO{sub 3} content greater than 98%, 3% higher than the minimum requirement of 95%. However, the size, shape, and brightness of the PCC particles are suitable only for certain applications. Impurities in the gypsum from Abbott power plant influence the whiteness of the PCC products. Test results suggested that, to obtain gypsum that is pure enough to produce a high whiteness PCC for high value commercial applications, limestone with minimum color impurities should be used during the FGD process. Alternatively, purification procedures to obtain the desired whiteness of the FGD-gypsum can be used. Further improvement in the overall qualities of the PCC products should lead to a product that is adequate for high-value paper applications.

  14. The adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Final report Feb 81-Feb 82

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr

    1982-11-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of an adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on industrial boilers at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period. This represents a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic acid enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO2 control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with those of the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic acid enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  15. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS--SITE 2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; S. Miller; C. Richardson; K. Searcy

    2000-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests are being conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit is being used to test the activity of four different catalysts for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, was completed in December 1998. Testing at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, was completed in the fall of 1999, and testing at the third site, which fires a high-sulfur bituminous coal, will begin in early 2000. This technical note reports results from Site 2; results from Site 1 were reported in a previous technical note. At Site 2, catalysts were tested in several forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in more commercially viable forms such as extruded beads and coated honeycomb structures. This technical note presents results from Site 2 for both the sand bed reactors and commercial catalyst forms. Site 3 results are not yet available, but should be available late in the year 2000. Field testing is being supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and to investigate methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the

  16. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS--SITE 2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; S. Miller; C. Richardson; K. Searcy

    2000-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests are being conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit is being used to test the activity of four different catalysts for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, was completed in December 1998. Testing at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, was completed in the fall of 1999, and testing at the third site, which fires a high-sulfur bituminous coal, will begin in 2000. This technical note reports results from Site 2; results from Site 1 were reported in a previous technical note. At Site 2, catalysts were tested in several forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in commercial forms such as extruded beads and coated honeycomb structures. This technical note presents results from Site 2 for both the sand bed reactors and commercial catalyst forms. Field testing is being supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and to investigate methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 2 field effort are also included and discussed in this technical note. Preliminary economics, based

  17. Pilot testing of sodium thiosulfate for oxidation/scaling inhibition in lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Brna, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    Pilot plant tests have been conducted to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was reduced by more than 50 percent in the presence of 100 to 200 ppm of thiosulfate ion in the scrubbing slurry. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) scaling was eliminated and the unsaturated (with respect to gypsum) operation mode was maintained by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. Other benefits of sodium thiosulfate addition observed at the pilot plant included improvement in solids dewatering properties for limestone processes.

  18. Gas utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-09-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

  19. Alloying effect of copper on the corrosion properties of low-alloy steel for flue gas desulfurization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon-Hong; Park, Sun-Ah; Kim, Jung-Gu; Shin, Kee-Sam; He, Yinsheng

    2015-03-01

    The alloying effect of Cu for a flue gas desulfurization materials was investigated using the electrochemical methods in the modified green death solution and the surface analyses. The test results demonstrated that the densely formed rust layer with high metallic Cu content improves the corrosion resistance of Cu-containing steel in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) environment. The rust layer on the surface of the 0.02 wt% Cu steel, which has an insufficient Cu content, was less protective than others. The 0.05 wt% Cu steel represented the highest corrosion resistance due to the formation of the densely formed rust layer with optimum Cu content. Because the free standing Cu2S precipitates had the insoluble characteristic in highly acidic solution, it produced the relatively porous Cu-enriched layer on the 0.08 wt% Cu steel surface. From these phenomena, the corrosion resistance of specimen decreased as the Cu content of specimen increased from 0.05 wt% to 0.08 wt%.

  20. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies'', DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS[sub 2] + B(OH)[sub 4][sup =] ------> [S[sub 2]Fe-B(OH)[sub 4

  1. Sulfidation of a Novel Iron Sorbent Supported on Lignite Chars during Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fengkui; Yu, Jianglong; Gupta, Sushil; Wang, Shaoyan; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Li; Tahmasebi, Arash

    The sulfidation behavior of novel iron oxide sorbents supported using activated-chars during desulfurization of hot coal gases has been studied. The sulfidation of the char-supported sorbents was investigated using a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the temperature range of 673K to 873K. The product gases were analyzed using a GC equipped with a TCD and a FPD detector. The sorbent samples before and after sulfidation were examined using SEM and XRD.

  2. The effect of hydrogen peroxide solution on SO2 removal in the semidry flue gas desulfurization process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuegui; Zhu, Xian; Peng, Jun; Liu, Yaobin; Zhang, Dingwang; Zhang, Mingchuan

    2009-10-15

    The present study attempts to use hydrogen peroxide solution to humidify Ca(OH)(2) particles to enhance the absorption of SO(2) to achieve higher removal efficiency and to solve the valuable reuse of the reaction product in the semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Experiments were carried out to examine the effect of various operating parameters including hydrogen peroxide solution concentration, Ca/S molar ratio and approach to adiabatic saturation temperature on SO(2) removal efficiency in a laboratory scale spray reactor. The product samples were analyzed to obtain semi-quantitative measures of mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD) with reference intensity ratio (RIR) method and the morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compared with spraying water to humidify Ca(OH)(2), SO(2) removal efficiency was improved significantly by spraying hydrogen peroxide solution of 1-3 wt.% to humidify Ca(OH)(2) because hydrogen peroxide solution enhanced the dissolution and absorption rate of SO(2). Moreover, XRD and SEM analyses show that the desulfurization products contain less amount of unreacted Ca(OH)(2) and more amount of stable calcium sulfate with increasing hydrogen peroxide solution concentration. Thus, the process mechanism of the enhanced absorption of SO(2) by spraying hydrogen peroxide solution to humidify Ca(OH)(2) was elucidated on the basis of the experimental results.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  4. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, February 17--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). One of the two flue gas ducts leading from the boiler has been retrofitted with the CZD technology. The first existing ESP installed in the station is immediately behind the air preheater. The second ESP, installed about 15 years ago, is about 80 feet away from the first ESP. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2}

  5. Integrated operation of a pressurized gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system and turbine simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, S.; Najewicz, D.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.; Feitelberg, A.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. This technology will ultimately be incorporated into advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at F conditions (2,350 F rotor inlet temperature) and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions of such a combustor. Testing of the GE HGCU system has been underway since December 1990. The two most recent tests, Test 5 and Test 6, represent the latest advancements in regenerator configuration, type of sorbent, and chloride control systems. Test 5 was based on the use of zinc titanate sorbent and included a revised regenerator configuration and a sodium bicarbonate injection system for chloride control. Test 6 incorporated the use of Z-Sorb, a chloride guard in the regenerator recycle loop, and further modifications to the regenerator internal configuration. This report describes the test conditions in detail and discusses the test results.

  6. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  7. Roller compacted base course construction using lime stabilized fly ash and flue gas desulfurization sludge by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    Dewatered calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate sludges from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes at coal fired power plants can be mixed with coal fly ash and lime to cause a cementitious chemical reaction used to construct a roller compacted base course or an impermeable pond liner. Tile chemical reaction is often shown as lime reacting with alumina from the fly ash which in turn reacts with the calcium sulfite and sulfate FGD waste to form sulfo-aluminate. Better understanding is needed of the controlling factors that result in a successful application of this chemical reaction which has been linked to past construction failures due to latent hydration causing expansion damage or degradation of concrete, called sulfate attack. Factors such as optimum moisture content, fly ash to FGD ratio, and age of FGD are examined that affect strength gain and freeze-thaw durability. Several recently completed field demonstrations are discussed.

  8. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, July 1988--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  9. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, simulated gasifier-product streams were contacted with the zinc titanate desulfurization sorbent in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 538 to 750 {degree}C (1000 to 1382 {degree}F). The first set of experiments involved treating a medium-Btu fuel gas (simulating that of a ``Texaco`` oxygen-blown, entrained-bed gasifier) containing 1.4 percent H{sub 2}S and HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 1500 ppmv. The second experimental set evaluated hot-gas desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas (simulating the product of the ``U-Gas`` air-blown gasifier), with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppmv. These operating conditions were typical of the gas-treatment requirements of gasifiers fueled by Illinois basin coals containing up to 0.6 percent chlorine. The results of the experiments at 538 and 650 {degree}C at all the HCl concentrations revealed no deleterious effects on the capability of the sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S from the fuel gas mixtures. In most cases, the presence of the HCl significantly enhanced the desulfurization reaction rate. Some zinc loss, however, was encountered in certain situations at 750 {degree}C when low-steam operating conditions were present. Also of interest, a portion of the incoming HCl was removed from the gas stream and was retained permanently by the sorbent. This behavior was examined in more detail in a limited set of experiments aimed at identifying ways to modify the sorbents composition so that the sorbent could act as a simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination agent in the hot-gas cleanup process.

  10. Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed-bed gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system, and turbine simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, S.; Ayala, R.E.; Feitelberg, A.; Furman, A.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. The HGCU Program is based on the design and demonstration of the HGCU system in a test facility made up of a pilot-scale fixed bed gasifier, a HGCU system, and a turbine simulator in Schenectady, NY, at the General Electric Research and Development Center. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at 2,350 F rotor inlet temperature and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions on low-Btu fuel gas. The turbine simulator program also includes the development and operation of experimental combustors based on the rich-quench-lean concept (RQL) to minimize the conversion of ammonia and other fuel-bound nitrogen species to NO{sub x} during combustion. The HGCU system and turbine simulator have been designed to process approximately 8,000 lb/hr of low heating value fuel gas produced by the GE fixed bed gasifier. The HGCU system has utilized several mixed metal oxide sorbents, including zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb, with the objective of demonstrating good sulfur removal and mechanical attrition resistance as well as economic cost characteristics. Demonstration of halogen removal and the characterization of alkali and trace metal concentrations in the fuel gas are subordinate objectives of the overall program. This report describes the results of several long-duration pilot tests.

  11. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  13. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  14. Fate of mercury in flue gas desulfurization gypsum determined by Temperature Programmed Decomposition and Sequential Chemical Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenwu; Zhuo, Yuqun; Fan, Yaming; Wang, Zhipeng

    2016-05-01

    A considerable amount of Hg is retained in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (WFGD) systems. For this reason, it is important to determine the species of Hg in FGD gypsum not only to understand the mechanism of Hg removal by WFGD systems but also to determine the final fate of Hg when FGD gypsum is disposed. In this study, Temperature Programmed Decomposition (TPD) and Sequential Chemical Extraction (SCE) were applied to FGD gypsum to identify the Hg species in it. The FGD gypsum samples were collected from seven coal-fired power plants in China, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 3.27μg/g. A series of pure Hg compounds were used as reference materials in TPD experiments and the results revealed that the decomposition temperatures of different Hg compounds increase in the order of Hg2Cl2

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  16. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  17. Catalytic seawater flue gas desulfurization process: an experimental pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    F. Vidal B.; P. Ollero; F.J. Gutierrez Ortiz; A. Villanueva

    2007-10-15

    In previous articles by the authors on seawater S(IV) oxidation kinetics, a significant catalytic effect was demonstrated by means of a commercially available activated carbon. The aims of this study carried out at pilot plant scale were to assess the use of high-efficiency structured packing and to validate the positive results obtained previously in laboratory studies. A comparison between a packed tower and a spray column was made by maintaining the same desulfurization efficiency. A 47% reduction in seawater flow can be obtained with a packed tower. This option seems to be more economical, with a reduction in operation costs of least of 33%. With the appropriate activated carbon, it is possible to reach a greater oxidation rate at a low pH level than by operating conventionally at a high pH level without a catalyst. A preliminary technical and financial comparison between the advanced seawater desulfurization process (equipped with a packed tower and a catalytic oxidation plant) and the conventional process (spray tower and noncatalytic oxidation) was carried out. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Effect of additives on Hg2+ reduction and precipitation inhibited by sodium dithiocarbamate in simulated flue gas desulfurization solutions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongjie; Hou, Jiaai; Xu, Jiang; Tang, Tingmei; Xu, Xinhua

    2011-11-30

    Mercury (II) (Hg(2+)) ion can be reduced by aqueous S(IV) (sulfite and/or bisulfite) species, which leads to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) emissions in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Numerous reports have demonstrated the high trapping efficiency of sodium dithiocarbamate over heavy metals. In this paper, a novel sodium dithiocarbamate, DTCR, was utilized as a precipitator to control Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) emission against S(IV) in FGD solutions. Results indicated that Hg(2+) reduction efficiency decreased dramatically while precipitation rate peaked at around 91.0% in consistence with the increment of DTCR dosage. Initial pH and temperature had great inhibitory effects on Hg(2+) reduction: the Hg(2+) removal rate gradually increased and reached a plateau along with the increment of temperature and initial pH value. Chloride played a key role in Hg(2+) reduction and precipitation reactions. When Cl(-) concentration increased from 0 to 150 mM, Hg(2+) removal rate dropped from 93.84% to 86.05%, and the Hg(2+) reduction rate remained at a low level (<7.8%). SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and other common metal ions would affect the efficiency of Hg(2+) reduction and precipitation reactions in the simulated desulfurization solutions: Hg(2+) removal rate could always be above 90%, while Hg(2+) reduction rate was maintained at below 10%. The predominance of DTCR over aqueous S(IV), indicated by the results above, has wide industrial applications in FGD systems.

  19. Evaluation of the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 flue gas desulfurization process at the University of Illinois Abbott Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maller, G.; Stevens, G.E. )

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 (CT-121) flue gas desulfurization process which was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the State of Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the performance and to document the operating and maintenance costs of the CT-121 process under commercial operating conditions. Tests were performed using a 40 MW equivalent CT-121 process installed at the University of Illinois steam power plant. Performance tests were conducted to confirm Chiyoda's guarantees of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, particulate emissions, limestone utilization and gypsum byproduct quality. Parametric tests investigated the effects of overflow pH, gas sparger depth, slurry density, and filter cake wash rate on SO{sub 2} removal, gypsum quality, and overall system performance. Results show that the process is able to meet performance guarantees, and that the overflow pH and gas sparger depth had the largest impact on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. Results are also compared to those from a previous CT-121 demonstration conducted at Gulf Power's Scholz Station by EPRI and Southern Company Services. Operating and maintenance costs are presented in $/kW-hr. 5 refs., 27 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  1. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Aubrey L.

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  2. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Impact of Oxy-Fuel Conditions on Elemental Mercury Re-Emission in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Torre-Santos, Teresa; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2016-07-05

    This study evaluates some of the variables that may influence mercury retention in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) plants, focusing on oxy-coal combustion processes and differences when compared with atmospheres enriched in N2. The main drawback of using WFGD for mercury capture is the possibility of unwanted reduction of dissolved Hg(2+), leading to the re-emission of insoluble elemental mercury (Hg(0)), which decreases efficiency. To acquire a better understanding of the mercury re-emission reactions in WFGD systems, this work analyses different variables that influence the behavior of mercury in slurries obtained from two limestones, under an oxy-combustion atmosphere. The O2 supplied to the reactor, the influence of the pH, the concentration of mercury in the gas phase, and the enhancement of mercury in the slurry were the variables considered. The study was performed at laboratory scale, where possible reactions between the components in the scrubber can be individually evaluated. It was found that in an oxy-combustion atmosphere (mostly CO2), the re-emission of Hg(0) is lower than under a N2-enriched atmosphere, and the mercury is mainly retained as Hg(2+) in the liquid phase.

  4. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-07-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{micro}m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  5. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    This article introduces a predictive capability for Hg retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given mercury (Hg) speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections clearly signal that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO2 absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO2 capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O2 levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO2 capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl2, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO3 levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg(O) but only for inlet O2 levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs.

  6. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara

    2005-07-01

    The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Second [quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1992--March 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-01

    At present, the focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicate that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a preferable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. A significant domestic source of manganese in Minnesota is being explored for an in situ leach process which has potential for producing large tonnages of solutions which may be ideal for precipitation and recovery of pure manganese as a carbonate in a reactive form. In the current program the following studies will be addressed: Preparation of manganese sorbent pellets and characterization tests on pellets for strength and surface area; analysis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by individual sorbent pellets (loading tests) by thermogravimetric testing; regeneration tests via TGA on individual sorbent pellets by oxidation; and bench-scale testing on sorbent beds in a two-inch diameter reactor. The developed information will be of value to METC in its determination of whether or not a manganese-based regenerable sorbent holds real promise for sulfur cleanup of hot fuel gases. This information is necessary prior to pilot-scale testing leading to commercial development is undertaken.

  8. The evolution of particles in the plume from a large coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, R E; Tanner, R L; Valente, R J; Luria, M

    2000-07-01

    Airborne measurements were made of gaseous and particulate species in the plume of a large coal-fired power plant after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls were installed. These measurements were compared with measurements made before the controls were installed. The light scattering and number and volume distributions of plume excess particles were determined by nephelometry and optical particle counting techniques. The plume impact based on optical techniques was much lower than that observed in earlier measurements. Indeed, plume excess volumes as a function of particle size were of the same magnitude as the variability of the background volume distribution. In situ excess plume scattering actually decreased with distance from the source, in contrast to pre-FGD conditions. The upper limit for the dry rate of SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion was estimated from plume excess volume measurements to be about 4% hr-1. This is slightly greater than the upper limit, 3.5% hr-1, estimated by earlier researchers, but the same as that estimated using the present technique with the earlier data. The cross-plume profile of volume suggests SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion is highest at the plume edges. The greatest benefit of SO2 reduction on plume excess volume and visibility appears to occur far down-wind of the source.

  9. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  10. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue-gas desulfurization. Final report, June 1984-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    This report gives results of a study of organic acid-degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation under flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k12, is defined as the ratio of organic-acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation-rate times the ratio of the concentrations of dissolved S(IV) and organic acid. It is not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen in the absence of Mn or Fe. However, k12 is increased by certain transition metals such as Fe, Co, and Ni and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnifies these effects. A free-radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide (the major product), smaller dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  11. Oxidative degradation of organic acid conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization: products, kinetics and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1987-03-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant k/sub 12/ is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate times the ratio of the concentration of dissolved S(IV) and organic acid. It is not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Fe, Co, and Ni and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnifies these effects. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately 3 times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids, while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude factor. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product - smaller dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons. 30 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  12. Durability of base course construction using lime stabilized fly ash and flue gas desulfurization sludge by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.; Amaya, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen coal-fired power plants in the Ohio Valley totaling 13,500 MW`s use the magnesium-enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing process. The discharge of these scrubbers is an aqueous slurry of water containing magnesium and calcium sulfites, and solid particles of calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Most of these plants dewater the FGD sludge and mix the 35--45% solids cake with coal fly ash and/or bottom ash and pulverized quicklime to cause a cementitious chemical reaction. This type of pozzolanic and hydration reaction can be described as lime reacting with alumina from the fly ash which in turn react with the calcium sulfite and sulfate FGD waste to form ettringite minerals. With a proper mix design and compaction, the resulting material can be used in a beneficial application as a roller compacted FGD base course (RCFGD) for pavement construction. The mix design procedure for RCFGD is described; it includes extra fly ash and lime materials than that used for landfill disposal to yield additional strength and durability. RCFGD was produced in a portable pug mill and placed trying several at a 10,000 sq. ft. cattle feedlot. Mix design criteria and factors affecting strength and durability are discussed. Results of unconfined compression tests as well as of durability tests are reviewed.

  13. Roller compacted base course construction using lime stabilized fly ash and flue gas desulfurization sludge-by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Beeghly, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Dewatered calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate sludges from unoxidized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes at coal fired power plants can be mixed with coal fly ash and lime to cause a cementitious chemical reaction used to construct a roller compacted base course (RCFGD) or an impermeable pond liner. The chemical reaction is described as time reacting with alumina from the fly ash which in turn reacts with the calcium sulfite and sulfate FGD waste to form calcium sulfo-aluminate compounds. Leachate data is similar to primary drinking water quality standards. Two field demonstrations of RCFGD and a proposed mix design procedure are described. Factors that affect strength gain and freeze-thaw durability such as optimum moisture content, fly ash to FGD ratio, and age of FGD are discussed. Better understanding is needed on how to predict long term strength performance and expansive potential given the nature of long term hydration forming ettringite compounds and the vulnerability to destructive freeze-thaw cycles.

  14. Mechanisms controlling the leaching kinetics of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Walker, Harold W; Bigham, Jerry M

    2007-01-01

    A number of agricultural and engineering uses for fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material exist; however, the potential for leaching of hazardous elements has limited widespread application and the processes controlling the leaching of this material are poorly understood. In this study, a flow-through rotating-disk system was applied to elucidate the relative importance of bulk diffusion, pore diffusion, and surface chemical reaction in controlling the leaching of fixated FGD material under pH conditions ranging from 2.2 to 6.8. Changing the hydrodynamics in the rotating disk system did not affect the leaching kinetics at both pH 2.2 and 6.8, indicating that bulk diffusion was not the kinetic-limiting step. Application of the shrinking core model (SCM) to the data suggested a surface reaction-controlled mechanism, rather than a pore diffusion mechanism. The leaching of fixated FGD material increased with decreasing pH, suggesting it can be described by a combination of an intrinsic hydration reaction and a proton-promoted dissolution reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental composition analyses before and after leaching suggests that for most elements a number of solid phases controlled the leaching process.

  15. Mercury vapor pressure of flue gas desulfurization scrubber suspensions: effects of pH level, gypsum, and iron.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Jan; Kunth, Daniel; Weissbach, Sven; Koeser, Heinz

    2012-03-06

    Calcium-based scrubbers designed to absorb HCl and SO(2) from flue gases can also remove oxidized mercury. Dissolved mercury halides may have an appreciable partial vapor pressure. Chemical reduction of the dissolved mercury may increase the Hg emission, thereby limiting the coremoval of mercury in the wet scrubbing process. In this paper we evaluate the effects of the pH level, different gypsum qualities, and iron in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber suspensions. The impact of these parameters on mercury vapor pressure was studied under controlled laboratory conditions in model scrubber suspensions. A major influence is exerted by pH values above 7, considerably amplifying the mercury concentration in the vapor phase above the FGD scrubber suspension. Gypsum also increases the mercury re-emission. Fe(III) decreases and Fe(II) increases the vapor pressure significantly. The consequences of the findings for a reliable coremoval of mercury in FGD scrubbers are discussed. It is shown that there is an increased risk of poor mercury capture in lime-based FGD scrubbers in comparison to limestone FGD scrubbers.

  16. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  17. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-06-16

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes as well as commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  19. Desulfurization and denitrogenation of heavy gas oil by Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277.

    PubMed

    Maass, D; Todescato, D; Moritz, D E; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Oliveira, D; Ulson de Souza, A A; Guelli Souza, S M A

    2015-08-01

    Some of the noxious atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxides come from the fossil fuel combustion. Biodesulfurization and biodenitrogenation are processes which remove those pollutants through the action of microorganisms. The ability of sulfur and nitrogen removal by the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277 was tested in a biphasic system containing different heavy gas oil concentrations in a batch reactor. Heavy gas oil is an important fraction of petroleum, because after passing through, the vacuum distillation is incorporated into diesel oil. This strain was able to remove about 40% of the nitrogen and sulfur present in the gas heavy oil. Additionally, no growth inhibition occurred even when in the presence of pure heavy gas oil. Results present in this work are considered relevant for the development of biocatalytic processes for nitrogen and sulfur removal toward building feasible industrial applications.

  20. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  1. Soil carbon sequestration in semi-arid soil through the addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu; Oh, Chamteut

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated a new strategy for increasing carbon retention in slightly alkaline soils through addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG, CaSO4•2H2O). FGDG is moderately soluble and thus the FGDG amendment may be effective to reduce microbial respiration, to accelerate calcite (CaCO3) precipitation, and to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces, but rates of these processes need to be understood. The effects of FGDG addition were tested in laboratory soil columns with and without FGDG-amended layers, and in greenhouse soil columns planted with switchgrass, a biofuel crop. The results of laboratory column experiments demonstrated that additions of FGDG promote soil carbon sequestration through suppressing microbial respiration to the extent of ~200 g per m2 soil per m of supplied water, and promoting calcite precipitation at similar rates. The greenhouse experiments showed that the FGDG treatments did not adversely affect biomass yield (~600 g dry biomass/m2/harvest) at the higher irrigation rate (50 cm/year), but substantially reduced recoverable biomass under the more water-limited conditions (irrigation rate = 20 cm/year). The main achievements of this study are (1) the identification of conditions in which inorganic and organic carbon sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils, (2) development of a method for measuring the total carbon balance in unsaturated soil columns, and (3) the quantification of different pathways for soil carbon sequestration in response to FGDG amendments. These findings provide information for evaluating land use practices for increased soil carbon sequestration under semi-arid region biofuel crop production.

  2. Possible utilization of flue-gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash for citrus production: Evaluation of crop growth response

    SciTech Connect

    Alva, A.K. . Citrus Research and Education Center)

    1994-01-01

    The application of industrial by-products to agricultural land has been a topic of considerable interest during recent years. For the industries, this is an attractive avenue to utilize the by-products rather than land filling. Agriculturists/horticulturists are faced with a new challenge to evaluate the potential advantages of this practice in terms of crop growth, production, and quality as well as effects of such practices on environmental quality. Fly ash and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are by-products produced from coal-fired electric power generation plants. There is a growing interest in evaluation of potential benefits of land application of coal combustion by products mixed with organic by-products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of application of FGD gypsum, fly ash or chicken manure,, or application of the former two in combination with the latter, on soil properties as well as on growth and mineral nutrition of Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle citrumelo rootstock seedlings grown on a Myakka sand. The growth of seedlings of either rootstock improved significantly in soils amended with either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure, individually or in combination of either by-product with chicken manure. However, the ranking of various amendments in relation to growth response differed between the two rootstocks. The combined application of all three amendments decreased the growth of both rootstock seedlings significantly as compared to that of seedlings in unamended soil. The application of either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure each at 2 g/kg soil increased the concentration of Ca, Ca and K, and Ca and P in the leaves of seedlings, respectively.

  3. Effect of Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization on the Soluble Salts Composition and Chemical Properties of Sodic Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0–40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m−1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising. PMID:23936481

  4. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1) and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  5. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    New coal gasification processes are now being developed which can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in a combined gas-turbine, steam-turbine cycle or in a fuel cell. Both of these coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HC1) in the coal-gas. This project investigates the effect of HC1, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal-gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by the HC1, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HC1 along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from the coal-gas. This will negate any harmful consequences of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois in these processes. The bench- scale fluidized bed has been modified to prevent potential HC1 corrosion and startup experiments have proven the reactor system operable and capable of yielding reliable experimental results. The first of the planned experiments in the project are now being performed. 1 fig.

  6. Experimental study on the absorption behaviors of gas phase bivalent mercury in Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization slurry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Yunjun; Liu, Yue; Wu, Zhongbiao; Mo, Jiansong; Cheng, Bin

    2010-11-15

    Gas phase oxidation and catalytic oxidation of element mercury (Hg(0)) to bivalent mercury (Hg(2+)) were proposed to improve the mercury removal efficiency in the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. However, the re-emission of Hg(0), generated by the reduction of absorbed Hg(2+), would lead to a damping of the total mercury removal efficiency. In this paper, the absorption and reduction behaviors of bivalent mercury in the Ca-based WFGD slurry were evaluated in our purpose-built device. According to our experimental results, the slurry chemistry (such as CaSO(3) content, SO(4)(2-), Cl(-) and pH value) had a strong influence on the reduction of absorbed bivalent mercury. And the inlet concentrations of SO(2) and O(2) contribute little to the mercury absorption. Within the typical pH value range of 4.5-5.5, about 70% of inlet bivalent mercury was converted to Hg(0). The re-emission of Hg would be greatly retarded with the increase of [SO(4)(2-)] due to the formation of HgSO(4) or Hg(3)O(2)SO(4). Moreover, it was found that Cl(-) would also inhibit the reduction of bivalent mercury through the ligands reactions between Cl(-) and Hg(2+).

  7. Effluent gas desulfurization with conversion to gypsum of large particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.

    1986-05-06

    A method is described for removing sulfur dioxide from effluent gas which comprises contacting the gas with a slurry initially consisting essentially of water, at least one calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate and at least one oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, in amounts to convert the sulfur dioxide to calcium sulfate, and analyzing the slurry for content of the oxidizing agent so as to promote conversion of the sulfur dioxide to calcium sulfate of maximum crystal size.

  8. Full-scale utility FGD (flue gas desulfurization) system adipic acid demonstration program. Volume 1. Process results. Final report Jun 80-Nov 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr; Colley, J.D.; Glover, R.L.; Owen, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    The report culminates a series of projects sponsored by the EPA, investigating the use of adipic acid as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in aqueous flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, using limestone reagent. A 9-month program at the 194-MW Southwest Power Plant (SWPP) of City Utilities, Springfield, MO, demonstrated the effectiveness of adipic acid and dibasic acids (the latter, by-products of the production of adipic acid). The program examined the effect of adipic acid addition on a limestone FGD system under natural and forced-oxidation modes of operation.

  9. Full-scale utility FGD (flue gas desulfurization) system adipic acid demonstration program. Volume 2. Continuous emissions monitoring results. Final report Jun 80-Nov 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Colley, J.D.; Glover, R.L.; Owen, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    The report culminates a series of projects sponsored by the EPA, investigating the use of adipic acid as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in aqueous flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, using limestone reagent. A 9-month program at the 194-MW Southwest Power Plant (SWPP) of City Utilities, Springfield, MO, demonstrated the effectiveness of adipic acid and dibasic acids (the latter, by-products of the production of adipic acid). The program examined the effect of adipic acid addition on a limestone FGD system under natural and forced-oxidation modes of operation.

  10. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi-jun; Zhu, Xiao-fan; Liu, Yong-jun; Jiang, Wen-ju; Jin, Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4 x H2O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate (L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al and heavy metals, last product MnSO4 x H2O was obtained which quality could reach China GB1622-86, the industry grade standards.

  11. Clean coal demonstration program: Advanced flue gas desulfurization process. Volume 1 - public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    The single 100 percent absorber is a co-current grid packed tower with an integrated reaction tank at the bottom. It is designed to accomplish several process steps (quenching, absorption of SO{sub 2}, reaction with limestone, oxidation to gypsum) in a single vessel, resulting in a simple configuration of the plant. The co-current absorber is designed for higher flue gas velocities than conventional countercurrent towers, which results in a compact absorber size. The flue gas enters the top of the absorber where it contacts recirculating slurry. Quenching and absorption of SO{sub 2} occur simultaneously. This {open_quotes}wet/dry{close_quotes} interface is washed intermittently with fresh water to prevent the formation and growth of any deposits.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization and by-product treatment at Tisov power plant (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Valbert, G.; Schneider, G.

    1998-07-01

    The FGD plant Tisovain the Czech republic is a retrofit downstream of a 100 MW lignite fired power plant. It was designed and built by L. and C. STEINMUELLER GmbH. Despite a narrow time schedule, the project was finished on time in December 1997. The major objectives of the applied limestone/gypsum process are: Minimum investment and operating costs; production and environmentally neutral disposal of a stabilized product containing the by-products fly ash, slag, gypsum and effluent. The first objective is achieved by the following new process arrangement: The flue gas is taken over from the boiler and fed directly into a wet scrubber for absorptive removal of the acid gases SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF. The cleaned flue gas is vented into the atmosphere without reheating by means of a wet stack which is arranged on top of the scrubber. By the described arrangement, a heat exchanger for cooling/heating of the flue gas is not required. No ductwork for connecting scrubber and stack is needed. Furthermore, the pressure drop across the FGD plant is minimized and allows the use of the already existing flue gas fans. Based on Steinmueller's experience with various limestone qualities, the powdered limestone supplied to the plant is milled once more on site. Thereby the reactivity of the limestone is enhanced resulting in low power consumption for the required plant performance. The second objective is achieved as follows: A part of the scrubbing liquid is continuously bled off as the underflow of a hydrocyclone station in order to remove the gypsum produced in the scrubber. A further dewatering of the gypsum does not take place. Instead, the effluent is mixed with fly ash and slag. As an additive, lime slaked with slag slurry is added. The resulting mixture is disposed of and compacted in the nearby opencast mine workings. It hardens in cement-like setting reactions to an environmentally safe stabilized product.

  13. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  14. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  15. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. BERNS; K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-09-15

    Mixed manganese oxide sorbents have been investigated for high-temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. The sorbents were screened by thermodynamic equilibrium considerations for sulfidation. Preliminary experimental work using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated titania to be a superior substrate than alumina. Four formulations showing superior reactivity in a TGA were then tested in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H 2 S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. Eight tests were conducted with each test consisting of five cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Sulfidation occurred at 600 o C using a simulated coal gas at an empty-bed space velocity of approximately 12,000 per hour. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H 2 S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 o C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in an air/steam mixture at 750 o C with minimal sulfate formation. The leading formulation (designated C6-2) from the fixed-bed tests was then further tested under varying sorbent induration temperature, sulfidation temperature and superficial gas velocity. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H 2 S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Testing showed that the sorbent's strength was a strong function of the sorbent induration

  16. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-06-15

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H2S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 550 and 600 °C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H2S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 °C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750 °C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the performance of the leading formulation (designated C6-2) was investigated for high temperature removal of H2S from simulated coal-derived fuel gas under varying sorbent induration temperature, reaction temperature, and superficial gas velocity. Sulfidation experiments were performed in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor between 500 °C and 600 °C. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H2S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Sorbent also showed 30 to 53% loss of its strength over four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. The former being sorbent indurated at 1115 °C and the prior being sorbent indurated at 1100 °C.

  17. CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS: A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, assesses their applications, and characterizes their performance. Additionally, it describes some of the advancements that have occurred in FGD technologies. Finally, it presents an analysis of the costs associated...

  18. In situ incorporation of nickel nanoparticles into the mesopores of MCM-41 by manipulation of solvent-solute interaction and its activity toward adsorptive desulfurization of gas oil.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Teymouri, Mohammad; Vahid, Amir; Miranbeigi, Aliakbar

    2011-09-15

    In this contribution, different amounts of nickel were incorporated into the mesopores of MCM-41 via an in situ approach. A hydrophobic nickel precursor was incorporated into the nanochannels of mesoporous silica by manipulation of solvent-solute interaction. The synthesized material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, temperature programmed reduction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results implicate the formation of MCM-41 with well-ordered hexagonal structure and establish also the presence of nickel nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of mesoporous silica. Adsorptive desulfurization of gas oil was conducted using the nickel-incorporated MCM-41 samples. The effects of nickel concentration, temperature of process and feed flow rate on the desulfurization process were examined. The MCM-41 containing 6 wt.% of nickel had both the highest breakthrough sulfur adsorption capacity and total sulfur adsorption capacity, which were 0.69 and 1.67 mg sulfur/g adsorbent, respectively. The breakthrough sulfur adsorption capacity was almost regained after reductive regeneration of spent adsorbent. The obtained results suggest that the method applied for the synthesis of Niy/MCM resulted in formation of well-dispersed, accessible and small nickel nanoparticles incorporated into the pores of MCM-41 which might be an advantage for adsorption of refractory sulfur compounds from low sulfur gas oil.

  19. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area.

  20. Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

    1996-08-05

    A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

  1. Adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W.

    1983-03-01

    The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO/sub 2/ control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  2. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Chang, Yung-Nan; Sistani, Karamat R; Wang, Yen-Wen; Lu, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Dong, Jing-Hong; Hu, Chih-Chung; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into the air and uptake in grass from all FGD material-treated soils were all higher (P < 0.1) than the amounts observed from untreated soil. Hg in the soil amended with the FGD material collected from a natural oxidation wet scrubber (i.e., SNO) was more readily released to air compared to the other two FGD materials collected from the synthetic gypsum dewatering vacuum belt (i.e., AFO-gypsum) and the waste water treatment plant (i.e., AFO-CPS) of a forced oxidation FGD system. No Hg was detected in the leachates collected during the only 3-hour, 1-inch rainfall event that occurred throughout the 4-week testing period. For every kilogram of FGD material applied to soil, AFO-CPS released the highest amount of Hg, B, and Se, followed by SNO, and AFO gypsum. Based on the same energy production rate, the land application of SNO FGD material from Plant S released higher amounts of Hg and B into ambient air and/or grass than the amounts released when AFO-gypsum from Plant A was used. Using FGD material with lower concentration levels of Hg and other elements of concern does not necessary post a lower environmental risk. In addition, this study demonstrates that considering only the amounts of trace elements uptake in surface vegetation may under estimate the overall release of the trace elements from FGD material-amended soils. It also shows, under the same soil amendment conditions, the mobility of trace elements varies when FGD materials produced from different processes are used.

  3. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W. . Environmental Systems Div.); Rochelle, G.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-29

    This report presents the results of fundamental mass transfer testing for in-duct removal of SO{sub 2}. Following this initial part of an experimental program, it became clear that the amount of initial moisture on the sorbent strongly affected the extent of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion. Novel techniques aimed at increasing sorbent utilization were investigated and are described. Major novel technique investigated and reported on here was the reaction with SO{sub 2} of sorbents with initial free moisture (damp sorbents). The duct injection process using damp solids has the following steps: preparation of sorbent as a slurry, blending of the slurry with dry recycle materials to create damp solids, injection of the solids into the duct, reaction and drying of the solids with flue gas in the duct, collection in particulate control equipment, and finally recycle of dry solids with some bleed to disposal. The moisture content of the solids at each step affects system performance. Various factors favor high moisture whereas others favor low moisture. (VC)

  4. Advanced wet flue gas desulfurization and denitrification process, Miami Fort station. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Two hundred and sixty-one coal-fired electric utility generating units in the United States are affected by Phase 1 the 1990 Clean Air Act revisions. The total MW of generating capacity affected is 87,261. Dravo Lime projects that 24,400 MW will be retrofitted with wet FGD for Phase 1; in Phase 2, another 6,600 MW will be retrofitted. Forty-one of the affected units, with a total capacity of 14,343 MW, are located Ohio. Figure A1 shows the location and approximate size of these units. Table Al lists the units and itemizes the allowable emissions. It is likely that several of the larger units in Ohio and elsewhere will be retrofitted by 1995--1997 with magnesium-enhanced lime based wet FGD, and the improvements found in the testing program could be included as part of these installations. Smaller diameter absorbers built for higher flue gas velocities would be easier to fabricate off-site and to ship by barge on the Ohio River to the plant site, as was done for the absorbers installed at the Zimmer station. Much smaller thickeners would be easier to fit onto cramped sites in retrofits.

  5. Utilization of the gypsum from a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Carty, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have been developing a process which converts FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with precipitated calcium carbonate as a by-product during the conversion. Preliminary cost estimates suggest that the process is economically feasible when ammonium sulfate crystals are produced in a granular size (1.2 to 3.3 mm), instead of a powder form. However, if additional revenue from the sale of the PCC for higher-value commercial application is applicable, this could further improve the economics of the process. Ammonium sulfate is known to be an excellent source of nitrogen and sulfur in fertilizer for corn and wheat production. It was not known what impurities might co-exist in ammonium sulfate derived from scrubber gypsum. Before the product could be recommended for use on farm land, the impurities and their impact on soil productivity had to be assessed. The objectives of this phase of the study were to evaluate the chemical properties of ammonium sulfate made from the FGD-gypsum, to estimate its effects on soil productivity, and to survey the marketability of the two products. The results of this phase of the study indicated that the impurities in the ammonium sulfate produced would not impose any practical limitations on its use at application levels used by farmers. The market survey showed that the sale price of solid ammonium sulfate fertilizer increased significantly from 1974 at $110/ton to 1998 at $187/ton. Utilities currently pay $16 to $20/ton for the calcium carbonate they use in their flue gas scrubber system. The industries making animal-feed grade calcium supplement pay $30/ton to $67/m-ton for their source of calcium carbonate. Paper, paint, and plastic industries pay as much as $200 to $300/ton for their calcium carbonate filers. The increased sale price of solid ammonium sulfate fertilizer and the possible additional revenue from the sale of the PCC by-product could further improve the economics of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum.

  6. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  8. Gas hydrates: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility for expanding the knowledge base and for developing methods to recover gas from hydrates. These are ice-like mixtures of gas and water where gas molecules are trapped within a framework of water molecules. This research is part of the Unconventional Gas Recovery (UGR) program, a multidisciplinary effort that focuses on developing the technology to produce natural gas from resources that have been classified as unconventional because of their unique geologies and production mechanisms. Current work on gas hydrates emphasizes geological studies; characterization of the resource; and generic research, including modeling of reservoir conditions, production concepts, and predictive strategies for stimulated wells. Complementing this work is research on in situ detection of hydrates and field tests to verify extraction methods. Thus, current research will provide a comprehensive technology base from which estimates of reserve potential can be made, and from which industry can develop recovery strategies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Process of desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.D.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for the desulfurization of flue gas utilizing limestone as absorbent in a double loop system, wherein the flue gas is introduced into a quenching zone for contact with a first slurry of the limestone, and thereafter passes to an absorbing zone for further contact with a second slurry of the limestone. The second slurry being supplied from a mixing zone into which water and limestone are charged. The first slurry being supplied from the solids rich stream from a solid-liquid separator which is supplied from the mixing zone, and wherein air is introduced into the quenching zone to convert the calcium sulfite present therein to gypsum. The improvement comprises supplying air to the mixing zone to convert calcium sulfite therein to large gypsum crystals which are preferentially separated into the first slurry.

  10. The removal of selenate to low ppb levels from flue gas desulfurization brine using the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR).

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Yang, Ziming; Kim, Bi-o; Sholin, Mark; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-05-01

    The H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was shown to consistently remove nitrate, nitrite, and selenate at high efficiencies from flue-gas desulfurization brine. Selenate was removed to <50 ppb which is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) criteria for the brine to be released into the environment. When selenate was removed to <50 ppb, nitrate and nitrite were still present in the mg/L range which suggests that selenate is able to be secondarily reduced to low levels when nitrate and nitrite serve as the main electron acceptors for bacterial growth. SO(4)(2-) was not removed and therefore did not compete with nitrate and selenate reduction for the available H(2).

  11. Dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas in a fluidized-bed reactor for a broad range of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature: A comparison of models

    SciTech Connect

    Suyadal, Y.; Oguz, H.

    1999-08-01

    In this work, dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas was investigated in a batchwise operated laboratory-scale stainless steel fluidized-bed reactor (46 x 500 mm{sup 2}) by using calcium-containing local Turkish limestone (Karaagach/MUS) which was calcined at 900 C with 5% H{sub 2}O vapor. The sulfation reaction was carried out in a broad range of temperature (200 {le} T({degree}C) {le} 900) and SO{sub 2} feedstock concentration (1000 {le} C(ppm SO{sub 2}) {le} 6000). The experimental sulfation conversion-time data were tested according to unreacted shrinking core model (SCM), changing the grain size model (GM) and random pore model (RPM). It was found that the random pore model with control of product layer (CaSO{sub 3}/CaSO{sub 4}) diffusion described the experimental data best.

  12. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation.

  13. A novel approach to realize SANI process in freshwater sewage treatment--Use of wet flue gas desulfurization waste streams as sulfur source.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Liang; Peng, Guo-Liang; Liang, Si-Yun; Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2013-10-01

    SANI (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated) process has been approved to be a sludge-minimized sewage treatment process in warm and coastal cities with seawater supply. In order to apply this sulfur-based process in inland cold areas, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can be simplified and integrated with SANI process, to provide sulfite as electron carrier for sulfur cycle in sewage treatment. In this study, a lab-scale system of the proposed novel process was developed and run for over 200 days while temperature varied between 30 and 5 °C, fed with synthetic FGD wastewaters and sewage. The sulfite-reducing upflow anaerobic sludge bed (SrUASB) reactor, as the major bioreactor of the system, removed 86.9% of organics while the whole system removed 94% of organics even when water temperature decreased to around 10 °C. The bactericidal effect of sulfite was not observed in the SrUASB reactor, while thiosulfate was found accumulated under psychrophilic conditions. The sludge yield of the SrUASB reactor was determined to be 0.095 kg VSS/kg COD, higher than of sulfate reduction process but still much lower than of conventional activated sludge processes. The dominant microbes in the SrUASB reactor were determined as Lactococcus spp. rather than sulfate-reducing bacteria, but sulfite reduction still contributed 85.5% to the organic carbon mineralization in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate were effectively removed in the aerobic and anoxic filters, respectively. This study confirms the proposed process was promising to achieve sludge-minimized sewage treatment integrating with flue gas desulfurization in inland and cold areas.

  14. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  15. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  16. EPRI High-Sulfur Test Center: Wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) sodium carbonate mass-transfer tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, J.B.; Burke, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    HSTC contains pilot- and mini-pilot-scale systems for investigating wet FGD technologies, as well as dry-injection and spray-drying pilot systems for investigating dry FGD technologies. A series of sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mass-transfer tests is the first step in characterizing the SO/sub 2/ removal capabilities of wet FGD systems at HSTC. By using sodium as the SO/sub 2/ absorbent, an excess of liquid-phase alkalinity is provided to assure that gas-limited mass transfer alone will control SO/sub 2/ removal. Objectives of this project were to determine the maximum possible SO/sub 2/ removal capabilities of the HSTC wet FGD systems under different configurations; to provide data for modeling SO/sub 2/ absorption under gas-limited mass-transfer conditions. Sodium mass-transfer tests were conducted using slurry with a high concentration of liquid-phase alkalinity, established by adding sodium carbonate and maintained with a unique, in situ, dual-alkali operating system that continuously regenerated slurry alkalinity with slaked quicklime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). This process allows testing of a slurry, simulating a lime or limestone scrubber, while maintaining an excess of liquid-phase alkalinity to assure gas-limited mass-transfer conditions. SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies were measured of the mini-pilot and pilot systems for three absorber configurations---spray tower, tray tower, and packed tower. More than 300 tests were conducted over a wide range of operating conditions, using various types of spray nozzles characterized for spray distribution patterns. 5 refs., 74 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Small gas turbine engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range is significantly lower than that of large engines. Engines of this size are typically used in rotorcraft, commutercraft, general aviation, and cruise missile applications. Principal reasons for the lower efficiencies of a smaller engine are well known: component efficients are lower by as much as 8 to 10 percentage points because of size effects. Small engines are designed for lower cycle pressures and temperatures because of smaller blading and cooling limitations. The highly developed analytical and manufacturing techniques evolved for large engines are not directly transferrable to small engines. Thus, it was recognized that a focused effort addressing technologies for small engies was needed and could significantly impact their performance. Recently, in-house and contract studies were undertaken at the NASA Lewis Research Center to identify advanced engine cycle and component requirements for substantial performance improvement of small gas turbines for projected year 2000 applications. The results of both in-house research and contract studies are presented. In summary, projected fuel savings of 22 to 42 percent could be obtained. Accompanying direct operating cost reductions of 11 to 17 percent, depending on fuel cost, were also estimated. High payoff technologies are identified for all engine applications, and recent results of experimental research to evolve the high payoff technologies are described.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  19. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  20. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA; Huo, Qisheng [Richland, WA

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  2. The adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 1. Field test results. Final report Feb 81-Feb 82

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, P.A.; Gerstle, R.W.; Henzel, D.S.; Mason, K.W.; Sabatini, S.R.

    1982-11-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the effect of adding adipic acid on the SO/sub 2/ removal of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on a coal-fired industrial boiler at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base near Columbus, OH. Emission data were collected in accordance with the regulations for SO/sub 2/ compliance data specified in the Federal Register. The test results show that adding adipic acid to the limestone slurry significantly improved the SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency of the FGD system. Limited baseline data on operations with limestone only indicated a performance level of 55% SO/sub 2/ removal. With the addition of about 2200 ppm of adipic acid to the limestone scrubbing system, the unit's level of performance increased to an average of 94.3% SO/sub 2/ removal (within a standard deviation of 2.2%) during which boiler load was 70-130 million Btu/hr and gas throughput varied 300%.

  3. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  4. Inert-gas thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Trock, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to recent advances in component technology for inert-gas thrusters. It is noted that the maximum electron emission of a hollow cathode with Ar can be increased 60-70% by using an enclosed keeper configuration. Operation with Ar but without emissive oxide has also been attained. A 30-cm thruster operated with Ar at moderate discharge voltages is found to give double-ion measurements consistent with a double-ion correlation developed earlier on the basis of 15-cm thruster data. An attempt is made to reduce discharge losses by biasing anodes positive of the discharge plasma. The performance of a single-grid ion-optics configuration is assessed. The ion impingement on the single-grid accelerator is found to approach the value expected from the projected blockage when the sheath thickness next to the accelerator is 2-3 times the aperture diameter.

  5. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  6. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-07-01

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m3-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m3-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater.

  7. Effect of gas-liquid flow pattern and microbial diversity analysis of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter for anoxic biogas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Almenglo, Fernando; Bezerra, Tercia; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David; Ramírez, Martín; Cantero, Domingo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was studied under anoxic conditions in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter operated under counter- and co-current gas-liquid flow patterns. The best performance was found under counter-current conditions (maximum elimination capacity of 140 gS m(-3) h(-1)). Nevertheless, switching conditions between co- and counter-current flow lead to a favorable redistribution of biomass and elemental sulfur along the bed height. Moreover, elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate when the feeding biogas was disconnected and the supply of nitrate (electron acceptor) was maintained. Removal of elemental sulfur was important to prevent clogging in the packed bed and, thereby, to increase the lifespan of the packed bed between maintenance episodes. The larger elemental sulfur removal rate during shutdowns was 59.1 gS m(-3) h(-1). Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing was used to study the diversity of bacteria under co-current flow pattern with liquid recirculation and counter-current mode with a single-pass flow of the liquid phase. The main desulfurizing bacteria were Sedimenticola while significant role of heterotrophic, opportunistic species was envisaged. Remarkable differences between communities were found when a single-pass flow of industrial water was fed to the biotrickling filter.

  8. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-07-26

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m(3)-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m(3)-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater.

  9. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m3-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m3-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater. PMID:27455890

  10. A Novel Sintering Gas Desulphurization Technology Applied in the Sintering Plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Jin; Tingyu, Zhu; Pengfei, Jing; Meng, Ye

    2010-05-01

    The emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) produced by the sinter machine takes up more than 50% of the total SO2 emission of the iron and steel industry in China. So it is necessary to take effective measures to strengthen the control of sintering gas desulphurization. A novel sintering gas desulphurization technology, the inner and outer circulating fluidized bed (IOCFB) which is suitable for retrofitting the existing metallurgical industry plants in China will be introduced in this paper. The novel composite internals which can improve the removal efficiency of SO2 is also described. Current research and development needs for IOCFB are to further increase desulphurization efficiency and improve the reliability of plant components. To solve these problems, a pilot plant emulating IOCFB desulfurization processes had been built.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Technologies Technology Brief

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a Technology Brief for the ETV Program. The EPA Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) develops test protocols and verifies the performance of innovative technologies that have the potential to improve protection of human health and the environment. The progr...

  12. A Survey on Gas Sensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Cheng, Sitian; Liu, Hong; Hu, Sha; Zhang, Daqiang; Ning, Huansheng

    2012-01-01

    Sensing technology has been widely investigated and utilized for gas detection. Due to the different applicability and inherent limitations of different gas sensing technologies, researchers have been working on different scenarios with enhanced gas sensor calibration. This paper reviews the descriptions, evaluation, comparison and recent developments in existing gas sensing technologies. A classification of sensing technologies is given, based on the variation of electrical and other properties. Detailed introduction to sensing methods based on electrical variation is discussed through further classification according to sensing materials, including metal oxide semiconductors, polymers, carbon nanotubes, and moisture absorbing materials. Methods based on other kinds of variations such as optical, calorimetric, acoustic and gas-chromatographic, are presented in a general way. Several suggestions related to future development are also discussed. Furthermore, this paper focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for performance indicators to compare different sensing technologies, analyzes the factors that influence these two indicators, and lists several corresponding improved approaches. PMID:23012563

  13. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  14. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  15. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Haiying Qi; Bo Hou; Changhe Chen; Xuchang Xu

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters. Structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Qi, Haiying; Hou, Bo; Chen, Changhe; Xu, Xuchang

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 degrees C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters, such as bed temperature, CO2 concentration, and solids concentration. In addition, structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 degrees C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area.

  17. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy.

  18. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2, Field investigations. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In this quarter, activity focused on the placement of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) grout into auger holes at the Sunny Ridge Mining Co. site. As discussed in previous reports, the grout was prepared using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-product obtained from the Costain Coal Company. The grout was thoroughly mixed with water and transferred to a concrete pumping truck. The nozzle on the pumper truck was attached to PVC pipe through which the grout was pumped into the auger holes. The first field test involved the placement of a very high slump, flowable grout into auger holes sing a simple, earthern bulkhead. These tests were conducted to explore the flowability of the grout. The second series of test was conducted with a lower-slump, higher-viscosity material pumped at high pressure and using sandbags as a bulkhead. The goal of these tests was to examine the feasibility of pressure grouting to completely fill auger holes with a material that will exhibit high long-term strength because of this low initial water content. Although there were many problems encountered during the field demonstration, these initial tests were, overall, successful. It was shown that a high-slump grout can be pumped the length of the auger holes, and can be successfully placed in holes containing standing water. Furthermore, this can be accomplished using available concrete emplacement equipment. In contrast, the pressure grouting proved more challenging than emplacement of the flowable grout mainly because of pipe-joint failures and difficulties in working the stiff, high-viscosity grout; the amount of water added to the mix is critical when placing this type of material. Cylinders of grout for compressive strength testing were prepared during field demonstration, and cores of the in situ hardened grout will be recovered after a minimum of 30 days. Additional field demonstration will focus on improving the procedure for placement of the flowable grout.

  19. Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.S.

    1995-02-01

    Dry regenerative sorption processes have recently attracted increasing attention in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) because of their several advantages over the conventional wet-scrubbing processes. Dry sorbents are usually made by coating a transition or alkaline earth metal precursor on the surface of a porous support. Major disadvantages of these sorbents prepared by the conventional methods include relatively poor attrition resistance and low SO{sub 2} sorption capacity. The physical and especially chemical attrition (associated with the sulphation-oxidation-reduction cycles in the process) deteriorates the performance of the sorbents. The low SO{sub 2} sorption capacity is primarily due to the small surface area of the support. Materials with a high surface area are not used as the supports for FGD sorbents because these materials usually are not thermally stable at high temperatures. In the past year, the research supported by Ohio Coal Development Office was focused on synthesis and properties of sol-gel derived alumina and zeolite sorbents with improved properties for FGD. The sol-gel derived alumina has large surface area, mesopore size and excellent mechanical strength. Some alumina-free zeolites not only posses the basic properties required as a sorbent for FGD (hydrophobicity, thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength) but also have extremely large surface area and selective surface chemistry. The major objectives of this research program were to synthesize the sol-gel derived sorbents and to explore the use of the zeolites either directly as adsorbents or as sorbent support for FGD. The research was aimed at developing novel FGD sorbents possessing better sorption equilibrium and kinetic properties and improved physical and chemical attrition resistance.

  20. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  1. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.

    1991-12-31

    New coal gasification processes are now being developed which can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in a combined gas-turbine, steam-turbine cycle or in a fuel cell. Both of these coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HC1) in the coal-gas. This project investigates the effect of HC1, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal-gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by the HC1, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HC1 along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from the coal-gas. This will negate any harmful consequences of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois in these processes. The bench- scale fluidized bed has been modified to prevent potential HC1 corrosion and startup experiments have proven the reactor system operable and capable of yielding reliable experimental results. The first of the planned experiments in the project are now being performed. 1 fig.

  2. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  3. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with

  4. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  5. [Domestication study about desulfuration microorganism from oxidation ditch by low concentration SO2].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Shi, Zhe; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Shi-Ling

    2010-06-01

    An excellent desulfuration microorganism with a quick growth and propagation, high activation, high efficiency of removing SO2 is obtained from oxidation ditch of a city sewage treatment plant by inductive acclimatization over 6 d with low concentration SO2 gas (100-2 000 mg/m3). The desulfurition microorganism get their energy sources for growth from transforming SO2 (SO3(2-)) to SO4(2-). The predominant bacterium of the desulfuration microorganism has the same characteristic with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T. ferrooxidans), which showed that it was Gram negative, short rod bacteria with a single polar flagellum under a microscopic examination, and obtained its nourishment through the oxidation of inorganic compounds. The technology process condition of domestication and desulfuration of microorganism are particular studied, and the results showed that aerating time, SO2 flux and time to provide nutriment contained N, P, K to microorganism were very important. They have an ability with degradation rate of 160g/ (m3 x h) and degradation efficiency over 50% to transform sulfite to sulfate in liquid phase. The bacteria have a 98% of removing efficiency and over 80% of biodegradation efficiency for the 5 500 mg/m3 SO2 gas and the outlet concentration of SO2 is lower than 100 mg/m3, and also have a 95% of removing efficiency for 15 000 mg/m3 SO2 gas in the packed tower reactor with Raschig ring at 3s contact time.

  6. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 7, May 1, 1992--August 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The features that distinguish the CZD process from other similar injection processes are: (1) Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. (2) Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. (3) Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. (4) Localized dispersion of the reagent. (5) Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. The waste product is composed of magnesium and calcium sulfite and sulfate, with some excess lime. This product mixed with fly ash is self-stabilizing because of the excess lime values, and thus tends to retain heavy metals in insoluble forms within the fly ash.

  7. Gas-path seal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas-path seals are needed for better fuel economy, longer performance retention, and lower maintenance, particularly in advanced, high-performance gas turbine engines. Problems encountered in gas-path sealing are described, as well as new blade-tip sealing approaches for high-pressure compressors and turbines. These include a lubricant coating for conventional, porous-metal, rub-strip materials used in compressors. An improved hot-press metal alloy shows promise to increase the operating surface temperatures of high-pressure-turbine, blade-tip seals to 1450 K (2150 F). Three ceramic seal materials are also described that have the potential to allow much higher gas-path surface operating temperatures than are possible with metal systems.

  8. The trend of future gas turbine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Future gas turbine technology will be based on contributions to the technology base being made today. At the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH, research is being conducted on turbomachinery system components and in a number of associated disciplines to advance the technology of aviation turbofan and torbojet engines. Areas of research include compressors, turbines, internal flow analysis, combustion, fuels, materials, structures, bearings, seals, lubrication, dynamics and controls, and instrumentation. A review of the research directions being taken in these areas and the steady advances being made provides a reasonable glimpse at gas turbine technology of the future.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  10. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing mixed metal oxides. Final report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    In this project the sulfidation and regeneration behavior of vanadium-promoted zinc ferrite sorbents was investigated by microreactor studies and physical characterization of the promoted sorbents. The discussion of results are presented for the fresh and used sorbent characterizations Zn-Fe-V-O, and standard sulfidation and regeneration experiments followed by the discussion of the effects of sulfidation temperature, calcination temperature, and the water vapor content of the simulated fuel gas.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization for a retrofit CO/sub 2/ recovery system at a coal-fired power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wedig, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    There is an increasing interest among utilities in recovering carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) from flue gas because of its value to oil companies for use in enhanced oil recovery products. However, before CO/sub 2/ can be recovered in a typical monoethanolamine (MEA) CO/sub 2/ removal system, the flue gas should be scrubbed to remove the sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/) to keep MEA losses minimal. This paper presents an analysis of three coal-fired electric generating stations with soda ash FGD systems that are assumed capable of reducing SO/sub x/ content to 20 ppmv. This paper does not address the removal of CO/sub 2/ from flue gas, CO/sub 2/ compression, CO/sub 2/ transport, or CO/sub 2/ commercial uses. This paper concerns the soda ash FGD system only. Based on the assumptions of this paper, the installed capital investment of soda ash FGD systems ranges from $96/kW to $240/kW (gross) in 1987 dollars. The estimated annualized cost (capital cost plus OandM cost) for FGD systems ranges from $4.7 to $11.4/ton CO/sub 2/ recovered (1987 first year costs).

  12. An analysis of extinction coefficients of particles and water moisture in the stack after flue gas desulfurization at a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Fu; Lin, Jenn-Der; Wu, Yee-Lin

    2011-08-01

    Two important factors that affect in-stack opacity--light extinction by emitted particles and that by water moisture after a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit--are investigated. The mass light extinction coefficients for particles and water moisture, k(p) and k(w), respectively, were determined using the Lambert-Beer law of opacity with a nonlinear least-squares regression method. The estimated k(p) and k(w) values vary from 0.199 to 0.316 m2/g and 0.000345 to 0.000426 m2/g, respectively, and the overall mean estimated values are 0.229 and 0.000397 m2/g, respectively. Although k(w) is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than k(p), experimental results show that the effect on light extinction by water moisture was comparable to that by particles because of the existence of a considerable mass of water moisture after a FGD unit. The mass light extinction coefficient was also estimated using Mie theory with measured particle size distributions and a complex refractive index of 1.5-ni for fly ash particles. The k(p) obtained using Mie theory ranges from 0.282 to 0.286 m2/g and is slightly greater than the averaged estimated k(p) of 0.229 m2/g from measured opacity. The discrepancy may be partly due to a difference in the microstructure of the fly ash from the assumption of solid spheres because the fly ash may have been formed as spheres attached with smaller particles or as hollow spheres that contained solid spheres. Previously reported values of measured k(p) obtained without considering the effects of water moisture are greater than that obtained in this study, which is reasonable because it reflects the effect of extinction by water moisture in the flue gas. Additionally, the moisture absorbed by particulate matter, corresponding to the effect of water moisture on the particulates, was clarified and found to be negligible.

  13. Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

  14. Adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers: Volume 1. Field test results. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, P.A.; Gerstle, R.W.; Henzel, D.S.; Mason, K.W.; Sabatini, S.R.

    1983-03-01

    Test results show that adding adipic acid to the limestone slurry significantly improved the SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency of the FGD system. Limited baseline data on operations with limestone only indicated a performance level of 55% SO/sub 2/ removal. Adding about 2200 ppM of adipic acid to the limestone scrubbing systems, the unit's level of performance increased to an average of 94.3% SO/sub 2/ removal which was maintained within a standard deviation of 2.2% over a 30-day test period during which boiler load was 70 to 130 million Btu/hr and gas throughput varied 300%.

  15. Selected technology for the gas industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers were presented at a conference concerned with the application of technical topics from aerospace activities for the gas industry. The following subjects were covered: general future of fossil fuels in America, exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes, technology for liquefied gas, safety considerations relative to fires, explosions, and detonations, gas turbomachinery technology, fluid properties, fluid flow, and heat transfer, NASA information and documentation systems, instrumentation and measurement, materials and life prediction, reliability and quality assurance, and advanced energy systems (including synthetic fuels, energy storage, solar energy, and wind energy).

  16. New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Milliken Station clean coal technology demonstration project and its impacts on the local ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gendron, L.J.; Rahimi, M.; Savichky, W.

    1998-12-31

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has recently completed a program which upgraded the boiler combustion system and installed a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The demonstration project was conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this clean coal technology demonstration (CCTD) project was to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. A four-year ambient monitoring program was conducted to evaluate the effects of the FGD system and combustion modifications on the local ambient air quality, the results of which are summarized in this paper. As part of NYSEG`s Milliken Station Clean Coal Technology Demonstration project, a flue gas desulfurization system was added as well as modifications to the combustion system and electrostatic precipitators. The demonstration project added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which was expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. The project scope also consisted of combustion modifications and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology to reduce NOx emissions. The burners were replaced with Low NOx Concentric Firing System Level 3 (LNCFS-3) burners to reduce NOx emissions while maintaining high combustion efficiency and acceptable fly ash loss on ignition (LOI). The electrostatic precipitators (ESP) on the two 160 MWe boilers were also upgraded to accommodate the wet flue gas desulfurization system. Upgrades of the ESP on each unit consisted of replacement of the internals and retirement of part of the original ESP.

  17. Composition modification of zinc titanate sorbents for hot gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.H.; Datta, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    For new coal gasification systems, zinc titanate sorbents are being developed to remove sulfur from the hot product gas prior to its use in combined cycle turbines and high temperature fuel cells. Although most of the properties of these sorbents are very attractive, there are still concerns about durability over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles and zinc losses due to vaporization. Doping the zinc titanate with other metal ions could alleviate both concerns, which are the objectives of this project. A screening study was completed during the second quarter in which Ni, Cr, Cu, Mg, and Al were evaluated as dopants in zinc titanate. Measurements that were made include solubility, crush strength, and sulfidation-regeneration behavior in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A formulation containing Cr showed the most promise. It and other formulations containing Cr will be emphasized during the remainder of the year. Fixed bed experiments will start during the third quarter.

  18. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  19. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  20. [Bioaccumulation of mercury in Crassostrea sp. exposed to waste seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue-gas desulfurization system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Yao; Yuan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yao-Jin

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in Crassostrea sp. exposed to waste seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a flue gas desulfurization system. Oysters were cultured in the discharge outlet of the power plant (studying site) and a control site, respectively. The total Hg (THg) concentrations (all counted as dry weight) of seawater in the studying and control sites were determined as (120.6 +/- 55.5) ng x L(-1) (n = 5) and (2.7 +/- 1.0) ng x L(-1) (n = 5), respectively, while methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations were (0.30 +/- 0.44) ng x L(-1) (n = 5) and (0.28 +/- 0.31) ng x L(-1) (n = 5), respectively. The THg in oyster at the studying site increased dramatically from (138.3 +/- 14.3) ng x g(-1) (n = 6) to (3 012 +/- 289) ng x g(-1) (n = 6) within 7 d, and remained at high levels of 2 935-4 490 ng x g(-1) for the next 34 d. In contrast, the THg in oyster at the control site showed no significant change, and kept at low levels of 60.7-137.5 ng x g(-1). After 41 d exposure, the MeHg in oyster at the studying site had no significant change, ranging from 55.4 ng x g(-1) to 73.1 ng x g(-1), and the content at the control site showed a slight decrease, ranging from 15.6 to 55.6 ng x g(-1). The study showed that THg in the waste seawater discharged at the coal-fired power plant could be quickly bioaccumulated by oyster to a great extent, the potential risk can thus not be ignored. MeHg concentration in the waste seawater was quite low, and no obvious bioaccumulation was found in oyster. Under the study conditions, no self-synthesis of MeHg or transformation of inorganic Hg into MeHg was found.

  1. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  2. Small Gas Turbine Engine Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Highly advanced small turbine engines will require novel and innovative concepts that minimize the cost and complexity of variable geometry if full...Enhanced computational tools development, verification and application to advanced concepts are rsquired to provide highly advanced, effi- cient... concepts . 3 EFFICIENT ENGINE CYCLES Small vs. large. - Previous investments in technology programs by govern- ment and industry have led to significant

  3. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, Pattie Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Zinc primer systems are currently used across NASA and AFSPC for corrosion protection of steel. AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of Thermal Spray Coatings (TSCs) as an environmentally preferable alternative. TSCs are approved in NASA-STD-5008 and AFSPC and KSC is currently looking for additional applications in which TSC can be used. Gas Dynamic Spray (GDS, also known as Cold Spray) is being evaluated as a means of repairing TSCs and for areas such as corners and edges where TSCs do not work as well. Other applications could include spot repair/maintenance of steel on structures, facilities, and ground support equipment.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-04-01

    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

  5. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  6. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  7. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. Ninth quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1992-- December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-12-31

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled ``Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies``, DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS{sub 2} + B(OH){sub 4}{sup =} ------> [S{sub 2}Fe-B(OH){sub 4}]{sub surf} + e. This reaction is irreversible and is controlled by the mass-transfer of borate species from the solution to the surface. It has been shown that the above reaction inhibits the adsorption of xanthate on pyrite. Comparative studies have been made with other sulfide minerals. The solution chemistry of the iron-borate systems have been studied to understand the electrochemical results.

  8. SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of performance. Data on worldwide FGD applications reflect that wet FGD technologies have been used at most of the installations. Among the ...

  9. Natural gas and oil technology partnership support

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership expedites development and transfer of advanced technologies through technical interactions and collaborations between the national laboratories and the petroleum industry - majors, independents, service companies, and universities. The Partnership combines the expertise, equipment, facilities, and technologies of the Department of Energy`s national laboratories with those of the US petroleum industry. The laboratories utilize unique capabilities developed through energy and defense R&D including electronics, instrumentation, materials, computer hardware and software, engineering, systems analysis, physics, and expert systems. Industry contributes specialized knowledge and resources and prioritizes Partnership activities.

  10. Development of High Temperature Gas Sensor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of engine emissions is important for their monitoring and control. However, the ability to measure these emissions in-situ is limited. We are developing a family of high temperature gas sensors which are intended to operate in harsh environments such as those in an engine. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) The development of SiC-based semiconductor technology; and (2) Improvements in micromachining and microfabrication technology. These technologies are being used to develop point-contact sensors to measure gases which are important in emission control especially hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this point-contact sensor technology. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. Of particular importance is sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in long-term, high temperature operation. An overview is presented of each sensor type with an evaluation of its stage of development. It is concluded that this technology has significant potential for use in engine applications but further development is necessary.

  11. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  12. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  13. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  14. Formation of (FexMn(2-x))O3 solid solution and high sulfur capacity properties of Mn-based/M41 sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, B S; Zhang, F M; Zhang, Z F

    2013-03-15

    Several MCM-41 materials were synthesized at different conditions by hydrothermal procedure using cheap and easily available industrial water glass as silica source. Fe doped manganese-based oxide/MCM-41 sorbents were prepared by a sol-gel method. The effects of loadings of metal oxide, Fe/Mn molar ratios over MCM-41 and reaction temperature on the performance of sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization were investigated. Various techniques such as BET, XRD, XPS, LRS and HRTEM were used to characterize the sorbents. The result indicated Fe(3+) ions could occupy a position of Mn(3+) in cubic lattice of Mn2O3 and the (FexMn2-x)O3 solid solution is mainly active phase of sorbent. Moreover, the result of nine successive sulfurization-regeneration cycles of sorbent showed high sulfur adsorption capacity and endurable stability of FeMn4Ox/MCM-41 for H2S removal.

  15. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  16. Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

  17. Coal desulfurization by cyclonic whirl

    SciTech Connect

    Jianguo, Y.; Wenjun, Z.; Yuling, W.

    1999-07-01

    The crux of coal desulfurization is how to improve separation efficiency for 3--0.1mm materials. Cyclonic whirl produce centrifugal force and shearing force, heavy medium cyclone uses former, and cyclone flotation column uses both of them. A new system with heavy medium cyclone and cyclone flotation column is provided and testified to be very efficient in commercial desulfurization.

  18. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  19. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  20. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  1. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  2. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  3. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  4. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization: Quarterly progress report, December 15, 1994--March 15, 1995. Task 2 -- Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; Rate mechanism analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-03-15

    In earlier studies, zinc ferrite and zinc titanate were developed as regenerable sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from hot fuel gases originating from coal gasification. Manganese ore as well as manganese carbonate, precipitated from aqueous solutions, combined with alumina to form indurated pellets hold promise of being a highly-effective, inexpensive, regenerable sorbent for hot fuel gases. Although the thermodynamics for sulfur removal by manganese predicts somewhat higher hydrogen sulfide over-pressures (i.e. poorer degree of desulfurization) than can be accomplished with zinc-based sorbents, zinc tends to be reduced to the metallic state under coal gasification conditions resulting in loss of capacity and reactivity by volatilization of reactive surfaces. This volatilization phenomenon limits the temperatures for which desulfurization can be effectively accomplished to less than 500 C for zinc ferrite and 700 C for zinc titanate; whereas, manganese-based sorbents can be utilized at temperatures well in temperatures exceeding 700 C. Also the regeneration of manganese-based pellets under oxidizing conditions may be superior to that of zinc titanate since they can be loaded from a simulated reducing coal-derived gas and then be regenerated at higher temperatures (up to 1,300 C). The topics that will be addressed by this study include: preparation of an effective manganese-based sorbent, thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by this sorbent, analysis of kinetics and mechanisms by which sulfur is absorbed by the sorbent (i.e., whether by gaseous diffusion, surface-controlled reaction, ore pore diffusion), and cyclic sulfidation and regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the sulfur.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.

    1987-02-23

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Silaban, A.; Harrison, D.P. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  8. Control of thiosulfate in wet desulfurization process solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Castrantas, H.M.

    1983-01-04

    A method for controlling the concentration of dissolved thiosulfate byproduct which forms in a wet desulfurization process, by introducing a peroxygen chemical into its recirculating aqueous absorption medium. A peroxygen chemical such as aqueous hydrogen peroxide is introduced into the recirculating aqueous alkaline absorption medium, preferably after its regeneration, in an amount sufficient to maintain the concentration of thiosulfate byproduct below a saturation concentration. The method is applicable to cyclic wet desulfurization processes, used to recover elemental sulfur from H/sub 2/S-containing gas streams, in which the absorption medium contains a regenerable oxidizing agent and is subject to thiosulfate byproduct buildup.

  9. Promoting international deployment of greenhouse gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kelley, J.S.; Voss, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing emission of greenhouse gases from human activities are predicted to lead to significant global warming and possible undesirable Environmental effects by the middle of the next century. These gases trap solar energy that is reradiated from the earth`s surface, raising its temperature. The gases-carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)-are emitted as the result of a wide range of anthropogenic activities, including the production and conversion of energy from fossil fuels, the operation of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, and coal mining, domestic sewage treatment, and the manufacture of cement and nylon. To slow global warming, technologies are being developed, promoted, and deployed to reduce these emissions. To make a practical response to global environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, it is recognized that international collaboration is needed. Because of the accelerating pace of technology innovation and the increasingly interconnected world economy, national efforts to adapt to global environmental challenges are no longer sufficient. Through international collaboration, scarce resources can be shared and technological solutions can be adapted and replicated. ORNL is responsible for managing and supporting the U.S, involvement in many of the implementing agreements. In addition to collaborating with GREENTIE, ORNL is involved with the following other IEA implementing agreements, either as executive committee members, national team leaders, or operating agents: the Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies, Heat Pump Program, Buildings and Community Systems, Alternative Motor Fuels, and Fusion Energy Stellerator Concept.

  10. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In the LIFAC process, limestone is injected into the upper part of the furnace where the temperatures are sufficiently high to calcine the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) to lime (CaO), which reacts with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), some of which oxidizes to form calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). The flue gas leaving the boiler then enters LIFAC's unique humidification chamber which increases the water content of the flue gas and activates the lime to enhance SO{sub 2} removal. Reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions are approximately 75--80%. Spent sorbent is then removed, along with the fly ash by an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  12. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    2001-11-01

    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid

  13. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  14. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  15. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2002-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States.

  16. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    SciTech Connect

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  17. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-11-07

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to selectively catalyze oxidation at sulfur.

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1990-03-23

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  19. Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of petrodiesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew S

    2008-08-01

    Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the most common technology used by refineries to remove sulfur from intermediate streams. However, HDS has several disadvantages, in that it is energy intensive, costly to install and to operate, and does not work well on refractory organosulfur compounds. Recent research has therefore focused on improving HDS catalysts and processes and also on the development of alternative technologies. Among the new technologies one possible approach is biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS). The advantage of BDS is that it can be operated in conditions that require less energy and hydrogen. BDS operates at ambient temperature and pressure with high selectivity, resulting in decreased energy costs, low emission, and no generation of undesirable side products. Over the last two decades several research groups have attempted to isolate bacteria capable of efficient desulfurization of oil fractions. This review examines the developments in our knowledge of the application of bacteria in BDS processes, assesses the technical viability of this technology and examines its future challenges.

  20. Advanced Technologies For Stripper Gas Well Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald; Charles M. Boyer; Joseph H. Frantz Jr; Paul A. Zyglowicz

    2005-04-01

    Stripper gas and oil well operators frequently face a dilemma regarding maximizing production from low-productivity wells. With thousands of stripper wells in the United States covering extensive acreage, it is difficult to identify easily and efficiently marginal or underperforming wells. In addition, the magnitude of reviewing vast amounts of data places a strain on an operator's work force and financial resources. Schlumberger DCS, in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has created software and developed in-house analysis methods to identify remediation potential in stripper wells relatively easily. This software is referred to as Stripper Well Analysis Remediation Methodology (SWARM). SWARM was beta-tested with data pertaining to two gas fields located in northwestern Pennsylvania and had notable results. Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC (Great Lakes) and Belden & Blake Corporation (B&B) both operate wells in the first field studied. They provided data for 729 wells, and we estimated that 41 wells were candidates for remediation. However, for reasons unbeknownst to Schlumberger these wells were not budgeted for rework by the operators. The second field (Cooperstown) is located in Crawford, Venango, and Warren counties, Pa and has more than 2,200 wells operated by Great Lakes. This paper discusses in depth the successful results of a candidate recognition study of this area. We compared each well's historical production with that of its offsets and identified 339 underperformers before considering remediation costs, and 168 economically viable candidates based on restimulation costs of $50,000 per well. From this data, we prioritized a list based on the expected incremental recoverable gas and 10% discounted net present value (NPV). For this study, we calculated the incremental gas by subtracting the volumes forecasted after remediation from the production projected at its current

  1. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  2. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosád, Jan; Vít, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.

  3. Ultrasonic coal-wash for de-sulfurization.

    PubMed

    Ambedkar, B; Nagarajan, R; Jayanti, S

    2011-05-01

    Coal is the one of the world's most abundant fossil fuel resources. It is not a clean fuel, as it contains ash and sulfur. SOx as a pollutant are a real threat to both the ecosystem and to human health. There are numerous de-sulfurization methods to control SO(2) emissions. Nowadays, online flue gas de-sulfurization is being used as one such method to remove sulfur from coal during combustion. The biggest disadvantage associated with this method is formation of by-products (FGD gypsum). A way for effective usage of FGD gypsum has not yet been found. This will lead to acute and chronic effects to humans as well as plants. Power ultrasound can be used for the beneficiation of coal by the removal of sulfur from coal prior to coal combustion. The main effects of ultrasound in liquid medium are acoustic cavitation and acoustic streaming. The process of formation, growth and implosion of bubbles is called cavitation. Bulk fluid motion due to sound energy absorption is known as acoustic streaming. In addition, coupling of an acoustic field to water produces OH radicals, H(2)O(2), O(2), ozone and HO(2) that are strong oxidizing agents. Oxidation that occurs due to ultrasound is called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). It converts sulfur from coal to water-soluble sulphates. Conventional chemical-based soaking and stirring methods are compared here to ultrasonic methods of de-sulfurization. The main advantages of ultrasonic de-sulfurization over conventional methods, the mechanism involved in ultrasonic de-sulfurization and the difference between aqueous-based and solvent-based (2N HNO(3), 3-volume percentage H(2)O(2)) de-sulfurization are investigated experimentally.

  4. Gas chromatography using resistive heating technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anzi; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2012-10-26

    Air bath ovens are standard in conventional gas chromatography (GC) instruments because of their simplicity and reliability for column temperature control. However, their low heating rates, high power consumption and bulky size are in conflict with the increasing demands for fast separation and portable instrumentation. The deficiencies of air bath ovens can be eliminated using resistive heating technology, as the column is conductively heated by compact resistive heaters with low thermal mass. Resistive heating methods were employed in the early years of GC history, and they are emerging again as instrumentation is becoming more compact and sophisticated. Numerous designs have been tested and some have been successfully commercialized. Development of portable GC systems, including lab-on-a-chip devices, greatly benefits from the use of small, low-power resistive heating hardware. High speed GC separations using conventional instruments also can be best achieved with resistive heating modules. Despite some of its own inherent disadvantages, including efficiency loss, complex manufacturing and inconvenient column maintenance, resistive heating is expected to rapidly become a mature technology and even replace oven heating in the not-to-distant future.

  5. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The target for the project has been shifted from filling, highwall mine adits to filling auger holes with FGD material to provide a stable highwall for automated highwall mining. As reported previously, this shift in emphasis is economically desirable and practical, as the filling operation is safer and permits access to ``locked in`` high quality coal behind existing auger holes. As also reported previously, the fill material was shifted from dry FGD materials to a Fluidized Bed Combustion fly ash from the Archer Daniel Midland No. 6 facility in Illinois. Previous reports have summarized the characterization of this material for the project. However, due mostly to economic concerns with prehydration and transport of the Archer Daniel Midland (ADM6) material, several new desulfurization by-products stored at the Costain facility in Allen, Kentucky were considered during, this quarter. At this stage of the project, the change in fill material required rapid assessment in much the same way an applied working project would demand quick evaluation. This change thus provided an opportunity to demonstrate a rapid assessment of material suitability. The results described below were obtained in a short time frame, and with the exception of characterizing the long term swell and durability of the products, the rapid assessment was a success. No rapid assessment methodology for long term behavior has been developed at this time. The mineralogical characteristics of the two Costain materials will not be summarized in detail here. Unlike the ADM6 ash, the spray dryer and FBC materials currently under review do not include the large percentages of free lime (CaO) that was shown to cause high mixing temperatures in the nonprehydrated ADM6 product. This absence of free lime in the raw by-products is immediately evident when mixing with water, as no significant heating of the mixture is observed.

  6. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Gas suspension absorption as effective as scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.

    1996-01-01

    A cost-shared demonstration project undertaken jointly by AirPol Inc., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Department of Energy at the Shawnee Fossil Plant successfully demonstrated gas suspension absorption technology`s ability to remove more than 90% of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. The performance is roughly equivalent to wet scrubbing. The process operates with a high degree of reliability and removes almost all trace metals from the flue gas for about 30% less cost than conventional wet limestone flue gas desulfurization.

  8. Desulfurization of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, P.E. Jr.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described for reforming a sulfur-containing naphtha feed, wherein is included in combination, a hydrofiner which contains a metal catalyst, the metallic component of which is selected from Group VIB and Group VIII, with which the sulfur-containing naphtha feed is contacted with hydrogen, at reaction conditions inclusive of temperatures ranging from about 400/sup 0/F to about 850/sup 0/F to remove sulfur and provide a product naphtha which contains from about 5 wppm to about 50 wppm, and higher, sulfur, a guard chamber filled with a sorbent into which the partially desulfurized hydrofined naphtha is injected to flow therethrough to effect further removal of sulfur, and a reforming unit which contains a plurality of sulfur sensitive catalyst-containing on-stream reactors connected in series, the naphtha feed to which flows in sequence from one reactor of the series of another to contact the catalyst contained therein at reforming conditions, the improvement comprising maintaining within the guard chamber a sorbent comprised of nickel in concentration ranging from about 10 percent to about 70 percent, calculated as metallic nickel based on the total weight of the sorbent, iron in concentration ranging from about 1 percent to about 15 percent, calculated as metallic iron based on the total weight of the sorbent, and a porous, refractory inorganic oxide, at temperatures ranging above about 350/sup 0/F, to produce a reformer feedstock containing no more than about 2 wppm sulfur.

  9. Process for desulfurizing combustion exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, T.; Matsuda, S.; Mori, T.; Nishimura, T.; Nishimura, Y.

    1982-05-04

    An improved process for desulfurizing combustion exhaust gases of mainly coal containing sulfur oxides, Hf and dust containing Al is provided, which process consists of four steps; a first step of contacting the gases with calcium carbonate or hydroxide in the form of slurry to convert the sulfur oxides into caso3; a second step of contacting O2 with the resulting slurry to convert CaSo3 into caso4; a third step of separating caso4 and mother liquor from the resulting slurry; and a fourth step of preparing a slurry of calcium carbonate or hydroxide to be employed in the first step, from the mother liquor, the pHs of the slurry and the mother liquor in the first and fourth steps being adjusted to 5 or higher by adding alkali such as sodium carbonate. According to the present process, it is possible to prevent hindrance of hf and al contained in dust to the reaction of so2absorbent (CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2) with SO2 gas, and thereby improve percentage desulfurization and also obtain a high quality gypsum.

  10. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  11. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  12. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine engine is reviewed. Development of the engine compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, regenerator, and secondary system is discussed. Ceramic materials development and the application of such materials in the gas turbine engine components is described.

  13. Gas separation applications to METC-supported technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Poku, J.A.; Plunkett, J.E.

    1989-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to catalog both hot and cold gas separation technologies, to identify the status and the developers of each, and to identify how these separation processes might be applied to METC-supported technologies for removal of trace contaminants, or purification of gases used in or generated by coal processing. Discussions on gas separation process names, typical feeds, process developers, and operating conditions are provided in the following sections of this report, as well as descriptions of how these gas cleanup techniques would be used in developmental coal conversion technologies. 82 refs., 22 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  15. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate derivatives of the entire IGTS8 BDS plasmid

  16. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II

    1995-12-31

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  17. Combustion Light Gas Gun Technology Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-23

    sealed with a projectile and filled with a light combustible gaseous propellant mix such as Hydrogen and Oxygen or Methane/Oxygen/ Helium at pressures of...supplied from conventional gas bottles filled with methane, hydrogen, helium , and helium -oxygen mixtures. A two-stage high pressure pumping system... pressure waves. A diluent can be either an inert gas such as helium or excess fuel such as methane or hydrogen. It has been shown that if the diluent

  18. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    The DTFF was modified to extend the operating range to larger sample collection capabilities and higher temperatures. A plasma gas heater was designed and constructed so that temperatures and heating rates encountered by pulverized coal particles in the flames of large boilers or in the advanced slogging combustors are better simulated. The modified DTFF, referred to as the Ash Characterization Facility, has been set up and initial tests with ash collection and analysis have been performed. The plasma torch has been tested, and steady operation has been established. The Ash Characterization Facility has been used to produce ash samples from IBC 106 coal at several temperatures and residence times. The total sulfur in the ash samples has been determined, showing the contributions of methane coming for operating parameters. A long sampling probe has been constructed, which win enable ash and char samples to be obtained at various residence times. Preparatory work with the gas chromatograph has been initiated to permit the simultaneous analysis of both the gas phase with the solid particle.

  19. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the research will be focused on the preliminary analyses of hydrogen fuel based power production technologies utilizing hydrogen fuel in a large size, heavy-duty gas turbines in integrated reformer combined cycle (IRCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation. The research will be expanded step-by-step to include other advanced (e.g., Net Power, a potentially transformative technology utilizing a high efficiency CO2 conversion cycle (Allam cycle), and chemical looping etc.) pre-combustion and post-combustion technologies applied to natural gas, other fossil fuels (coal and heavy oil) and biomass/biofuel based on findings. Screening analysis is already under development and data for the analysis is being processed. The immediate action on this task include preliminary economic and environmental analysis of power production technologies applied to natural gas. Data for catalytic reforming technology to produce hydrogen from natural gas is being collected and compiled on Microsoft Excel. The model will be expanded for exploring and comparing various technologies scenarios to meet our goal. The primary focus of this study is to: 1) understand the chemic

  20. Study on propane-butane gas storage by hydrate technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Nurkholis; Wijayanti, Widya; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2016-03-01

    Different technology has been applied to store and transport gas fuel. In this work the storage of gas mixture of propane-butane by hydrate technology was studied. The investigation was done on the effect of crystallizer rotation speed on the formation of propane-butane hydrate. The hydrates were formed using crystallizer with rotation speed of 100, 200, and 300 rpm. The formation of gas hydrates was done at initial pressure of 3 bar and temperature of 274K. The results indicated that the higher rotation speed was found to increase the formation rate of propane-butane hydrate and improve the hydrates stability.

  1. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E.

    1992-12-31

    The DTFF is extended to larger sample collecting capability and higher temperatures, resulting in the establishment of the Ash Characterization Facility and the High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace. The Ash Characterization Facility enables continuous coal injection and sampling under controlled conditions. Several hundred milligrams of char or ash can be collected in one-half hour. The High Temperature Drop Tube Furnace uses a plasma torch to preheat the gas to over 2000 K and inject it into a ceramic tube which enters a furnace designed for 1700{degrees}C (1973 K) operation, so that temperatures and heating rates encountered by pulverized coal particles in the flames of large boilers or in the advanced slagging cyclone combustors can be simulated. An aerodynamic coal feeder works well in supplying coal continuously to the drop tube. A watercooled, Helium-quench sampling probe collects the solid samples. A scanning electron microscope is used to study the morphology of ash and char particles. A sulfur determinator, a gas chromatograph provide analytical means in the laboratory, and the Illinois State Geological Survey performs other necessary analyses of the samples. Tests on cofiring coal with I to 4% methane show that sulfur retention in ash was related to temperature and residence time. The addition of methane caused changes in gas temperature profile in the tube and also changes in chemical composition of the gases. The overall effect on sulfur retention is seen to be a result of several complex interacting factors. Further detailed studies are necessary to clarify the contribution of each factor and to provide clues to the mechanism of the process.

  2. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The kinetics study which is investigating hydration reactions of the ADM by-product (Subtask 2.2) was continued this quarter. This study further aided in gaining information on mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions during hydration of the ADM materials. The information is of importance for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that control strength and long-term stability during aging of FGD materials. The decision was made by Addington, Inc., DOE, and the University of Kentucky that the originally selected mine site for the emplacement demonstration must be changed, mainly for safety reasons. Mine selection will be a priority for the next quarter (Jul--Sep, 1995). Another activity during this reporting period was related to Subtask 4.3, the selection and testing of the transport system for the FGD material. A laboratory-scale pneumatic emplacement test unit (ETU) for dry FGD materials was built at the CAER to generate data so that a final selection of the field demonstration technology can be made. A dry pneumatic system was chosen for laboratory testing because the equipment and expertise available at the CAER matched this sort of technology best. While the design of the laboratory system was based on shotcrete technology, the physical properties of the emplaced FGD material is expected to be similar for other transport techniques, either pneumatic or hydraulic. In other words, the selection of a dry pneumatic transport system for laboratory testing does not necessarily imply that a scaled-up version will be used for the field demonstration. The ETU is a convenient means of producing samples for subsequent chemical and physical testing by a representative emplacement technology. Ultimately, the field demonstration technology will be chosen based on the laboratory data and the suitability of locally available equipment.

  3. Deep source gas: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Deep Source Gas research is focused on the hypothesis that natural gas is generated in sediments carried to great depths at convergent plate boundaries in the Earth's crust. These deeply emplaced sediments may be the source of gas for shallower, drillable traps. Many areas of North America are believed to have experienced plate tectonic convergence. The western Cordilleran Geologic Province, in particular, appears to have geologic fault structures (associated with subduction and obduction) that enabled deep emplacement of hydrocarbon-generating sediments during more recent geologic ages (during the last 180 million years). The specific area of interest in this Province encompasses approximately 1.5 million square miles of the western US (including Alaska) and Canada; other portions of this same province extend southward into Mexico and Central and South America. The ongoing research consists of basic studies of hydrocarbon generation, stability, and preservation of depths in excess of 30,000 feet, in addition to a comprehensive evaluation of the geologic structures, stratigraphy, and geochemistry of the above region. Results to date include (1) geologic and geophysical evidence of deeply emplaced sedimentary rock units at depths exceeding 30,000 feet in western Washington and south-central Alaska, (2) a new methodology for verifying deep methane stability with fluid inclusion studies, and (3) a preliminary gas resource estimate of 3000 Tcf. 17 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Applications for Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der List, M.; van Vliet, L. D.; Sanders, H. M.; Put, P. A. G.; Elst, J. W. E. C.

    2004-10-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Bradford Engineering B.V. conducted, in corporation with the Dutch research institute TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory (PML) a SME study for ESA-ESTEC for the identification of spaceflight applications and on-ground demonstration of Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology. This innovative technology has been developed by TNO-PML while Bradford Engineering also brought in its experience in spaceflight hardware development and manufacturing. The Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology allows for pure gas generation at ambient temperatures, as opposed to conventional solid propellant gas generators. This makes the SPCGG technology interesting for a wide range of terrestrial spaceflight applications. During the first part of the study, a variety of potential applications have been identified and three applications were selected for a more detailed quantitative study. In the third phase a ground demonstration was performed successfully for a cold gas propulsion system application. During the actual demonstration test, 10 cool gas generators were mounted and all operated successfully in sequence, demonstrating good repeatability of the produced amount of gas and pressure.

  5. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  6. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  7. Leaching of the residue from the dry off-gas de-dusting and desulfurization process of an iron ore sinter plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof; Xu, Qi; Neuhold, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The residue from a second-stage dry sinter plant off-gas cleaning process contains both the fine dust from the sinter plant and the sorbent used. Recycling of the material that is usually handled by landfills to the sinter plant feed is not possible because of its chloride content. Leaching of the chlorides allow the recycling of remaining solids. The saline leachate produced contains some heavy metals and must be treated before it is discharged into the sea. In laboratory experiments, leaching tests with the subsequent treatment of the leachate were conducted. After the process was optimized, all heavy-metal concentrations were below the permissible values. The optimum treatment conditions for heavy-metal precipitation were observed to be the filtration of the suspended solids followed by the dosing of liquid with lime milk (pH 10) and the subsequent precipitation using sodium sulfide.

  8. Gas Shielding Technology for Welding and Brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur J.; Gradl, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Welding is a common method that allows two metallic materials to be joined together with high structural integrity. When joints need to be leak-tight, light-weight, or free of contaminant-trapping seams or surface asperities, welding tends to be specified. There are many welding techniques, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of these techniques include Forge Welding, Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, Friction Stir Welding, and Laser Beam Welding to name a few. Whichever technique is used, the objective is a structural joint that meets the requirements of a particular component or assembly. A key practice in producing quality welds is the use of shielding gas. This article discusses various weld techniques, quality of the welds, and importance of shielding gas in each of those techniques. Metallic bonds, or joints, are produced when metals are put into intimate contact. In the solid-state "blacksmith welding" process, now called Forge Welding (FOW), the site to be joined is pounded into intimate contact. The surfaces to be joined usually need to be heated to make it easier to deform the metal. The surfaces are sprinkled with a flux to melt surface oxides and given a concave shape so that surface contamination can be squeezed out of the joint as the surfaces are pounded together; otherwise the surface contamination would be trapped in the joint and would weaken the weld. In solid-state welding processes surface oxides or other contamination are typically squeezed out of the joint in "flash."

  9. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01

    -through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

  10. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 1, Dry sorbent injection: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    This report presents the results of fundamental mass transfer testing for in-duct removal of SO{sub 2}. Following this initial part of an experimental program, it became clear that the amount of initial moisture on the sorbent strongly affected the extent of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion. Novel techniques aimed at increasing sorbent utilization were investigated and are described. Major novel technique investigated and reported on here was the reaction with SO{sub 2} of sorbents with initial free moisture (damp sorbents). The duct injection process using damp solids has the following steps: preparation of sorbent as a slurry, blending of the slurry with dry recycle materials to create damp solids, injection of the solids into the duct, reaction and drying of the solids with flue gas in the duct, collection in particulate control equipment, and finally recycle of dry solids with some bleed to disposal. The moisture content of the solids at each step affects system performance. Various factors favor high moisture whereas others favor low moisture. (VC)

  11. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  12. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  13. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  14. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9.

  15. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, M. H.; Chepanoske, W. A.; Feret, J. M.; France, L. L.; Haines, N. L.; Heberling, C. F.; Holman, R. R.; Kelly, J. L.; Kochka, E. L.

    1992-03-01

    The development is reported of a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. Results of this effort include: (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, components designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into fun height 100 kill stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kill module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  16. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents in detail the work performed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Energy Research Corporation during the fourth phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. The results of this effort include (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through innovative improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, component designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into full height 100 kW stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kW module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  17. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The work performed during the Second Logical Unit of Work of a multi-year program designed to develop a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) for electric utility power plant application is discussed. The Second Logical Unit of Work, which covers the period May 14, 1983 through May 13, 1984, was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  18. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensions with hexadecane at 0.50 (vol/vol) containing 10 mM dibenzothiophene. The resin Dowex Optipore SD-2 was added to the BDS experiments at resin concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 g resin/liter total volume. The HBP concentration within the cytoplasm was estimated to decrease from 1,100 to 260 μM with increasing resin concentration. Despite this finding, productivity did not increase with the resin concentration. This led us to focus on the susceptibility of the desulfurization enzymes toward HBP. Dose-response experiments were performed to identify major inhibitory interactions in the most common BDS pathway, the 4S pathway. HBP was responsible for three of the four major inhibitory interactions identified. The concentrations of HBP that led to a 50% reduction in the enzymes' activities (IC50s) for DszA, DszB, and DszC were measured to be 60 ± 5 μM, 110 ± 10 μM, and 50 ± 5 μM, respectively. The fact that the IC50s for HBP are all significantly lower than the cytoplasmic HBP concentration suggests that the inhibition of the desulfurization enzymes by HBP is responsible for the observed reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with HBP generation. PMID:24096431

  19. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  20. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines - Review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief review of past efforts involving the forced-convection cooling of gas turbines, the paper surveys the state of the art of the liquid cooling of gas turbines. Emphasis is placed on thermosyphon methods of cooling, including those utilizing closed, open, and closed-loop thermosyphons; other methods, including sweat, spray and stator cooling, are also discussed. The more significant research efforts, design data, correlations, and analytical methods are mentioned and voids in technology are summarized.

  1. STOVL hot gas ingestion control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Amuedo, K.C.; Williams, B.R.; Flood, J.D. ); Johns, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a comprehensive wind tunnel test program conducted to evaluate control of Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) on a 9.2 percent scale model of the McDonnell Aircraft Company model 279-3C advanced Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) configuration. The test was conducted in the NASA-Lewis Research Center 9 ft by 15 ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel during the summer of 1987. Initial tests defined baseline HGI levels as determined by engine face temperature rise and temperature distortion. Subsequent testing was conducted to evaluate HGI control parametrically using Lift Improvement Devices (LIDs), forward nozzle splay angle, a combination of LIDs and forward nozzle splay angle, and main inlet blocking. The results from this test program demonstrate that HGI can be effectively controlled and that HGI is not a barrier to STOVL aircraft development.

  2. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  3. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  4. Gas core reactor concepts and technology - Issues and baseline strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Kahook, Samer; Maya, Isaac

    1991-01-01

    Results of a research program including phenomenological studies, conceptual design, and systems analysis of a series of gaseous/vapor fissile fuel driven engines for space power platforms and for thermal and electric propulsion are reviewed. It is noted that gas and vapor phase reactors provide the path for minimum mass in orbit and trip times, with a specific impulse from 1020 sec at the lowest technololgical risk to 5200 sec at the highest technological risk. The discussion covers various configurations of gas core reactors and critical technologies and the nuclear vapor thermal rocket engine.

  5. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.; Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine was evaluated. The engine structure, bearings, oil system, and electronics were demonstrated and no shaft dynamics or other vibration problem were encountered. Areas identified during the five tests are the scroll retention features, and transient thermal deflection of turbine backplates. Modifications were designed. Seroll retention is addressed by modifying the seal arrangement in front of the gasifier turbine assembly, which will increase the pressure load on the scroll in the forward direction and thereby increase the retention forces. the backplate thermal deflection is addressed by geometric changes and thermal insulation to reduce heat input. Combustor rig proof testing of two ceramic combustor assemblies was completed. The combustor was modified to incorporate slots and reduce sharp edges, which should reduce thermal stresses. The development work focused on techniques to sinter these barrier materials onto the ceramic rotors with successes for both material systems. Silicon carbide structural parts, including engine configuration gasifier rotors (ECRs), preliminary gasifier scroll parts, and gasifier and power turbine vanes are fabricated.

  8. [Experimental investigation of nano-TiO2 on combustion and desulfurization Catalysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-qin; Zhao, Yi; Tan, Qian; Xu, Pei-yao

    2008-02-01

    Experiment research of nanometer TiO2 catalytic combustion to CaO desulfurization was studied. Desulfurization effect was measured by the composition analysis of fly ash after combustion and the content of SO2 in flue gas. The effects of analytical grade CaO desulfurization by nanometer TiO2 addition, Ca/S molar ratio, nanometer TiO2 that was prepared at different conditions and combustion temperature were discussed. Desulfurization effects were compared with different coals and Ca-base agents by nanometer TiO2 addition. The reaction products wereanalyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The combustion desulfurization mechanisms of CaO by nanometer TiO2 addition were discussed. The experiment results show that nanometer TiO2 has good catalytic effect to CaO combustion desulfurization. When nanometer TiO2 was added together with CaO, the optimal addition dosage of nanometer TiO2 is 8%, Ca/S molar ratio is 2 and the combustion temperature is 850 degrees C. The desulfurization efficiency of analytical and industrial grade CaO catalyzed by nanometer TiO2 can achieve to 87.8% and 60.3%, and it increased 13.4% and 29.6% than that without nanometer TiO2. The pore diameter and surface area of different coal ashes with nano-TiO2 addition increase because of the active centers of nano-TiO2 surface which are helpful to the diffusion of SO2 and reaction of SO2 to SO3 and increase the desulphurization efficiency of CaO.

  9. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Oxidative desulfurization: kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-30

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel.

  11. Evaluation of Mars CO2 Capture and Gas Separation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    Recent national policy statements have established that the ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to ,enable such missions and it is appropriate to review progress in this area and continue to advance the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. The Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as well. To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (C02-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3)/carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include' freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents

  12. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3) for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the ...

  14. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J E

    1975-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  15. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zaishan; Lin, Zhehang; Niu, Hejingying; He, Haiming; Ji, Yongfeng

    2009-03-15

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH(4)HCO(3)) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH(4)HCO(3) and zeolite could reduce SO(2) to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO(x) to nitrogen with the best NO(x) purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO(x) concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO(2) concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO(2), NO(x) and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent.

  16. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This is the sixth quarterly report for this project and it covers work performed on Phase 3a of the project from February 1, 1992 through April 30, 1992. Extension of the parametric test period through June 1992 provides an opportunity to regain most of the schedule slippage, but only if the modifications needed for continuous operation of the CZD system are installed concurrent with the extended test period. These modifications include automation of the lime preparation and transfer system, automatic injection control, and related instrumentation and controls as necessary to integrate the operation of the CZD system with Seward Station Boiler No. 15. Early installation of these modifications would permit testing, debugging and adjustment of the automatic control system during the parametric test period. Results of current testing indicate that considerable testing and adjustment will be required to optimize operation of the CZD system after it is automated for continuous operation. Therefore, we intend to incorporate in Phase 3a(parametric testing) the system modifications needed for continuous automatic operation that were originally included in Phase 3b. Phase 3b would then be limited only to the one-year continuous demonstration.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  18. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO[sub 2] reduction has been achieved, but the NO[sub x] reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO[sub 2] reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO[sub 2] Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel's original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO[sub 2] removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  19. Molecular biology of coal bio-desulfurization. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.D.; Gallagher, J.R.

    1992-04-30

    Genes cloned from Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 can transfer the DBT desulfurization phenotype to a different species (R. Fascians). The product was identified as 2-phenylphenol by gas chromatography. This result parallels the results we have previously reported for the activity of these genes in a DBT-negative mutant of IGTS8. Thus, the evidence is strong that we have identified and cloned the entire set of genes that are responsible for this very specific desulfurization reaction. Sequencing of these genes has commenced. A genomic library was constructed from the bacterium, Besulfovibrio desulfuricans. Screening has not yet identified a clone that carries the desulfurization genes from that organism. Two open reading frames, doxH and doxJ, in the C18 DBT degradation pathway were mutated and are now believed to be dispensable to that pathway. Finally, progress was made toward beginning to sequence the DBT dixoygenase genes from strain A15.

  20. Molecular biology of coal bio-desulfurization. [Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.D.; Gallagher, J.R.

    1992-04-30

    Genes cloned from Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 can transfer the DBT desulfurization phenotype to a different species (R. Fascians). The product was identified as 2-phenylphenol by gas chromatography. This result parallels the results we have previously reported for the activity of these genes in a DBT-negative mutant of IGTS8. Thus, the evidence is strong that we have identified and cloned the entire set of genes that are responsible for this very specific desulfurization reaction. Sequencing of these genes has commenced. A genomic library was constructed from the bacterium, Besulfovibrio desulfuricans. Screening has not yet identified a clone that carries the desulfurization genes from that organism. Two open reading frames, doxH and doxJ, in the C18 DBT degradation pathway were mutated and are now believed to be dispensable to that pathway. Finally, progress was made toward beginning to sequence the DBT dixoygenase genes from strain A15.

  1. FY-2001 Accomplishments in Off-gas Treatment Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Douglas William

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the efforts funded by the Tank Focus Area to investigate nitrogen oxide (NOx) destruction (a.k.a. deNOx) technologies and off-gas scrubber system designs. The primary deNOx technologies that were considered are staged combustion (a.k.a. NOx reburning), selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction, and steam reformation. After engineering studies and a team evaluation were completed, selective catalytic reduction and staged combustion were considered the most likely candidate technologies to be deployed in a sodium-bearing waste vitrification facility. The outcome of the team evaluation factored heavily in the establishing a baseline configuration for off-gas and secondary waste treatment systems.

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  3. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-04-01

    Research activities in the second quarter have largely been a continuation of efforts previously described in the first quarterly report as well as a degree of redirection of effort as a result of discussions during the first quarterly meeting held in San Diego. Chemical synthesis efforts have been refined and are currently being used to support generation of substrates for evaluation and evolution of enzymes for their oxidation. Analysis of the sulfur species in Petro Star diesel, CED extract and refinement of the speciation data is nearly complete. Molecular biology efforts continue with the cloning, expression and characterization of the DszA and DszC proteins as well as the flavin reductases to support regeneration of the essential FMN cofactors. In addition, we have initiated an evolution effort for the extension and improvement of DszA enzyme activity using Diversa's Gene Site Saturation Mutagenesis (GSSM{trademark}) technology. To support the evolution effort as well as of characterization of enzyme activities on a variety of substrates, a high-throughput mass spectroscopy-based assay has been developed. Two selection/screen strategies for the discovery and evolution of biocatalyst enzyme have been developed and are being evaluated for performance using gene libraries constructed from known biodesulfurization strains and environmental libraries.

  4. Market hub technology in the domestic natural gas distribution system. [Natural gas market center or hub

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, J.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes a panel discussion held on March 18, 1992 as part of a conference entitled Market Hub Technology'' . The purpose of the conference was to stimulate dialogue among various segments of the natural gas industry on the technology limits of an economic policy issue that has the potential to significantly alter the structure and functioning of the natural gas industry. Attendees included key US gas industry representatives, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) commissioners, and others. The conference explored the concept of market centers, or hubs, and related technologies. It covered the technology currently available for the establishment of an integrated system of physical market hubs, and explored technology requirements for the further development of useful and efficient hubs. The discussion identified two primary barriers to the acceptance and implementation of a market center distribution system for natural gas. The first barrier is the potential change in the configuration of the market such a system would introduce and the resistance various industry segments would mount to such change. The second is the lack of industry standardization in the physical and business infrastructures.

  5. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  6. GE power generation technology challenges for advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Nourse, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    The GE Utility ATS is a large gas turbine, derived from proven GEPG designs and integrated GEAE technology, that utilizes a new turbine cooling system and incorporates advanced materials. This system has the potential to achieve ATS objectives for a utility sized machine. Combined with use of advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC`s), the new cooling system will allow higher firing temperatures and improved cycle efficiency that represents a significant improvement over currently available machines. Developing advances in gas turbine efficiency and emissions is an ongoing process at GEPG. The third generation, ``F`` class, of utility gas turbines offers net combined cycle efficiencies in the 55% range, with NO{sub x} programs in place to reduce emissions to less than 10 ppM. The gas turbines have firing temperatures of 2350{degree}F, and pressure ratios of 15 to 1. The turbine components are cooled by air extracted from the cycle at various stages of the compressor. The heat recovery cycle is a three pressure steam system, with reheat. Throttle conditions are nominally 1400 psi and 1000{degree}F reheat. As part of GEPG`s ongoing advanced power generation system development program, it is expected that a gas fired advanced turbine system providing 300 MW power output greater than 58% net efficiency and < 10 ppM NO{sub x} will be defined. The new turbine cooling system developed with technology support from the ATS program will achieve system net efficiency levels in excess of 60%.

  7. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  8. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-02-27

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Activities during this time period were: (1) Nomination and election of Executive Council members for 2006-07 term, (2) Release the 2006 GSTC request-for-proposals (RFP), (3) Recruit and invoice membership for FY2006, (4) Improve communication efforts, and (5) Continue planning the GSTC spring meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006.

  9. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2005-10-24

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) receiving proposals in response to the RFP, and (2) organizing and hosting the proposal selection meeting on August 30-31, 2005.

  10. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  11. [Evaluation indices of greenhouse gas mitigation technologies in cropland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-zheng; Wang, Ying-chun; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Hu; Qiu, Jian-jun; Wang, Dao-long

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the increasing studies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation technologies, there is still a lack of systematic indices for evaluation of their overall impacts in croplands. In this study, we collected all the indices relating to greenhouse gas emissions and analyzed each index following the principles of representativeness, objectivity, completeness, dominance and operability. Finally, we proposed evaluation indices for mitigation technologies based on the current situation of China. Crop yield per unit area was proposed as a constrained index, and greenhouse gas emissions intensity, defined as GHG emissions per unit of produced yield, was proposed as comprehensive index to evaluate the greenhouse effect of various croplands mitigation technologies. Calculation of GHG emissions intensity involved yield, change of soil organic carbon, direct N2O emissions, paddy CH4 emissions and direct and indirect emissions from inputs into croplands. By following these evaluation indices, the greenhouse effect of the technologies could be well evaluated, which could provide scientific basis for their further adoption.

  12. UV light source adaptive sensing technology for flue gas measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The UV absorption spectrometry technique DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) has been widely used in continuous monitoring of flue gas, and has achieved good results. DOAS method is based on the basic law of light absorption--Lambert-Beer law. SO2, NOX are the principal component of the flue gas. These components are considered by DOAS method at the same time. And certain mathematical methods are used for concentrations measuring. The Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) based on the principle of DOAS mainly has two probe-styles present: in-situ probe-style and extractive probe-style. For the in-situ probe-style CEMS based on DOAS method, prolonged use for the UV light source, contaminated lens caused by floating oil and complex environment of the flue will all bring attenuation of the spectral intensity, it will affect the accuracy of measurement. In this article, an in-situ continuous monitoring system based on DOAS method is described, and a component adaptive sensing technology is proposed. By using this adaptive sensing technology, CEMS can adjust the integral time of the spectrometer according to the non-measuring attenuation of the light source intensity and automatically compensate the loss of spectral intensity. Under the laboratory conditions, the experiments for SO2, NO standard gas measurement using adaptive sensing technology is made. Many different levels of light intensity attenuation are considered in the experiments. The results show that the adaptive sensing technology can well compensate the non-measuring loss of spectral intensity. In the field measurement, this technology can well reduce the measurement error brought by attenuation of light intensity, compared with the handheld gas analyzer, the average error of concentration measurement is less than 2% FS(Full Scale).

  13. An overview of aerospace gas turbine technology of relevance to the development of the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. G.; Miller, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Technology areas related to gas turbine propulsion systems with potential for application to the automotive gas turbine engine are discussed. Areas included are: system steady-state and transient performance prediction techniques, compressor and turbine design and performance prediction programs and effects of geometry, combustor technology and advanced concepts, and ceramic coatings and materials technology.

  14. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  15. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. ); Davies, J. ); Zammit, M. ); Patterson, P. )

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  16. Desulfurization in reducing atmosphere and ammonia injection denitrification in a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor with fly-ash recycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhaoping; Lan, Jixiang; Han, Yongsheng; Wu, Xin; Zheng, Haiyun

    1997-03-01

    With the rising of IGCC and the second generation PFBC-CC, and with the development of technology of staged combustion to lower emission of NOx, the desulfurization efficiency under reducing atmosphere is raised. In this paper, with the application of the fly-ash recycle and two-stage combustion technologies in a fluidized bed combustor, the desulfurization test under reducing atmosphere is described. Meanwhile, ammonia injection test was also conducted. Results show that desulfurization under reducing atmosphere has higher efficiency, and ammonia injection denitrification effect is very perfect.

  17. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Lowell, C. E.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technical progress made during the first 15 months of a planned 40-month project to provide a critical-technology data base for utility gas-turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Tasks were included in the following areas: (1) combustion, to study the combustion of coal-derived fuels and conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials, to understand and prevent hot corrosion; and (3) system studies, to integrate and guide the other technologies. Significant progress was made.

  18. Gas-discharge plasma sources for nonlocal plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. I.; DeJoseph, C. A. Jr.; Simonov, V. Ya.

    2007-11-12

    Nonlocal plasma technology is based on the effect of self-trapping of fast electrons in the plasma volume [V. I. Demidov, C. A. DeJoseph, Jr., and A. A. Kudryavtsev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 215002 (2006)]. This effect can be achieved by changing the ratio of fast electron flux to ion flux incident on the plasma boundaries. This in turn leads to a significant change in plasma properties and therefore can be useful for technological applications. A gas-discharge device which demonstrates control of the plasma properties by this method is described.

  19. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  20. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  1. Combustor technology for future small gas turbine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Future engine cycles proposed for advanced small gas turbine engines will increase the severity of the operating conditions of the combustor. These cycles call for increased overall engine pressure ratios which increase combustor inlet pressure and temperature. Further, the temperature rise through the combustor and the corresponding exit temperature also increase. Future combustor technology needs for small gas turbine engines is described. New fuel injectors with large turndown ratios which produce uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns will be required. Uniform burning will be of greater importance because hot gas temperatures will approach turbine material limits. The higher combustion temperatures and increased radiation at high pressures will put a greater heat load on the combustor liners. At the same time, less cooling air will be available as more of the air will be used for combustion. Thus, improved cooling concepts and/or materials requiring little or no direct cooling will be required. Although presently there are no requirements for emissions levels from small gas turbine engines, regulation is expected in the near future. This will require the development of low emission combustors. In particular, nitrogen oxides will increase substantially if new technologies limiting their formation are not evolved and implemented. For example, staged combustion employing lean, premixed/prevaporized, lean direct injection, or rich burn-quick quench-lean burn concepts could replace conventional single stage combustors.

  2. Combustor technology for future small gas turbine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    To enhance fuel efficiency, future advanced small gas turbine engines will utilize engine cycles calling for overall engine pressure ratios, leading to higher combustor inlet pressures and temperatures. Further, the temperature rise through the combustor and the corresponding exit temperature are also expected to increase. This report describes future combustor technology needs for small gas turbine engines. New fuel injectors with large turndown ratios which produce uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns will be required. Uniform burning will be of greater importance because hot gas temperatures will approach turbine material limits. The higher combustion temperatures and increased radiation at high pressures will put a greater heat load on the combustor liners. At the same time, less cooling air will be available as more of the air will be used for combustion. Thus, improved cooling concepts and/or materials requiring little or no direct cooling will be required. Although presently there are no requirements for emissions levels from small gas turbine engines, regulation is anticipated in the near future. This will require the development of low emission combustors. In particular, nitrogen oxides will increase substantially if new technologies limiting their formation are not evolved and implemented. For example, staged combustion employing lean, premixed/prevaporized, lean direct injection, or rich burn-quick quench-lean burn concepts could replace conventional single stage combustors. Due to combustor size considerations, staged combustion is more easily accommodated in large engines. The inclusion of staged combustion in small engines will pose greater combustor design challenges.

  3. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  4. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  5. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  6. Superoxide radical and UV irradiation in ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD): A potential alternative for greener fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ngo Yeung

    stream from becoming reactive or even explosive. High energy consumption is another drawback in the UAOD process. A typical 10 minutes ultrasonication applied in the UAOD process to achieve 95% desulfurization for 20g of diesel requires 450 kJ of energy, which is equivalent to approximately 50% of the energy that can be provided by the treated diesel. This great expenditure of energy is impractical for industries to adopt. In this study, modifications of the UAOD process, including the application of superoxide and selection of catalysts, were applied to lower the oxidant dosage and to improve the applicability towards heavy-distillates such as residual oil. The results demonstrated that the new system required 80% less oxidant as compared to previous generations of UAOD process without the loss of desulfurization efficiency. The new system demonstrated its suitability towards desulfurizing commercial mid-distillates including jet fuels, marine gas oil and sour diesel. This process also demonstrated a new method to desulfurize residual oil with high desulfurization yields. The new process development has been supported by Eco Energy Solutions Inc., Reno, Nevada and Intelligent Energy Inc., Long Beach, California. A feasibility study on UV assisted desulfurization by replacing ultrasound with UV irradiation was also conducted. The study demonstrated that the UV assisted desulfurization process consumes 90% less energy than the comparable process using ultrasonication. These process modifications demonstrated over 98% desulfurization efficiency on diesel oils and more than 75% on residual oils with significantly less oxidant and energy consumption. Also the feasibility to desulfurize commercial sour heavy oil was demonstrated. Based on the UAOD process and the commercialized modifications by Wan and Cheng, the feasible applications of superoxide and UV irradiation in the UAOD process could provide deep-desulfurization on various fuels with practical cost.

  7. Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery research is conducted by the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center to advance the application of miscible carbon dioxide flooding. This research is an integral part of a multidisciplinary effort to improve the technology for producing additional oil from US resources. This report summarizes the problems of the technology and the 1986 results of the ongoing research that was conducted to solve those problems. Poor reservoir volumetric sweep efficiency is the major problem associated with gas flooding and all miscible displacements. This problem results from the channeling and viscous fingering that occur due to the large differences between viscosity or density of the displacing and displaced fluids (i.e., carbon dioxide and oil, respectively). Simple modeling and core flooding studies indicate that, because of differences in fluid viscosities, breakthrough can occur after only 30% of the total pore volume (PV) of the rock has been injected with gas, while field tests have shown breakthrough occurring much earlier. The differences in fluid densities lead to gravity segregation. The lower density carbon dioxide tends to override the residual fluids in the reservoir. This process would be considerably more efficient if a larger area of the reservoir could be contacted by the gas. Current research has focused on the mobility control, computer simulation, and reservoir heterogeneity studies. Three mobility control methods have been investigated: (1) the use of polymers for direct thickening of high-density carbon dioxide, (2) mobile ''foam-like dispersions'' of carbon dioxide and an aqueous surfactant, and (3) in situ deposition of chemical precipitates. 22 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Application of CFCC technology to hot gas filtration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richlen, S.

    1995-06-01

    Discussion will feature high temperature filter development under the DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program. Within the CFCC Program there are four industry projects and a national laboratory technology support project. Atlantic Research, Babcock & Wilcox, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Textron are developing processing methods to produce CFCC Components with various types of matrices and composites, along with the manufacturing methods to produce industrial components, including high temperature gas filters. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is leading a National Laboratory/University effort to increase knowledge of such generic and supportive technology areas as environmental degradation, measurement of mechanical properties, long-term performance, thermal shock and thermal cycling, creep and fatigue, and non-destructive characterization. Tasks include composite design, materials characterization, test methods, and performance-related phenomena, that will support the high temperature filter activities of industry and government.

  9. Development of hot gas clean-up system for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Tetsuya

    1999-07-01

    The syngas generated at the gasifier in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is reductive gas, so the sulfur in the fuel is reduced to H{sub 2}S and COS. Many wet types of gas clear up systems using liquid solvents are commercially available. However, the authors have been developing the higher performance and efficient system using oxide metals sorbent, that they call Hot Gas Clean Up system (HGCU system) with fluidized bed reactors. Therefore, the authors have participated, in Yubari and Nakoso pilot plant projects as the national project to develop and establish the HGCU system and it's technology to realize lower environmental emission and high thermal efficiency. The test results of those pilot plants had a very good performance and the authors have confirmed that the HGCU system is applicable to IGCC plant. Those pilot plants have used the iron oxide (crashed iron ore) as the desulfurization sorbent. However, the iron oxide sorbent cannot get high desulfurization performance for the gas containing high moisture (about 10 vol% and over) and cannot reach environmental requirements of the near future. Thus, the authors have developed the HGCU system using zinc oxide sorbent that is expected to have higher desulfurization performance. They have carried out many tests at the Coal Gasification Test facility (CGT test plant). They achieved 20 ppmV total HGCU system has high performance and reliability.

  10. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time

  11. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants, are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated via optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, and temperature have been developed, and their preliminary laboratory characterization in Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a spacesuit prototype is presented.

  12. Non-Intrusive, Distributed Gas Sensing Technology for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Chemical sensors for monitoring gas composition, including oxygen, humidity, carbon dioxide, and trace contaminants are needed to characterize and validate spacesuit design and operating parameters. This paper reports on the first prototypes of a non-intrusive gas sensing technology based on flexible sensitive patches positioned inside spacesuit prototypes and interrogated by optical fibers routed outside the suit, taking advantage of the transparent materials of the suit prototypes. The sensitive patches are based on luminescent materials whose emission parameters vary with the partial pressure of a specific gas. Patches sensitive to carbon dioxide, humidity, oxygen, and ammonia have been developed, and their preliminary characterization in the laboratory using Mark III-like helmet parts is described. The first prototype system consists of a four-channel fiber optic luminescent detector that can be used to monitor any of the selected target gases at four locations. To switch from one gas to another we replace the (disposable) sensor patches and adjust the system settings. Repeatability among sensitive patches and of sensor performance from location to location has been confirmed, assuring that suit engineers will have flexibility in selecting multiple sensing points, fitting the sensor elements into the spacesuit, and easily repositioning the sensor elements as desired. The evaluation of the first prototype for monitoring carbon dioxide during washout studies in a space suit prototype is presented.

  13. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Hodge, P. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Schultz, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    A technology data base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal derived fuels was developed. The following areas are investigated: combustion; materials; and system studies. A two stage test rig is designed to study the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx. The feasibility of using heavy fuels in catalytic combustors is evaluated. A statistically designed series of hot corrosion burner rig tests was conducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. Fuel additives and several advanced thermal barrier coatings are tested. Thermal barrier coatings used in conjunction with low critical alloys and those used in a combined cycle system in which the stack temperature was maintained above the acid corrosion temperature are also studied.

  14. Development of a hydrogen gas sensor using microfabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Qinghai; Stuczynski, Matthew; Madzsar, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Microfabrication and micromachining technologies are used to produce a hydrogen gas sensor based on a palladium-silver film. The sensor uses a heater that is fabricated by diffusing p-type borones into the substrate, forming a resistance heater. A diode for temperature measurement is produced using p-type boron and n-type phosphor diffused into the substrate. A thickness of the palladium-silver film is approximately 300 arcsec. The hydrogen gas sensor employs the proven palladium-silver diode structure and is surrounded by a phosphor doped resistance heater which can be heated up to a temperature of 250 C. Experimental results show that the sensor is capable of operating over a wide range of hydrogen concentration levels between 0-95 percent without any hysteresis effects.

  15. Hot gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells: A zinc reactor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfeld, G.

    1980-09-01

    Of the two near term options available for desulfurization of gasifier effluent, namely low temperature cleanup utilizing absorber/stripper technology, and hot gas cleanup utilizing metal oxides, there is a clear advantage to using hot gas cleanup. Since the MCFC will operate at 1200 F, and the gasifier effluent could be between 1200 to 1900 F, a hot gas cleanup system will require little or no change in process gas temperature, thereby contributing to a high overall system efficiency. Simulated operating characteristics to aid in system design and system simulations of gasifier/MCFC systems are described. The modeling of the ZnO reactor is presented.

  16. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater.

  17. An overview of aerospace gas turbine technology of relevance to the development of the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. G.; Miller, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has conducted, and has sponsored with industry and universities, extensive research into many of the technology areas related to gas turbine propulsion systems. This aerospace-related technology has been developed at both the component and systems level, and may have significant potential for application to the automotive gas turbine engine. This paper summarizes this technology and lists the associated references. The technology areas are system steady-state and transient performance prediction techniques, compressor and turbine design and performance prediction programs and effects of geometry, combustor technology and advanced concepts, and ceramic coatings and materials technology.

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project annual report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Carborundum Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. The Project is administered by Mr. Thomas N. Strom, Project Manager, NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1984 through June 30, 1985.

  19. Computational technology of multiscale modeling the gas flows in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podryga, V. O.

    2016-11-01

    The work is devoted to modeling the gas mixture flows in engineering microchannels under conditions of many scales of computational domain. The computational technology of using the multiscale approach combining macro - and microscopic models is presented. At macrolevel the nature of the flow and the external influence on it are considered. As a model the system of quasigasdynamic equations is selected. At microlevel the correction of gasdynamic parameters and the determination of boundary conditions are made. As a numerical model the Newton's equations and the molecular dynamics method are selected. Different algorithm types used for implementation of multiscale modeling are considered. The results of the model problems for separate stages are given.

  20. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  1. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in

  2. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source "Virtual Gas Field" Simulator.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Chandler E; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Brandt, Adam R

    2016-04-19

    We present a tool for modeling the performance of methane leak detection and repair programs that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of detection technologies and proposed mitigation policies. The tool uses a two-state Markov model to simulate the evolution of methane leakage from an artificial natural gas field. Leaks are created stochastically, drawing from the current understanding of the frequency and size distributions at production facilities. Various leak detection and repair programs can be simulated to determine the rate at which each would identify and repair leaks. Integrating the methane leakage over time enables a meaningful comparison between technologies, using both economic and environmental metrics. We simulate four existing or proposed detection technologies: flame ionization detection, manual infrared camera, automated infrared drone, and distributed detectors. Comparing these four technologies, we found that over 80% of simulated leakage could be mitigated with a positive net present value, although the maximum benefit is realized by selectively targeting larger leaks. Our results show that low-cost leak detection programs can rely on high-cost technology, as long as it is applied in a way that allows for rapid detection of large leaks. Any strategy to reduce leakage should require a careful consideration of the differences between low-cost technologies and low-cost programs.

  3. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  4. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  6. An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

  7. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  8. Partitioning Gas Tracer Technology for Measuring Water in Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briening, M. L.; Jakubowitch, A.; Imhoff, P. T.; Chiu, P. C.; Tittlebaum, M. E.

    2002-12-01

    Unstable landfills can result in significant environmental contamination and can become a risk to public health. To reduce this risk, water may be added to landfills to ensure that enough moisture exists for biodegradation of organic wastes. In this case risks associated with future breaks in the landfill cap are significantly reduced because organic material is degraded more rapidly. To modify moisture conditions and enhance biodegradation, leachate is typically collected from the bottom of the landfill and then recirculated near the top. It is difficult, though, to know how much leachate to add and where to add it to achieve uniform moisture conditions. This situation is exacerbated by the heterogeneous nature of landfill materials, which is known to cause short circuiting of infiltrating water, a process that has been virtually impossible to measure or model. Accurate methods for measuring the amount of water in landfills would be valuable aids for implementing leachate recirculation systems. Current methods for measuring water are inadequate, though, since they provide point measurements and are frequently affected by heterogeneity of the solid waste composition and solid waste compaction. The value of point measurements is significantly reduced in systems where water flows preferentially, such as in landfills. Here, spatially integrated measurements might be of greater value. In this research we are evaluating a promising technology, the partitioning gas tracer test, to measure the water saturation within landfills, the amount of free water in solid waste divided by the volume of the voids. The partitioning gas tracer test was recently developed by researchers working in the vadose zone. In this methodology two gas tracers are injected into a landfill. One tracer is non-reactive with landfill materials, while the second partitions into and out of free water trapped within the pore space of the solid waste. Chromatographic separation of the tracers occurs

  9. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  10. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.

    1987-02-23

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  11. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  12. Desulfurization, demetalation and denitrogenation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Mitchell, T.O.; Whitehurst, D.D.

    1981-12-01

    The specification discloses a desulfurization, demetalation and denitrogenation process for coal and coal liquid charge stocks. The process comprises contacting the charge stock in the absence of externally added hydrogen with a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of a catalytic amount of naturally occurring porous metal ores such as manganese nodules, bog iron, bog manganese, nickel laterites, bauxite or spent bauxite.

  13. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  14. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  15. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  16. CRADA opportunities with METC`s gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, E N; Rockey, J M; Tucker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Opportunities exist for Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to support commercialization of IGCC power systems. METC operates an integrated gasifier and hot gas cleanup facility for the development of gasification and hot gas cleanup technologies. The objective of our program is to gather performance data on gasifier operation, particulate removal, desulfurization and regeneration technologies. Additionally, slip streams are provided for developing various technologies such as; alkali monitoring, particulate measuring, chloride removal, and contaminate recovery processes. METC`s 10-inch diameter air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG) provides 300 lb/hr of coal gas at 1100{degrees}F and 425 psig. The particulate laden gas is transported to METC`s Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR). The gas pressure is reduced to 285 psig before being fed into a candle filter vessel. The candle filter vessel houses four candle filters and multiple test coupons. The particulate free gas is then desulfurized in a sorbent reactor. Starting in 1996 the MGCR system will be able to regenerate the sorbent in the same vessel.

  17. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  18. Gas chromatographic technologies for the analysis of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Marriot, P J; Shellie, R; Cornwell, C

    2001-11-30

    Essential oil analysis has basically had one technical goal: to achieve the best possible separation performance by using the most effective, available technology of the day. The result achieved from this may then be used to answer the research or industrial analysis questions which necessitated the analysis. This may be for comparative purposes, where one oil is contrasted with other(s) for quality control or investigation of adulteration, to discover new components, or to characterise the chemical classes of compounds present. Clearly, today the analyst turns to chromatography as the provider of separation and then may supplement that with mass spectrometry to aid identification. The power of GC-MS means that advances in both the separation technique, and improvements in mass spectrometry detection - along with improved data handling tools - will immediately be relevant to the essential oil area. This present review outlines the developmental nature of instrumental approaches to essential oil analysis using gas chromatography. Mass spectrometry will be included to the extent that it represents the hyphenation of choice for most analysts when analysing essential oils. Thus single-column and multi-dimensional analysis will be covered, as will sample handling or introduction techniques prior to the analysis step, where these techniques provide some measure of separation. The recent demonstration of comprehensive gas chromatography will be discussed as the potentially most powerful separation method for essential oils. This brief review is not intended to be a comprehensive dissertation on the field of essential oil analysis since that would require sufficient space to occupy a book in its own right. Rather, it will outline selected considerations and developments, to help explain where new technology has been applied to advantage in this field.

  19. Washing tower for the desulfurization of flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stehning, W.

    1985-05-07

    A scrubber is provided with a grate in its sump through which oxygen is introduced to separate the oxidation zone above this grate from a reaction zone below the grate, a calcium containing additive being introduced into this reaction zone. Flue gas to be desulfurized is passed through a washing zone above the sump and there contacted with normally circulating scrubbing liquid containing the additive to absorb sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide. The sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfur trioxide and the additive induces precipitation of calcium sulfate in the sump. After a prolonged standstill, settled solids in the sump are induced into movement by drawing a portion of the sump liquid from an upper part thereof and injecting it into a lower part of the sump.

  20. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.