Science.gov

Sample records for gas driven turbocharger

  1. Control logic for exhaust gas driven turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Adeff, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a method of controlling an exhaust gas driven turbocharger supplying charge air for an internal combustion engine powering vehicle, the turbocharger being adjustable from a normal mode to a power mode in which the charge air available to the engine during vehicle acceleration is increased over that available when the turbocharger is in the normal mode, the vehicle including engine power control means switchable by the vehicle operator from a normal mode to a power mode so that the vehicle operator may selectively elect either the normal mode or the power mode, comprising the steps of measuringmore » the speed of the vehicle, permitting the vehicle operator to elect either the power mode or the normal mode for a subsequent vehicle acceleration, and then adjusting the turbocharger to the power mode when the speed of the vehicle is less than a predetermined reference speed and the vehicle operator has elected to power mode to increase the charge air available to the engine and thereby increasing engine power on a subsequent acceleration of the vehicle.« less

  2. Development of high efficiency ball-bearing turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Miyashita, K.; Kurasawa, M.; Matsuoka, H.

    1987-01-01

    Turbochargers have become very popular on passenger cars since the first mass-produced turbocharged passenger cars were put on market in Japan in 1979. Turbo lag is one of the most serious problem since the first mass-production started. Several new technologies such as a variable geometry turbocharger, ceramic turbocharger, etc. have been introduced to improve acceleration performance. A variable geometry turbocharger changes the area of gas flow passage and increases exhaust gas speed at low engine speed. A ceramic turbocharger reduces inertia moment of a turbine wheel and shaft. Turbocharger mechanical efficiency has equal importance as compressor efficiency and turbine efficiency.more » This paper describes the test results of ball bearing turbochargers.« less

  3. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    DOEpatents

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  4. Combustion mode switching with a turbocharged/supercharged engine

    DOEpatents

    Mond, Alan; Jiang, Li

    2015-09-22

    A method for switching between low- and high-dilution combustion modes in an internal combustion engine having an intake passage with an exhaust-driven turbocharger, a crankshaft-driven positive displacement supercharger downstream of the turbocharger and having variable boost controllable with a supercharger bypass valve, and a throttle valve downstream of the supercharger. The current combustion mode and mass air flow are determined. A switch to the target combustion mode is commanded when an operating condition falls within a range of predetermined operating conditions. A target mass air flow to achieve a target air-fuel ratio corresponding to the current operating condition and the target combustion mode is determined. The degree of opening of the supercharger bypass valve and the throttle valve are controlled to achieve the target mass air flow. The amount of residual exhaust gas is manipulated.

  5. Strength and gas dynamic methods of development of the axial turbine turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, O. V.; Popov, G. M.; Kolmakova, D. A.; Goryachkin, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The results of strength and gas dynamic improvement of the turbocharger TK-32 axial turbine are presented. The turbocharger is manufactured by LLC “Penzadieselmash” (Penza, Russian) and is used as unit boost for a diesel locomotive. The aim of this work was to ensure the turbine work capacity when the rotor speed is increased by 10% without efficiency reduction. The strain-stress state analysis indicated the region of high stresses on the rotor blade body at the level of 2/3 of root. These stresses exceed allowable values when the rotor speed increased. The variant of tangential displacement of the peripheral rotor blade section, allowing reducing the level of stress by 20%, was found. Gas dynamic calculation showed that the variant of rotor blade modernization results in an increase of efficiency by 0.4%. Also it was shown that the increase in turbine efficiency by 1% can be reached if the number of rotor blades is reduced by 13%. This recommendation was implemented and confirmed experimentally by the example of mass turbocharger TK-32 [1].

  6. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    DOEpatents

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  7. A comparison of transient vehicle performance using a fixed geometry, wastegated turbocharger and a variable geometry turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, R.R.; Gall, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of an exhaust-driven boosting device can significantly improve the performance of a vehicle using a small displacement engine. One of the concerns relative to the performance of vehicles using these devices is ''turbo lag,'' or the period of time during which no boost is generated. This paper presents the results of designed experiments comparing the performance of a fixed geometry, wastegated turbocharger to a variable geometry turbocharger incorporating a low-loss bearing system. In addition, experimental tests are presented for the naturally aspirated engine in the same vehicle. The results of the experiments show improvements with the use ofmore » pressure boosting and that there are signifcant differences in the boosting devices tested; specifically, the use of a variable geometry turbocharger demonstrates significant reduction in the length of time required to reach boost and reduced acceleration times for the tests conducted.« less

  8. The Waukesha Turbocharger Control Module: A tool for improved engine efficiency and response

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, J.R.; Reinbold, E.O.; Mueller, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Waukesha Turbocharger Control Module allows optimum control of turbochargers on lean burn gaseous fueled engines. The Turbocharger Control Module is user programmed to provide either maximum engine efficiency or best engine response to load changes. In addition, the Turbocharger Control Module prevents undesirable turbocharger surge. The Turbocharger Control Module consists of an electronic control box, engine speed, intake manifold pressure, ambient temperature sensors, and electric actuators driving compressor bypass and wastegate valves. The Turbocharger Control Module expands the steady state operational environment of the Waukesha AT27GL natural gas engine from sea level to 1,525 m altitude with one turbochargermore » match and improves the engine speed turn down by 80 RPM. Finally, the Turbocharger Control Module improves engine response to load changes.« less

  9. Preliminary analysis of turbochargers rotors dynamic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monoranu, R.; Ştirbu, C.; Bujoreanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Turbocharger rotors for the spark and compression ignition engines are resistant steels manufactured in order to support the exhaust gas temperatures exceeding 1200 K. In fact, the mechanical stress is not large as the power consumption of these systems is up to 10 kW, but the operating speeds are high, ranging between 30000 ÷ 250000 rpm. Therefore, the correct turbochargers functioning involves, even from the design stage, the accurate evaluation of the temperature effects, of the turbine torque due to the engine exhaust gases and of the vibration system behaviour caused by very high operating speeds. In addition, the turbocharger lubrication complicates the model, because the classical hydrodynamic theory cannot be applied to evaluate the floating bush bearings. The paper proposes a FEM study using CATIA environment, both as modeling medium and as tool for the numerical analysis, in order to highlight the turbocharger complex behaviour. An accurate design may prevent some major issues which can occur during its operation.

  10. Simultaneous high-speed gas property measurements at the exhaust gas recirculation cooler exit and at the turbocharger inlet of a multicylinder diesel engine using diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P

    2015-02-10

    A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well

  11. Turbocharger chiller modeling and test evaluation. Final report, March-November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kountz, K.J.; Wurm, J.

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of this project were: To determine the technoeconomic feasibility of a natural gas-fired turbocharger-based chiller system, arranged in a combined-fluid Rankine/Rankine cycle; To design the turbocharger chiller system for a 50 RT cooling rating point capacity, using available vehicle turbocharges and standard chiller heat exchanger technology; and To evaluate several low, medium, and high pressure refrigerants and refrigerant/lubricant pairs for their thermodynamic and thermal stability characteristics and applicability to the chiller cycle.

  12. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  13. Diesel Engine With Air Boosted Turbocharger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-26

    of the exhaust turbocharger over the entire RPM range of the internal combustion engine . To this end, the...Kriegler, discloses that in order to utilize recycling of exhaust gases at high engine loads in an internal- combustion engine with an exhaust gas...October 29, 2002) to Cook, discloses an apparatus for and method of exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine that operates

  14. Turbocharger

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Hanna, Dave; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Krivitzky, Eric M.; Larosiliere, Louis M.; Baines, Nicholas C.

    2013-08-27

    In one example, a turbocharger for an internal combustion engine is described. The turbocharger comprises a casing containing an impeller having a full blade coupled to a hub that rotates about an axis of rotation. The casing includes a bleed port and an injection port. The full blade includes a hub edge, a casing edge, and a first distribution of angles, each angle measured between the axis of rotation and a mean line at the hub edge at a meridional distance along the hub edge. The full blade includes a second distribution of angles, each angle measured between the axis of rotation and a mean line at the casing edge at a meridional distance along the casing edge. Further, various systems are described for affecting the aerodynamic properties of the compressor and turbine components in a way that may extend the operating range of the turbocharger.

  15. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  16. Turbocharged Diesels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In a number of feasibility studies of turbine rotor designs, engineers of Cummins Engine Company, Inc.'s turbocharger group have utilized a computer program from COSMIC. Part of Cummins research effort is aimed toward introduction of advanced turbocharged engines that deliver extra power with greater fuel efficiency. Company claims use of COSMIC program substantially reduced software development costs.

  17. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  18. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The turbocharger...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The turbocharger...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The turbocharger...

  1. 14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of a...

  2. 14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of a...

  3. 14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of a...

  4. 14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of a...

  5. 14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger rotors. Each turbocharger case must be designed and constructed to be able to contain fragments of a...

  6. Concept and performance study of turbocharged solid propellant ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shichang

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes a turbocharged solid propellant ramjet (TSPR) propulsion system that integrates a turbocharged system consisting of a solid propellant (SP) air turbo rocket (ATR) and the fuel-rich gas generator of a solid propellant ramjet (SPR). First, a suitable propellant scheme was determined for the TSPR. A solid hydrocarbon propellant is used to generate gas for driving the turbine, and a boron-based fuel-rich propellant is used to provide fuel-rich gas to the afterburner. An appropriate TSPR structure was also determined. The TSPR's thermodynamic cycle was analysed to prove its theoretical feasibility. The results showed that the TSPR's specific cycle power was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR and thermal efficiency was slightly less than that of SP-ATR. Overall, TSPR showed optimal performance in a wide flight envelope. The specific impulses and specific thrusts of TSPR, SP-ATR, and SPR in the flight envelope were calculated and compared. TSPR's flight envelope roughly overlapped that of SP-ATR, its specific impulse was larger than that of SP-ATR, and its specific thrust was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR. Attempts to improve the TSPR off-design performance prompted our proposal of a control plan for off-design codes in which both the turbocharger corrected speed and combustor excess gas coefficient are kept constant. An off-design performance model was established by analysing the TSPR working process. We concluded that TSPR with a constant corrected speed had wider flight envelope, higher thrust, and higher specific impulse than TSPR with a constant physical speed determined by calculating the performance of off-design TSPR codes under different control plans. The results of this study can provide a reference for further studies on TSPRs.

  7. Turbine adapted maps for turbocharger engine matching

    SciTech Connect

    Tancrez, M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a new representation of the turbine performance maps oriented for turbocharger characterization. The aim of this plot is to provide a more compact and suited form to implement in engine simulation models and to interpolate data from turbocharger test bench. The new map is based on the use of conservative parameters as turbocharger power and turbine mass flow to describe the turbine performance in all VGT positions. The curves obtained are accurately fitted with quadratic polynomials and simple interpolation techniques give reliable results. Two turbochargers characterized in an steady flow rig were used for illustrating the representation.more » After being implemented in a turbocharger submodel, the results obtained with the model have been compared with success against turbine performance evaluated in engine tests cells. A practical application in turbocharger matching is also provided to show how this new map can be directly employed in engine design. (author)« less

  8. Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macián, V.; Luján, J. M.; Bermúdez, V.; Guardiola, C.

    2004-06-01

    In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust pressure pulses to be predicted from instantaneous turbocharger speed measurements. Although the model is data based, a theoretical description of the process is also provided. This combined approach makes it possible to export the model for different engine operating points. Also, compressor contribution in the turbocharger speed pulsation is discussed extensively. The compressor contribution is initially neglected, and effects of this simplified approach are analysed.

  9. Super Turbocharging the Direct Injection Diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Albert

    2018-03-01

    The steady operation of a turbocharged diesel direct injection (TDI) engine featuring a variable speed ratio mechanism linking the turbocharger shaft to the crankshaft is modelled in the present study. Key parameters of the variable speed ratio mechanism are range of speed ratios, efficiency and inertia, in addition to the ability to control relative speed and flow of power. The device receives energy from, or delivers energy to, the crankshaft or the turbocharger. In addition to the pistons of the internal combustion engine (ICE), also the turbocharger thus contributes to the total mechanical power output of the engine. The energy supply from the crankshaft is mostly needed during sharp accelerations to avoid turbo-lag, and to boost torque at low speeds. At low speeds, the maximum torque is drastically improved, radically expanding the load range. Additionally, moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger, it is also possible to improve both the efficiency η, defined as the ratio of the piston crankshaft power to the fuel flow power, and the total efficiency η*, defined as the ratio of piston crankshaft power augmented of the power from the turbocharger shaft to the fuel flow power, even if of a minimal extent. The energy supply to the crankshaft is possible mostly at high speeds and high loads, where otherwise the turbine could have been waste gated, and during decelerations. The use of the energy at the turbine otherwise waste gated translates in improvements of the total fuel conversion efficiency η* more than the efficiency η. Much smaller improvements are obtained for the maximum torque, yet again moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger. Adopting a much larger turbocharger (target displacement x speed 30% larger than a conventional turbocharger), better torque outputs and fuel conversion efficiencies η* and η are possible at every speed vs. the engine with a smaller, balanced turbocharger. This result

  10. Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL- EGR) combined with a higher compression ratio is a technology package that has been the focus of significant research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged GDI engines. Research shows that the addition ...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous...

  13. Rotordynamic Design Analysis of an Oil-Free Turbocharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    1997-01-01

    Modern heavy duty diesel engines utilize turbochargers for increased power output. Also, a wide range of power levels can be achieved with one engine displacement through the use of different turbocharger configurations, eliminating the need for several different sized engines. These are the reasons that virtually all diesel truck engines currently marketed use turbochargers. However, because these turbochargers rely on ring seals and oil-lubricated floating sleeve bearings, they often suffer breakdowns. These turbochargers operate at elevated temperatures which often causes the oil to degrade and even coke to the bearing surfaces. This can lead to catastrophic failure, increased particulate emissions from oil leaks, and, in extreme cases, engine fires. Replacing the oil lubricated bearings from these turbochargers with some other device is desirable to eliminate these inherent problems. Foil bearings are compliant selecting bearings lubricated by air and are well suited to high speed, light load applications. Thus, foil bearings present one potential replacement for oil-lubricated sleeve bearings. Their use as such is investigated in this work.

  14. Comparative study of oxihydrogen injection in turbocharged compression ignition engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, L.; Lelea, D.

    2018-01-01

    This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.

  15. An evaluation of 1D loss model collections for the off-design performance prediction of automotive turbocharger compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.

    2013-12-01

    Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.

  16. Magnetorheological valve based actuator for improvement of passively controlled turbocharger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahiuddin, I.; Mazlan, S. A.; Imaduddin, F.; Ubaidillah, Ichwan, B.

    2016-03-01

    Variable geometry turbochargers have been widely researched to fulfil the current engine stringent regulations. The passively controlled turbocharger (PCT) concept has been proposed to reduce energy consumption by utilizing the emission energy to move the actuator. However, it only covered a small range operating condition. Therefore, a magnetorheological(MR) Valve device, as typical smart material devices to enhance a passive device, is proposed to improve the PCT. Even though the benefits have been considered for the compactness and easiness to connect to an electrical system, the number of publications regarding the MR application within engine system is hard to be found. Therefore, this paper introduces a design of an MR Valve in a turbocharger. The main challenge is to make sure its capability to produce a sufficient total pressure drop. To overcome the challenge, its material properties, shape and pressure drop calculation has been analyzed to fulfil the requirement. Finally, to get a more understanding of actuator performance, the actuator response was simulated by treating the exhaust gas pressure as an input. It shows that the new MR actuator has a potential dynamic to improve the PCT controllability.

  17. An experimental procedure to determine heat transfer properties of turbochargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, J. R.; Olmeda, P.; Páez, A.; Vidal, F.

    2010-03-01

    Heat transfer phenomena in turbochargers have been a subject of investigation due to their importance for the correct determination of compressor real work when modelling. The commonly stated condition of adiabaticity for turbochargers during normal operation of an engine has been revaluated because important deviations from adiabatic behaviour have been stated in many studies in this issue especially when the turbocharger is running at low rotational speeds/loads. The deviations mentioned do not permit us to assess properly the turbine and compressor efficiencies since the pure aerodynamic effects cannot be separated from the non-desired heat transfer due to the presence of both phenomena during turbocharger operation. The correction of the aforesaid facts is necessary to properly feed engine models with reliable information and in this way increase the quality of the results in any modelling process. The present work proposes a thermal characterization methodology successfully applied in a turbocharger for a passenger car which is based on the physics of the turbocharger. Its application helps to understand the thermal behaviour of the turbocharger, and the results obtained constitute vital information for future modelling efforts which involve the use of the information obtained from the proposed methodology. The conductance values obtained from the proposed methodology have been applied to correct a procedure for measuring the mechanical efficiency of the tested turbocharger.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    DOEpatents

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    DOEpatents

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2016-09-27

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  20. Mixing and combustion enhancement of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shichang; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Gen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet is a new concept engine that combines the advantages of both solid rocket ramjet and Air Turbo Rocket, with a wide operation envelope and high performance. There are three streams of the air, turbine-driving gas and augment gas to mix and combust in the afterburner, and the coaxial intake mode of the afterburner is disadvantageous to the mixing and combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out mixing and combustion enhancement research. In this study, the numerical model of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet three-dimensional combustion flow field is established, and the numerical simulation of the mixing and combustion enhancement scheme is conducted from the aspects of head region intake mode to injection method in afterburner. The results show that by driving the compressed air to deflect inward and the turbine-driving gas to maintain strong rotation, radial and tangential momentum exchange of the two streams can be enhanced, thereby improving the efficiency of mixing and combustion in the afterburner. The method of injecting augment gas in the transverse direction and making sure the injection location is as close as possible to the head region is beneficial to improve the combustion efficiency. The outer combustion flow field of the afterburner is an oxidizer-rich environment, while the inner is a fuel-rich environment. To improve the efficiency of mixing and combustion, it is necessary to control the injection velocity of the augment gas to keep it in the oxygen-rich zone of the outer region. The numerical simulation for different flight conditions shows that the optimal mixing and combustion enhancement scheme can obtain high combustion efficiency and have excellent applicability in a wide working range.

  1. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  2. Turbocharger apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Leavesley, M.G.

    1993-08-03

    Variable turbocharger apparatus is described comprising a compressor housing, a compressor mounted for rotation in the compressor housing, a turbine housing, a turbine mounted for rotation in the turbine housing, a first inlet for enabling air to be conducted to the compressor, an outlet for air from the compressor, a second inlet for enabling exhaust gases from an engine to be conducted to the turbine, a chamber which surrounds the turbine and which receives the exhaust gases from the second inlet before the exhaust gases are conducted to the turbine, a piston which is positioned between the turbine and themore » turbine housing and which is slidable backwards and forwards to form a movable wall separating the turbine from the chamber which surrounds the turbine, a bearing assembly for allowing the rotation of the compressor and the turbine, and a heat shield for shielding the bearing assembly from the exhaust gases, the piston having a plurality of vanes, the piston being such that in its closed position it terminates short of an adjacent part of the turbine housing so that there is always a gap between the end of the piston and the adjacent part of the turbine housing whereby exhaust gases from the chamber can always pass through the gap to act on the turbine, the piston being such that in its open position the gap is increased, and the piston being biased to its closed position against pressure from exhaust gases in the chamber during use of the variable turbocharger apparatus whereby the piston slides backwards and forwards to vary the gap in dependence upon engine operating conditions, and the variable turbocharger apparatus being such that the vanes on the piston enter into slots in the heat shield.« less

  3. Electrically-Assisted Turbocharger Development for Performance and Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Milton

    2000-08-20

    Turbocharger transient lag inherently imposes a tradeoff between a robust engine response to transient load shifts and exhaust emissions. By itself, a well matched turbocharger for an engine has limited flexibility in improving this transient response. Electrically-assisted turbocharging has been seen as an attractive option to improve response and lower transient emissions. This paper presents the results of a multi-year joint CRADA between DDC and ORNL. Virtual lab diesel simulation models characterized the performance improvement potential of an electrically assisted turbocharger technology. Operating requirements to reduce transient duration between load shift time by up to 50% were determined. A turbomachinemore » has been conceptualized with an integrated motor-generator, providing transient burst boost plus energy recovery capability. Numerous electric motor designs were considered, and a prototype motor was developed, fabricated, and is undergoing tests. Power controls have been designed and fabricated.« less

  4. Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger'more » because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.« less

  5. 77 FR 34206 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Engine Technologies Turbochargers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Engine Technologies Turbochargers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for Cessna 206, 207, and 210 airplanes with Hartzell Engine Technologies (HET) turbochargers... information identified in this AD, contact Hartzell Engine Technologies, LLC, 2900 Selma Highway, Montgomery...

  6. Development of turbocharger for improving passenger car acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Koike, Takaaki; Furukawa, Hiromu

    1996-09-01

    Recently, passenger cars require better acceleration from low engine speed including starting-up in order to decrease the amount of particulate matter (PM) of diesel engines or to improve the driver`s feeling. However, turbocharged cars generally have worse response than the non turbo cars because it takes a few seconds to get the turbocharger rotate up to high speed, usually called Turbo-lag. In order to solve this, various technologies have been developed for a turbocharger itself as well as for charging system such as the sequential system. Here in this paper, the authors focus on the development of the following turbochargermore » technology to reduce Turbo-lag and to achieve better transient response.« less

  7. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  8. Vascular Augmentation in Renal Transplantation: Supercharging and Turbocharging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Euicheol C; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Eo, Su Rak

    2017-05-01

    The most common anatomic variant seen in donor kidneys for renal transplantation is the presence of multiple renal arteries, which can cause an increased risk of complications. Accessory renal arteries should be anastomosed to the proper source arteries to improve renal perfusion via the appropriate vascular reconstruction techniques. In microsurgery, 2 kinds of vascular augmentation methods, known as 'supercharging' and 'turbocharging,' have been introduced to ensure vascular perfusion in the transferred flap. Supercharging uses a distant source of the vessels, while turbocharging uses vascular sources within the same flap territory. These technical concepts can also be applied in renal transplantation, and in this report, we describe 2 patients who underwent procedures using supercharging and turbocharging. In one case, the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric artery was transposed to the accessory renal artery (supercharging), and in the other case, the accessory renal artery was anastomosed to the corresponding main renal artery with a vascular graft (turbocharging). The transplanted kidneys showed good perfusion and proper function. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, rejection, or urologic complications were observed. These microsurgical techniques can be safely utilized for renal transplantation with donor kidneys that have multiple arteries with a lower complication rate and better outcome.

  9. Cast CF8C-Plus Stainless Steel for Turbocharger Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Shyam, A.; Evans, N.D.

    2010-06-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project is to provide the critical test data needed to qualify CF8C-Plus cast stainless steel for commercial production and use for turbocharger housings with upgraded performance and durability relative to standard commercial cast irons or stainless steels. The turbocharger technologies include, but are not limited to, heavy-duty highway diesel engines, and passenger vehicle diesel and gasoline engines. This CRADA provides additional critical high-temperature mechanical properties testing and data analysis needed to quality the new CF8C-Plus steels for turbocharger housing applications.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of a Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke, Single Cylinder, Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.

  11. A turbocharger for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.R.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that the large-bore engines of the 1970s and 1980s have seen tremendous amounts of technological improvements. The key buzzwords were: Lower the emissions, and improve the fuel consumption. As the 1990s approach dramatic improvements in specific outputs along with continued research to further improve emissions and fuel consumption. One of the keys to success will have to be the degree to which the industry responds with improvements in turbocharger performance. In 1985, Cooper Bessemer Rotating Products Division began a program to develop the turbocharger of the 1990s. This paper will describe the development of the CB turbochargermore » series from concept to early production.« less

  12. Method of controlling a variable geometry type turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Hirabayashi, Y.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a method of controlling the supercharging pressure of a variable geometry type turbocharger having a bypass, comprising the following steps which are carried out successively: receiving signals from an engine speed sensor and from an engine knocking sensor; receiving a signal from a throttle valve sensor; judging whether or not an engine is being accelerated, and proceeding to step below if the engine is being accelerated and to step below if the engine is not being accelerated, i.e., if the engine is in a constant speed operation; determining a first correction value and proceeding to step below;more » judging whether or not the engine is knocking, and proceeding to step (d) if knocking is occurring and to step (f) below if no knocking is occurring; determining a second correction value and proceeding to step; receiving signals from the engine speed sensor and from an airflow meter which measures the quantity of airflow to be supplied to the engine; calculating an airflow rate per engine revolution; determining a duty valve according to the calculated airflow rate; transmitting the corrected duty value to control means for controlling the geometry of the variable geometry type turbocharger and the opening of bypass of the turbocharger, thereby controlling the supercharging pressure of the turbocharger.« less

  13. Rotordynamics and Design Methods of an Oil-Free Turbocharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of supporting a turbocharger rotor on air foil bearings is investigated based upon predicted rotordynamic stability, load accommodations, and stress considerations. It is demonstrated that foil bearings offer a plausible replacement for oil-lubricated bearings in diesel truck turbochargers. Also, two different rotor configurations are analyzed and the design is chosen which best optimizes the desired performance characteristics. The method of designing machinery for foil bearing use and the assumptions made are discussed.

  14. Turbocharger with sliding piston, and having vanes and leakage dams

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Quentin; Alnega, Ahmed

    2011-12-06

    A turbocharger having a sliding piston for regulating exhaust gas flow into the turbine wheel includes a set of first vanes mounted on a fixed first wall of the turbine nozzle and projecting axially toward an opposite second wall of the nozzle, and/or a set of second vanes mounted on the end of the piston and projecting in an opposite axial direction toward the first wall of the nozzle. For the/each set of vanes, there are leakage dams formed on the wall that is adjacent the vane tips when the piston is closed. The leakage dams are closely adjacent themore » vane tips and discourage exhaust gas from leaking in a generally radial direction past the vane tips as the piston just begins to open from its fully closed position.« less

  15. 75 FR 16662 - Airworthiness Directives; Kelly Aerospace Energy Systems, LLC Rebuilt Turbochargers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Kelly Aerospace Energy Systems, LLC Rebuilt Turbochargers AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Kelly Aerospace Energy Systems, LLC (KAES) rebuilt turbochargers. This... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Kelly Aerospace Energy Systems, LLC, 2900 Selma Highway...

  16. Fuel Consumption Reduction for Diesel Power Generator Sets through the Application of an Advanced Turbocharger Operating at Constant Speed.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    engine driven, precision, 30KW-400Iz gen set. Similar calculations were made for the current, naturally aspirally , six cylinder diesel driving the same...turbocharged engine re- placing the current six cylinder, naturally aspirated , engine. Data from the engine model calculations was used to design a...VATN control rod so as to hold nearly a constant manifold pressure. Therefore the engine operates essentially like a naturally aspirated engine i.e

  17. Emission reduction potential of using gas-to-liquid and dimethyl ether fuels on a turbocharged diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Xinling, Li; Zhen, Huang

    2009-03-15

    A study of engine performance characteristics and both of regulated (CO, HC, NO(x), and smoke) and unregulated (ultrafine particle number, mass concentrations and size distribution) emissions for a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with conventional diesel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels respectively at different engine loads and speeds have been carried out. The results indicated that fuel components significantly affected the engine performance and regulated/unregulated emissions. GTL exhibited almost the same power and torque output as diesel, while improved fuel economy. GTL significantly reduced regulated emissions with average reductions of 21.2% in CO, 15.7% in HC, 15.6% in NO(x) and 22.1% in smoke in comparison to diesel, as well as average reductions in unregulated emissions of total ultrafine particle number (N(tot)) and mass (M(tot)) emissions by 85.3% and 43.9%. DME can significantly increase torque and power, compared with the original diesel engine, as well as significantly reduced regulated emissions of 40.1% in HC, 48.2% in NO(x) and smoke free throughout all the engine conditions. However, N(tot) for DME is close to that for diesel. The reason is that the accumulation mode particle number emissions for DME are very low due to the characteristics of oxygen content and no C-C bond, which promotes the processes of nucleation and condensation of the semi-volatile compounds in the exhaust gas, as a result, a lot of nucleation mode particles produce.

  18. Fundamental Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nagasawa, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Koseki, Takami; Hirose, Hitoshi; Ochi, Shuichi

    An epoch-making incineration plant, which is equipped with a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor coupled to a turbocharger, for the recovery of the energy contained in sewage sludge is proposed. This plant has three main advantages. (1) A pressure vessel is unnecessary because the maximum operating pressure is 0.3 MPa (absolute pressure). The material cost for plant construction can be reduced. (2) CO2 emissions originating from power generation can be decreased because the FDF (Forced Draft Fan) and the IDF (Induced Draft Fan) are omitted. (3) Steam in the flue gas becomes a working fluid of the turbocharger, so that in addition to the combustion air, the surplus air is also generable. Therefore, this proposed plant will not only save energy but also the generate energy. The objective of this study is to elucidate the fundamental combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge using a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC). The tested fuels are de-watered sludge and sawdust. The temperature distribution in the furnace and N2O emissions in the flue gas are experimentally clarified. As the results, for sludge only combustion, the temperature in the sand bed decreases by drying and pyrolysis, and the pyrolysis gas burns in the freeboard so that the temperature rises. On the other hand, the residual char of sawdust after pyrolysis burns stably in the sand bed for the co-firing of sludge and sawdust. Thus the temperature of the co-firing is considerably higher than that of the sludge only combustion. N2O emissions decreases with increasing freeboard temperature, and are controlled by the temperature for all experimental conditions. These data can be utilize to operation the demonstration plant.

  19. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  20. Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved, lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbocharging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.

  1. 14 CFR 23.909 - Turbocharger systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the system; (2) It must be shown that, under the installed vibration environment, the intercooler will... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger systems. 23.909 Section 23.909 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...

  2. 14 CFR 23.909 - Turbocharger systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the system; (2) It must be shown that, under the installed vibration environment, the intercooler will... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger systems. 23.909 Section 23.909 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...

  3. 14 CFR 23.909 - Turbocharger systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the system; (2) It must be shown that, under the installed vibration environment, the intercooler will... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger systems. 23.909 Section 23.909 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...

  4. 14 CFR 23.909 - Turbocharger systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the system; (2) It must be shown that, under the installed vibration environment, the intercooler will... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger systems. 23.909 Section 23.909 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...

  5. 14 CFR 23.909 - Turbocharger systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the system; (2) It must be shown that, under the installed vibration environment, the intercooler will... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger systems. 23.909 Section 23.909 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...

  6. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  7. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.

  8. Effects of unbalance location on dynamic characteristics of high-speed gasoline engine turbocharger with floating ring bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longkai; Bin, Guangfu; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Dingqu

    2016-03-01

    For the high-speed gasoline engine turbocharger rotor, due to the heterogeneity of multiple parts material, manufacturing and assembly errors, running wear in impeller and uneven carbon of turbine, the random unbalance usually can be developed which will induce excessive rotor vibration, and even lead to nonlinear vibration accidents. However, the investigation of unbalance location on the nonlinear high-speed turbocharger rotordynamic characteristics is less. In order to discuss the rotor unbalance location effects of turbocharger with nonlinear floating ring bearings(FRBs), the realistic turbocharger of gasoline engine is taken as a research object. The rotordynamic equations of motion under the condition of unbalance are derived by applied unbalance force and nonlinear oil film force of FRBs. The FE model of turbocharger rotor-bearing system is modeled which includes the unbalance excitation and nonlinear FRBs. Under the conditions of four different applied locations of unbalance, the nonlinear transient analyses are performed based on the rotor FEM. The differences of dynamic behavior are obvious to the turbocharger rotor systems for four conditions, and the bifurcation phenomena are different. From the results of waterfall and transient response analysis, the speed for the appearance of fractional frequency is not identical and the amplitude magnitude is different from the different unbalance locations, and the non-synchronous vibration does not occur in the turbocharger and the amplitude is relative stable and minimum under the condition 4. The turbocharger vibration and non-synchronous components could be reduced or suppressed by controlling the applied location of unbalance, which is helpful for the dynamic design, fault diagnosis and vibration control of the high-speed gasoline engine turbochargers.

  9. Method for evaluating the reliability of compressor impeller of turbocharger for vehicle application in plateau area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zengquan; Wang, A.-na; Zhuang, Li; Wang, Jinwei

    2016-10-01

    As turbocharging diesel engines for vehicle application are applied in plateau area, the environmental adaptability of engines has drawn more attention. For the environmental adaptability problem of turbocharging diesel engines for vehicle application, the present studies almost focus on the optimization of performance match between turbocharger and engine, and the reliability problem of turbocharger is almost ignored. The reliability problem of compressor impeller of turbocharger for vehicle application when diesel engines operate in plateau area is studied. Firstly, the rule that the rotational speed of turbocharger changes with the altitude height is presented, and the potential failure modes of compressor impeller are analyzed. Then, the failure behavior models of compressor impeller are built, and the reliability models of compressor impeller operating in plateau area are developed. Finally, the rule that the reliability of compressor impeller changes with the altitude height is studied, the measurements for improving the reliability of the compressor impellers of turbocharger operating in plateau area are given. The results indicate that when the operating speed of diesel engine is certain, the rotational speed of turbocharger increases with the increase of altitude height, and the failure risk of compressor impeller with the failure modes of hub fatigue and blade resonance increases. The reliability of compressor impeller decreases with the increase of altitude height, and it also decreases as the increase of number of the mission profile cycle of engine. The method proposed can not only be used to evaluating the reliability of compressor impeller when diesel engines operate in plateau area but also be applied to direct the structural optimization of compressor impeller.

  10. Turbocharger with variable nozzle having vane sealing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Philippe; Petitjean, Dominique; Ruquart, Anthony

    2011-11-15

    A variable nozzle for a turbocharger includes a plurality of vanes rotatably mounted on a nozzle ring and disposed in a nozzle flow path defined between the nozzle ring and an opposite nozzle wall. Either or both of the faces of the nozzle ring and nozzle wall include(s) at least one step that defines sealing surfaces positioned to be substantially abutted by airfoil surfaces of the vanes in the closed position of the vanes and to be spaced from the airfoil surfaces in positions other than the closed position. This substantial abutment between the airfoil surfaces and the sealing surfacesmore » serves to substantially prevent exhaust gas from leaking past the ends of the airfoil portions. At the same time, clearances between the nozzle ring face and the end faces of the airfoil portions can be sufficiently large to prevent binding of the vanes under all operating conditions.« less

  11. Study of the turbocharger shaft motion by means of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, J. R.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2015-05-01

    This work describes a technique for measuring the precession movement of the shaft of small automotive turbochargers. The main novelty is that the technique is based on infrared light diode sensors. With presented technique it is possible to perform secure mounting of electronics and also to measure, with good accuracy, far enough from the turbocharger shaft. Both advantages allow applying it even in critical lubrication conditions and when blade contact occurs. The technique's main difficulties arise from the small size of the turbocharger shaft and the high precession movement in critical conditions. In order to generate the optimum albedo reflection for infrared measurement, a special cylindrical nut with larger diameter than the original one is assembled at the shaft tip in the compressor side. Following, shaft balancing, the calibration of the sensors and the compensation of errors from different sources are needed steps before the method is able to identify the main frequencies of shaft motion. Once synchronous and sub-synchronous frequencies have been obtained it is possible to reconstruct the instantaneous position of the shaft to determine its precession movement.

  12. Simulation of a Driven Dense Granular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizon, Chris; Shattuck, M. D.; Swift, J. B.; Swinney, Harry L.

    1998-11-01

    Event driven particle simulations quantitatively reproduce the experimental results on vibrated granular layers, including the formation of standing wave patterns(C. Bizon, M.D. Shattuck, J.B. Swift, W.D. McCormick, and H.L. Swinney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80), pp. 57-60 (1998). and secondary instabilities(J.R. deBruyn, C. Bizon, M.D. Shattuck, D. Goldman, J.B. Swift, and H.L. Swinney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81) (1998), to appear. . In these simulations the velocity distributions are nearly Gaussian when scaled with the local fluctuational kinetic energy (granular temperature); this suggests that inelastic dense gas kinetic theory is applicable. We perform simulations of a two-dimensional granular gas that is homogeneously driven with fluctuating forces. We find that the equation of state differs from that of an elastic dense gas and that this difference is due to a change in the distribution of relative velocities at collisions. Granular thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by allowing the fluctuating forces to have large scale spatial gradients.

  13. The third-generation turbocharged engine for the Audi 5000 CS and 5000 CS Quattro

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.

    In September 1985 the new Audi 5000 CS Quattro was introduced to the American market. This luxurious high performance touring sedan has been equipped with a more advanced turbocharged engine with intercooler and electronic engine management giving improved performance, excellent torque, faster response and better fuel economy. The basic engine is the tried-and-tested Audi 5-cylinder unit. The turbocharged engine's ancillary systems, the electronic ignition control and fuel injection have all been newly developed, carefully optimized and well matched in the special demands of a turbocharged engine. The ignition system controls the engine and fuel injection and delivers analog and digitalmore » signals to the car's instrument panel display. The system also has an integrated self-diagnostic function.« less

  14. F1 style MGU-H applied to the turbocharger of a gasoline hybrid electric passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Albert

    2017-12-01

    We consider a turbocharged gasoline direct injection (DI) engine featuring a motor-generator-unit (MGU-H) fitted on the turbocharger shaft. The MGU-H receives or delivers energy to the same energy storage (ES) of the hybrid power unit that comprises a motor-generator unit on the driveline (MGU-K) in addition to the internal combustion engine (ICE). The energy supply from the ES is mostly needed during sharp accelerations to avoid turbo-lag, and to boost torque at low speeds. At low speeds, it also improves the ratio of engine crankshaft power to fuel flow power, as well as the ratio of engine crankshaft plus turbocharger shaft power to fuel flow power. The energy supply to the ES is possible at high speeds and loads, where otherwise the turbine could have been waste gated, and during decelerations. This improves the ratio of engine crankshaft plus turbocharger shaft power to fuel flow power.

  15. Process for Making Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved. lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbo-charging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.

  16. Surge detection on an automotive turbocharger during transient phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligant, M.; Danlos, A.; Podevin, P.; Clenci, A.; Guilain, S.

    2017-10-01

    The surge limit on automotive turbocharger needs to be avoided to prevent operations with pressure and mass flow oscillations. Mild surge is accompanied by noise which is disturbing. Deep surge can cause significant loss of engine power and severe drivability issues. It is necessary to know the stationary limit in order to match a turbocharger with an engine, ensuring enough surge margin. However, this choice does not guarantee surge free operation during transient functioning. In this paper, the surge onset of a compressor while closing a downstream valve is studied. Various tests have been carried out varying the closing time, the position of the initial operating point and the volume of the circuit. The inlet and outlet signals of physical parameters are analyzed with spectral and temporal methods in order to define the instant of the surge occurrence.

  17. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  18. Development and Introduction of the Automotive Turbocharger : A Case of Innovation in Response to Fuel Economy Regulation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-08-01

    This case study examines the evolution of the turbocharger from its invention in 1905 by Dr. A. J. Buechi, to its use on passenger cars in the late seventies. The case makes a number of points. The market for turbochargers has changed over time. In t...

  19. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the operation of the transfer means under § 112.20-5, the diesel engine or gas turbine driving the final... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  20. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the operation of the transfer means under § 112.20-5, the diesel engine or gas turbine driving the final... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112...

  1. Features of the gas dynamics and local heat transfer in intake system of piston engine with supercharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    Comparison of experimental research results of gas dynamics and instantaneous local heat transfer in the intake pipes for piston internal combustion engines (ICE) without and with supercharging are presented in the article. Studies were conducted on full-scale experimental setups in terms of gas dynamic nonstationarity, which is characteristic of piston engines. It has been established that the turbocharger installation in a gas-air system of piston internal combustion engine leads to significant differences in the patterns of change in gas-dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of flows. These data can be used in a modernization of piston engines due to installation of a turbocharger or in a development of gas-air systems for piston ICE with supercharging.

  2. A nonlinear Kalman filtering approach to embedded control of turbocharged diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The development of efficient embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines, requires the programming of elaborated nonlinear control and filtering methods. To this end, in this paper nonlinear control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used and redesigned as a disturbance observer. The filter consists of the Kalman Filter recursion on the linearized equivalent of the Diesel engine model and of an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory which enables to obtain estimates for the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. Once the disturbances variables are identified it is possible to compensate them by including an additional control term in the feedback loop. The efficiency of the proposed control method is tested through simulation experiments.

  3. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  4. Natural Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Demonstration at DoD Installations: Performance and Reliability Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-09

    ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 9 -1 0 Natural Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Demonstration at DoD Installations Performance and Reliability Summary...L ab or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CERL TR-09-10 June 2009 Natural Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump ...CERL TR-09-10 ii Abstract: Results of field testing natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP) at six southwestern U.S. Department of Defense (DoD

  5. Vacuum-driven power-free microfluidics utilizing the gas solubility or permeability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Xu, Linfeng; Lee, Hun; Jetta, Deekshitha; Oh, Kwang W

    2015-10-21

    Suitable pumping methods for flow control remain a major technical hurdle in the path of biomedical microfluidic systems for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. A vacuum-driven power-free micropumping method provides a promising solution to such a challenge. In this review, we focus on vacuum-driven power-free microfluidics based on the gas solubility or permeability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); degassed PDMS can restore air inside itself due to its high gas solubility or gas permeable nature. PDMS allows the transfer of air into a vacuum through it due to its high gas permeability. Therefore, it is possible to store or transfer air into or through the gas soluble or permeable PDMS in order to withdraw liquids into the embedded dead-end microfluidic channels. This article provides a comprehensive look at the physics of the gas solubility and permeability of PDMS, a systematic review of different types of vacuum-driven power-free microfluidics, and guidelines for designing solubility-based or permeability-based PDMS devices, alongside existing applications. Advanced topics and the outlook in using micropumping that utilizes the gas solubility or permeability of PDMS will be also discussed. We strongly recommend that microfluidics and lab-on-chip (LOC) communities harness vacuum energy to develop smart vacuum-driven microfluidic systems.

  6. Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Cooper, Paul D.; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Rymer, Abigail M.; Hill, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    Water ices in surface crusts of Europa, Enceladus, Saturn's main rings, and Kuiper Belt Objects can become heavily oxidized from radiolytic chemical alteration of near-surface water ice by space environment irradiation. Oxidant accumulations and gas production are manifested in part through observed H2O2 on Europa. tentatively also on Enceladus, and found elsewhere in gaseous or condensed phases at moons and rings of Jupiter and Saturn. On subsequent chemical contact in sub-surface environments with significant concentrations of primordially abundant reductants such as NH3 and CH4, oxidants of radiolytic origin can react exothermically to power gas-driven cryovolcanism. The gas-piston effect enormously amplifies the mass flow output in the case of gas formation at basal thermal margins of incompressible fluid reservoirs. Surface irradiation, H2O2 production, NH3 oxidation, and resultant heat, gas, and gas-driven mass flow rates are computed in the fluid reservoir case for selected bodies. At Enceladus the oxidant power inputs are comparable to limits on nonthermal kinetic power for the south polar plumes. Total heat output and plume gas abundance may be accounted for at Enceladus if plume activity is cyclic in high and low "Old Faithful" phases, so that oxidants can accumulate during low activity phases. Interior upwelling of primordially abundant NH3 and CH4 hydrates is assumed to resupply the reductant fuels. Much lower irradiation fluxes on Kuiper Belt Objects require correspondingly larger times for accumulation of oxidants to produce comparable resurfacing, but brightness and surface composition of some objects suggest that such activity may be ongoing.

  7. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-08-01671 Materials for Advanced Turbocharger Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P. J.; Wilson, M.

    2014-11-28

    Results were obtained on residual stresses in the weld of the steel shaft to the Ni-based superalloy turbine wheel for turbochargers. Neutron diffraction studies at the HFIR Residual Stress Facility showed asymmetric tensile stresses after electron-beam welding of the wheel and shaft. A post-weld heat-treatment was found to relieve and reduce the residual stresses. Results were also obtained on cast CF8C-Plus steel as an upgrade alternative to cast irons (SiMo, Ni-resist) for higher temperature capability and performance for the turbocharger housing. CF8C-Plus steel has demonstrated creep-rupture resistance at 600-950oC, and is more creep-resistant than HK30Nb, but lacks oxidation-resistance at 800oCmore » and above in 10% water vapor. New modified CF8C-Plus Cu/W steels with Cr and Ni additions show better oxidation resistance at 800oC in 10% water vapor, and have capability to higher temperatures. For automotive gasoline engine turbocharger applications, higher temperatures are required, so at the end of this project, testing began at 1000oC and above.« less

  8. Flatness-based embedded adaptive fuzzy control of turbocharged diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper nonlinear embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and adaptive fuzzy control. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances an adaptive fuzzy control scheme is implemanted making use of the transformed dynamical system of the diesel engine that is obtained through the application of differential flatness theory. Since only the system's output is measurable the complete state vector has to be reconstructed with the use of a state observer. It is shown that a suitable learning law can be defined for neuro-fuzzy approximators, which are part of the controller, so as to preserve the closed-loop system stability. With the use of Lyapunov stability analysis it is proven that the proposed observer-based adaptive fuzzy control scheme results in H∞ tracking performance.

  9. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supplymore » of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.« less

  11. Gas-driven permeation of deuterium through tungsten and tungsten alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Fang, Zhigang Zak; ...

    2016-03-25

    Here, to address the transport and trapping of hydrogen isotopes, several permeation experiments are being pursued at both Sandia National Laboratories (deuterium gas-driven permeation) and Idaho National Laboratories (tritium gas- and plasma-driven tritium permeation). These experiments are in part a collaboration between the US and Japan to study the performance of tungsten at divertor relevant temperatures (PHENIX). Here we report on the development of a high temperature (≤1150 °C) gas-driven permeation cell and initial measurements of deuterium permeation in several types of tungsten: high purity tungsten foil, ITER-grade tungsten (grains oriented through the membrane), and dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grain (UFG) tungstenmore » being developed in the US. Experiments were performed at 500–1000 °C and 0.1–1.0 atm D 2 pressure. Permeation through ITER-grade tungsten was similar to earlier W experiments by Frauenfelder (1968–69) and Zaharakov (1973). Data from the UFG alloy indicates marginally higher permeability (< 10×) at lower temperatures, but the permeability converges to that of the ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. The permeation cell uses only ceramic and graphite materials in the hot zone to reduce the possibility for oxidation of the sample membrane. Sealing pressure is applied externally, thereby allowing for elevation of the temperature for brittle membranes above the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature.« less

  12. 75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... turbocharger (supercharger driven by exhaust gases) * * *.'' The language adopted by FHWA is essentially identical to that established by EPA, except that Sec. 325.91(b) specifically treats a turbocharger as a..., `` such as a turbocharger (supercharger driven by exhaust gases)'' be removed from 49 CFR 325.91(b). In...

  13. Internal combustion engine supercharging: turbocharger vs. pressure wave compressor. Performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Atanasiu Catalin; Chiru, Anghel

    2014-06-01

    This paper aims on comparison between a turbocharged engine and a pressure wave charged engine. The comparison was accomplished using the engine simulation software AVL Boost, version 2010. The grahps were extracted using AVL Impress, version 2010. The performance increase is limited by the mechanical side of the simulated engine.

  14. shock driven instability of a multi-phase particle-gas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Jacob; Black, Wolfgang; Dahal, Jeevan; Morgan, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    A computational study of a shock driven instability of a multiphse particle-gas system is presented. This instability can evolve in a similar fashion to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, but has addition parameters to be considered. Particle relaxation times, and density differences of the gas and particle-gas system can be adjusted to produce results which are different from the classical RM instability. We will show simulation results from the Ares code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses a particle-in-cell approach to study the effects of the particle-gas system parameters. Mixing parameters will be presented to highlight the suppression of circulation and gas mixing by the particle phase.

  15. Light-powered micromotor driven by geometry-assisted, asymmetric photon-heating and subsequent gas convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li-Hsin; Wu, Shaomin; Condit, J. Christopher; Kemp, Nate J.; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.; Chen, Shaochen

    2010-05-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and analysis of a light-driven micromotor. The micromotor was created from a nanoporous polymer with close-packed gold nanoparticles which generate heat by absorbing light. The blades of the micromotor were curved, forming convex and concave sides. Upon lateral irradiation, by geometric effect the convex side transfers more photon-generated heat to the surrounding gas molecules, causing a convective motion of gas and leading to the rotation of the micromotor. The light-driven motions of gas molecules were analyzed using molecular dynamics modeling.

  16. Laser interferometry of radiation driven gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2017-06-01

    In a series of experiments performed at the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator of the Nevada Terawatt Facility nitrogen gas jets were driven with the broadband x-ray flux produced during the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion. The wire arrays were comprised of 4 and 8, 10μm-thick gold wires and 17μm-thick nickel wires, 2cm and 3cm tall, and 0.3cm in diameter. They radiated 12kJ to 16kJ of x-ray energy, most of it in soft x-ray photons of less than 1keV of energy, in a time interval of 30ns. This x-ray flux was used to drive a nitrogen gas jet located at 0.8cm from the axis of the z-pinch radiation source and produced with a supersonic nozzle. The x-ray flux ionizes the nitrogen gas thus turning it into a photoionized plasma. We used laser interferometry to probe the ionization of the plasma. To this end, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the wavelength of 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the gas jet just before the Zebra shot, and air-wedge interferometers at 266 and 532 nm were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma right during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities gives the distribution of average ionization state of the plasma. A python code was developed to perform the image data processing, extract phase shift spatial maps, and obtain the atom and electron number densities via Abel inversion. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and do show that a plasma has been created in the gas jet driven by the x-ray flux, thus demonstrating the feasibility of a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. These plasmas are found in astrophysical scenarios including x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and the accretion disks surrounding black holes1. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.1R. C. Mancini et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041001 (2009)

  17. Comparative Performance Assessment of 5kW-Class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Engines Integrated With Single/Dual-Spool Turbochargers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Comparative Performance Assessment of 5kW-Class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Engines Integrated with Single/Dual-Spool Turbochargers So-Ryeok Oh, Jing Sun... Turbochargers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT... fundamental operating regime to the part load performance. Two different mechanical designs are assumed: dual shaft and single shaft as the compressor

  18. Experimental Plans for Subsystems of a Shock Wave Driven Gas Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghai, S.

    2008-01-01

    This Contractor Report proposes a number of plans for experiments on subsystems of a shock wave driven pulsed magnetic induction gas core reactor (PMI-GCR, or PMD-GCR pulsed magnet driven gas core reactor). Computer models of shock generation and collision in a large-scale PMI-GCR shock tube have been performed. Based upon the simulation results a number of issues arose that can only be addressed adequately by capturing experimental data on high pressure (approx.1 atmosphere or greater) partial plasma shock wave effects in large bore shock tubes ( 10 cm radius). There are three main subsystems that are of immediate interest (for appraisal of the concept viability). These are (1) the shock generation in a high pressure gas using either a plasma thruster or pulsed high magnetic field, (2) collision of MHD or gas dynamic shocks, their interaction time, and collision pile-up region thickness, and (3) magnetic flux compression power generation (not included here).

  19. A pressure-driven flow analysis of gas trapping behavior in nanocomposite thermite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, K. T.; Bastea, S.; Kuntz, J. D.; Gash, A. E.

    2013-10-01

    This article is in direct response to a recently published article entitled Electrophoretic deposition and mechanistic studies of nano-Al/CuO thermites (K. T. Sullivan et al., J. Appl. Phys., 112(2), 2012), in which we introduced a non-dimensional parameter as the ratio of gas production to gas escape within a thin porous thermite film. In our original analysis, we had treated the problem as Fickian diffusion of gases through the porous network. However, we believe a more physical representation of the problem is to treat this as pressure-driven flow of gases in a porous medium. We offer a new derivation of the non-dimensional parameter which calculates gas velocity using the well-known Poiseuille's Law for pressure-driven flow in a pipe. This updated analysis incorporates the porosity, gas viscosity, and pressure gradient into the equation.

  20. A Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke Single Cylinder Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2014-11-01

    Turbocharging is not conventionally used with single cylinder engines due to the timing mismatch between when the turbo is powered and when it can deliver air to the cylinder. The proposed solution involves a fixed, pressurized volume - which we call an air capacitor - on the intake side of the engine between the turbocharger and intake valves. The capacitor acts as a buffer and would be implemented as a new style of intake manifold with a larger volume than traditional systems. This talk will present the flow analysis used to determine the optimal size for the capacitor, which was found to be four to five times the engine capacity, as well as its anticipated contributions to engine performance. For a capacitor sized for a one-liter engine, the time to reach operating pressure was found to be approximately two seconds, which would be acceptable for slowly accelerating applications and steady state applications. The air density increase that could be achieved, compared to ambient air, was found to vary between fifty percent for adiabatic compression and no heat transfer from the capacitor, to eighty percent for perfect heat transfer. These increases in density are proportional to, to first order, the anticipated power increases that could be realized. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.

  1. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantialmore » creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.« less

  2. Variable speed gas engine-driven air compressor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. R.; Ruggles, A. E.; Chen, T. N.; Gehret, J.

    1992-11-01

    Tecogen Inc. and Ingersoll-Rand Co. as a subcontractor have designed a nominal 150-hp gas engine-driven air compressor utilizing the TECODRIVE 8000 engine and the Ingersoll-Rand 178.5-mm twin screw compressor. Phase 1 included the system engineering and design, economic and applications studies, and a draft commercialization plan. Phase 2 included controls development, laboratory prototype construction, and performance testing. The testing conducted verified that the compressor meets all design specifications.

  3. Gas breakdown driven by L band short-pulse high-power microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yiming; Yuan Chengwei; Qian Baoliang

    2012-12-15

    High power microwave (HPM) driven gas breakdown is a major factor in limiting the radiation and transmission of HPM. A method that HPM driven gas breakdown could be obtained by changing the aperture of horn antenna is studied in this paper. Changing the effective aperture of horn antenna can adjust the electric field in near field zone, leading to gas breakdown. With this method, measurements of air and SF{sub 6} breakdowns are carried out on a magnetically insulated transmission-line oscillators, which is capable of generating HPM with pulse duration of 30 ns, and frequency of 1.74 GHz. The typical breakdownmore » waveforms of air and SF{sub 6} are presented. Besides, the breakdown field strengths of the two gases are derived at different pressures. It is found that the effects of air and SF{sub 6} breakdown on the transmission of HPM are different: air breakdown mainly shortens the pulse width of HPM while SF{sub 6} breakdown mainly reduces the peak output power of HPM. The electric field threshold of SF{sub 6} is about 2.4 times larger than that of air. These differences suggest that gas properties have a great effect on the transmission characteristic of HPM in gases.« less

  4. Exploratory development of a twin-spool turbocharger for a high-output diesel engine. Final report, September 1983-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, R.; King, J.F.; Harp, J.L.

    1986-08-01

    The analysis, design, fabrication, and experimental testing of a twin-spool turbocharger was conducted for the Cummins NTC-475 diesel engine. Two major designs of the twin-spool turbocharger were fabricated and tested: 1) Compact design, concentric shaft-to-shaft bearing coupled turbocharger incorporating a) split 40/sup 0/ backswept impeller, b) split AiResearch Ti8A85 turbine rotor, c) adjustable vaned compressor diffuser, and d) nozzleless AiResearch turbine (volute) housing; and 2) Independently supported (shafts dynamically de-coupled) concentric shaft design incorporating a) separate structures for bearing support of the inner shaft b) split 25/sup 0/ backswept compressor impeller, c) split T18A40/Ti8A85 turbine rotor/exducer combination, and d) dividedmore » volute, adjustable-nozzle turbine housing. While bench tests were performed on both designs, engine testing was successfully carried out using the latter designs. Tests indicated that the second twin-spool configuration gave performance comparable to the originally equipped two-stage turbocharger system of the NTC-475 diesel engine (rated BHP of 425 hp at 2100 RPM, best BSFC of 0.35 at engine lug) with the added benefit of extending engine lugging range to 1200 RPM (from 1300 RPM, as originally equipped). This configuration gave peak compressor efficiency of about 75% and peak turbine efficiency of about 80%, both attributed to the reduction inducer angle of attack and exducer exit swirl angle made possible by the twin-spool concept.« less

  5. Technical Development Path for Gas Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

  6. Effect of Schmidt number on mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface in a wind-driven turbulence.

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Naohisa; Kurose, Ryoichi; Kimura, Atsushi; Komori, Satoru

    2016-11-14

    The mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface strongly depends on the Schmidt number. Here we investigate the relationship between mass transfer coefficient on the liquid side, k L , and Schmidt number, Sc, in the wide range of 0.7 ≤ Sc ≤ 1000. We apply a three-dimensional semi direct numerical simulation (SEMI-DNS), in which the mass transfer is solved based on an approximated deconvolution model (ADM) scheme, to wind-driven turbulence with mass transfer across a sheared wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface. In order to capture the deforming gas-liquid interface, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is employed. Our results show that similar to the case for flat gas-liquid interfaces, k L for the wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface is generally proportional to Sc -0.5 , and can be roughly estimated by the surface divergence model. This trend is endorsed by the fact that the mass transfer across the gas-liquid interface is controlled mainly by streamwise vortices on the liquid side even for the wind-driven turbulence under the conditions of low wind velocities without wave breaking.

  7. Effect of Schmidt number on mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface in a wind-driven turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Takagaki, Naohisa; Kurose, Ryoichi; Kimura, Atsushi; Komori, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The mass transfer across a sheared gas-liquid interface strongly depends on the Schmidt number. Here we investigate the relationship between mass transfer coefficient on the liquid side, kL, and Schmidt number, Sc, in the wide range of 0.7 ≤ Sc ≤ 1000. We apply a three-dimensional semi direct numerical simulation (SEMI-DNS), in which the mass transfer is solved based on an approximated deconvolution model (ADM) scheme, to wind-driven turbulence with mass transfer across a sheared wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface. In order to capture the deforming gas-liquid interface, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is employed. Our results show that similar to the case for flat gas-liquid interfaces, kL for the wind-driven wavy gas-liquid interface is generally proportional to Sc−0.5, and can be roughly estimated by the surface divergence model. This trend is endorsed by the fact that the mass transfer across the gas-liquid interface is controlled mainly by streamwise vortices on the liquid side even for the wind-driven turbulence under the conditions of low wind velocities without wave breaking. PMID:27841325

  8. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 10-2-400 Open End Compressed Gas Driven Shock Tube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    gas-driven shock tube. Procedures are provided for instrumentation, test item positioning, estimation of key test parameters, operation of the shock...tube, data collection, and reporting. The procedures in this document are based on the use of helium gas and Mylar film diaphragms.

  9. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a DI diesel with simulated turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Ronald J.; Borman, Gary L.; Bower, Glenn R.

    1994-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-2 computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-2 combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  10. Emission of a Dual-Fuel Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rózycki, Andrzej

    2012-02-01

    The paper describes the results of a four-cylinder dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine. The aim of the study was to determine the maximum CNG share in thefuel mixture delivered into the cylinder. Analysis of the investigation results showed that the CNG energy share in the fuel charge delivered into the cylinder can reach 45%. At that level of CNG energy share a 15% reduction in maximum torque is achieved in comparison with the standard fuelling. The unburnt hydrocarbon emission increases significantly. Emissions of other principal pollutants reach values comparable with those obtained at standard fuelling.

  11. A gas-puff-driven theta pinch for plasma-surface interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soonwook; Kesler, Leigh; Yun, Hyun-Ho; Curreli, Davide; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2012-10-01

    DEVeX is a theta pinch device used to investigate fusion-related material interaction such as vapor shielding and ICRF antenna interactions with plasma-pulses in a laboratory setting. The simulator is required to produce high heat-flux plasma enough to induce temperature gradient high enough to study extreme conditions happened in a plasma fusion reactor. In order to achieve it, DEVeX is reconfigured to be combined with gas puff system as gas puffing may reduce heat flux loss resulting from collisions with neutral. A gas puff system as well as a conical gas nozzle is manufactured and several diagnostics including hot wire anemometer and fast ionization gauge are carried out to quantitatively estimate the supersonic flow of gas. Energy deposited on the target for gas puffing and static-filled conditions is measured with thermocouples and its application to TELS, an innovative concept utilizing a thermoelectric-driven liquid metal flow for plasma facing component, is discussed.

  12. The Role of Tribology in the Development of an Oil-Free Turbocharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Gas-turbine-based aeropropulsion engines are technologically mature. Thus, as with any mature technology, revolutionary approaches will be needed to achieve the significant performance gains that will keep the U.S. propulsion manufacturers well ahead of foreign competition. One such approach is the development of oil-free turbomachinery utilizing advanced foil air bearings, seals, and solid lubricants. By eliminating oil-lubricated bearings and seals and supporting an engine rotor on an air film, significant improvements can be realized. For example, the entire oil system including pipes, lines, filters, cooler, and tanks could be removed, thereby saving considerable weight. Since air has no thermal decomposition temperature, engine systems could operate without excessive cooling. Also, since air bearings have no diameter-rpm fatigue limits (D-N limits), engines could be designed to operate at much higher speeds and higher density, which would result in a smaller aeropropulsion package. Because of recent advances in compliant foil air bearings and high temperature solid lubricants, these technologies can be applied to oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to develop these technologies and to demonstrate a project along the path to an oil-free gas turbine engine, NASA has undertaken the development of an oil-free turbocharger for a heavy duty diesel engine. This turbomachine can reach 120000 rpm at a bearing temperature of 540 C (1000 F) and, in comparison to oil-lubricated bearings, can increase efficiency by 10 to 15 percent because of reduced friction. In addition, because there are no oil lubricants, there are no seal-leakage-induced emissions.

  13. Modeling CO2 air dispersion from gas driven lake eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Rouwet, Dmitri; Tassi, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The most tragic event of gas driven lake eruption occurred at Lake Nyos (Cameroon) on 21 August 1986, when a dense cloud of CO2 suffocated more than 1700 people and an uncounted number of animals in just one night. The event stimulated a series of researches aimed to understand gas origins, gas release mechanisms and strategies for gas hazard mitigation. Very few studies have been carried out for describing the transport of dense CO2 clouds in the atmosphere. Although from a theoretical point of view, gas dispersion can be fully studied by solving the complete equations system for mass, momentum and energy transport, in actual practice, different simplified models able to describe only specific phases or aspects have to be used. In order to simulate dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard we used a model based on a shallow layer approach (TWODEE2). This technique which uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography represents a good compromise between the complexity of computational fluid dynamic models and the simpler integral models. Recently the model has been applied for simulating CO2 dispersion from natural gas emissions in Central Italy. The results have shown how the dispersion pattern is strongly affected by the intensity of gas release, the topography and the ambient wind speed. Here for the first time we applied TWODEE2 code to simulate the dispersion of the large CO2 clouds released by limnic eruptions. An application concerns the case of the 1986 event at lake Nyos. Some difficulties for the simulations were related to the lack of quantitative information: gas flux estimations are not well constrained, meteorological conditions are only qualitatively known, the digital model of the terrain is of poor quality. Different scenarios were taken into account in order to reproduce the qualitative observations available for such episode. The observations regard mainly the effects of gas on

  14. Application study of fluid pressure energy recycling of decarbonisation process by C4H6O3 in ammonia synthesis systems by hydraulic turbochargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yunguang; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Hongtao; Oklejas, Michael; Xue, Shuqi

    2018-01-01

    A new type of hydraulic turbocharger energy recovery system was designed and applied in the decarbonisation process by propylene carbonate of a 100k tons ammonia synthesis system firstly in China. Compared with existing energy recovery devices, hydraulic turbocharger energy recovery system runs more smoothly, has lower failure rate, longer service life and greater comprehensive benefits due to its unique structure, simpler adjustment process and better adaptability to fluid fluctuation.

  15. Pulse-driven micro gas sensor fitted with clustered Pd/SnO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Koichi; Shin, Yuka; Ma, Nan; Oyama, Tokiharu; Sasaki, Miyuki; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Kida, Tetsuya; Shimanoe, Kengo

    2015-08-18

    Real-time monitoring of specific gas concentrations with a compact and portable gas sensing device is required to sense potential health risk and danger from toxic gases. For such purposes, we developed an ultrasmall gas sensor device, where a micro sensing film was deposited on a micro heater integrated with electrodes fabricated by the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The developed device was operated in a pulse-heating mode to significantly reduce the heater power consumption and make the device battery-driven and portable. Using clustered Pd/SnO2 nanoparticles, we succeeded in introducing mesopores ranging from 10 to 30 nm in the micro gas sensing film (area: ϕ 150 μm) to detect large volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The micro sensor showed quick, stable, and high sensor responses to toluene at ppm (parts per million) concentrations at 300 °C even by operating the micro heater in a pulse-heating mode where switch-on and -off cycles were repeated at one-second intervals. The high performance of the micro sensor should result from the creation of efficient diffusion paths decorated with Pd sensitizers by using the clustered Pd/SnO2 nanoparticles. Hence we demonstrate that our pulse-driven micro sensor using nanostructured oxide materials holds promise as a battery-operable, portable gas sensing device.

  16. Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-division-multiplexed Fourier-domain mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; An, Xinliang; Sanders, Scott T; Schauer, Frederick R; Gord, James R

    2013-04-20

    Hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy is being used to monitor gas temperature, velocity, pressure, and H(2)O mole fraction in a research-grade pulsed-detonation combustor (PDC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The hyperspectral source employed is termed the TDM 3-FDML because it consists of three time-division-multiplexed (TDM) Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers. This optical-fiber-based source monitors sufficient spectral information in the H(2)O absorption spectrum near 1350 nm to permit measurements over the wide range of conditions encountered throughout the PDC cycle. Doppler velocimetry based on absorption features is accomplished using a counterpropagating beam approach that is designed to minimize common-mode flow noise. The PDC in this study is operated in two configurations: one in which the combustion tube exhausts directly to the ambient environment and another in which it feeds an automotive-style turbocharger to assess the performance of a detonation-driven turbine. Because the enthalpy flow [kilojoule/second] is important in assessing the performance of the PDC in various configurations, it is calculated from the measured gas properties.

  17. Current quantization and fractal hierarchy in a driven repulsive lattice gas.

    PubMed

    Rotondo, Pietro; Sellerio, Alessandro Luigi; Glorioso, Pietro; Caracciolo, Sergio; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Gherardi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Driven lattice gases are widely regarded as the paradigm of collective phenomena out of equilibrium. While such models are usually studied with nearest-neighbor interactions, many empirical driven systems are dominated by slowly decaying interactions such as dipole-dipole and Van der Waals forces. Motivated by this gap, we study the nonequilibrium stationary state of a driven lattice gas with slow-decayed repulsive interactions at zero temperature. By numerical and analytical calculations of the particle current as a function of the density and of the driving field, we identify (i) an abrupt breakdown transition between insulating and conducting states, (ii) current quantization into discrete phases where a finite current flows with infinite differential resistivity, and (iii) a fractal hierarchy of excitations, related to the Farey sequences of number theory. We argue that the origin of these effects is the competition between scales, which also causes the counterintuitive phenomenon that crystalline states can melt by increasing the density.

  18. Current quantization and fractal hierarchy in a driven repulsive lattice gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotondo, Pietro; Sellerio, Alessandro Luigi; Glorioso, Pietro; Caracciolo, Sergio; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Gherardi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Driven lattice gases are widely regarded as the paradigm of collective phenomena out of equilibrium. While such models are usually studied with nearest-neighbor interactions, many empirical driven systems are dominated by slowly decaying interactions such as dipole-dipole and Van der Waals forces. Motivated by this gap, we study the nonequilibrium stationary state of a driven lattice gas with slow-decayed repulsive interactions at zero temperature. By numerical and analytical calculations of the particle current as a function of the density and of the driving field, we identify (i) an abrupt breakdown transition between insulating and conducting states, (ii) current quantization into discrete phases where a finite current flows with infinite differential resistivity, and (iii) a fractal hierarchy of excitations, related to the Farey sequences of number theory. We argue that the origin of these effects is the competition between scales, which also causes the counterintuitive phenomenon that crystalline states can melt by increasing the density.

  19. Thermal and wind-driven water motions in vegetated waters and their role in greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The relative importance of different methane transport pathways in wetlands can impact total wetland methane fluxes. The transport of methane and other gases through the water column is affected by a variety of forces. We investigate the role of wind- and thermally-driven water motions in greenhouse gas fluxes in a freshwater marsh and a rice field using in situ velocity measurements in combination with gas transfer velocity models. We measure velocity using an Acoustic Doppler velocimeter, correcting for instrument generated velocities, and a Volumetric Particle Imager. These measurements indicate the presence of wind-driven motions in the wetland water column located below a dense 3-m emergent vegetation canopy. In the rice field's water column, velocity data suggest the occurrence of thermal convection. Results from these in-situ velocity measurements correspond with the non-negligible gas transfer velocities we predict via semi-empirical models. This underscores the importance of hydrodynamics to greenhouse gas fluxes even in shallow, vegetated inland waters.

  20. Gas-Driven Fracturing of Saturated Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James M.; Ozturk, Deren; Sandnes, Bjørnar

    2017-12-01

    Multiphase flows in deformable porous materials are important in numerous geological and geotechnical applications; however, the complex flow behavior makes subsurface transport processes difficult to control—or even characterize. Here, we study gas-driven (pneumatic) fracturing of a wet unconsolidated granular packing confined in a Hele-Shaw cell, and we present an in-depth analysis of both pore-scale phenomena and large-scale pattern formation. The process is governed by a complex interplay among pressure, capillary, frictional, and viscous forces. At low gas-injection rates, fractures grow in a stick-slip fashion and branch out to form a simply connected network. We observe the emergence of a characteristic length scale—the separation distance between fracture branches—creating an apparent uniform spatial fracture density. We conclude that the well-defined separation distance is the result of local compaction fronts surrounding fractures and keeping them apart. A scaling argument is presented that predicts fracture density as a function of granular friction, grain size, and capillary interactions. We study the influence of the gas-injection rate and find that the system undergoes a fluidization transition above a critical injection rate, resulting in directional growth of the fractures, and a fracture density that increases with an increasing rate. A dimensionless fluidization number F is defined as the ratio of viscous to frictional forces, and our experiments reveal a frictional regime for F <1 characterized by stick-slip, rate-independent growth, with a transition to a viscous regime (F >1 ) characterized by continuous growth in several fracture branches simultaneously.

  1. Dynamics of gas-driven eruptions: Experimental simulations using CO2-H2O-polymer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youxue; Sturtevant, B.; Stolper, E. M.

    1997-02-01

    We report exploratory experiments simulating gas-driven eruptions using the CO2-H2O system at room temperature as an analog of natural eruptive systems. The experimental apparatus consists of a test cell and a large tank. Initially, up to 1.0 wt% of CO2 is dissolved in liquid water under a pressure of up to 735 kPa in the test cell. The experiment is initiated by suddenly reducing the pressure of the test cell to a typical tank pressure of 10 kPa. The following are the main results: (1) The style of the process depends on the decompression ratio. There is a threshold decompression ratio above which rapid eruption occurs. (2) During rapid eruption, there is always fragmentation at the liquid-vapor interface. Fragmentation may also occur in the flow interior. (3) Initially, the top of the erupting column ascends at a constant acceleration (instead of constant velocity). (4) Average bubble radius grows as t2/3. (5) When viscosity is 20 times that of pure water or greater, a static foam may be stable after expansion to 97% vesicularity. The experiments provide several insights into natural gas-driven eruptions, including (1) the interplay between bubble growth and ascent of the erupting column must be considered for realistic modeling of bubble growth during gas-driven eruptions, (2) buoyant rise of the bubbly magma is not necessary during an explosive volcanic eruption, and (3) CO2-driven limnic eruptions can be explosive. The violence increases with the initial CO2 content dissolved in water.

  2. The first of a series of high efficiency, high bmep, turbocharged two-stroke cycle diesel engines; the general motors EMD 645FB engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlin, J.J.; Dunteman, N.R.; Scott, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    The current Electro-Motive Division 645 Series turbocharged engines are the Model FB and EC. The FB engine combines the highest thermal efficiency with the highest specific output of any EMD engine to date. The FB Series incorporates 16:1 compression ratio with a fire ring piston and an improved turbocharger design. Engine components included in the FB engine provide very high output levels with exceptional reliability. This paper also describes the performance of the lower rated Model EC engine series which feature high thermal efficiency and utilize many engine components well proven in service and basic to the Model FB Series.

  3. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112.20-10 Section 112.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency...

  4. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112.20-10 Section 112.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency...

  5. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112.20-10 Section 112.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having a Temporary and a Final Emergency...

  6. Magnetic gauge instrumentation on the LANL gas-driven two-stage gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcon, R. R.; Sheffield, S. A.; Martinez, A. R.; Gustavsen, R. L.

    1998-07-01

    The LANL gas-driven two-stage gun was designed and built to do initiation studies on insensitive high explosives as well as equation of state and reaction experiments on other materials. The preferred method of measuring reaction phenomena involves the use of in-situ magnetic particle velocity gauges. In order to accommodate this type of gauging in our two-stage gun, it has a 50-mm-diameter launch tube. We have used magnetic gauging on our 72-mm bore diameter single-stage gun for over 15 years and it has proven a very effective technique for all types of shock wave experiments, including those on high explosives. This technique has now been installed on our gas-driven two-stage gun. We describe the method used, as well as some of the difficulties that arose during the installation. Several magnetic gauge experiments have been completed on plastic materials. Waveforms obtained in some of the experiments will be discussed. Up to 10 in-situ particle velocity measurements can be made in a single experiment. This new technique is now working quite well, as is evidenced by the data. To our knowledge, this is the first time magnetic gauging has been used on a two-stage gun.

  7. Symmetry breaking, phase separation and anomalous fluctuations in driven granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch; Pöschel, Thorsten; Sasorov, Pavel V.; Schwager, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    What is the role of noise, caused by the discrete nature of particles, in granular dynamics? We address this question by considering a simple driven granular system: an ensemble of nearly elastically colliding hard spheres in a rectangular box, driven by a rapidly vibrating side wall at zero gravity. The elementary state of this system is a strip of enhanced particle density away from the driving wall. Granular hydrodynamics (GHD) predicts a symmetry breaking instability of this state, when the aspect ratio of the confining box exceeds a threshold value, while the average density of the gas is within a ``spinodal interval". At large aspect ratios this instability leads to phase separation similar to that in van der Waals gas. In the present work (see cond-mat/0208286) we focus on the system behavior around the threshold of the symmetry-breaking instability. We put GHD into a quantitative test by performing extensive event-driven molecular dynamic simulations in 2D. Please watch the movies of the simulations at http://summa.physik.hu-berlin.de/ kies/HD/. We found that the supercritical bifurcation curve, predicted by GHD, agrees with the simulations well below and well above the instability threshold. In a wide region of aspect ratios around the threshold the system is dominated by fluctuations. We checked that the fluctuation strength goes down when the number of particles increases. However, fluctuations remain strong (and the critical region wide) even for as many as 4 ot 10^4 particles. We conclude by suggesting that fluctuations may put a severe limitation on the validity of continuum theories of granular flow in systems with a moderately large number of particles.

  8. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump with Desiccant Dehumidification

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad

    About 40% of total U.S. energy consumption was consumed in residential and commercial buildings. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. This paper describes the development of an innovative natural gas, propane, LNG or bio-gas IC engine-driven heat pump (GHP) with desiccant dehumidification (GHP/DD). This integrated system has higher overall efficiencies than conventional equipment for space cooling, addresses both new and existing commercial buildings, and more effectively controls humidity in humid areas. Waste heat is recovered from the GHP to provide energy for regenerating themore » desiccant wheel and to augment heating capacity and efficiency. By combining the two technologies, an overall source COP of greater that 1.5 (hot, humid case) can be achieved by utilizing waste heat from the engine to reduce the overall energy required to regenerate the desiccant. Moreover, system modeling results show that the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to less 60% in a dedicated outdoor air system application with hot, humid cases.« less

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  10. Gas-driven ultrafast reversible switching of super-hydrophobic adhesion on palladium-coated silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Soonil; Han, Heetak; Jung, Hwae Bong; Hong, Juree; Song, Giyoung; Cho, Suk Man; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Wooyoung; Lee, Taeyoon

    2013-08-14

    A gas-driven ultrafast adhesion switching of water droplets on palladium-coated Si nanowire arrays is demonstrated. By regulating the gas-ambient between the atmosphere and H2 , the super-hydrophobic adhesion is repeatedly switched between water-repellent and water-adhesive. The capability of modulating the super-hydrophobic adhesion on a super-hydrophobic surface with a non-contact mode could be applicable to novel functional lab-on-a-chip platforms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Preliminary study of a gas burner-driven and ground-coupled heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    To address the concerns for higher energy efficiency and the immediate phase out of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a new gas burner-driven, ground-coupled heat pump (GBGCHP) system is proposed for study. The new system is energy efficient and pose no environmental problem. There are three unique features in the proposed system: (1) a patented gas burner-driven compressor with a floating diaphragm piston-cylinder for energy efficiency and accommodating variable load, (2) the ground coupled water-to-air heat exchangers for high coefficient of performance (COPs), and (3) the new refrigerants based on fluoroiodocarbons (FICS) with very little ozone depletion and global warming potential. Amore » preliminary analysis of a prototype heat pump with 3 ton (10.55 kW) heating capacity is presented. The thermodynamics analysis of the system shows that the steady state COP rating higher than 7 is possible with the system operating in heating mode. Additional research work for the GBGCHP system, especially the FICs` thermodynamic properties in the superheated region, is also described.« less

  12. Simulation on the Performance of a Driven Fan Made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Jamri, Azmil; Nawawi, Azli; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Fauzi Ahmad, Md; Adzila, Sharifah; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a driven fan design made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN) material that specifically used for turbocharger compressor. Polyester/Epoxy IPN is polymer plastics that was used as replacements for traditional polymers and has been widely used in a variety of applications because of their limitless conformations. Simulation based on several parameters which are air pressure, air velocity and air temperature have been carried out for a driven fan design performance of two different materials, aluminum alloy (existing driven fan design) and Polyester/Epoxy IPN using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. Results from both simulations were analyzed and compared where both materials show similar performance in terms of air pressure and air velocity due to similar geometric and dimension, but Polyester/Epoxy IPN produces lower air temperature than aluminum alloy. This study shows a preliminary result of the potential Polyester/Epoxy IPN to be used as a driven fan design material. In the future, further studies will be conducted on detail simulation and experimental analysis.

  13. Study on rotational frequency noise in a centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakaki, Daichi; Sakuka, Yuta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2014-02-01

    The rotational frequency noise (also known as the pulsation noise) due to the mistuning of impeller blade rows introduced at the manufacturing stage of the impellers is observed in the small-sized centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers. The present paper addresses the elucidation of the generating mechanism and parameter dependency such as the kind and degree of mistuning. In order to analyze numerically the rotational frequency noise due to mistuning, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the whole compressor including volute is executed, and the resultant time history of the pressure is fed into the spectral analysis.

  14. Shallowly driven fluctuations in lava lake outgassing (gas pistoning), Kīlauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim; Sutton, A. J.; Lev, Einat; Thelen, Wes; Fee, David

    2016-01-01

    Lava lakes provide ideal venues for directly observing and understanding the nature of outgassing in basaltic magmatic systems. Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake has persisted for several years, during which seismic and infrasonic tremor amplitudes have exhibited episodic behavior associated with a rise and fall of the lava surface (;gas pistoning;). Since 2010, the outgassing regime of the lake has been tied to the presence or absence of gas pistoning. During normal behavior (no gas pistoning), the lake is in a ;spattering; regime, consisting of higher tremor amplitudes and gas emissions. In comparison, gas piston events are associated with an abrupt rise in lava level (up to 20 m), during which the lake enters a ;non-spattering; regime with greatly decreased tremor and gas emissions. We study this episodic behavior using long-term multidisciplinary monitoring of the lake, including seismicity, infrasound, gas emission and geochemistry, and time-lapse camera observations. The non-spattering regime (i.e. rise phase of a gas piston cycle) reflects gas bubbles accumulating near the top of the lake, perhaps as a shallow foam, while spattering regimes represent more efficient decoupling of gas from the lake. We speculate that the gas pistoning might be controlled by time-varying porosity and/or permeability in the upper portions of the lava lake, which may modulate foam formation and collapse. Competing models for gas pistoning, such as deeply sourced gas slugs, or dynamic pressure balances, are not consistent with our observations. Unlike other lava lakes which have cyclic behavior that is thought to be controlled by deeply sourced processes, external to the lake itself, we show an example of lava lake fluctuations driven by cycles of activity at shallow depth and close to the lake's surface. These observations highlight the complex and unsteady nature of outgassing from basaltic magmatic systems.

  15. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  16. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  17. Experimental study of shock-driven cavity collapse with a single-stage gas gun driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Phillip; Betney, Matthew; Doyle, Hugo; Hawker, Nicholas; Roy, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores experimental studies of shock-driven cavity collapse using a single-stage gas gun. Shocks of up to 1 GPa are generated in a hydrogel with the impact of a planar-faced projectile (50 mm dia.). Within the hydrogel, a pre-formed cavity (5 mm dia.) is cast, which is collapsed by the interaction with the shockwave. The basic collapse process involves the formation of a high-speed transverse jet and then a second collapse phase driven from jet impact. Single-shot multi-frame schlieren imaging is used to show the position and timing of optical emission in relation to the collapse hydrodynamics. Further, temporally and spectrally-resolved measurements of the optical emission are made through simultaneous use of multiple band-passed PMTs and an integrating spectrometer. This reveals three distinct pulses of emission possessing different frequency content. The first corresponds to the trapping of gas during jet impact; the second and third correspond to the further inertial collapse of the now toroidal cavity. Plasma models are used to provide the first indication of the temperature of these inertially confined plasmas.

  18. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  19. Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Vehicle : Results of the Prototype Volkswagen 1.5 Liter Turbocharged Rabbit Tests

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed on a prototyple Vokswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vheicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the urban Federal test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), C...

  20. Turbocharging of Small Internal Combustion Engines as a Means of Improving Engine/Application System Fuel Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    OF SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AS A MEANS 0-.ETC(U) 1979 DAAK7O-78-C-O031 .hhuuufBuhhhh...Aerodyne Dallas th W__tIP FINAL REPORT CONTRACT* DAAK7-78-C-0031 FTURBOCHARGING OF SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING ENGINE ...DAAK70-78-C0031 TURBOCHARGING OF SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING ENGINE /APPLICATION SYSTEM FUEL ECONOMY Prepared by

  1. Influence of Reservoirs on Pressure Driven Gas Flow in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shterev, K. S.; Stefanov, S. K.

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly emerging micro-electro-mechanical devices create new potential microfluidic applications. A simulation of an internal and external gas flows with accurate boundary conditions for these devices is important for their design. In this paper we study influence of reservoirs used at the microchannel inlet and outlet on the characteristics of the gas flow in the microchannel. The problem is solved by using finite volume method SIMPLE-TS (continuum approach), which is validated using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (molecular approach). We investigate two cases: a microchannels with reservoirs and without reservoirs. We compare the microchannels with different aspect ratios A = Lch/Hch = 10,15,20,30,40 and 50, where Lch is the channel length, Hch is the channel height. Comparisons of results obtained by using continuum approach for pressure driven flow in a microchannel with and without reservoirs at the channel ends are presented.

  2. Analysis of thermal stress of the piston during non-stationary heat flow in a turbocharged Diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustof, P.; Hornik, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper, numeric calculations of thermal stresses of the piston in a turbocharged Diesel engine in the initial phase of its work were carried out based on experimental studies and the data resulting from them. The calculations were made using a geometrical model of the piston in a five-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine with a capacity of about 2300 cm3, with a direct fuel injection to the combustion chamber and a power rating of 85 kW. In order to determine the thermal stress, application of own mathematical models of the heat flow in characteristic surfaces of the piston was required to show real processes occurring on the surface of the analysed component. The calculations were performed using a Geostar COSMOS/M program module. A three-dimensional geometric model of the piston was created in this program based on a real component, in order to enable the calculations and analysis of thermal stresses during non-stationary heat flow. Modelling of the thermal stresses of the piston for the engine speed n=4250 min-1 and engine load λ=1.69 was carried out.

  3. Nondestructive natural gas hydrate recovery driven by air and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyery; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Lee, Huen

    2014-10-14

    Current technologies for production of natural gas hydrates (NGH), which include thermal stimulation, depressurization and inhibitor injection, have raised concerns over unintended consequences. The possibility of catastrophic slope failure and marine ecosystem damage remain serious challenges to safe NGH production. As a potential approach, this paper presents air-driven NGH recovery from permeable marine sediments induced by simultaneous mechanisms for methane liberation (NGH decomposition) and CH₄-air or CH₄-CO₂/air replacement. Air is diffused into and penetrates NGH and, on its surface, forms a boundary between the gas and solid phases. Then spontaneous melting proceeds until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as NGH depletion continues and self-regulated CH4-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed the existence of critical methane concentration forming the boundary between decomposition and replacement mechanisms in the NGH reservoirs. Furthermore, when CO₂ was added, we observed a very strong, stable, self-regulating process of exchange (CH₄ replaced by CO₂/air; hereafter CH₄-CO₂/air) occurring in the NGH. The proposed process will work well for most global gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the injection conditions or geothermal gradient.

  4. Stability of Buoyancy-Driven Gas Flow: Visualization of Coherent and Incoherent Gas Flow Patterns and Capillary Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geistlinger, H. W.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Jia, R.; Lazik, D.

    2009-12-01

    sequestration mechanisms. In order to investigate the stability of buoyancy-driven gas flow and the transition between coherent flow, incoherent flow, and their correlation to capillary trapping, we conducted high-resolution optical bench scale experiments. We observed a grain-size (dk) - and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Based on core-annular flow (= cooperative pore-body filling), we propose a dynamic stability criterion that could describe our experimental results. Our experimental results for vertical gas flow support the experimental results by Lenormand et al. [1983] obtained for horizontal flow, if one takes into account that gravity leads to more unstable flow conditions. Our main results, which are in strong contradiction to the accepted conceptual model of the sloped aquifer, are: (1) Capillary Trapping can already occur during injection and at the front of the plume [Lazik et al., 2008] (2) Gas clusters or bubbles can be mobile (incoherent gas flow) and immobile (capillary trapping), and (3) Incoherent gas flow can not be described by a generalized Darcy law [Geistlinger et al., 2006, 2009].

  5. Pulsatile pressure driven rarefied gas flow in long rectangular ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpoukis, Alexandros; Valougeorgis, Dimitris

    2018-04-01

    The pulsatile pressure driven fully developed flow of a rarefied gas through an orthogonal duct is investigated, based on the time-dependent linear Bhatnagar, Gross, and Krook equation, by decomposing the flow into its steady and oscillatory parts. The investigation is focused on the oscillatory part, which is characterized by the gas rarefaction and oscillation parameters, the duct aspect ratio, and the accommodation coefficient. As the oscillation frequency is increased, the amplitude of all macroscopic quantities is decreased, while their phase angle lag is increased reaching the limiting value of π/2. As the gas becomes more rarefied, higher frequencies are needed to trigger this behavior. At small and moderate frequencies, there is a critical degree of gas rarefaction, where a maximum flow rate is obtained. As the duct aspect ratio is decreased and tends to zero, the flow rate and mean wall shear stress amplitudes are increased, while their phase angle lags are slightly affected. The accommodation coefficient has a significant effect on the amplitude and a very weak one on the phase angle of the macroscopic quantities. The computation of the inertia and viscous forces clarifies when the flow consists of only one oscillating viscous region or of two regions, namely, the inviscid piston flow in the core and the oscillating Stokes layer at the wall with the velocity overshooting. Finally, the time average oscillatory pumping power is increased as the oscillation frequency is reduced and its maximum value is one half of the corresponding steady one.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with a controllable propeller. (6) For each turbocharger installation: (i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with a controllable propeller. (6) For each turbocharger installation: (i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with a controllable propeller. (6) For each turbocharger installation: (i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with a controllable propeller. (6) For each turbocharger installation: (i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with a controllable propeller. (6) For each turbocharger installation: (i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine...

  11. Performance of Blowdown Turbine driven by Exhaust Gas of Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-01

    blade speed to mean jet speed FIQUBE 6.—Variation of mean turbine efficiency with ratio of blade speed to moan Jot speed. Engine speed, 2000 rpm; full...conventional turbo - supercharger axe used in series, the blowdown turbine may be geared to the engine . Aircraft engines are operated at high speed for...guide vanes in blowdown-turblno noule box. PERFORMANCE OF BLOWDOWN TURBINE DRIVEN BT EXHAUST GAS OF RADIAL ENGINE 245 (6) Diaphragm

  12. Steady and Unsteady Velocity Measurements in a Small Turbocharger Turbine with Computational Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanis, N.; Palfreyman, D.; Arcoumanis, C.; Martinez-Botas, R. F.

    2006-07-01

    The detailed flow characteristics of three high-pressure-ratio mixed-flow turbines were investigated under both steady and pulsating flow conditions. Two rotors featured a constant inlet blade angle, one with 12 blades and the second with 10. The third rotor was shorter and had a nominally constant incidence angle. The rotors find application on an automotive high-speed large commercial diesel turbocharger. The steady flow entering and exiting the blades has been quantified by a laser Doppler velocimetry system. The measurements were performed at a plane 3.0-mm ahead of the rotor leading edge and 9.5-mm downstream the rotor trailing edge. The turbine test conditions corresponded to the peak efficiency point at two rotational speeds, 29,400 and 41,300-rpm. The results were resolved in a blade-to-blade sense to examine fully the nature of the flow at turbocharger representative conditions. A correlation between the combined effects of incidence and exit flow angle with the isentropic efficiency has been verified. Regarding pulsating flow, the velocity data and their corresponding instantaneous velocity triangles were resolved in a blade-to-blade sense to understand better the complex phenomenon. The results highlighted the potential of a nominally constant incidence design to absorb better the inadequacy of the volute to discharge the exhaust gas uniformly along the blade leading edge. A double vortex rotating in a clockwise sense propagated on the plane normal to the meridional direction. This should be attributed to the effect of the passing blade that was acting as a blockage to the flow. The phenomenon was more pronounced near the suction and pressure surfaces of the blade, but diminished at the mid-passage region where the flow exhibited its best level of guidance. The full mixed flow turbine stage under transient conditions was modelled firstly with a 'steady' inlet and secondly with a 'pulsating' inlet boundary condition. In both cases comparison was made to

  13. Nondestructive natural gas hydrate recovery driven by air and carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyery; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Lee, Huen

    2014-01-01

    Current technologies for production of natural gas hydrates (NGH), which include thermal stimulation, depressurization and inhibitor injection, have raised concerns over unintended consequences. The possibility of catastrophic slope failure and marine ecosystem damage remain serious challenges to safe NGH production. As a potential approach, this paper presents air-driven NGH recovery from permeable marine sediments induced by simultaneous mechanisms for methane liberation (NGH decomposition) and CH4-air or CH4-CO2/air replacement. Air is diffused into and penetrates NGH and, on its surface, forms a boundary between the gas and solid phases. Then spontaneous melting proceeds until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as NGH depletion continues and self-regulated CH4-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed the existence of critical methane concentration forming the boundary between decomposition and replacement mechanisms in the NGH reservoirs. Furthermore, when CO2 was added, we observed a very strong, stable, self-regulating process of exchange (CH4 replaced by CO2/air; hereafter CH4-CO2/air) occurring in the NGH. The proposed process will work well for most global gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the injection conditions or geothermal gradient. PMID:25311102

  14. Effects of semi-floating ring bearing outer clearance on the subsynchronous oscillation of turbocharger rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong

    2016-09-01

    Semi-floating ring bearing(SFRB) is developed to control the vibration of turbocharger rotor. The outer clearance of SFRB affects the magnitude and frequency of nonlinear whirl motion, which is significant for the design of turbocharger. In order to explore the effects of outer clearance, a transient finite element analysis program for rotor and oil film bearing is built and validated by a published experimental case. The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of rotor-SFRB system are simulated. According to the simulation results, two representative subsynchronous oscillations excited by the two bearings respectively are discovered. As the outer clearance of SFRB increases from 24 μm to 60 μm, the low-frequency subsynchronous oscillation experiences three steps, including a strong start, a gradual recession and a combination with the other one. At the same time, the high-frequency subsynchronous oscillation starts to appear gradually, then strengthens, and finally combines. If gravity and unbalance are neglected, the combination will start starts from high rotor speed and extents to low rotor speed, just like a "zipper". It is found from the quantitative analysis that when the outer clearance increases, the vibration amplitude experiences large value firstly, then reduction, and suddenly increasing after combination. A useful design principle of SFRB outer clearance for minimum vibration amplitude is proposed: the outer clearance value should be chosen to keep the frequency of two subsynchronous oscillations clearly separated and their amplitudes close.

  15. Chemical potential of quasi-equilibrium magnon gas driven by pure spin current.

    PubMed

    Demidov, V E; Urazhdin, S; Divinskiy, B; Bessonov, V D; Rinkevich, A B; Ustinov, V V; Demokritov, S O

    2017-11-17

    Pure spin currents provide the possibility to control the magnetization state of conducting and insulating magnetic materials. They allow one to increase or reduce the density of magnons, and achieve coherent dynamic states of magnetization reminiscent of the Bose-Einstein condensation. However, until now there was no direct evidence that the state of the magnon gas subjected to spin current can be treated thermodynamically. Here, we show experimentally that the spin current generated by the spin-Hall effect drives the magnon gas into a quasi-equilibrium state that can be described by the Bose-Einstein statistics. The magnon population function is characterized either by an increased effective chemical potential or by a reduced effective temperature, depending on the spin current polarization. In the former case, the chemical potential can closely approach, at large driving currents, the lowest-energy magnon state, indicating the possibility of spin current-driven Bose-Einstein condensation.

  16. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States, Third Series, Report No. 8, 1978 Buick, 231 CID (3.8 Liters), 4V, Turbocharge

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1978 Buick 231 CID turbocharged to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the prog...

  17. An X-ray/SDSS sample. II. AGN-driven outflowing gas plasma properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Brusa, M.; Cresci, G.; Mignoli, M.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: Galaxy-scale outflows are currently observed in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs); however, characterisation of them in terms of their (multi-) phase nature, amount of flowing material, and effects on their host galaxy is still unresolved. In particular, ionised gas mass outflow rate and related energetics are still affected by many sources of uncertainty. In this respect, outflowing gas plasma conditions, being largely unknown, play a crucial role. Methods: We have analysed stacked spectra and sub-samples of sources with high signal-to-noise temperature- and density-sensitive emission lines to derive the plasma properties of the outflowing ionised gas component. We did this by taking advantage of the spectroscopic analysis results we obtained while studying the X-ray/SDSS sample of 563 AGNs at z < 0.8 presented in our companion paper. For these sources, we also studied in detail various diagnostic diagrams to infer information about outflowing gas ionisation mechanisms. Results: We derive, for the first time, median values for electron temperature and density of outflowing gas from medium-size samples ( 30 targets) and stacked spectra of AGNs. Evidence of shock excitation are found for outflowing gas. Conclusions: We measure electron temperatures of the order of 1.7 × 104 K and densities of 1200 cm-3 for faint and moderately luminous AGNs (intrinsic X-ray luminosity 40.5 < log (LX) < 44 in the 2-10 keV band). We note that the electron density that is usually assumed (Ne = 100 cm-3) in ejected material might result in relevant overestimates of flow mass rates and energetics and, as a consequence, of the effects of AGN-driven outflows on the host galaxy.

  18. Old Faithful Model for Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism at Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Cooper, Paul D.; Sittler, Edward; Sturner, Steven J.; Rymer, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    A new model is presented on how chemically driven cryovolcanism might contribute to episodic outgassing at the icy moon Enceladus and potentially elsewhere including Europa and Kuiper Belt Objects. Exposed water ices can become oxidized from radiolytic chemical alteration of near-surface water ice by space environment irradiation. In contact with primordially abundant reductants such as NH3, CH4, and other hydrocarbons, the product oxidants can react exothermically to produce volatile gases driving cryovolcanism via gas-piston forces on any subsurface liquid reservoirs. Radiolytic oxidants such as H2O2 and O2 can continuously accumulate deep in icy regoliths and be conveyed by rheological flows to subsurface chemical reaction zones over million-year time scales indicated by cratering ages for active regions of Enceladus and Europa. Surface blanketing with cryovolcanic plume ejecta would further accelerate regolith burial of radiolytic oxidants. Episodic heating from transient gravitational tides, radioisotope decay, impacts, or other geologic events might occasionally accelerate chemical reaction rates and ignite the exothermic release of cumulative radiolytic oxidant energy. The time history for the suggested "Old Faithful" model of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism at Enceladus and elsewhere therefore consists of long periods of chemical energy accumulation punctuated by much briefer episodes of cryovolcanic activity. The most probable sequence for detection of activity in the current epoch is a long evolutionary phase of slow but continuous oxidant accumulation over billions of years followed by continuous but variable high activity over the past 10(exp 7)-10(exp 8) years. Detectable cryovolcanic activity could then later decline due to near-total oxidation of the rheologically accessible ice crust and depletion the accessible reductant abundances, as may have already occurred for Europa in the more intense radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere

  19. Gas-engine-based, low-emission cogeneration units

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1994-04-01

    Continental Energy Systems (CES) of Westmalle, Belgium, has been specializing, since its foundation in 1983, in the supply of cogeneration packages in the 50-300 KW power range. CES activity is mainly concentrated in the transformation of Valmet, Scania, Iveco and MAN diesel engines into spark-ignited engines capable of running on natural gas, CNG, LPG, biogas, landfill gas, etc. In the upper power range they also package Waukesha gas engines supplied from the Dutch plant of the American engine manufacturer. The new closed-loop combustion control system allows engines in the naturally-aspirated or turbocharged configuration with catalytic converters to operate well belowmore » Euro 2 limits. In fact, these engines already comply with 1995 CARB (California Air Resources Board) emission limits and with those that will become mandatory in Europe with the 1996 step. The new system still makes use of conventional components for metering and mixing functions, but these are considered as three separate devices; the electronic control unit, the oxygen sensor and an actuator enabling closed loop air/fuel ratio control. 4 figs.« less

  20. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets.

    PubMed

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A M; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  1. Army Ground Vehicles and Current/Future Emission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-23

    cooler’ combustion temperatures • Two stages of turbocharging (single stage for smaller displacement engines) • Additional charge air cooling...Recirculate and cool exhaust gas up or downstream of turbine ( turbocharger ) ; require back pressure restriction and/or intake throttle to flow

  2. Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism at Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Cooper, J. F.; Sarantos, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    A large apparent plume of water vapor was detected at the south pole of Europa in December 2012 by the Hubble Space Telescope [Roth et al., 2014] when Europa was near maximum radial distance (apojove) in its orbit around Jupiter. The absence thus far of further detections both at apojove and elsewhere may indicate an episodic source. There was reportedly no evident brightening locally or globally of the Europa oxygen neutral atmosphere coincident with the plume water vapor detection. This could be consistent with an O2-driven cryovolcanism model in which bubbles of trapped gases in the ice crust are released from clathrates on thermal contact with rising oceanic water and expand to force upward fluid flows to the surface. It has long been suggested [Chyba, 2000; Cooper et al., 2001] that the Europa ocean could be oxygenated by radiolytic oxygen from surface irradiation, also implying that the overlying ice crust could be saturated in oxygen clathrates [Hand et al., 2006]. That the moon ocean could be a potentially habitable environment by oxygenation or other processes has been a major motivation for missions to Europa. The radiolytic gas source would be far greater at Europa as compared to much lesser source rates for a similar model at Enceladus [Cooper et al., 2009]. Detected plume emissions could arise from both the directly ejected vapor and from sputtering and/or sublimation of chemically-active plume frost in the polar cap region. Europa's surface gravity is much higher than that of Enceladus, so most of the plume vapor would return to the surface as frost. If sputtering or radiolysis were active contributors to polar cap emissions from the frost, then emissions could also maximize at 6.5-hour intervals as Europa passes through the densest part of the jovian magnetospheric plasma sheet as well as at 85-hour apojove intervals of the orbital period. For comparison to available polar cap plume and global atmospheric observations we present ballistic simulations

  3. Modeling Io's Sublimation-Driven Atmosphere: Gas Dynamics and Radiation Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Andrew C.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.

    2008-12-31

    Io's sublimation-driven atmosphere is modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. These rarefied gas dynamics simulations improve upon earlier models by using a three-dimensional domain encompassing the entire planet computed in parallel. The effects of plasma impact heating, planetary rotation, and inhomogeneous surface frost are investigated. Circumplanetary flow is predicted to develop from the warm subsolar region toward the colder night-side. The non-equilibrium thermal structure of the atmosphere, including vibrational and rotational temperatures, is also presented. Io's rotation leads to an asymmetric surface temperature distribution which is found to strengthen circumplanetary flow near the dusk terminator. Plasma heating ismore » found to significantly inflate the atmosphere on both day- and night-sides. The plasma energy flux also causes high temperatures at high altitudes but permits relatively cooler temperatures at low altitudes near the dense subsolar point due to plasma energy depletion. To validate the atmospheric model, a radiative transfer model was developed utilizing the backward Monte Carlo method. The model allows the calculation of the atmospheric radiation from emitting/absorbing and scattering gas using an arbitrary scattering law and an arbitrary surface reflectivity. The model calculates the spectra in the {nu}{sub 2} vibrational band of SO{sub 2} which are then compared to the observational data.« less

  4. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  5. Variable area nozzle for gas turbine engines driven by shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Nancy M. (Inventor); Miller, Robin M. (Inventor); Tillman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Rukus, Robert M. (Inventor); Kettle, John L. (Inventor); Dunphy, James R. (Inventor); Chaudhry, Zaffir A. (Inventor); Pearson, David D. (Inventor); Dreitlein, Kenneth C. (Inventor); Loffredo, Constantino V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a variable area nozzle having a plurality of flaps. The flaps are actuated by a plurality of actuating mechanisms driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators to vary fan exist nozzle area. The SMA actuator has a deformed shape in its martensitic state and a parent shape in its austenitic state. The SMA actuator is heated to transform from martensitic state to austenitic state generating a force output to actuate the flaps. The variable area nozzle also includes a plurality of return mechanisms deforming the SMA actuator when the SMA actuator is in its martensitic state.

  6. Full load shop testing of 18,000-hp gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor for offshore platform service: Evaluation of rotor dynamics performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.

  7. A novel pump-driven veno-venous gas exchange system during extracorporeal CO2-removal.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staudinger, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal CO2-removal (ECCO2-R) increasingly takes root in hypercapnic lung failure to minimize ventilation invasiveness or to avoid intubation. A recently developed device (iLA activve(®), Novalung, Germany) allows effective decarboxylation via a 22 French double lumen cannula. To assess determinants of gas exchange, we prospectively evaluated the performance of ECCO2-R in ten patients receiving iLA activve(®) due to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sweep gas flow was increased in steps from 1 to 14 L/min at constant blood flow (phase 1). Similarly, blood flow was gradually increased at constant sweep gas flow (phase 2). At each step gas transfer via the membrane as well as arterial blood gas samples were analyzed. During phase 1, we observed a significant increase in CO2 transfer together with a decrease in PaCO2 levels from a median of 66 mmHg (range 46-85) to 49 (31-65) mmHg from 1 to 14 L/min sweep gas flow (p < 0.0001), while arterial oxygenation deteriorated with high sweep gas flow rates. During phase 2, oxygen transfer significantly increased leading to an increase in PaO2 from 67 (49-87) at 0.5 L/min to 117 (66-305) mmHg at 2.0 L/min (p < 0.0001). Higher blood flows also significantly enhanced decarboxylation (p < 0.0001). Increasing sweep gas flow results in effective CO2-removal, which can be further reinforced by raising blood flow. The clinically relevant oxygenation effect in this setting could broaden the range of indications of the system and help to set up an individually tailored configuration.

  8. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-06-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  9. Gas-heat-pump development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creswick, F. A.

    Incentives for the development of gas heat pumps are discussed. Technical progress made on several promising technologies was reviewed. The status of development of gas-engine-driven heat pumps, the absorption cycle for the near- and long-term gas heat pump systems, the Stirling engine, the small Rankine-cycle engines, and gas-turbine-driven heat pump systems were briefly reviewed. Progress in the US, Japan, and Europe is noted.

  10. Optically driven self-oscillations of a silica nanospike at low gas pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shangran; Pennetta, Riccardo; Noskov, Roman E.; Russell, Philip St. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report light-driven instability and optomechanical self-oscillation of a fused silica "nanospike" at low gas pressures. The nanospike (tip diameter 400 nm), fabricated by thermally tapering and HF-etching a single mode fiber (SMF), was set pointing at the endface of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) into the field created by the fundamental optical mode emerging from the HC-PCF. At low pressures, the nanospike became unstable and began to self-oscillate for optical powers above a certain threshold, acting like a phonon laser or "phaser". Because the nanospike is robustly connected to the base, direct measurement of the temporal dynamics of the instability is possible. The experiment sheds light on why particles escape from optical traps at low pressures.

  11. PIV measurements of the flow at the inlet of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with recirculation casing treatment near the inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Guillou, Erwann

    2016-02-01

    Turbocharging reciprocating engines is a viable solution in order to meet the new regulations for emissions and fuel efficiency in part because turbochargers allow to use smaller, more efficient engines (downsizing) while maintaining power. A major challenge is to match the flow range of a dynamic turbomachine (the centrifugal compressor in the turbocharger) with a positive displacement pump (the engine) as the flow range of the latter is typically higher. The operating range of the compressor is thus of prime interest. At low mass flow rate (MFR), the compressor range is limited by the occurrence of surge. To control and improve it, numerous and varied methods have been used. Yet, an automotive application requires that the solution remains relatively simple and preferably passive. A common feature that has been demonstrated to improve the surge line is the use of flow recirculation in the inducer region through a circumferential bleed slot around the shroud, also called "ported shroud", similar to what has been developed for axial compressors in the past. The compressor studied here features such a device. In order to better understand the effect of the recirculation slot on the compressor functioning, flow measurements were performed at the inlet using particle image velocimetry and the results were correlated with pressure measurements nearby. Measurements were taken on a compressor with and without recirculation and across the full range of normal operation and during surge using a phase-locking method to obtain average flow fields throughout the entire surge cycle. When the recirculation is blocked, it was found that strong backflow develops at low MFR perturbing the incoming flow and inducing significant preswirl. The slot eliminated most of the backflow in front of the inducer making the compressor operation more stable. The measurements performed during surge showed strong backflow occurring periodically during the outlet pressure drop and when the

  12. Nova-driven winds in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. H.; Durisen, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent sensitive searches for H-alpha emission from ionized intracluster gas in globular clusters have set upper limits that conflict with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that nova outbursts heat the gas, producing winds that resolve this discrepancy. The incidence of novae in globular clusters, the conversion of kinetic energy of the nova shell to thermal energy of the intracluster gas, and the characteristics of the resultant winds are discussed. Calculated emission from the nova-driven models does not conflict with any observations to date. Some suggestions are made concerning the most promising approaches for future detection of intracluster gas on the basis of these models. The possible relationship of nova-driven winds to globular cluster X-ray sources is also considered.

  13. A Low Mass for Mars from Jupiter's Early Gas-Driven Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.; O'Brien, David P.; Mandell, Avi M.

    2011-01-01

    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only approximately 100,000 years. Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration. The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 AU, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 AU; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with an Earth/Mars mass ratio consistent with observations. Scattering by Jupiter initially empties but then repopulates the asteroid belt, with inner-belt bodies originating between 1 and 3 AU and outer-belt bodies originating between and beyond the giant planets. This explains the significant compositional differences across the asteroid belt. The key aspect missing from previous models of terrestrial planet formation is the substantial radial migration of the giant planets, which suggests that their behaviour is more similar to that inferred for extrasolar planets than previously thought.

  14. Deuterium gas-driven permeation and subsequent retention in rolled tungsten foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhou, Haishan; Li, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Yuping; An, Zhongqing; Mao, Hongmin; Xing, Wenjing; Hou, Qing; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2014-12-01

    Experiments concerning deuterium gas-driven permeation through rolled tungsten foils in the temperature range of 850-950 K and subsequent deuterium retention have been performed. The steady state permeation flux of deuterium is proportional to the square root of the driving pressure. The permeability of deuterium is in an order of 10-14 mol m-1 s-1 Pa-1/2 in this temperature range and the activation energy for permeation is 1.21 eV. Measurements of diffusivity are significantly affected by the driving pressure, which can be well explained by a saturable-trap model. Thermal desorption spectra of samples feature a single deuterium release peak at about 873 K. TMAP 4 modeling of this peak gives a detrapping energy of 1.70 eV, which fits the dissociation enthalpy of deuterium desorbing from the inner wall of vacancy clusters or pores in tungsten.

  15. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Opportunities for Civil Works Projects Unique to the US Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-26

    3600 hp diesel engine .................................................................................. 24 20 Diesel engine turbocharger ...ERDC/CERL TR-12-19 24 Figure 19. Fairbanks Morse 3600 hp diesel engine. Figure 20. Diesel engine turbocharger . Table 7. Energy consuming

  16. New Instability Mode in A Driven Granular Gas: Athermal and Thermal Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Priyanka; Alam, Meheboob

    2017-11-01

    For a thermally-driven granular gas confined between two plates under gravity, we report a new instability mode which is found to be active at very small values of the heat-loss parameter. We show that the origin of this new mode is tied to the ``thermal'' mode of the well-studied Rayleigh-Benard convection. This is dubbed purely elastic instability since it survives even for perfectly elastic collisions (en = 1). The distinction of this new instability mode from its dissipative/athermal counterpart is clarified for the first time. Furthermore, a weakly nonlinear analysis using Stuart-Landau equation has been carried out for both instability modes, and the underlying bifurcation scenario (supercritical/subcritical) from each mode is elucidated. The resulting linear and nonlinear patterns with respect to inelasticity and gravity are compared.

  17. Photoionization of High-altitude Gas in a Supernova-driven Turbulent Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kenneth; Hill, Alex S.; Joung, M. Ryan; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Benjamin, Robert A.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate models for the photoionization of the widespread diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in galaxies. In particular, we address the long standing question of the penetration of Lyman continuum photons from sources close to the galactic midplane to large heights in the galactic halo. We find that recent hydrodynamical simulations of a supernova-driven interstellar medium (ISM) have low-density paths and voids that allow for ionizing photons from midplane OB stars to reach and ionize gas many kiloparsecs above the midplane. We find that ionizing fluxes throughout our simulation grids are larger than predicted by one-dimensional slab models, thus allowing for photoionization by O stars of low altitude neutral clouds in the Galaxy that are also detected in Hα. In previous studies of such clouds, the photoionization scenario had been rejected and the Hα had been attributed to enhanced cosmic ray ionization or scattered light from midplane H II regions. We do find that the emission measure distributions in our simulations are wider than those derived from Hα observations in the Milky Way. In addition, the horizontally averaged height dependence of the gas density in the hydrodynamical models is lower than inferred in the Galaxy. These discrepancies are likely due to the absence of magnetic fields in the hydrodynamic simulations and we discuss how magnetohydrodynamic effects may reconcile models and observations. Nevertheless, we anticipate that the inclusion of magnetic fields in the dynamical simulations will not alter our primary finding that midplane OB stars are capable of producing high-altitude DIG in a realistic three-dimensional ISM.

  18. Neural control of fast nonlinear systems--application to a turbocharged SI engine with VCT.

    PubMed

    Colin, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Corde, Gilles

    2007-07-01

    Today, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators [throttle, turbo wastegate, and variable camshaft timing (VCT)] is needed for engine torque control. This paper proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: internal model control (IMC), model predictive control (MPC), and optimal control. It is shown how neural models can be used at different levels and included in the control modules to replace physical models, which are too complex to be online embedded, or to estimate nonmeasured variables. The results obtained from two different test benches show the real-time applicability and good control performance of the proposed methods.

  19. A low mass for Mars from Jupiter's early gas-driven migration.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kevin J; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N; O'Brien, David P; Mandell, Avi M

    2011-06-05

    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years (ref. 1) from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only ∼100,000 years (ref. 2). Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration. The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later, and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (1 au is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 au, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 au; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with an Earth/Mars mass ratio consistent with observations. Scattering by Jupiter initially empties but then repopulates the asteroid belt, with inner-belt bodies originating between 1 and 3 au and outer-belt bodies originating between and beyond the giant planets. This explains the significant compositional differences across the asteroid belt. The key aspect missing from previous models of terrestrial planet formation is the substantial radial migration of the giant planets, which suggests that their behaviour is more similar to that inferred for extrasolar planets than previously thought. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  20. Planetesimal-driven planet migration in the presence of a gas disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Christopher C.; Duncan, Martin; Levison, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    We report here on an extension of a previous study by Kirsh et al. (Kirsh, D.R., Duncan, M., Brasser, R., Levison, H.F. [2009]. Icarus 199, 197-209) of planetesimal-driven migration using our N-body code SyMBA (Duncan, M.J., Levison, H.F., Lee, M.H. [1998]. Astron. J. 116, 2067-2077). The previous work focused on the case of a single planet of mass Mem, immersed in a planetesimal disk with a power-law surface density distribution and Rayleigh distributed eccentricities and inclinations. Typically 10 4-10 5 equal-mass planetesimals were used, where the gravitational force (and the back-reaction) on each planetesimal by the Sun and planet were included, while planetesimal-planetesimal interactions were neglected. The runs reported on here incorporate the dynamical effects of a gas disk, where the Adachi et al. (Adachi, I., Hayashi, C., Nakazawa, K. [1976]. Prog. Theor. Phys. 56, 1756-1771) prescription of aerodynamic gas drag is implemented for all bodies. In some cases the Papaloizou and Larwood (Papaloizou, J.C.B., Larwood, J.D. [2000]. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 315, 823-833) prescription of Type-I migration for the planet are implemented, as well as a mass distribution. In the gas-free cases, rapid planet migration was observed - at a rate independent of the planet's mass - provided the planet's mass was not large compared to the mass in planetesimals capable of entering its Hill sphere. In such cases, both inward and outward migrations can be self-sustaining, but there is a strong propensity for inward migration. When a gas disk is present, aerodynamic drag can substantially modify the dynamics of scattered planetesimals. For sufficiently large or small mono-dispersed planetesimals, the planet typically migrates inward. However, for a range of plausible planetesimal sizes (i.e. 0.5-5.0 km at 5.0 AU in a minimum mass Hayashi disk) outward migration is usually triggered, often accompanied by substantial planetary mass accretion. The origins of this behaviour are

  1. Data-driven fault detection, isolation and estimation of aircraft gas turbine engine actuator and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, E.; Khorasani, K.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a data-driven fault detection, isolation, and estimation (FDI&E) methodology is proposed and developed specifically for monitoring the aircraft gas turbine engine actuator and sensors. The proposed FDI&E filters are directly constructed by using only the available system I/O data at each operating point of the engine. The healthy gas turbine engine is stimulated by a sinusoidal input containing a limited number of frequencies. First, the associated system Markov parameters are estimated by using the FFT of the input and output signals to obtain the frequency response of the gas turbine engine. These data are then used for direct design and realization of the fault detection, isolation and estimation filters. Our proposed scheme therefore does not require any a priori knowledge of the system linear model or its number of poles and zeros at each operating point. We have investigated the effects of the size of the frequency response data on the performance of our proposed schemes. We have shown through comprehensive case studies simulations that desirable fault detection, isolation and estimation performance metrics defined in terms of the confusion matrix criterion can be achieved by having access to only the frequency response of the system at only a limited number of frequencies.

  2. Pulsatile flow and mass transport over an array of cylinders: gas transfer in a cardiac-driven artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Yan; Fujioka, Hideki; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B; Grotberg, James B

    2006-02-01

    The pulsatile flow and gas transport of a Newtonian passive fluid across an array of cylindrical microfibers are numerically investigated. It is related to an implantable, artificial lung where the blood flow is driven by the right heart. The fibers are modeled as either squared or staggered arrays. The pulsatile flow inputs considered in this study are a steady flow with a sinusoidal perturbation and a cardiac flow. The aims of this study are twofold: identifying favorable array geometry/spacing and system conditions that enhance gas transport; and providing pressure drop data that indicate the degree of flow resistance or the demand on the right heart in driving the flow through the fiber bundle. The results show that pulsatile flow improves the gas transfer to the fluid compared to steady flow. The degree of enhancement is found to be significant when the oscillation frequency is large, when the void fraction of the fiber bundle is decreased, and when the Reynolds number is increased; the use of a cardiac flow input can also improve gas transfer. In terms of array geometry, the staggered array gives both a better gas transfer per fiber (for relatively large void fraction) and a smaller pressure drop (for all cases). For most cases shown, an increase in gas transfer is accompanied by a higher pressure drop required to power the flow through the device.

  3. Investigation of turbocharger compressor surge inception by means of an acoustic two-port model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabral, R.; Åbom, M.

    2018-01-01

    The use of centrifugal compressors have increased tremendously in the last decade being implemented in the modern IC engine design as a key component. However, an efficient implementation is restricted by the compression system surge phenomenon. The focus in the investigation of surge inception have mainly been on the aerodynamic field while neglecting the acoustic field. In the present work a new method based on the full acoustic 2-port model is proposed for investigation of centrifugal compressor stall and surge inception. Essentially, the compressor is acoustically decoupled from the compression system, hence enabling the determination of sound generation and the quantification of internal aero-acoustic coupling effects, both independently of the connected pipe system. These frequency dependent quantities are indicating if the compressor is prone to self-sustained oscillations in case of positive feedback when installed in a system. The method is demonstrated on experimentally determined 2-port data of an automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressor under a variety of realistic operating conditions.

  4. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  5. Measurement of air and VOC vapor fluxes during gas-driven soil remediation: bench-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heonki; Kim, Taeyun; Shin, Seungyeop; Annable, Michael D

    2012-09-04

    In this laboratory study, an experimental method was developed for the quantitative analyses of gas fluxes in soil during advective air flow. One-dimensional column and two- and three-dimensional flow chamber models were used in this study. For the air flux measurement, n-octane vapor was used as a tracer, and it was introduced in the air flow entering the physical models. The tracer (n-octane) in the gas effluent from the models was captured for a finite period of time using a pack of activated carbon, which then was analyzed for the mass of n-octane. The air flux was calculated based on the mass of n-octane captured by the activated carbon and the inflow concentration. The measured air fluxes are in good agreement with the actual values for one- and two-dimensional model experiments. Using both the two- and three-dimensional models, the distribution of the air flux at the soil surface was measured. The distribution of the air flux was found to be affected by the depth of the saturated zone. The flux and flux distribution of a volatile contaminant (perchloroethene) was also measured by using the two-dimensional model. Quantitative information of both air and contaminant flux may be very beneficial for analyzing the performance of gas-driven subsurface remediation processes including soil vapor extraction and air sparging.

  6. A Three-Dimensional Foil Bearing Performance Map Applied to Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    in diesel engine turbochargers , auxiliary power units (APUs), and selected hot section bearings in gas turbines (7–9). While these Oil-Free...film. Regardless of the strategy, research suggests proper thermal management is a key fundamental necessity for the successful deployment and...Turbo Expo 2006, Barcelona, Spain, GT2006-90572, 2006. 7. Heshmat, H.; Walton, II, J. F.; DellaCorte, C.; Valco, M. Oil-Free Turbocharger

  7. Operability of an Ejector Enhanced Pulse Combustor in a Gas Turbine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Dougherty, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A pressure-gain combustor comprised of a mechanically valved, liquid fueled pulsejet, an ejector, and an enclosing shroud, was coupled to a small automotive turbocharger to form a self-aspirating, thrust producing gas turbine engine. The system was constructed in order to investigate issues associated with the interaction of pulsed combustion devices and turbomachinery. Installed instrumentation allowed for sensing of distributed low frequency pressure and temperature, high frequency pressure in the shroud, fuel flow rate, rotational speed, thrust, and laboratory noise. The engine ran successfully and reliably, achieving a sustained thrust of 5 to 6 lbf, and maintaining a rotor speed of approximately 90,000 rpm, with a combustor pressure gain of approximately 4 percent. Numerical simulations of the system without pressure-gain combustion indicated that the turbocharger would not operate. Thus, the new combustor represented a substantial improvement in system performance. Acoustic measurements in the shroud and laboratory indicated turbine stage sound pressure level attenuation of 20 dB. This is consistent with published results from detonative combustion experiments. As expected, the mechanical reed valves suffered considerable damage under the higher pressure and thermal loading characteristics of this system. This result underscores the need for development of more robust valve systems for this application. The efficiency of the turbomachinery components did not appear to be significantly affected by unsteadiness associated with pulsed combustion, though the steady component efficiencies were already low, and thus not expected to be particularly sensitive.

  8. Effect of persistent trace compounds in landfill gas on engine performance during energy recovery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sevimoğlu, Orhan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Performances of gas engines operated with landfill gas (LFG) are affected by the impurities in the LFG, reducing the economic viability of energy recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the trace compounds in the LFG at the Odayeri Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey which is used for energy recovery. Composite gas samples were collected and analyzed for trace compounds (hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) over a 3-year period. Trace compounds entering the gas engines, their impact on the engine performance were evaluated. The operational problems included deposit formation in the combustion chamber, turbocharger, and intercooler of engine before the scheduled maintenance times. High levels of hydrogen sulfide, as well as chlorinated and fluorinated compounds cause corrosion of the engine parts and decrease life of the engine oils. Persistence of siloxanes results in deposit formation, increasing engine maintenance costs. Pretreatment of LFG is necessary to protect the engines at the waste-to-energy facilities with persistence levels of siloxanes and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unsteady specific work and isentropic efficiency of a radial turbine driven by pulsed detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouser, Kurt P.

    There has been longstanding government and industry interest in pressure-gain combustion for use in Brayton cycle based engines. Theoretically, pressure-gain combustion allows heat addition with reduced entropy loss. The pulsed detonation combustor (PDC) is a device that can provide such pressure-gain combustion and possibly replace typical steady deflagration combustors. The PDC is inherently unsteady, however, and comparisons with conventional steady deflagration combustors must be based upon time-integrated performance variables. In this study, the radial turbine of a Garrett automotive turbocharger was coupled directly to and driven, full admission, by a PDC in experiments fueled by hydrogen or ethylene. Data included pulsed cycle time histories of turbine inlet and exit temperature, pressure, velocity, mass flow, and enthalpy. The unsteady inlet flowfield showed momentary reverse flow, and thus unsteady accumulation and expulsion of mass and enthalpy within the device. The coupled turbine-driven compressor provided a time-resolved measure of turbine power. Peak power increased with PDC fill fraction, and duty cycle increased with PDC frequency. Cycle-averaged unsteady specific work increased with fill fraction and frequency. An unsteady turbine efficiency formulation is proposed, including heat transfer effects, enthalpy flux-weighted total pressure ratio, and ensemble averaging over multiple cycles. Turbine efficiency increased with frequency but was lower than the manufacturer reported conventional steady turbine efficiency.

  10. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Dunlap, IL

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  11. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the wire is wound around the stator, the more windings the higher the voltage as seen in equation two from [10], de N dt Φ = , (2) where N is...was a Maxwell BMOD0500 P016 B02 16 volt 500 farad capacitor shown in Figure 8. Typical uses for this particular model are in wind turbines ... turbine , in this case a turbocharger, provided a constant source of shaft power which was used to spin a small permanent magnet motor. With the

  12. Simulation Study on the Self-Sustained Oscillations in DC Driven Glow Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure Under Different Gas Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; He, Yafeng; Liu, Fucheng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a one-dimensional plasma fluid model is employed to study the self-sustained oscillations in DC-driven helium glow discharges at atmospheric pressure under different gas gaps. Our simulation results indicate that a harmonic current oscillation with tiny amplitude always occur at the onset of instability and transits into a relaxation one as the conductivity of the semiconductor is decreased. It is found that the dynamics of the oscillations are dependent on the gas gaps. The discharge can only exhibit a simple oscillation with unique amplitude and frequency at smaller gas gaps (<2 mm) while it can exhibit a more complex oscillation with several different amplitudes and frequencies at larger gas gaps (>2 mm). The discharge modes in these current oscillations have also been analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), Hebei Natural Science Fund of China (Nos. A2012201015 and A2011201006), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province of China (No. Y2012009), the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Hebei Province of China (No. B2014003004) and the Postdoctoral Foundation of Hebei University

  13. Challenges and Opportunities of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pumps: Two Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub

    Gas engine driven heat pumps (GHP) currently hold a small market share. This share is considerably smaller than what the full potential of GHP technology can realize. Of the main benefits of the GHP technology is their better primary energy utilization mainly due to the ability to recover the engine heat. However, development and market penetration of GHP technology have been challenged by various market and technical barriers. The main barriers are the high initial cost, low awareness of the technology, and poor perception. On the other hand, several opportunities arise that the GHP technology can take advantage of tomore » increase its market share. The most direct opportunity is the abundance of cheap natural gas. This translates directly into monetary savings and higher ROI. GHPs offer the advantage of reducing the peak demand by 80% compared to electric counterpart. From the point of view of utilities, this eliminates the need for lower-efficiency peaking power plants and over-expansion only to cover maximum peak times. From the point of view of renewable customers, GHPs eliminate the need to buy power from the grid at a high price. This is especially important in hot climates with high cooling loads. When built and operated as distributed generation, GHPs can improve the reliability of power delivery to consumers. The paper discusses the challenges and opportunities as seen during the development and commercialization of two different GHP products; a 10-ton packaged unit and 5-ton split unit.« less

  14. The AGN-driven shock in NGC 4472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron-Marsolais, Marie-Lou; Kraft, Ralph P.; Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Jones, Christine; Nulsen, Paul; Randall, Scott W.; Roediger, Elke

    2016-04-01

    Chandra observations of most cool core clusters of galaxies have revealed large cavities where the inflation of the jet-driven radio bubbles displace the cluster gas. In a few cases, outburst shocks, likely driven by cavity inflation, are detected in the ambient gas. AGN-driven shocks may be key to balancing the radiative losses as shocks will increase the entropy of, and thereby heat, the diffuse gas. We will present initial results on deep Chandra observations of the nearby (D=17 Mpc) early-type massive elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, the most optically luminous galaxy in the local Universe, lying on the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. The X-ray observations show clear cavities in the X-ray emission at the position of the radio lobes, and rings of enhanced X-ray emission just beyond the lobes. We will present results from our analysis to determine whether the lobes are inflating supersonically or are rising buoyantly. We will compare the energy and power of this AGN outburst with previous powerful radio outbursts in clusters and groups to determine whether this outburst lies on the same scaling relations or whether it represents a new category of outburst.

  15. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Bartholomew, Timothy V; Mauter, Meagan S

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient tomore » passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without

  16. A numerical study of automotive turbocharger mixed flow turbine inlet geometry for off design performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, T.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mixed flow turbines represent a potential solution to the increasing requirement for high pressure, low velocity ratio operation in turbocharger applications. While literature exists for the use of these turbines at such operating conditions, there is a lack of detailed design guidance for defining the basic geometry of the turbine, in particular, the cone angle - the angle at which the inlet of the mixed flow turbine is inclined to the axis. This investigates the effect and interaction of such mixed flow turbine design parameters. Computational Fluids Dynamics was initially used to investigate the performance of a modern radial turbine to create a baseline for subsequent mixed flow designs. Existing experimental data was used to validate this model. Using the CFD model, a number of mixed flow turbine designs were investigated. These included studies varying the cone angle and the associated inlet blade angle. The results of this analysis provide insight into the performance of a mixed flow turbine with respect to cone and inlet blade angle.

  17. Single-shot lifetime-based PSP and TSP measurements on turbocharger compressor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Di; Jiao, Lingrui; Yu, Yuelong; Liu, Yingzheng; Oshio, Tetsuya; Kawakubo, Tomoki; Yakushiji, Akimitsu

    2017-09-01

    Fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (Fast PSP) and temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) measurements were conducted on two turbocharger compressors using a single-shot lifetime-based technique. The fast PSP and TSP were applied on separate blades of one compressor, and both paints were excited by a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser. The luminescent decay signals following the laser pulse were recorded by a CCD camera in a double-exposure mode. Instantaneous pressure and temperature fields on compressor blades were obtained simultaneously, for rotation speeds up to 150,000 rpm. The variations in pressure and temperature fields with rotation speed, flow rate and runtime were clearly visualized, showing the advantage of high spatial resolution. Severe image blurring problems and significant temperature-induced errors in the PSP results were found at high rotation speeds. The first issue was addressed by incorporating a deconvolution-based deblurring algorithm to recover the clear image from the blurred image using the combination of luminescent lifetime and rotation speed. The second issue was resolved by applying a pixel-by-pixel temperature correction based on the TSP results. The current technique has shown great capabilities in flow diagnostics of turbomachinery and can serve as a powerful tool for CFD validations and design optimizations.

  18. Magnetic Gauge Instrumentation on the LANL Gas-Driven Two-Stage Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcon, R. R.; Sheffield, S. A.; Martinez, A. R.; Gustavsen, R. L.

    1997-07-01

    Our gas-driven two-stage gun was designed and built to do initiation studies on insensitive high explosives as well as other equation of state experiments on inert materials. Our preferred method of measuring initiation phenomena involves the use of in-situ magnetic particle velocity gauges. In order to provide the 1-D experimental area to accommodate this type of gauging in our two-stage gun, it has a 50-mm-diameter launch tube. We have used magnetic gauging on our 72-mm bore diameter single-stage gun for over 15 years and it has proven a very effective technique for all types of shock wave experiments, including those on high explosives. This technique has now been installed on our two-stage gun. We describe the experimental method, as well as some of the difficulties that arose during the installation. Several magnetic gauge experiments have been completed on plastic and high explosive materials. Waveforms obtained in some of the experiments will be discussed. Up to 10 in-situ particle velocity measurements can be made in a single experiment. This new technique is now working quite well, as is evidenced by the data. To our knowledge, this is the first time magnetic gauging has been used on a two-stage gun.

  19. How gas cools (or, apples can fall up)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This primer on gas cooling systems explains the basics of heat exchange within a refrigeration system, the principle of reverse-cycle refrigeration, and how a gas-engine-driven heat pump can provide cooling, additional winter heating capacity, and hot water year-round. Gas cooling equipment available or under development include natural gas chillers, engine-driven chillers, and absorption chillers. In cogeneration systems, heat recovered from an engine's exhaust and coolant may be used in an absorption chiller to provide air-conditioning. Gas desiccant cooling systems may be used in buildings and businesses that are sensitive to high humidity levels.

  20. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in themore » NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.« less

  1. On the formation of Friedlander waves in a compressed-gas-driven shock tube

    PubMed Central

    Tasissa, Abiy F.; Hautefeuille, Martin; Fitek, John H.; Radovitzky, Raúl A.

    2016-01-01

    Compressed-gas-driven shock tubes have become popular as a laboratory-scale replacement for field blast tests. The well-known initial structure of the Riemann problem eventually evolves into a shock structure thought to resemble a Friedlander wave, although this remains to be demonstrated theoretically. In this paper, we develop a semi-analytical model to predict the key characteristics of pseudo blast waves forming in a shock tube: location where the wave first forms, peak over-pressure, decay time and impulse. The approach is based on combining the solutions of the two different types of wave interactions that arise in the shock tube after the family of rarefaction waves in the Riemann solution interacts with the closed end of the tube. The results of the analytical model are verified against numerical simulations obtained with a finite volume method. The model furnishes a rational approach to relate shock tube parameters to desired blast wave characteristics, and thus constitutes a useful tool for the design of shock tubes for blast testing. PMID:27118888

  2. Non-gray gas radiation effect on mixed convection in lid driven square cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cherifi, Mohammed, E-mail: production1998@yahoo.fr; Benbrik, Abderrahmane, E-mail: abenbrik@umbb.dz; Laouar-Meftah, Siham, E-mail: laouarmeftah@gmail.com

    A numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of non-gray radiation on mixed convection in a vertical two sided lid driven square cavity filled with air-H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} gas mixture. The vertical moving walls of the enclosure are maintained at two different but uniform temperatures. The horizontal walls are thermally insulated and considered as adiabatic walls. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the pressure–velocity coupling. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by the discrete ordinates method (DOM). The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases modelmore » (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. Simulations are performed in configurations where thermal and shear forces induce cooperating buoyancy forces. Streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are analyzed for three different values of Richardson’s number (from 0.1 to 10) and by considering three different medium (transparent medium, gray medium using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, and non-gray medium assumption).« less

  3. Negative-Mass Instability of the Spin and Motion of an Atomic Gas Driven by Optical Cavity Backaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Jonathan; Gerber, Justin A.; Dowd, Emma; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2018-01-01

    We realize a spin-orbit interaction between the collective spin precession and center-of-mass motion of a trapped ultracold atomic gas, mediated by spin- and position-dependent dispersive coupling to a driven optical cavity. The collective spin, precessing near its highest-energy state in an applied magnetic field, can be approximated as a negative-mass harmonic oscillator. When the Larmor precession and mechanical motion are nearly resonant, cavity mediated coupling leads to a negative-mass instability, driving exponential growth of a correlated mode of the hybrid system. We observe this growth imprinted on modulations of the cavity field and estimate the full covariance of the resulting two-mode state by observing its transient decay during subsequent free evolution.

  4. Explosive dome eruptions modulated by periodic gas-driven inflation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lyons, John; Andrews, B. J.; Lees, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Volcan Santiaguito (Guatemala) “breathes” with extraordinary regularity as the edifice's conduit system accumulates free gas, which periodically vents to the atmosphere. Periodic pressurization controls explosion timing, which nearly always occurs at peak inflation, as detected with tiltmeters. Tilt cycles in January 2012 reveal regular 26 ± 6 min inflation/deflation cycles corresponding to at least ~101 kg/s of gas fluxing the system. Very long period (VLP) earthquakes presage explosions and occur during cycles when inflation rates are most rapid. VLPs locate ~300 m below the vent and indicate mobilization of volatiles, which ascend at ~50 m/s. Rapid gas ascent feeds pyroclast-laden eruptions lasting several minutes and rising to ~1 km. VLPs are not observed during less rapid inflation episodes; instead, gas vents passively through the conduit producing no infrasound and no explosion. These observations intimate that steady gas exsolution and accumulation in shallow reservoirs may drive inflation cycles at open-vent silicic volcanoes.

  5. Heat transfer and flow characteristics on a gas turbine shroud.

    PubMed

    Obata, M; Kumada, M; Ijichi, N

    2001-05-01

    The work described in this paper is an experimental investigation of the heat transfer from the main flow to a turbine shroud surface, which may be applicable to ceramic gas turbines. Three kinds of turbine shrouds are considered with a flat surface, a taper surface and a spiral groove surface opposite to the blades in an axial flow turbine of actual turbo-charger. Heat transfer measurements were performed for the experimental conditions of a uniform heat flux or a uniform wall temperature. The effects of the inlet flow angle, rotational speed, and tip clearance on the heat transfer coefficient were clarified under on- and off-design flow conditions. The mean heat transfer coefficient was correlated to the blade Reynolds number and tip clearance, and compared with an experimental correlation and measurements of a flat surface. A comparison was also made for the measurement of static pressure distributions.

  6. Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F

    2005-07-12

    This paper describes the technical approach for converting a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine into HCCI mode. The paper describes all stages of the process, starting with a preliminary analysis that determined that the engine can be operated by preheating the intake air with a heat exchanger that recovers energy from the exhaust gases. This heat exchanger plays a dual role, since it is also used for starting the engine. For start-up, the heat exchanger is preheated with a natural gas burner. The engine is therefore started in HCCI mode, avoiding the need to handle the potentially difficultmore » transition from SI or diesel mode to HCCI. The fueling system was modified by replacing the natural gas carburetor with a liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carburetor. This modification sets an upper limit for the equivalence ratio at {phi} {approx} 0.4, which is ideal for HCCI operation and guarantees that the engine will not fail due to knock. Equivalence ratio can be reduced below 0.4 for low load operation with an electronic control valve. Intake boosting has been a challenge, as commercially available turbochargers are not a good match for the engine, due to the low HCCI exhaust temperature. Commercial introduction of HCCI engines for stationary power will therefore require the development of turbochargers designed specifically for this mode of operation. Considering that no appropriate off-the-shelf turbocharger for HCCI engines exists at this time, we are investigating mechanical supercharging options, which will deliver the required boost pressure (3 bar absolute intake) at the expense of some reduction in the output power and efficiency. An appropriate turbocharger can later be installed for improved performance when it becomes available or when a custom turbocharger is developed. The engine is now running in HCCI mode and producing power in an essentially naturally aspirated mode. Current work focuses on developing an automatic controller for obtaining

  7. Nonlinear effects of unbalance in the rotor-floating ring bearing system of turbochargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Wang, W. J.; Peng, Z. J.

    2013-01-01

    Turbocharger (TC) rotor-floating ring bearing (FRB) system is characterised by high speed as well as high non-linearity. Using the run-up and run-down simulation method, this paper systematically investigates the influence of unbalance on the rotordynamic characteristics of a real TC-FRB system over the speed range from 0 Hz to 3500 Hz. The rotor is discretized by the finite element method, and the desired oil film forces at each simulation step are calculated by an efficient analytical method. The imposed unbalance amount and distribution are the variables considered in the performed non-stationary simulations. The newly obtained results evidently show the distinct phenomena brought about by the variations of the unbalance offset, which confirms that the unbalance level is a critical parameter for the system response. In the meantime, the variations of unbalance distribution, i.e. out-of-phase and in-phase unbalance, can lead to entirely different simulation results as well, which proves the distribution of unbalance is not negligible during the dynamic analysis of the rotor-FRB system. Additionally, considerable effort has been placed on the description as well as discussion of a unique phenomenon termed Critical Limit Cycle Oscillation (CLC Oscillation), which is of great importance and interest to the TC research and development.

  8. Density-driven transport of gas phase chemicals in unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fen, Chiu-Shia; Sun, Yong-tai; Cheng, Yuen; Chen, Yuanchin; Yang, Whaiwan; Pan, Changtai

    2018-01-01

    Variations of gas phase density are responsible for advective and diffusive transports of organic vapors in unsaturated soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to explore dense gas transport (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) from different source densities through a nitrogen gas-dry soil column. Gas pressures and SF6 densities at transient state were measured along the soil column for three transport configurations (horizontal, vertically upward and vertically downward transport). These measurements and others reported in the literature were compared with simulation results obtained from two models based on different diffusion approaches: the dusty gas model (DGM) equations and a Fickian-type molar fraction-based diffusion expression. The results show that the DGM and Fickian-based models predicted similar dense gas density profiles which matched the measured data well for horizontal transport of dense gas at low to high source densities, despite the pressure variations predicted in the soil column were opposite to the measurements. The pressure evolutions predicted by both models were in trend similar to the measured ones for vertical transport of dense gas. However, differences between the dense gas densities predicted by the DGM and Fickian-based models were discernible for vertically upward transport of dense gas even at low source densities, as the DGM-based predictions matched the measured data better than the Fickian results did. For vertically downward transport, the dense gas densities predicted by both models were not greatly different from our experimental measurements, but substantially greater than the observations obtained from the literature, especially at high source densities. Further research will be necessary for exploring factors affecting downward transport of dense gas in soil columns. Use of the measured data to compute flux components of SF6 showed that the magnitudes of diffusive flux component based on the Fickian-type diffusion expressions

  9. Studies of Radiation-Driven and Buoyancy-Driven Fluid Flows and Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.; Fortmeyer, Justin M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that radiative heat transport influences many types of buoyant flows due to its effect on the temperature and thus density field in the fluid medium. It is of interest to study gaseous flows driven solely by radiation in the absence of buoyancy, particularly because of its application to astrophysical flows that are well known from astronomical observations and numerical simulation. However, no laboratory-scale experiments of this phenomenon have ever been conducted. To study the possibility of obtaining such flows in the laboratory, an apparatus was built to produce large temperature differences (Delta T) up to 300 K in a gas confined between flat parallel plates. SF6 was used as the radiatively-active gas because its Planck absorption length is much shorter than that of any other common non-reactive gas. The NASA-Lewis 2.2 second drop tower was used to obtain reduced gravity in order to suppress buoyancy effects. To image the resulting flows, a laser shearing interferometer was employed. Initial results indicate the presence of flow that does not appear to be attributable to the residual flow resulting from buoyancy influences before the drop. For Delta T greater than 70 K, slight deformations in the interferometer fringes seen at lower Delta T became large unsteady swirls. Such behavior did not occur for radiatively-inactive gases, suggesting that a flow driven solely by radiation was obtained in SF6 and to a lesser extent in CO2 This was more pronounced at higher pressures and plate spacings, consistent with our scaling predictions.

  10. Studies of Radiation-Driven and Buoyancy-Driven Fluid Flows and Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.; Fortmeyer, Justin M.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that radiative heat transport influences many types of buoyant flows due to its effect on the temperature and thus density field in the fluid medium. It is of interest to study gaseous flows driven solely by radiation in the absence of buoyancy, particularly because of its application to astrophysical flows that are well known from astronomical observations and numerical simulation. However, no laboratory-scale experiments of this phenomenon have ever been conducted. To study the possibility of obtaining such flows in the laboratory, an apparatus was built to produce large temperature differences (Delta (T)) up to 300 K in a gas confined between flat parallel plates. SF6 was used as the radiatively-active gas because its Planck absorption length is much shorter than that of any other common non-reactive gas. The NASA-Lewis 2.2 second drop tower was used to obtain reduced gravity in order to suppress buoyancy effects. To image the resulting flows, a laser shearing interferometer was employed. Initial results indicate the presence of flow that does not appear to be attributable to the residual flow resulting from buoyancy influences before the drop. For Delta(T) greater than 70 K, slight deformations in the interferometer fringes seen at lower Delta(T) became large unsteady swirls. Such behavior did not occur for radiatively-inactive gases, suggesting that a flow driven solely by radiation was obtained in SF6 and to a lesser extent in CO2. This was more pronounced at higher pressures and plate spacings, consistent with our scaling predictions.

  11. Ion-driven deuterium permeation through tungsten at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Golubeva, A. V.; Mayer, M.; Pisarev, A. A.; Roth, J.

    2009-06-01

    The ion-driven permeation (IDP) through 50 μm thick pure tungsten foils was measured in the temperature range of 823-923 K during irradiation by 200 eV/D + ion beam with a flux of 10 17-10 18 D/m 2s. Gas driven permeation (GDP) from the deuterium background gas was observed as well. Calculations using both the analytical formula for the diffusion limited regime (DLR) and the TMAP 7 code gave good agreement with the experimental data. Defects with a detrapping energy of (2.05 ± 0.15) eV were found to limit the permeation lag time in our experimental conditions.

  12. Effect of self recirculation casing treatment on the performance of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancedo, Matthieu

    Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred

  13. HiRISE observations of gas sublimation-driven activity in Mars' southern polar regions: III. Models of processes involving translucent ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Portyankina, G.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Thomas, N.; Hansen, C.J.; Milazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Enigmatic surface features, known as 'spiders', found at high southern martian latitudes, are probably caused by sublimation-driven erosion under the seasonal carbon dioxide ice cap. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has imaged this terrain in unprecedented details throughout southern spring. It has been postulated [Kieffer, H.H., Titus, T.N., Mullins, K.F., Christensen, P.R., 2000. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9653-9700] that translucent CO2 slab ice traps gas sublimating at the ice surface boundary. Wherever the pressure is released the escaping gas jet entrains loose surface material and carries it to the top of the ice where it is carried downslope and/or downwind and deposited in a fan shape. Here we model two stages of this scenario: first, the cleaning of CO2 slab ice from dust, and then, the breaking of the slab ice plate under the pressure built below it by subliming ice. Our modeling results and analysis of HiRISE images support the gas jet hypothesis and show that outbursts happen very early in spring. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Miniature Gas-Circulating Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Walter L.; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Sixsmith, Herbert; Nutt, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed gas-circulating machine consists essentially of centrifugal pump driven by induction motor. Noncontact bearings suppress wear and contamination. Used to circulate helium (or possibly hydrogen or another gas) in regeneration sorption-compressor refrigeration system aboard spacecraft. Also proves useful in terrestrial applications in which long life, reliability, and low contamination essential.

  15. Diffusion Driven Combustion Waves in Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldushin, A. P.; Matkowsky, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtration of gas containing oxidizer, to the reaction zone in a porous medium, due, e.g., to a buoyancy force or to an external pressure gradient, leads to the propagation of Filtration combustion (FC) waves. The exothermic reaction occurs between the fuel component of the solid matrix and the oxidizer. In this paper, we analyze the ability of a reaction wave to propagate in a porous medium without the aid of filtration. We find that one possible mechanism of propagation is that the wave is driven by diffusion of oxidizer from the environment. The solution of the combustion problem describing diffusion driven waves is similar to the solution of the Stefan problem describing the propagation of phase transition waves, in that the temperature on the interface between the burned and unburned regions is constant, the combustion wave is described by a similarity solution which is a function of the similarity variable x/square root of(t) and the wave velocity decays as 1/square root of(t). The difference between the two problems is that in the combustion problem the temperature is not prescribed, but rather, is determined as part of the solution. We will show that the length of samples in which such self-sustained combustion waves can occur, must exceed a critical value which strongly depends on the combustion temperature T(sub b). Smaller values of T(sub b) require longer sample lengths for diffusion driven combustion waves to exist. Because of their relatively small velocity, diffusion driven waves are considered to be relevant for the case of low heat losses, which occur for large diameter samples or in microgravity conditions, Another possible mechanism of porous medium combustion describes waves which propagate by consuming the oxidizer initially stored in the pores of the sample. This occurs for abnormally high pressure and gas density. In this case, uniformly propagating planar waves, which are kinetically controlled, can propagate, Diffusion of oxidizer decreases

  16. Beyond Solar Fuels: Renewable Energy-Driven Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Paola; Abate, Salvatare; Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2017-11-23

    The future feasibility of decarbonized industrial chemical production based on the substitution of fossil feedstocks (FFs) with renewable energy (RE) sources is discussed. Indeed, the use of FFs as an energy source has the greatest impact on the greenhouse gas emissions of chemical production. This future scenario is indicated as "solar-driven" or "RE-driven" chemistry. Its possible implementation requires to go beyond the concept of solar fuels, in particular to address two key aspects: i) the use of RE-driven processes for the production of base raw materials, such as olefins, methanol, and ammonia, and ii) the development of novel RE-driven routes that simultaneously realize process and energy intensification, particularly in the direction of a significant reduction of the number of the process steps. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Market-driven automotive industry compliance with fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards: Analysis based on consumer choice

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fei; Lin, Zhenhong

    This paper explored factors that affect market-driven compliance with both Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) standards (together called the National Program) in the United States for phase I 2012–2016 and phase II 2017–2025. We considered a consumer-choice-based simulation approach, using the MA3T model, to estimate the market acceptance of fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and alternative fuel technologies as reflected by new sales of light-duty vehicle (LDV). Because both full and extremely low FE valuations are common in the literature, we use a moderate assumption of a 10-year perceived vehicle lifetime at a 7% annual discount ratemore » in the baseline and include both extreme views (5 years and 15 years) in the sensitivity analysis. The study focuses on market-driven compliance and therefore excludes manufacturers’ cross-subsidization. The model results suggest that the LDV industry is able to comply with both standards even without cross-subsidization and with projected high technology cost, mainly thanks to the multiple credit programs and technology advancements. The compliance robustness, while encouraging, however is based on moderate market assumptions, such as Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Reference oil price projection and moderate FE consumer valuation. Finally, sensitivity analysis results reveal two significant risk factors for compliance: low oil prices and consumers’ FE undervaluation.« less

  18. Market-driven automotive industry compliance with fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards: Analysis based on consumer choice

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Fei; Lin, Zhenhong

    2017-06-09

    This paper explored factors that affect market-driven compliance with both Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) standards (together called the National Program) in the United States for phase I 2012–2016 and phase II 2017–2025. We considered a consumer-choice-based simulation approach, using the MA3T model, to estimate the market acceptance of fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and alternative fuel technologies as reflected by new sales of light-duty vehicle (LDV). Because both full and extremely low FE valuations are common in the literature, we use a moderate assumption of a 10-year perceived vehicle lifetime at a 7% annual discount ratemore » in the baseline and include both extreme views (5 years and 15 years) in the sensitivity analysis. The study focuses on market-driven compliance and therefore excludes manufacturers’ cross-subsidization. The model results suggest that the LDV industry is able to comply with both standards even without cross-subsidization and with projected high technology cost, mainly thanks to the multiple credit programs and technology advancements. The compliance robustness, while encouraging, however is based on moderate market assumptions, such as Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Reference oil price projection and moderate FE consumer valuation. Finally, sensitivity analysis results reveal two significant risk factors for compliance: low oil prices and consumers’ FE undervaluation.« less

  19. Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems

    DOE PAGES

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; Zhao, Haihua

    2016-09-08

    In this study, selected accident case histories are described that illustrate the potential modes of injury from gas jets, pressure-driven missiles, and asphyxiants. Gas combustion hazards are also briefly mentioned. Using high-pressure helium and nitrogen, estimates of safe exclusion distances are calculated for differing pressures, temperatures, and breach sizes. Some sources for gas system reliability values are also cited.

  20. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalifa, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of Bryton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks is presented. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. If installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or 170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified. Related studies in the area of waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines and NASA-CR-168255 (Steam Rankine) and CR-168256 (Organic Rankine).

  1. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term.more » The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the

  2. Rigorous buoyancy driven bubble mixing for centrifugal microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Burger, S; Schulz, M; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2016-01-21

    We present batch-mode mixing for centrifugal microfluidics operated at fixed rotational frequency. Gas is generated by the disk integrated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to liquid water (H2O) and gaseous oxygen (O2) and inserted into a mixing chamber. There, bubbles are formed that ascent through the liquid in the artificial gravity field and lead to drag flow. Additionaly, strong buoyancy causes deformation and rupture of the gas bubbles and induces strong mixing flows in the liquids. Buoyancy driven bubble mixing is quantitatively compared to shake mode mixing, mixing by reciprocation and vortex mixing. To determine mixing efficiencies in a meaningful way, the different mixers are employed for mixing of a lysis reagent and human whole blood. Subsequently, DNA is extracted from the lysate and the amount of DNA recovered is taken as a measure for mixing efficiency. Relative to standard vortex mixing, DNA extraction based on buoyancy driven bubble mixing resulted in yields of 92 ± 8% (100 s mixing time) and 100 ± 8% (600 s) at 130g centrifugal acceleration. Shake mode mixing yields 96 ± 11% and is thus equal to buoyancy driven bubble mixing. An advantage of buoyancy driven bubble mixing is that it can be operated at fixed rotational frequency, however. The additional costs of implementing buoyancy driven bubble mixing are low since both the activation liquid and the catalyst are very low cost and no external means are required in the processing device. Furthermore, buoyancy driven bubble mixing can easily be integrated in a monolithic manner and is compatible to scalable manufacturing technologies such as injection moulding or thermoforming. We consider buoyancy driven bubble mixing an excellent alternative to shake mode mixing, in particular if the processing device is not capable of providing fast changes of rotational frequency or if the low average rotational frequency is challenging for the other integrated fluidic operations.

  3. A magnetically driven piston pump for ultra-clean applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LePort, F.; Neilson, R.; Barbeau, P. S.; Barry, K.; Bartoszek, L.; Counts, I.; Davis, J.; deVoe, R.; Dolinski, M. J.; Gratta, G.; Green, M.; Díez, M. Montero; Müller, A. R.; O'Sullivan, K.; Rivas, A.; Twelker, K.; Aharmim, B.; Auger, M.; Belov, V.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Cleveland, B.; Conley, R.; Cook, J.; Cook, S.; Craddock, W.; Daniels, T.; Dixit, M.; Dobi, A.; Donato, K.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Franco, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Green, C.; Hägemann, C.; Hall, C.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; Herrin, S.; Hughes, M.; Hodgson, J.; Juget, F.; Kaufman, L. J.; Karelin, A.; Ku, J.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K.; Leonard, D. S.; Lutter, G.; Mackay, D.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M.; Mong, B.; Morgan, P.; Odian, A.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Pushkin, K.; Rollin, E.; Rowson, P. C.; Schmoll, B.; Sinclair, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Slutsky, S.; Stekhanov, V.; Strickland, V.; Swift, M.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Wichoski, U.; Wodin, J.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.

    2011-10-01

    A magnetically driven piston pump for xenon gas recirculation is presented. The pump is designed to satisfy extreme purity and containment requirements, as is appropriate for the recirculation of isotopically enriched xenon through the purification system and large liquid xenon time projection chamber of EXO-200. The pump, using sprung polymer gaskets, is capable of pumping more than 16 standard liters per minute of xenon gas with 750 Torr differential pressure.

  4. A magnetically driven piston pump for ultra-clean applications.

    PubMed

    LePort, F; Neilson, R; Barbeau, P S; Barry, K; Bartoszek, L; Counts, I; Davis, J; deVoe, R; Dolinski, M J; Gratta, G; Green, M; Montero Díez, M; Müller, A R; O'Sullivan, K; Rivas, A; Twelker, K; Aharmim, B; Auger, M; Belov, V; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Burenkov, A; Cleveland, B; Conley, R; Cook, J; Cook, S; Craddock, W; Daniels, T; Dixit, M; Dobi, A; Donato, K; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Fierlinger, P; Franco, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Green, C; Hägemann, C; Hall, C; Hall, K; Hallman, D; Hargrove, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Hodgson, J; Juget, F; Kaufman, L J; Karelin, A; Ku, J; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K; Leonard, D S; Lutter, G; Mackay, D; MacLellan, R; Marino, M; Mong, B; Morgan, P; Odian, A; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Pushkin, K; Rollin, E; Rowson, P C; Schmoll, B; Sinclair, D; Skarpaas, K; Slutsky, S; Stekhanov, V; Strickland, V; Swift, M; Vuilleumier, J-L; Vuilleumier, J-M; Wichoski, U; Wodin, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y-R

    2011-10-01

    A magnetically driven piston pump for xenon gas recirculation is presented. The pump is designed to satisfy extreme purity and containment requirements, as is appropriate for the recirculation of isotopically enriched xenon through the purification system and large liquid xenon time projection chamber of EXO-200. The pump, using sprung polymer gaskets, is capable of pumping more than 16 standard liters per minute of xenon gas with 750 Torr differential pressure.

  5. A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbo compounded diesel engine system: A description of the thermodynamic and heat transfer models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. E.; Frank, R. M.; Heywood, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system was developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multicylinder reciprocator diesel model, where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. The master cylinder model describes the reciprocator intake, compression, combustion and exhaust processes in sufficient detail to define the mass and energy transfers in each subsystem of the total engine system. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. From this information, the simulation predicts the performance gains, and assesses the system design trade-offs which would result from the introduction of selected heat transfer reduction materials in key system components, over a range of operating conditions.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of an Idealized Shock Tube: N2 in Ar Bath Driven by He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskulich, Ezekiel Ashe; Sewell, Thomas D.; Thompson, Donald L.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of 10% N2 in Ar initially at 298 K in an idealized shock tube driven by He was studied using molecular dynamics. The simulations were performed using the Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) code. Nitrogen was modeled as a Morse oscillator and non-covalent interactions were approximated by the Buckingham exponential-6 pair potential. The initial pressures in the He driver gas and the driven N2/Ar gas were 1000 atm and 20 atm, respectively. Microcanonical trajectories were followed for 2 ns following release of the driver gas. Results for excitation and subsequent relaxation of the N2, as well as properties of the gas during the simulations, will be reported.

  7. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  8. Gas-driven water volcanism in the resurfacing of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Glen D.; Stevenson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The creation of pathways for resurfacing of water or volatiles in a model of Europa in which an ocean underlies a thin ice shell is subjected to linear elastic fracture mechanical treatment. The gas-filled portion of the upward-propagating cracks pinches off from the water-filled portion, and may rapidly rise to the surface. The eruption thus generated is at first dominated by gas, but may subsequently include a less extended foam eruption; there may be no direct relationship between this resurfacing phenomenon and the geological features thus far noted on the Europa surface.

  9. Thermally driven advection for radioxenon transport from an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-05-01

    Barometric pumping is a ubiquitous process resulting in migration of gases in the subsurface that has been studied as the primary mechanism for noble gas transport from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). However, at early times following a UNE, advection driven by explosion residual heat is relevant to noble gas transport. A rigorous measure is needed for demonstrating how, when, and where advection is important. In this paper three physical processes of uncertain magnitude (oscillatory advection, matrix diffusion, and thermally driven advection) are parameterized by using boundary conditions, system properties, and source term strength. Sobol' sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the importance of all physical processes influencing the xenon signals. This study indicates that thermally driven advection plays a more important role in producing xenon signals than oscillatory advection and matrix diffusion at early times following a UNE, and xenon isotopic ratios are observed to have both time and spatial dependence.

  10. Apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Brad W.; French, David M.; Reid, Remington R.; Lawrance, Julie E.; Lepell, P. David; Maestas, Sabrina S.

    2016-03-01

    An apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas has been designed, constructed, and tested. The plasma is driven by a multi-kW, ˜5 GHz microwave beam focused at the center of a vacuum chamber using a Koch-type metal plate lens. Sustained plasma discharges have been generated in argon at pressures ranging from 150 to 200 mTorr, at beam power levels ranging from 5 to 10 kW, and at gas flow rates of approximately 200 SCCM.

  11. Apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brad W.; French, David M.; Reid, Remington R.

    An apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas has been designed, constructed, and tested. The plasma is driven by a multi-kW, ∼5 GHz microwave beam focused at the center of a vacuum chamber using a Koch-type metal plate lens. Sustained plasma discharges have been generated in argon at pressures ranging from 150 to 200 mTorr, at beam power levels ranging from 5 to 10 kW, and at gas flow rates of approximately 200 SCCM.

  12. Apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Brad W; French, David M; Reid, Remington R; Lawrance, Julie E; Lepell, P David; Maestas, Sabrina S

    2016-03-01

    An apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas has been designed, constructed, and tested. The plasma is driven by a multi-kW, ∼5 GHz microwave beam focused at the center of a vacuum chamber using a Koch-type metal plate lens. Sustained plasma discharges have been generated in argon at pressures ranging from 150 to 200 mTorr, at beam power levels ranging from 5 to 10 kW, and at gas flow rates of approximately 200 SCCM.

  13. Damping-free collective oscillations of a driven two-component Bose gas in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; Jaschke, Daniel; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the quantum many-body physics of a driven Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. The laser field induces a gap in the generalized Bogoliubov spectrum proportional to the effective Rabi frequency. The lowest-lying modes in a driven condensate are characterized by zero group velocity and nonzero current. Thus, the laser field induces roton modes, which carry interaction in a driven condensate. We show that collective excitations below the energy of the laser-induced gap remain undamped, while above the gap they are characterized by a significantly suppressed Landau damping rate.

  14. In situ insights into shock-driven reactive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2017-06-01

    Shock-driven reactions are commonplace. Examples include the detonation of high explosives, shock-driven dissociation of polymers, and transformation of carbon from graphite to diamond phases. The study of shock-driven chemical reactions is important for understanding reaction thresholds, their mechanisms and rates, and associated state sensitivities under the extreme conditions generated by shock compression. Reactions are distinguished by their thermicity - e.g. the volume and enthalpy changes along the reaction coordinate. A survey of the hallmarks of shock-driven reactivity for a variety of simple molecules and polymers will be presented, including benzene, acetylenes and nitriles, and formic acid. Many of the examples will illustrate the nature of the reactive flow through particle velocity wave profiles measured by in situ electromagnetic gauging in gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. General trends will be presented linking molecular moieties, shock temperatures, and reaction state sensitivities. Progress in applying bond-specific diagnostics will also be presented, including time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and recent results of in situ x-ray diffraction of carbon at the Linac Coherent Light Souce (LCLS) free electron laser.

  15. Gas-driven water volcanism in the resurfacing of Europa

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.D.; Stevenson, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The creation of pathways for resurfacing of water or volatiles in a model of Europa in which an ocean underlies a thin ice shell is subjected to linear elastic fracture mechanical treatment. The gas-filled portion of the upward-propagating cracks pinches off from the water-filled portion, and may rapidly rise to the surface. The eruption thus generated is at first dominated by gas, but may subsequently include a less extended foam eruption; there may be no direct relationship between this resurfacing phenomenon and the geological features thus far noted on the Europa surface. 33 references.

  16. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  17. The measure of treatment agreement between portable and laboratory blood gas measurements in guiding protocol-driven ventilator management.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Frank O; Hoffman, Terri L; Handrahan, Diana L; Crapo, Robert O; Snow, Greg

    2009-08-01

    Portable blood gas analyzer and monitor devices are increasingly being used to direct ventilator therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "measure of treatment agreement" between portable and laboratory blood gas measurements used in guiding protocol-driven ventilator management. Using National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome network ventilator management guidelines to manage patient care, measurements taken from the Nonin 8500 M pulse oximeter (SpO2), the Novametrix-610 end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) detector, and the i-STAT 1 (SaO2, PO2, pH, PCO2) were compared with the recommended treatment from paired laboratory ABL-725 (SaCO2, PO2, pH, PCO2) measurements. Four hundred forty-six intubated adult intensive care unit patients were studied prospectively. Except for the ETCO2 (R2 = 0.460), correlation coefficients between portable and laboratory measurements were high (R2 > or = 0.755). Testing for equivalence, the Nonin-SpO2, iSTAT-PO2, iSTAT-pH, and iSTAT-PCO2 were deemed "equivalent" surrogates to paired ABL measurements. Testing for the limits of agreement found only the iSTAT-PCO2 to be an acceptable surrogate measurement. The measure of treatment agreement between the portable and paired laboratory blood gas measurements were Nonin-SpO2 (68%), iSTAT-SaO2 (73%), iSTAT-PO2 (97%), iSTAT-pH (88%), iSTAT-PCO2 (95%), and Novametrix-ETCO2 (60%). Only the iSTAT-PO2 and the iSTAT-PCO2 achieved the > or =95% treatment agreement threshold to be considered as acceptable surrogates to laboratory measurements. : The iSTAT-PO2 and -PCO2 were portable device measurements acceptable as surrogates to standard clinical laboratory blood gas measurements in guiding protocol-directed ventilator management. The "measure of treatment agreement," based on standardized decisions and measurement thresholds of a protocol, provides a simple method for assessing clinical validity of surrogate measurements.

  18. Pulsed Magnetic Field Driven Gas Core Reactors for Space Power & Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Knight, Travis; Butler, Carey

    2003-01-01

    The present results indicated that: 1. A pulsed magnetic driven fission power concept, PMD-GCR is developed for closed (NER) and semi-open (NTR) operations. 2. In power mode, power is generated at alpha less than 1 for power levels of hundreds of KW or higher 3. IN semi open NTR mode, PMD-GCR generates thrust at I(sub sp) approx. 5,000 s and jet power approx. 5KW/Kg. 4. PMD-GCR is highly subcritical and is actively driven to critically. 5. Parallel path with fusion R&D needs in many areas including magnet and plasma.

  19. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Drake, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  20. Stochastic driven systems far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk

    We study the dynamics and steady states of two systems far from equilibrium: a 1-D driven lattice gas and a driven Brownian particle with inertia. (1) We investigate the dynamical scaling behavior of a 1-D driven lattice gas model with two species of particles hopping in opposite directions. We confirm numerically that the dynamic exponent is equal to z = 1.5. We show analytically that a quasi-particle representation relates all phase points to a special phase line directly related to the single-species asymmetric simple exclusion process. Quasi-particle two-point correlations decay exponentially, and in such a manner that quasi-particles of opposite charge dynamically screen each other with a special balance. The balance encompasses all over the phase space. These results indicate that the model belongs to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class. (2) We investigate the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a Brownian particle with inertia under feedback control of its inertia. We find such open systems can act as a molecular refrigerator due to an entropy pumping mechanism. We extend the fluctuation theorems to the refrigerator. The entropy pumping modifies both the Jarzynski equality and the fluctuation theorems. We discover that the entropy pumping has a dual role of work and heat. We also investigate the thermodynamics of the particle under a hydrodynamic interaction described by a Langevin equation with a multiplicative noise. The Stratonovich stochastic integration prescription involved in the definition of heat is shown to be the unique physical choice.

  1. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively Driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bublitz, Jesse

    Planetary nebulae contain shells of cold gas and dust whose heating and chemistry is likely driven by UV and X-ray emission from their central stars and from wind-collision-generated shocks. We present the results of a survey of molecular line emissions in the 88 - 235 GHz range from nine nearby (<1.5 kpc) planetary nebulae using the 30 m telescope at the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique. Rotational transitions of nine molecules, including the well-studied CO isotopologues and chemically important trace species, were observed and the results compared with and augmented by previous studies of molecular gas in PNe. Lines of the molecules HCO+, HNC, HCN, and CN, which were detected in most objects, represent new detections for five planetary nebulae in our study. Flux ratios were analyzed to identify correlations between the central star and/or nebular ultraviolet/X-ray luminosities and the molecular chemistries of the nebulae. Analysis reveals the apparent dependence of the HNC/HCN line ratio on PN central star UV luminosity. There exists no such clear correlation between PN X-rays and various diagnostics of PN molecular chemistry. The correlation between HNC/HCN ratio and central star UV luminosity hints at the potential of molecular emission line studies of PNe for improving our understanding of the role that high-energy radiation plays in the heating and chemistry of photodissociation regions.

  2. Scaling Relations of Starburst-driven Galactic Winds

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian, E-mail: rytanner@augusta.edu

    2017-07-10

    Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we explore how the velocity of a starburst-driven galactic wind correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) and SFR density. We find strong correlations for neutral and low ionized gas, but no correlation for highly ionized gas. The correlations for neutral and low ionized gas only hold for SFRs below a critical limit set by the mass loading of the starburst, above which point the scaling relations flatten abruptly. Below this point the scaling relations depend on the temperature regime being probed by the absorption line, not on the mass loading.more » The exact scaling relation depends on whether the maximum or mean velocity of the absorption line is used. We find that the outflow velocity of neutral gas can be up to five times lower than the average velocity of ionized gas, with the velocity difference increasing for higher ionization states. Furthermore, the velocity difference depends on both the SFR and mass loading of the starburst. Thus, absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas cannot easily be used as a proxy for the outflow velocity of the hot gas.« less

  3. Aerospace Thematic Workshop (4th): Fundamentals of Aerodynamic Flow and Combustion Control by Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Supersonic Flow Control by Microwave Discharge and Non-equilibrium Processes in Viscous Gas Flows Elena Kustova (Saint Petersburg State University...implying new technologies (direct injection, turbocharging, exhaust gas recirculation, ...) and introducing new physics ( liquid films, flame propagation...combustion  Discharges physics and kinetics A visit was also organized in the afternoon of April 10 to the supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels

  4. Correlation Between Cometary Gas/Dust Ratios and Heliocentric Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Olga; Womack, Maria; Lastra, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    We compiled CO-based gas/dust ratios for several comets out to heliocentric distances, rh, of 8 au to probe whether there is a noticeable change in comet behavior over the range that water-ice sublimation starts. Previously, gas/dust ratios were calculated for an ensemble of comets using Q(CO2)/efp values derived from infrared measurements, which showed that the gas/dust ratio follows a rh-2 within 4 AU, but is flat at greater distances (Bauer et al. 2015). Our project focuses on gas/dust ratios for which CO is assumed to be the dominant gas, in order to test whether similar breaks in slope occur for CO. The gas/dust ratios were calculated from measurements of CO production rates (mostly from millimeter-wavelength spectroscopy) and reflected sunlight of comets (mostly via reported visual magnitudes of dusty comets). We present our new CO-based gas/dust ratios at different heliocentric distances, compare them to existing CO2-based gas/dust ratios, and discuss implications for CO-driven and CO2-driven activity. We discuss O.H. acknowledges support from the Hartmann Student Travel Grant program. M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.

  5. Gas Fride Heat Pumps : The Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shigekichi; Ogura, Masao

    In japan techniques for saving energy is an important goal since energy resources such as oil and nuclear power are limited. Recently gas fired absorption heat pumps and gas engine driven heat pumps have been installed in facilifies such as hotels, swimming pools and offices.
    In this article recent techniques, applications and future aspects for gas fired heat pumps are explained.

  6. 40 CFR 1039.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and turbochargers are not aftertreatment. Aircraft..., modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission-control system. Brake power... suppression operations. Emission-control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls...

  7. 40 CFR 1036.801 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF... the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and turbochargers are not aftertreatment. Aircraft... operation of any part of the emission control system. Averaging set has the meaning given in § 1036.740...

  8. 40 CFR 1048.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment. Aircraft means... device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine rpm, transmission gear... oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline-fueled engine typically occurs at an air...

  9. 40 CFR 1048.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment. Aircraft means... device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine rpm, transmission gear... oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline-fueled engine typically occurs at an air...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment. Aircraft means... device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine rpm, transmission gear... oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline-fueled engine typically occurs at an air...

  11. Cosmic ray driven outflows in an ultraluminous galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Akimi; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2018-06-01

    In models of galaxy formation, feedback driven both by supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus is not efficient enough to quench star formation in massive galaxies. Models of smaller galaxies have suggested that cosmic rays (CRs) play a major role in expelling material from the star-forming regions by diffusing SN energy to the lower density outskirts. We therefore run gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a galaxy contained in a halo with 5 × 1012 M⊙ that resembles a local ultraluminous galaxy, including both SN thermal energy and a treatment of CRs using the same diffusion approximation as Salem & Bryan. We find that CR pressure drives a low-density bubble beyond the edge of the shell swept up by thermal pressure, but the main bubble driven by SN thermal pressure overtakes it later, which creates a large-scale biconical outflow. CRs diffusing into the disc are unable to entrain its gas in the outflows, yielding a mass-loading rate of only ˜ 0.1 per cent with varied CR diffusion coefficients. We find no significant difference in mass-loading rates in SN-driven outflows with or without CR pressure. Our simulations strongly suggest that it is hard to drive a heavily mass-loaded outflow with CRs from a massive halo potential, although more distributed star formation could lead to a different result.

  12. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN TRANSITIONAL PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lile; Goodman, Jeremy J.

    Transitional protostellar disks have inner cavities that are heavily depleted in dust and gas, yet most of them show signs of ongoing accretion, often at rates comparable to full disks. We show that recent constraints on the gas surface density in a few well-studied disk cavities suggest that the accretion speed is at least transsonic. We propose that this is the natural result of accretion driven by magnetized winds. Typical physical conditions of the gas inside these cavities are estimated for plausible X-ray and FUV radiation fields. The gas near the midplane is molecular and predominantly neutral, with a dimensionlessmore » ambipolar parameter in the right general range for wind solutions of the type developed by Königl, Wardle, and others. That is to say, the density of ions and electrons is sufficient for moderately good coupling to the magnetic field, but it is not so good that the magnetic flux needs to be dragged inward by the accreting neutrals.« less

  13. Liquid slip over gas nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramisetti, Srinivasa B.; Borg, Matthew K.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose the rarefied-gas-cushion model (r-GCM), as an extended version of the gas-cushion model (GCM), to estimate the apparent slip of water flowing over a gas layer trapped at a solid surface. Nanobubbles or gas nanofilms may manifest rarefied-gas effects and the r-GCM incorporates kinetic boundary conditions for the gas component in the slip Knudsen regime. These enable an apparent hydrodynamic slip length to be calculated given the gas thickness, the Knudsen number, and the bulk fluid viscosities. We assess the r-GCM through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of shear-driven liquid flow over an infinite gas nanofilm covering a solid surface, from the gas slip regime to the early transition regime, beyond which NEMD is computationally impractical. We find that, over the flow regimes examined, the r-GCM provides better predictions of the apparent liquid slip and retrieves both the GCM and the free-molecular behavior in the appropriate limits.

  14. Proton-driven amide bond-cleavage pathways of gas-phase peptide ions lacking mobile protons.

    PubMed

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Suhai, Sándor; Somogyi, Arpád; Paizs, Béla

    2009-10-07

    The mobile proton model (Dongre, A. R., Jones, J. L., Somogyi, A. and Wysocki, V. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118 , 8365-8374) of peptide fragmentation states that the ionizing protons play a critical role in the gas-phase fragmentation of protonated peptides upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). The model distinguishes two classes of peptide ions, those with or without easily mobilizable protons. For the former class mild excitation leads to proton transfer reactions which populate amide nitrogen protonation sites. This enables facile amide bond cleavage and thus the formation of b and y sequence ions. In contrast, the latter class of peptide ions contains strongly basic functionalities which sequester the ionizing protons, thereby often hindering formation of sequence ions. Here we describe the proton-driven amide bond cleavages necessary to produce b and y ions from peptide ions lacking easily mobilizable protons. We show that this important class of peptide ions fragments by different means from those with easily mobilizable protons. We present three new amide bond cleavage mechanisms which involve salt-bridge, anhydride, and imine enol intermediates, respectively. All three new mechanisms are less energetically demanding than the classical oxazolone b(n)-y(m) pathway. These mechanisms offer an explanation for the formation of b and y ions from peptide ions with sequestered ionizing protons which are routinely fragmented in large-scale proteomics experiments.

  15. Heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler operating at liquid hydrogen temperature with a unique coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Li, S. F.; Yu, B.; Dai, W.

    2008-05-01

    A heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler is constructed. A unique coupler composed of a tube, reservoir, and elastic diaphragm is introduced to couple a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine (TE) and two-stage pulse tube refrigerator (PTR). The amplitude of the pressure wave generated in the engine is first amplified in the coupler and the wave then passes into the refrigerator to pump heat. The TE uses nitrogen as its working gas and the PTR still uses helium as its working gas. With this coupler, the efficiency of the system is doubled. The engine and coupler match at a much lower operating frequency, which is of great benefit for the PTR to obtain a lower cooling temperature. The coupling place between the coupler and engine is also optimized. The onset problem is effectively solved. With these improvements, the heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler reaches a lowest temperature of 18.1K, which is the demonstration of heat-driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology used for cooling at liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  16. Fast Outflow of Molecular Gas in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, T.; Oonk, R.; Tadhunter, C.

    2017-11-01

    AGN-driven gas outflows may play an important role in the evolution of galaxies, as they impact on the growth on the central supermassive black hole as well on the star formation of the host galaxy. Much of the detailed physics of these gas outflows, and their actual impact on the host galaxy, is still not well understood. We present a detailed analysis, using ALMA observations, of the radio-jet driven outflow of molecular gas in the nearby radio-loud Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 which allows to derive important physical parameters of the gas and the outflow which, in turn, provide crucial input to numerical models. In recent years, a surprising result in the field of AGN-driven outflows has been that the cold phases of the gas (atomic and molecular) in some galaxies are the massive components of these outflows, despite the huge amounts of energy involved in driving these outflows. However, why most of the outflowing gas should be molecular/atomic, and in general, what are the physical conditions of the gas in the outflows and what really drives them, are still open questions. We present the results obtained from ALMA observations of multiple CO transitions and other molecules of what appears to be a textbook case of a jet-driven multi- phase outflow in the central regions of the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063. The data on multiple transitions allow us to derive the physical conditions in the different regions of the outflowing molecular gas. The signature of the impact of the radio jet is clearly seen in the spatial distribution of the excitation temperature and pressure of the outflowing gas, with the highest excitation and pressure found for the gas with the highest outflow velocities. We obtain a detailed three- dimensional picture of the outflow, and its kinematics, and find that outflowing molecular gas is present across the entire region co-spatial with the radio plasma, providing unambiguous evidence that the radio jets/cocoon are responsible for the outflow. The

  17. Kinematic evidence for feedback-driven star formation in NGC 1893

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.; Lee, Sangwoo; Lee, Jae Joon; Oh, Heeyoung; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Park, Sunkyung

    2018-06-01

    OB associations are the prevailing star-forming sites in the Galaxy. Up to now, the process of how OB associations were formed remained a mystery. A possible process is self-regulating star formation driven by feedback from massive stars. However, although a number of observational studies uncovered various signposts of feedback-driven star formation, the effectiveness of such feedback has been questioned. Stellar and gas kinematics is a promising tool to capture the relative motion of newborn stars and gas away from ionizing sources. We present high-resolution spectroscopy of stars and gas in the young open cluster NGC 1893. Our findings show that newborn stars and the tadpole nebula Sim 130 are moving away from the central cluster containing two O-type stars, and that the time-scale of sequential star formation is about 1 Myr within a 9 pc distance. The newborn stars formed by feedback from massive stars account for at least 18 per cent of the total stellar population in the cluster, suggesting that this process can play an important role in the formation of OB associations. These results support the self-regulating star formation model.

  18. Current issues in natural gas lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, J.

    1997-10-01

    Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excessmore » air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.« less

  19. Gas driven displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell with chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Ward, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Injecting a less viscous fluid into a more viscous fluid produces instabilities in the form of fingering which grow radially from the less viscous injection point (Saffman & Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. Lon. A, 1958). For two non-reacting fluids in a radial Hele-Shaw cell the ability of the gas phase to penetrate the liquid phase is largely dependent on the gap height, liquid viscosity and gas pressure. In contrast combining two reactive fluids such as aqueous calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, which form a precipitate, presents a more complex but technically relevant system. As the two species react calcium carbonate precipitates and increases the aqueous phase visocosity. This change in viscosity may have a significant impact on how the gas phase penetrates the liquid phase. Experimental are performed in a radial Hele-Shaw cell with gap heights O(10-100) microns by loading a single drop of aqueous calcium hydroxide and injecting carbon dioxide into the drop. The calcium hydroxide concentration, carbon dioxide pressure and gap height are varied and images of the gas penetration are analyzed to determine residual film thickness and bursting times.

  20. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

  1. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  2. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed.

    PubMed

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  3. Radiative cooling of swept up gas in AGN-driven galactic winds and its implications for molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richings, Alexander J.; Faucher-Giguére, Claude-André

    2018-05-01

    We recently used hydro-chemical simulations to demonstrate that molecular outflows observed in luminous quasars can be explained by molecule formation within the AGN wind. However, these simulations cover a limited parameter space, due to their computational cost. We have therefore developed an analytic model to follow cooling in the shocked ISM layer of an AGN wind. We explore different ambient densities (1-104 {cm}^{-3}), density profile slopes (0-1.5), AGN luminosities (1044-10^{47} {erg} {s}^{-1}), and metallicities (0.1-3 Z⊙). The swept up gas mostly cools within ˜1 Myr. Based on our previous simulations, we predict that this gas would produce observable molecular outflows. The instantaneous momentum boost initially increases as the outflow decelerates. However, it reaches a maximum of ≈20, due to work done against the gravitational potential. The predicted time-averaged observational estimate of the molecular outflow momentum boost reaches a maximum of ≈1 -2, partly due to our assumed molecular fraction, 0.2, but also because the instantaneous and observational, time-averaged definitions are not equivalent. Thus recent observational estimates of order unity momentum boosts do not necessarily rule out energy-driven outflows. Finally, we find that dust grains are likely to re-form by accretion of metals after the shocked ISM layer has cooled, assuming that a small fraction of dust grains swept up after this layer has cooled are able to mix into the cool phase, and assuming that grain growth remains efficient in the presence of the strong AGN radiation field. This would enable rapid molecule formation, as assumed in our models.

  4. Echo State Networks for data-driven downhole pressure estimation in gas-lift oil wells.

    PubMed

    Antonelo, Eric A; Camponogara, Eduardo; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Process measurements are of vital importance for monitoring and control of industrial plants. When we consider offshore oil production platforms, wells that require gas-lift technology to yield oil production from low pressure oil reservoirs can become unstable under some conditions. This undesirable phenomenon is usually called slugging flow, and can be identified by an oscillatory behavior of the downhole pressure measurement. Given the importance of this measurement and the unreliability of the related sensor, this work aims at designing data-driven soft-sensors for downhole pressure estimation in two contexts: one for speeding up first-principle model simulation of a vertical riser model; and another for estimating the downhole pressure using real-world data from an oil well from Petrobras based only on topside platform measurements. Both tasks are tackled by employing Echo State Networks (ESN) as an efficient technique for training Recurrent Neural Networks. We show that a single ESN is capable of robustly modeling both the slugging flow behavior and a steady state based only on a square wave input signal representing the production choke opening in the vertical riser. Besides, we compare the performance of a standard network to the performance of a multiple timescale hierarchical architecture in the second task and show that the latter architecture performs better in modeling both large irregular transients and more commonly occurring small oscillations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy haze in winter Beijing driven by fast gas phase oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K.; Tan, Z.; Wang, H.; Li, X.; Wu, Z.; Chen, Q.; Wu, Y.; Ma, X.; Liu, Y.; Chen, X.; Shang, D.; Dong, H.; Zeng, L.; Shao, M.; Hu, M.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Rohrer, F.; Bohn, B.; Georgios, G.; Schmitt, S. H.; Schlag, P.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy haze conditions were frequently presented in the airsheds of Beijing and surrounding areas, especially during winter time. To explore the trace gas oxidation and the subsequent formation of aerosols, a comprehensive field campaign was performed at a regional site (in the campus of University of Chinese Academy of Science, UCAS) in Beijing winter 2016. Serious haze pollution processes were often observed with the fast increase of inorganic salt (especially nitrate) and these pollutions were always associated with enhanced humidity and the concentrations of PAN (PeroxyAcyl Nitrates) which is normally a marker of gas phase oxidations from NOx and VOCs. Moreover, based on the measurements of OH, HO2, RO2, total OH reactivity, N2O5, NO, NO2, SO2, particle concentrations/distributions/chemical compositions, and meteorological parameters, the gas phase oxidation rates that leads to the formation of sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols were estimated. These determined formation rates were clearly enhanced by several folds during pollution episodes compared to that of the clean air masses. Preliminary analysis result showed that the gas phase formation potential of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols were larger than the observed concentrations of nitrate and SOA of which the excess production may be explained by deposition and dilution.

  6. 78 FR 2380 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... new compressor station with two 10,915 horsepower (ISO) gas turbine-driven compressor; and the...] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 19, 2012, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), Post Office Box 1396, Houston, Texas 77251, filed in the...

  7. NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF THE RADIATION-DRIVEN MAGNETO-ACOUSTIC INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-04-20

    We examine the nonlinear development of unstable magnetosonic waves driven by a background radiative flux-the radiation-driven magneto-acoustic instability (RMI, a.k.a. the ''photon bubble'' instability). The RMI may serve as a persistent source of density, radiative flux, and magnetic field fluctuations in stably stratified, optically thick media. The conditions for instability are present in a variety of astrophysical environments and do not require the radiation pressure to dominate or the magnetic field to be strong. Here, we numerically study the saturation properties of the RMI, covering three orders of magnitude in the relative strength of radiation, magnetic field, and gas energies.more » Two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of local, stably stratified domains are conducted with Zeus-MP in the optically thick, highly conducting limit. Our results confirm the theoretical expectations of Blaes and Socrates in that the RMI operates even in gas-pressure-dominated environments that are weakly magnetized. The saturation amplitude is a monotonically increasing function of the ratio of radiation to gas pressure. Keeping this ratio constant, we find that the saturation amplitude peaks when the magnetic pressure is comparable to the radiation pressure. We discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics of magnetized stellar envelopes, where the RMI should act as a source of sub-photospheric perturbations.« less

  8. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  9. Market-driven emissions from recovery of carbon dioxide gas.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-12-16

    This article uses a market-based allocation method in a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) framework to estimate the environmental emissions created by recovering carbon dioxide (CO2). We find that 1 ton of CO2 recovered as a coproduct of chemicals manufacturing leads to additional greenhouse gas emissions of 147-210 kg CO2 eq , while consuming 160-248 kWh of electricity, 254-480 MJ of heat, and 1836-4027 kg of water. The ranges depend on the initial and final purity of the CO2, particularly because higher purity grades require additional processing steps such as distillation, as well as higher temperature and flow rate of regeneration as needed for activated carbon treatment and desiccant beds. Higher purity also reduces process efficiency due to increased yield losses from regeneration gas and distillation reflux. Mass- and revenue-based allocation methods used in attributional LCA estimate that recovering CO2 leads to 19 and 11 times the global warming impact estimated from a market-based allocation used in consequential LCA.

  10. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feetmore » (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work

  11. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feetmore » (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work

  12. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    PubMed

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  13. Efficient cold outflows driven by cosmic rays in high-redshift galaxies and their global effects on the IGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-05-01

    We present semi-analytical models of galactic outflows in high-redshift galaxies driven by both hot thermal gas and non-thermal cosmic rays. Thermal pressure alone may not sustain a large-scale outflow in low-mass galaxies (i.e. M ˜ 108 M⊙), in the presence of supernovae feedback with large mass loading. We show that inclusion of cosmic ray pressure allows outflow solutions even in these galaxies. In massive galaxies for the same energy efficiency, cosmic ray-driven winds can propagate to larger distances compared to pure thermally driven winds. On an average gas in the cosmic ray-driven winds has a lower temperature which could aid detecting it through absorption lines in the spectra of background sources. Using our constrained semi-analytical models of galaxy formation (that explains the observed ultraviolet luminosity functions of galaxies), we study the influence of cosmic ray-driven winds on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at different redshifts. In particular, we study the volume filling factor, average metallicity, cosmic ray and magnetic field energy densities for models invoking atomic cooled and molecular cooled haloes. We show that the cosmic rays in the IGM could have enough energy that can be transferred to the thermal gas in presence of magnetic fields to influence the thermal history of the IGM. The significant volume filling and resulting strength of IGM magnetic fields can also account for recent γ-ray observations of blazars.

  14. Vapor Measurement System of Essential Oil Based on MOS Gas Sensors Driven with Advanced Temperature Modulation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarmaji, A.; Margiwiyatno, A.; Ediati, R.; Mustofa, A.

    2018-05-01

    The aroma/vapor of essential oils is complex compound which depends on the content of the gases and volatiles generated from essential oil. This paper describes a design of quick, simple, and low-cost static measurement system to acquire vapor profile of essential oil. The gases and volatiles are captured in a chamber by means of 9 MOS gas sensors which driven with advance temperature modulation technique. A PSoC CY8C28445-24PVXI based-interface unit is built to generate the modulation signal and acquire all sensor output into computer wirelessly via radio frequency serial communication using Digi International Inc., XBee (IEEE 802.15.4) through developed software under Visual.Net. The system was tested to measure 2 kinds of essential oil (Patchouli and Clove Oils) in 4 temperature modulations (without, 0.25 Hz, 1 Hz, and 4 Hz). A cycle measurement consists of reference and sample measurement sequentially which is set during 2 minutes in every 1 second respectively. It is found that the suitable modulation is 0,25Hz; 75%, and the results of Principle Component Analysis show that the system is able to distinguish clearly between Patchouli Oil and Clove Oil.

  15. Effect of heliox- and air-driven nebulized bronchodilator therapy on lung function in patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    El-Khatib, Mohamad F; Jamaleddine, Ghassan; Kanj, Nadim; Zeineddine, Salah; Chami, Hassan; Bou-Akl, Imad; Husari, Ahmad; Alawieh, Marwan; Bou-Khalil, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the effect of heliox-driven to that of air-driven bronchodilator therapy on the pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with different levels of asthma severity. One-hundred thirty-two participants were included in the study. Participants underwent spirometry twice with bronchodilator testing on two consecutive days. Air-driven nebulization was used one day and heliox-driven nebulization the other day in random order crossover design. After a baseline PFT, each participant received 2.5 mg of albuterol sulfate nebulized with the randomized driving gas. Post bronchodilator PFT was repeated after 30 min. The next day, the exact same protocol was repeated, except that the other driving gas was used to nebulize the drug. Participants were subgrouped and analyzed according to their baseline FEV(1) on day 1: Group I, FEV(1) ≥80 %; Group II, 80 % > FEV(1) > 50 %; Group III, FEV(1) ≤50 %. The proportion of participants with greater than 12 % and 200-mL increases from their baseline FEV(1) and the changes from baseline in PFT variables were compared between heliox-driven versus air-driven bronchodilation therapy. The proportion of participants with >12 % and 200-mL increases from their baseline FEV(1) with air- or heliox-driven bronchodilation was not different with respect to the proportion of participants with baseline FEV(1) ≥80 % (20 vs. 18 %, respectively) and 80 % > FEV(1) > 50 % (36 vs. 43 %, respectively), but it was significantly greater with heliox-driven bronchodilation in participants with FEV(1) ≤50 % (43 vs. 73 %, respectively; p = 0.01). Changes from baseline FVC, FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC, FEF(25-75) %, FEF(max), FEF(25) %, FEF(50) %, and FEF(75) % were significantly larger with heliox-driven versus air-driven bronchodilation in participants with baseline FEV(1) ≤50 %. Improvements in PFT variables are more frequent and profound with heliox-driven compared to air-driven bronchodilator therapy only in asthmatic patients with baseline

  16. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee; Bartram, Brian Douglas; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design andmore » evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.« less

  17. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, L. L.; Bartram, B. D.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Lang, J. M.; Morris, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  18. Demand-driven biogas production by flexible feeding in full-scale - Process stability and flexibility potentials.

    PubMed

    Mauky, Eric; Weinrich, Sören; Jacobi, Hans-Fabian; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2017-08-01

    For future energy supply systems with high proportions from renewable energy sources, biogas plants are a promising option to supply demand-driven electricity to compensate the divergence between energy demand and energy supply by uncontrolled sources like wind and solar. Apart expanding gas storage capacity a demand-oriented feeding with the aim of flexible gas production can be an effective alternative. The presented study demonstrated a high degree of intraday flexibility (up to 50% compared to the average) and a potential for an electricity shutdown of up to 3 days (decreasing gas production by more than 60%) by flexible feeding in full-scale. Furthermore, the long-term process stability was not affected negatively due to the flexible feeding. The flexible feeding resulted in a variable rate of gas production and a dynamic progression of individual acids and the respective pH-value. In consequence, a demand-driven biogas production may enable significant savings in terms of the required gas storage volume (up to 65%) and permit far greater plant flexibility compared to constant gas production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions andmore » by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk

  20. cGAS drives noncanonical-inflammasome activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kerur, Nagaraj; Fukuda, Shinichi; Banerjee, Daipayan; Kim, Younghee; Fu, Dongxu; Apicella, Ivana; Varshney, Akhil; Yasuma, Reo; Fowler, Benjamin J; Baghdasaryan, Elmira; Marion, Kenneth M; Huang, Xiwen; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Hirano, Yoshio; Serbulea, Vlad; Ambati, Meenakshi; Ambati, Vidya L; Kajiwara, Yuji; Ambati, Kameshwari; Hirahara, Shuichiro; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kim, Kyung Bo; Hinton, David R; Leitinger, Norbert; Cambier, John C; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Kenney, M Cristina; Jazwinski, S Michal; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hara, Isao; West, A Phillip; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Sadda, SriniVas R; Gelfand, Bradley D; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2018-01-01

    Geographic atrophy is a blinding form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) death; the RPE also exhibits DICER1 deficiency, resultant accumulation of endogenous Alu-retroelement RNA, and NLRP3-inflammasome activation. How the inflammasome is activated in this untreatable disease is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that RPE degeneration in human-cell-culture and mouse models is driven by a noncanonical-inflammasome pathway that activates caspase-4 (caspase-11 in mice) and caspase-1, and requires cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-dependent interferon-β production and gasdermin D-dependent interleukin-18 secretion. Decreased DICER1 levels or Alu-RNA accumulation triggers cytosolic escape of mitochondrial DNA, which engages cGAS. Moreover, caspase-4, gasdermin D, interferon-β, and cGAS levels were elevated in the RPE in human eyes with geographic atrophy. Collectively, these data highlight an unexpected role of cGAS in responding to mobile-element transcripts, reveal cGAS-driven interferon signaling as a conduit for mitochondrial-damage-induced inflammasome activation, expand the immune-sensing repertoire of cGAS and caspase-4 to noninfectious human disease, and identify new potential targets for treatment of a major cause of blindness.

  1. On-Site Field-Feeding Waste to Energy Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    fundamentals The feedstock and part of the air needed for gasifica- tion enter through the open top of the downdraft gasifier. The motive force for the air...combustion air before entering the TQG, where the gas/air mixture is compressed by the turbocharger and distributed to the cylinders. The amount of JP-8

  2. Ion-driven wind: Aerodynamics, performance limits, and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickard, Matthew James Alan

    When a strong electric field is generated between a sharp, charged object and a grounded electrode in a gas medium, ions that are generated via a corona discharge near the tip of the sharp object migrate to the electrical ground, setting the neutral hulk gas in motion. The strength of the flow generated from such a process; known as a "corona", "ionic", or "ion-driven" wind, increases with electric field until electrical breakdown is reached. Previous studies have found an upper bound on the velocity of the ion-driven wind, even when a series of electrode stages are aggregated. With the intent of maximizing the gas flow front such devices, this dissertation describes a series of experiments that have been conducted and a numerical model that has been employed. Although typical hardware configurations include a wire parallel to a plate, a wire placed concentrically within a cylinder, or a needle facing a perpendicular plate or mesh, the chosen setup for this study is a needle facing a concentric ring. Using multiple experimental techniques and numerical simulation, velocity profiles have been observed at the ring exit and are sensitive to the design of the mounting hardware. The numerical model predicts the ideal electrode geometry for maximizing flow through a single unit. A modular, multi-staged system has been constructed and, when loaded with an exit nozzle, the exit velocity can be substantially increased. Further, if a small-scale (sub-millimeter) system is created, it is expected that the velocity will increase with multi-staging, even in the absence of an exit nozzle.

  3. Gas Flows in Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julia M.; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George C.; Nevin, Becky

    2018-06-01

    Dual Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the Rosetta stone to understand the role of galaxy mergers in triggering nuclear activity and regulating black hole (BH) and galaxy growth. But very little is known about the physical processes required to effectively trigger AGN activity and regulate the growth of the two BHs. The work I will present here characterizes for the first time the properties of the stars, gas (molecular, ionized, and highly-ionized) and dust in all the confirmed dual AGN at z < 0.05, using Keck/OSIRIS, VLT/SINFONI, SOFIA/FORCAST, and HST data. I will focus on the interplay between the several complex processes observed in dual AGN, using as an example the prototypical merger system NGC 6240: vigorous star formation, two AGNs, outflowing winds of ionized gas, rippling dust and gas lanes, and tidal tails. In this galaxy, we observe for the first time a dual outflow of different species of gas: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. This shows that stellar feedback and supermassive black hole feedback can work in tandem to regulate the stellar growth of a galaxy after a merger event. These results open a new door to studies of dual AGN and AGN pairs in general, and enable dual AGN to be used, for the first time, for studies of galaxy evolution.

  4. Short-range, overpressure-driven methane migration in coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; ...

    2016-08-31

    Two methane migration mechanisms have been proposed for coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs: short-range diffusive gas migration and long-range advective fluid transport from depth. Herein we demonstrate that short-range fluid flow due to overpressure in marine sediments is a significant additional methane transport mechanism that allows hydrate to precipitate in large quantities in thick, coarse-grained hydrate reservoirs. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate that this migration mechanism, short-range advective transport, can supply significant amounts of dissolved gas and is unencumbered by limitations of the other two end-member mechanisms. Here, short-range advective migration can increase the amount of methane delivered to sands as compared tomore » the slow process of diffusion, yet it is not necessarily limited by effective porosity reduction as is typical of updip advection from a deep source.« less

  5. Short-range, overpressure-driven methane migration in coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.

    Two methane migration mechanisms have been proposed for coarse-grained gas hydrate reservoirs: short-range diffusive gas migration and long-range advective fluid transport from depth. Herein we demonstrate that short-range fluid flow due to overpressure in marine sediments is a significant additional methane transport mechanism that allows hydrate to precipitate in large quantities in thick, coarse-grained hydrate reservoirs. Two-dimensional simulations demonstrate that this migration mechanism, short-range advective transport, can supply significant amounts of dissolved gas and is unencumbered by limitations of the other two end-member mechanisms. Here, short-range advective migration can increase the amount of methane delivered to sands as compared tomore » the slow process of diffusion, yet it is not necessarily limited by effective porosity reduction as is typical of updip advection from a deep source.« less

  6. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  7. Tunable Rare Earth fcu-MOF Platform: Access to Adsorption Kinetics Driven Gas/Vapor Separations via Pore Size Contraction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Xu; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Jiang, Hao; Adil, Karim; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-04-22

    Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e., Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Y(3+)) fcu metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cutoff, ideal for selective adsorption kinetics based separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the first RE-fcu-MOF platform, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded notable gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol, and butanol/water pair systems.

  8. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  9. Modeling and Prototyping of Automatic Clutch System for Light Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, S.; Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Vishal, S.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, recycling or regenerating the waste in to something useful is appreciated all around the globe. It reduces greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change. This study deals with provision of the automatic clutch mechanism in vehicles to facilitate the smooth changing of gears. This study proposed to use the exhaust gases which are normally expelled out as a waste from the turbocharger to actuate the clutch mechanism in vehicles to facilitate the smooth changing of gears. At present, clutches are operated automatically by using an air compressor in the four wheelers. In this study, a conceptual design is proposed in which the clutch is operated by the exhaust gas from the turbocharger and this will remove the usage of air compressor in the existing system. With this system, usage of air compressor is eliminated and the riders need not to operate the clutch manually. This work involved in development, analysation and validation of the conceptual design through simulation software. Then the developed conceptual design of an automatic pneumatic clutch system is tested with proto type.

  10. Linking basin-scale and pore-scale gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems: DIFFUSION-DRIVEN HYDRATE GROWTH IN SANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.

    The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential distribution patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine gas hydrate systems has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate distribution patterns at the scale of individual sand layers (1 to 20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially active fine-grained material buried through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two- dimensional and basin-scalemore » three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered systems. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size distribution, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered systems all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the distribution of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin gas hydrate system in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. As a result, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.« less

  11. Linking basin-scale and pore-scale gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems: DIFFUSION-DRIVEN HYDRATE GROWTH IN SANDS

    DOE PAGES

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; ...

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential distribution patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine gas hydrate systems has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate distribution patterns at the scale of individual sand layers (1 to 20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially active fine-grained material buried through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two- dimensional and basin-scalemore » three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered systems. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size distribution, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered systems all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the distribution of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin gas hydrate system in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. As a result, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.« less

  12. Evaluation of solar thermal driven cooling system in office buildings in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linjawi, Majid T.; Talal, Qazi; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study solar driven absorption chiller is used to reduce the peak cooling load in office buildings in Saudi Arabia for different selected cities. The study is conducted for six cities of Abha, Dhahran, Hail, Jeddah, Nejran and Riyadh under three operating durations of 4, 6, and 8 hours using flat plate or evacuated tube collectors. The energy analysis concluded that flat plate collectors are better than evacuated tube collectors. However, the results from economic analysis suggest that while proposing a gas fired absorption chiller will reduce running costs, further reduction by using solar collectors is not feasible because of its high initial cost. At the best case scenario the Net Present Value of a 10 Ton Absorption chiller operated by natural gas boiler and two large flat plate collectors (12m2 each) running for 8 hours/day, 5days/week has a value of 117,000 and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 12%. Solar driven absorption chiller could be more feasible if the gas prices increases or the solar collector prices decreases significantly. Finally, government economic incentives and taxes are recommended to provide a boost for the feasibility of such projects.

  13. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0gas-exchange, (ii) determine, for a given buoyancy flux, the wind speed at which gas transfer becomes primarily shear driven, and (iii) find an expression for the gas-transfer velocity for flows driven by both convection and shear. The evaluated gas transfer-velocity parametrizations are based on either the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, the surface flow-divergence, the surface heat-flux, or the wind-speed. The parametrizations based on dissipation or divergence show an unfavorable Ri dependence for flows with combined forcing whereas the parametrization based on heat-flux only shows a limited Ri dependence. The two parametrizations based on wind speed give reasonable estimates for the transfer-velocity, depending however on the surface heat-flux. The transition from convection- to shear-dominated gas-transfer-velocity is shown to be at Ri≈0.004. Furthermore, the gas-transfer is shown to be well represented by two different approaches: (i) additive forcing expressed as kg,sum =AShearu*|Ri/Ric+1| 1/4Sc-n where Ric=|AShear/ABuoy|4, and (ii) either buoyancy or shear dominated expressed as, kg=ABuoy|Bν| 1/4Sc-n, Ri>Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Ri

  14. Gas Fuelling System for SST-1Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanani, Kalpesh; Raval, D. C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, M. S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in the Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down & initiation, piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as a primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low construction and maintenance cost and its flexibility in the selection of the working gas. Hydrogen gas feeding with piezoelectric valve is used in the SST-1 plasma experiments. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of the gas fuelling system of SST-1.

  15. Bright betatron X-ray radiation from a laser-driven-clustering gas target

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L. M.; Yan, W. C.; Li, D. Z.; Hu, Z. D.; Zhang, L.; Wang, W. M.; Hafz, N.; Mao, J. Y.; Huang, K.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Ma, J. L.; Li, Y. T.; Lu, X.; Sheng, Z. M.; Wei, Z. Y.; Gao, J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hard X-ray sources from femtosecond (fs) laser-produced plasmas, including the betatron X-rays from laser wakefield-accelerated electrons, have compact sizes, fs pulse duration and fs pump-probe capability, making it promising for wide use in material and biological sciences. Currently the main problem with such betatron X-ray sources is the limited average flux even with ultra-intense laser pulses. Here, we report ultra-bright betatron X-rays can be generated using a clustering gas jet target irradiated with a small size laser, where a ten-fold enhancement of the X-ray yield is achieved compared to the results obtained using a gas target. We suggest the increased X-ray photon is due to the existence of clusters in the gas, which results in increased total electron charge trapped for acceleration and larger wiggling amplitudes during the acceleration. This observation opens a route to produce high betatron average flux using small but high repetition rate laser facilities for applications. PMID:23715033

  16. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  17. Evaporation effects in a shock-driven multiphase instability with a spherical interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Manoj; Dahal, Jeevan; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    This talk presents results from 3D numerical simulations of a shock driven instability of a gas-particle system with a spherical interface. Two cases, one with an evaporating particle cloud and another with a gas only approximation of this particle cloud, were run in the hydrodynamics code FLASH, developed at University of Chicago. It is shown that the gas only approximation, a classical Richtmyer Meshkov instability, cannot replicate effects from particles like, lag, clustering, and evaporation. Instead, both gas hydrodynamics and particle properties influence one another and are coupled. Results are presented to highlight the coupling of interface evolution and particle evaporation. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the RMI and SDMI are presented by studying the change in gas properties like density and vorticity within the interface. Similarly, the effect of gas hydrodynamics on particles distribution and evaporation is studied. Particle evaporation rates are compared with 1D models and show poor agreement. The variation in evaporation rates for similar sized particles and the role of gas hydrodynamics in these variation is explored.

  18. Shockwave compression of Ar gas at several initial densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Garcia, Daniel B.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Lang, John M.; Aslam, Tariq D.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Gibson, Lloyd L.; Morris, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental data of the principal Hugoniot locus of variable density gas-phase noble and molecular gases are rare. The majority of shock Hugoniot data is either from shock tube experiments on low-pressure gases or from plate impact experiments on cryogenic, liquefied gases. In both cases, physics regarding shock compressibility, thresholds for the on-set of shock-driven ionization, and even dissociation chemistry are difficult to infer for gases at intermediate densities. We have developed an experimental target design for gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on noble gases at initial pressures between 200-1000 psi. Using optical velocimetry, we are able to directly determine both the shock and particle velocities of the gas on the principal Hugoniot locus, as well as clearly differentiate ionization thresholds. The target design also results in multiply shocking the gas in a quasi-isentropic fashion yielding off-Hugoniot compression data. We describe the results of a series of plate impact experiments on Ar with starting densities between 0.02-0.05 g/cm3 at room temperature. Furthermore, by coupling optical fibers to the targets, we have measured the time-resolved optical emission from the shocked gas using a spectrometer coupled to an optical streak camera to spectrally-resolve the emission, and with a 5-color optical pyrometer for temperature determination.

  19. a Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocryocooler Operating around 300HZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G. Y.; Zhu, S. L.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2008-03-01

    High frequency operation of the thermoacoustic cryocooler system, i.e. pulse tube cryocooler driven by thermoacoustic engine, leads to reduced size, which is quite attractive to small-scale cryogenic applications. In this work, a no-load coldhead temperature of 77.8 K is achieved on a 292 Hz pulse tube cryocooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine with 3.92 MPa helium gas and 1750 W heat input. To improve thermal efficiency, a high frequency thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine is also built to drive the same pulse tube cryocooler, and a no-load temperature of 109 K was obtained with 4.38 MPa helium gas, 292 Hz working frequency and 400W heating power. Ideas such as tapered resonators, acoustic amplifier tubes and simple thin tubes without reservoir are used to effectively suppress harmonic modes, amplify the acoustic pressure wave available to the pulse tube cryocooler and provide desired acoustic impedance for the pulse tube cryocooler, respectively. Comparison of systems with different thermoacoustic engines is made. Numerical simulations based on the linear thermoacoustic theory have also been done for comparison with experimental results, which shows reasonable agreement.

  20. The INTERNET and the business of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Erlewine, K.

    1995-12-31

    The INTERNET, from a commercial oil and gas viewpoint, represents a unique medium for distributing information about products and services to potential clients, for establishing contact and communicating with new and existent clients and for providing both technical and marketing support to client-bases. Currently, there are several hurdles to doing business on the INTERNET which are client-driven. Most professionals in oil and gas are extremely busy and don`t have time to navigate the {open_quotes}web{close_quotes}, and the rate of online literacy in oil and gas is relatively low.

  1. Gas shale/oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Bereskin, S.R.; Bowker, K.A.; Cardott, B.J.; Chidsey, T.C.; Dubiel, R.F.; Enomoto, C.B.; Harrison, W.B.; Jarvie, D.M.; Jenkins, C.L.; LeFever, J.A.; Li, Peng; McCracken, J.N.; Morgan, C.D.; Nordeng, S.H.; Nyahay, R.E.; Schamel, Steven; Sumner, R.L.; Wray, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    The production of natural gas from shales continues to increase in North America, and shale gas exploration is on the rise in other parts of the world since the previous report by this committee was published by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division (2009). For the United States, the volume of proved reserves of natural gas increased 11% from 2008 to 2009, the increase driven largely by shale gas development (Energy Information Administration 2010c). Furthermore, shales have increasingly become targets of exploration for oil and condensate as well as gas, which has served to greatly expand their significance as ‘‘unconventional’’ petroleum reservoirs.This report provides information about specific shales across North America and Europe from which gas (biogenic or thermogenic), oil, or natural gas liquids are produced or is actively being explored. The intent is to reflect the recently expanded mission of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) Gas Shales Committee to serve as a single point of access to technical information on shales regardless of the type of hydrocarbon produced from them. The contents of this report were drawn largely from contributions by numerous members of the EMD Gas Shales Advisory Committee, with much of the data being available from public websites such as state or provincial geological surveys or other public institutions. Shales from which gas or oil is being produced in the United States are listed in alphabetical order by shale name. Information for Canada is presented by province, whereas for Europe, it is presented by country.

  2. Development of a plasma driven permeation experiment for TPE

    DOE PAGES

    Buchenauer, Dean; Kolasinski, Robert; Shimada, Masa; ...

    2014-04-18

    Experiments on retention of hydrogen isotopes (including tritium) at temperatures less than 800 ?C have been carried out in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory [1,2]. To provide a direct measurement of plasma driven permeation in plasma facing materials at temperatures reaching 1000 ?C, a new TPE membrane holder has been built to hold test specimens (=1 mm in thickness) at high temperature while measuring tritium permeating through the membrane from the plasma facing side. This measurement is accomplished by employing a carrier gas that transports the permeating tritium from the backside of the membrane to ionmore » chambers giving a direct measurement of the plasma driven tritium permeation rate. Isolation of the membrane cooling and sweep gases from TPE’s vacuum chamber has been demonstrated by sealing tests performed up to 1000 ?C of a membrane holder design that provides easy change out of membrane specimens between tests. Simulations of the helium carrier gas which transports tritium to the ion chamber indicate a very small pressure drop (~700 Pa) with good flow uniformity (at 1000 sccm). Thermal transport simulations indicate that temperatures up to 1000 ?C are expected at the highest TPE fluxes.« less

  3. Input variable selection for data-driven models of Coriolis flowmeters for two-phase flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xue; Wang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Input variable selection is an essential step in the development of data-driven models for environmental, biological and industrial applications. Through input variable selection to eliminate the irrelevant or redundant variables, a suitable subset of variables is identified as the input of a model. Meanwhile, through input variable selection the complexity of the model structure is simplified and the computational efficiency is improved. This paper describes the procedures of the input variable selection for the data-driven models for the measurement of liquid mass flowrate and gas volume fraction under two-phase flow conditions using Coriolis flowmeters. Three advanced input variable selection methods, including partial mutual information (PMI), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and tree-based iterative input selection (IIS) are applied in this study. Typical data-driven models incorporating support vector machine (SVM) are established individually based on the input candidates resulting from the selection methods. The validity of the selection outcomes is assessed through an output performance comparison of the SVM based data-driven models and sensitivity analysis. The validation and analysis results suggest that the input variables selected from the PMI algorithm provide more effective information for the models to measure liquid mass flowrate while the IIS algorithm provides a fewer but more effective variables for the models to predict gas volume fraction.

  4. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Jankovic, Mrdjan J; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2000-03-14

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  5. Electric vehicle greenhouse gas emission assessment for Hawaii.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-07-01

    This study estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) compared to that of other popular and similar cars in Hawaii, by county over an assumption of 150,000 miles driven. The GHG benefits of EVs depend critically on the electr...

  6. Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team

    2016-10-01

    Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.

  7. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperaturemore » range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.« less

  8. Discrete unified gas kinetic scheme for all Knudsen number flows. III. Binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Lianhua; Wang, Ruijie; Guo, Zhaoli

    2018-05-01

    Recently a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) in a finite-volume formulation based on the Boltzmann model equation has been developed for gas flows in all flow regimes. The original DUGKS is designed for flows of single-species gases. In this work, we extend the DUGKS to flows of binary gas mixtures of Maxwell molecules based on the Andries-Aoki-Perthame kinetic model [P. Andries et al., J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002), 10.1023/A:1014033703134. A particular feature of the method is that the flux at each cell interface is evaluated based on the characteristic solution of the kinetic equation itself; thus the numerical dissipation is low in comparison with that using direct reconstruction. Furthermore, the implicit treatment of the collision term enables the time step to be free from the restriction of the relaxation time. Unlike the DUGKS for single-species flows, a nonlinear system must be solved to determine the interaction parameters appearing in the equilibrium distribution function, which can be obtained analytically for Maxwell molecules. Several tests are performed to validate the scheme, including the shock structure problem under different Mach numbers and molar concentrations, the channel flow driven by a small gradient of pressure, temperature, or concentration, the plane Couette flow, and the shear driven cavity flow under different mass ratios and molar concentrations. The results are compared with those from other reliable numerical methods. The results show that the proposed scheme is an effective and reliable method for binary gas mixtures in all flow regimes.

  9. A GIS-based Model for Natural Gas Data Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitik, E.; Seker, D. Z.; Denli, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    In Turkey gas utility sector has undergone major changes in terms of increased competition between gas providers, efforts in improving services, and applying new technological solutions. This paper discusses the challenges met by gas companies to switch from long workflows of gas distribution, sales and maintenance into IT driven efficient management of complex information both spatially and non-spatially. The aim of this study is migration of all gas data and information into a GIS environment in order to manage and operate all infrastructure investments with a Utility Management System. All data conversion model for migration was designed and tested during the study. A flowchart is formed to transfer the old data layers to the new structure based on geodatabase.

  10. Characterizing Gas Transport in Wetland Soil-Root Systems with Dissolved Gas Tracer Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Soil fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and other biogenic gases depend on coupling between microbial and physiochemical processes within soil media. The importance of plant-mediated transport in wetland CH4 emissions is well known, but a generalized understanding of gas transfer between pore water and root aerenchyma, and how this process competes with biogeochemical production/consumption of gases beyond CH4, is incomplete [1]. A lack of experimental approaches to characterize transport processes in complex soil-water-plant systems at field scale has limited efforts to close this knowledge gap. In this presentation we describe dissolved gas tracer techniques to tease apart effects of transport from simultaneous biochemical reaction on trace gas dynamics in soils. We discuss a push-pull test with helium and sulfur hexafluoride gas tracers to quantify in situ root-mediated gas transfer kinetics in a wetland soil [2]. A Damköhler number analysis is introduced to interpret the results and evaluate the balance between biochemical reaction and root-driven gas transfer in controlling the fate of CH4 and N2O in vegetated wetland soils. We conclude with a brief discussion of other problems in soil gas dynamics that can be addressed with gas tracer approaches. [1] Blagodatsky and Smith 2012. Soil physics meets soil biology: Towards better mechanistic prediction of greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 47, 78-92. [2] Reid et al. 2015. Dissolved gas dynamics in wetland soils: Root-mediated gas transfer kinetics determind via push-pull tracer tests. Water Resour. Res. 51, doi:10.1002/2014WR016803.

  11. 40 CFR 94.907 - Engine dressing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... turbocharger, except that small-volume manufacturers of recreational engines may replace an original turbocharger with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the...

  12. 40 CFR 94.907 - Engine dressing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... turbocharger, except that small-volume manufacturers of recreational engines may replace an original turbocharger with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the...

  13. 40 CFR 94.907 - Engine dressing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... turbocharger, except that small-volume manufacturers of recreational engines may replace an original turbocharger with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the...

  14. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  15. Molecular Gas in Obscured and Extremely Red Quasars at z ˜ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael; Zakamska, Nadia; Hamann, Fred; Greene, Jenny; Rahman, Mubdi

    2018-01-01

    Quasar feedback is a key element of modern galaxy evolution theory. During powerful episodes of feedback, quasar-driven winds are suspected of removing large amounts of molecular gas from the host galaxy, thus limiting supplies for star formation and ultimately curtailing the maximum mass of galaxies. Here we present Karl A. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the CO(1-0) transition in 11 powerful obscured and extremely red quasars (ERQs) at z~2.5. Previous observations have shown that several of these targets display signatures of powerful quasar-driven winds in their ionized gas. Molecular emission is not detected in a single object, whether kinematically disturbed due to a quasar wind or in equilibrium with the host galaxy and neither is molecular gas detected in a combined stack of all objects (equivalent to an exposure time of over 10 hours with the VLA). This observation is in contrast with the previous suggestions that such objects should occupy gas-rich, extremely star-forming galaxies. Possible explanations include a paucity of molecular gas or an excess of high- excitation molecular gas, both of which could be the results of quasar feedback. In the radio continuum, we detect an average point-like (< 5 kpc) emission with luminosity νLν[33 GHz]=2.2 x 1042 erg s-1, consistent with optically-thin (α ≈ -1.0) synchrotron with some possible contribution from thermal free-free emission. The continuum radio emission of these radio-intermediate objects may be a bi-product of radiatively driven winds or may be due to weak jets confined to the host galaxy.

  16. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Momentum-driven Winds from Radiatively Efficient Black Hole Accretion and Their Impact on Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Ryan; Choi, Ena; Somerville, Rachel S.; Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2018-06-01

    We explore the effect of momentum-driven winds representing radiation-pressure-driven outflows from accretion onto supermassive black holes in a set of numerical hydrodynamical simulations. We explore two matched sets of cosmological zoom-in runs of 24 halos with masses ∼1012.0–1013.4 M ⊙ run with two different feedback models. Our “NoAGN” model includes stellar feedback via UV heating, stellar winds and supernovae, photoelectric heating, and cosmic X-ray background heating from a metagalactic background. Our fiducial “MrAGN” model is identical except that it also includes a model for black hole seeding and accretion, as well as heating and momentum injection associated with the radiation from black hole accretion. Our MrAGN model launches galactic outflows, which result in both “ejective” feedback—the outflows themselves that drive gas out of galaxies—and “preventative” feedback, which suppresses the inflow of new and recycling gas. As much as 80% of outflowing galactic gas can be expelled, and accretion can be suppressed by as much as a factor of 30 in the MrAGN runs when compared with the NoAGN runs. The histories of NoAGN galaxies are recycling dominated, with ∼70% of material that leaves the galaxy eventually returning, and the majority of outflowing gas reaccretes on 1 Gyr timescales without AGN feedback. Outflowing gas in the MrAGN runs has a higher characteristic velocity (500–1000 km s‑1 versus 100–300 km s‑1 for outflowing NoAGN gas) and travels as far as a few megaparsecs. Only ∼10% of ejected material is reaccreted in the MrAGN galaxies.

  18. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, butmore » low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end

  19. Debris-free soft x-ray source with gas-puff target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qiliang; Chen, Bo; Gong, Yan; Cao, Jianlin; Lin, Jingquan; Lee, Hongyan

    2001-12-01

    We have been developing a debris-free laser plasma light source with a gas-puff target system whose nozzle is driven by a piezoelectric crystal membrane. The gas-puff target system can utilize gases such as CO2, O2 or some gas mixture according to different experiments. Therefore, in comparison with soft X-ray source using a metal target, after continuously several-hour laser interaction with gas from the gas-puff target system, no evidences show that the light source can produce debris. The debris-free soft X-ray source is prepared for soft X-ray projection lithography research at State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics. Strong emission from CO2, O2 and Kr plasma is observed.

  20. Ionized Gas in the Halos of Edge-on Starburst Galaxies: Evidence for Supernova-driven Superwinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1996-05-01

    Supernova-driven galactic winds ("superwinds") have been invoked to explain many aspects of galaxy formation and evolution. Such winds should arise when the supernova rate is high enough to create a cavity of very hot shock-heated gas within a galaxy. This gas can then expand outward as a high-speed wind that can accelerate and heat ambient interstellar or circum-galactic gas causing it to emit optical line radiation and/or thermal X-rays. Theory suggests that such winds should be common in starburst galaxies and that the nature of the winds should depend on the star formation rate and distribution. In order to systematize our observational understanding of superwinds (determine their incidence rate and the dependence of their properties on the star formation that drives them) and to make quantitative comparisons with the theory of superwinds, we have analyzed data from an optical spectroscopic and narrow-band imaging survey of an infrared flux-limited (S_60 microns_ >= 5.4 Jy) sample of about 50 IR-warm (S_60 microns_/S_100 microns_ > 0.4), starburst galaxies whose stellar disks are viewed nearly edge-on (b/a ~> 2). This sample contains galaxies with infrared luminosities from ~10^10^-10^12^ L_sun_ and allows us to determine the properties of superwinds over a wide range of star formation rates. We have found that extraplanar emission-line gas is a very common feature of these edge-on, IR-bright galaxies and the properties of the extended emission-line gas are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the superwind theory. We can summarize these properties as morphological, ionization, dynamical, and physical. 1. Morphological properties.-Extraplanar filamentary and shell-like emission-line morphologies on scales of hundreds of parsecs to 10 kpc are common, there is a general "excess" of line emission along the minor axis, the minor axis emission-line "excess" correlates with "IR activity," and the minor axis emission-line "excess" also correlates with the

  1. Improved Engine Performance and Efficiency Utilizing a Superturbocharger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    supercharger, turbocharger and turbo-compounder in one single device. This is accomplished by mechanically controlling the speed ratio between the...the engine. This is made possible by a high efficiency turbine wheel. Normal turbochargers must balance the turbine power against the compressor...SuperTurbocharger and compare it against the currently used turbocharger in military vehicles to evaluate the impact on performance and efficiency

  2. Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1984-05-29

    A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm gas spring. A reciprocally movable piston is disposed in a transverse cylinder in the housing and moves substantially at right angles relative to the flexible diaphragms. An incompressible fluid fills the housing which is divided into two separate chambers by suitable ports. One chamber provides fluid coupling between the power diaphragm of the RFPSE and the piston and the second chamber provides fluid coupling between the gas spring diaphragm and the opposite side of the piston. The working members of a gas compressor, pump, or alternator are driven by the piston. Sealing and wearing parts of the apparatus are mounted at the external ends of the transverse cylinder in a double acting arrangement for accessibility. An annular counterweight is mounted externally of the reciprocally movable piston and is driven by incompressible fluid coupling in a direction opposite to the piston so as to damp out transverse vibrations.

  3. AGN jet-driven stochastic cold accretion in cluster cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Deovrat; Sharma, Prateek; Babul, Arif

    2017-10-01

    Several arguments suggest that stochastic condensation of cold gas and its accretion on to the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) is essential for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback to work in the most massive galaxies that lie at the centres of galaxy clusters. Our 3-D hydrodynamic AGN jet-ICM (intracluster medium) simulations, looking at the detailed angular momentum distribution of cold gas and its time variability for the first time, show that the angular momentum of the cold gas crossing ≲1 kpc is essentially isotropic. With almost equal mass in clockwise and counterclockwise orientations, we expect a cancellation of the angular momentum on roughly the dynamical time. This means that a compact accretion flow with a short viscous time ought to form, through which enough accretion power can be channeled into jet mechanical energy sufficiently quickly to prevent a cooling flow. The inherent stochasticity, expected in feedback cycles driven by cold gas condensation, gives rise to a large variation in the cold gas mass at the centres of galaxy clusters, for similar cluster and SMBH masses, in agreement with the observations. Such correlations are expected to be much tighter for the smoother hot/Bondi accretion. The weak correlation between cavity power and Bondi power obtained from our simulations also matches observations.

  4. Photoacoustic as a unique tool for studying multicomponent gas transport processes through rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    András Simon, Károly; Puskás, Sándor; Ricza, Tamás; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Improvement of natural gas extraction is one of the constant challenges of gas industry. Gas transport through the material of the reservoir is driven by two forces. Conventional diffusion driven by the concentration gradient and the Darcy flow driven by the differential pressure at the two ends of the material. Their segregated yield and their interrelation is largely influenced by the intrinsic structure of the sample so their measurement can yield important information There are multiple methods for measuring these parameters (Sander et al, 2017). We present a measurement set-up which uses photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of the transported components. It is a highly sensitive and selective measurement method (Bozóki et al., 2011) and can be used to measure concentration through 4-5 orders of magnitudes. Furthermore it can be operated fully automatically, has response time in the second range and outstanding long term stability. This allows us to perform measurements on a wide variety of samples either in static or in dynamic mode under different conditions and various analytes. Furthermore transport of several gas components can be measured simultaneously. Our set-up facilities measurements in a wide pressure, temperature and concentration range. Bozóki Z., Pogány A., Szabó G. (2011), Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 46, 1-37 Sander, R., Pan, Z. and Connell, Luke D. (2017), Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 37, 248-279.

  5. Gas turbine engine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A variable orifice system is described that is responsive to compressor inlet pressure and temperature, compressor discharge pressure and rotational speed of a gas-turbine engine. It is incorporated into a hydraulic circuit that includes a zero gradient pump driven at a speed proportional to the speed of the engine. The resulting system provides control of fuel rate for starting, steady running, acceleration and deceleration under varying altitudes and flight speeds.

  6. Rarefaction effects in microchannel gas flow driven by rhythmic wall contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Krishnashis; Staples, Anne; Department of Biomedical Engineering; Mechanics, Virginia Tech Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Current state of the art microfluidic devices employ precise and timely operation of a complex arrangement of micropumps and valves for fluid transport. A much more novel flow transport mechanism is found in entomological respiratory systems, which involve rhythmic wall contractions for driving the fluid flow. The practical viability of using this technique in future microfluidic devices has been studied earlier. The present study investigates the incorporation of rarefaction effects in the above model of microscale gas flow by including slip boundary conditions. The Navier Stokes equations for gas flow in rectangular microchannel are solved analytically with microscale and lubrication theory assumptions. First order slip boundary conditions are incorporated to account for the rarefaction effects. The dependence of fluid velocities and pressure gradient on the slip boundary conditions is studied. Time averaged unidirectional fluid flow rates are plotted for different phase lags between the contractions, with and without slip in order to obtain an optimum range under different conditions.

  7. UNRAVELLING THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS. II. PHOTOIONIZATION AND ENERGETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2016-12-20

    Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local ( z  < 0.1) and moderate-luminosity Type 2 AGNs to study the ionization properties and energetics of AGN-driven outflows. We find strong evidence connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization.more » The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.« less

  8. Wetting in a Colloidal Liquid-Gas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijting, W. K.; Besseling, N. A.; Stuart, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  9. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system.

    PubMed

    Wijting, W K; Besseling, N A M; Stuart, M A Cohen

    2003-05-16

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  10. Effects of initial condition spectral content on shock-driven turbulent mixing.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicholas J; Grinstein, Fernando F

    2015-07-01

    The mixing of materials due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and the ensuing turbulent behavior is of intense interest in a variety of physical systems including inertial confinement fusion, combustion, and the final stages of stellar evolution. Extensive numerical and laboratory studies of shock-driven mixing have demonstrated the rich behavior associated with the onset of turbulence due to the shocks. Here we report on progress in understanding shock-driven mixing at interfaces between fluids of differing densities through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations using the rage code in the implicit large eddy simulation context. We consider a shock-tube configuration with a band of high density gas (SF(6)) embedded in low density gas (air). Shocks with a Mach number of 1.26 are passed through SF(6) bands, resulting in transition to turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The system is followed as a rarefaction wave and a reflected secondary shock from the back wall pass through the SF(6) band. We apply a variety of initial perturbations to the interfaces between the two fluids in which the physical standard deviation, wave number range, and the spectral slope of the perturbations are held constant, but the number of modes initially present is varied. By thus decreasing the density of initial spectral modes of the interface, we find that we can achieve as much as 25% less total mixing at late times. This has potential direct implications for the treatment of initial conditions applied to material interfaces in both 3D and reduced dimensionality simulation models.

  11. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; ...

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  12. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  13. cGAS drives non-canonical inflammasome activation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kerur, Nagaraj; Fukuda, Shinichi; Banerjee, Daipayan; Kim, Younghee; Fu, Dongxu; Apicella, Ivana; Varshney, Akhil; Yasuma, Reo; Fowler, Benjamin J.; Baghdasaryan, Elmira; Marion, Kenneth M.; Huang, Xiwen; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Hirano, Yoshio; Serbulea, Vlad; Ambati, Meenakshi; Ambati, Vidya L.; Kajiwara, Yuji; Ambati, Kameshwari; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kim, Kyung Bo; Hinton, David R.; Leitinger, Norbert; Cambier, John C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Kenney, M. Cristina; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hara, Isao; West, A. Phillip; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Gelfand, Bradley D.; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Geographic atrophy is a blinding form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). In this disease, the RPE displays evidence of DICER1 deficiency, resultant accumulation of endogenous Alu retroelement RNA, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. How the inflammasome is activated in this untreatable disease is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that RPE degeneration in human cell culture and in mouse models is driven by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that results in activation of caspase-4 (caspase-11 in mice) and caspase-1, and requires cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-dependent interferon-β (IFN-β) production and gasdermin D-dependent interleukin-18 (IL-18) secretion. Reduction of DICER1 levelsor accumulation of Alu RNA triggers cytosolic escape of mitochondrial DNA, which engages cGAS. Moreover, caspase-4, gasdermin D, IFN-β, and cGAS levels are elevated in the RPE of human eyes with geographic atrophy. Collectively, these data highlight an unexpected role for cGAS in responding to mobile element transcripts, reveal cGAS-driven interferon signaling as a conduit for mitochondrial damage-induced inflammasome activation, expand the immune sensing repertoire of cGAS and caspase-4 to non-infectious human disease, and identify new potential targets for treatment of a major cause of blindness. PMID:29176737

  14. Gas depletion through single gas bubble diffusive growth and its effect on subsequent bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Soto, Alvaro; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj; Physics of Fluid Group Collaboration; MCEC Netherlands CenterMultiscale Catalytic Energy Conversion Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    In weakly supersaturated mixtures, bubbles are known to grow quasi-statically as diffusion-driven mass transfer governs the process. In the final stage of the evolution, before detachment, there is an enhancement of mass transfer, which changes from diffusion to natural convection. Once the bubble detaches, it leaves behind a gas-depleted area. The diffusive mass transfer towards that region cannot compensate for the amount of gas which is taken away by the bubble. Consequently, the consecutive bubble will grow in an environment which contains less gas than for the previous one. This reduces the local supersaturation of the mixture around the nucleation site, leading to a reduced bubble growth rate. We present quantitative experimental data on this effect and the theoretical model for depletion during the bubble growth rate. This work was supported by the Netherlands Center for Multiscale Catalytic Energy Conversion (MCEC), an NWO Gravitation programme funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of the government of the Netherlands.

  15. A Review of Heavy-Fueled Rotary Engine Combustion Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    and Flame Quenching ...................................................................................56  4.6  Turbocharging and Supercharging... turbocharged engine). ...........................................................51  Figure 60. ISFC, exhaust temperature, power, and volumetric efficiency...OCR, CCR, and LCCR. ..............................................................61  Figure 70. Theoretical turbocharging effects on BSFC

  16. Gas turbine power plant with supersonic shock compression ramps

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P [Bellevue, WA; Novaresi, Mark A [San Diego, CA; Cornelius, Charles C [Kirkland, WA

    2008-10-14

    A gas turbine engine. The engine is based on the use of a gas turbine driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. The supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdynamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by use of a lean pre-mix system, a pre-swirl compressor, and a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor to the combustion gas outlet. Use of a stationary low NOx combustor provides excellent emissions results.

  17. Measurement of gas viscosity using photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.-K.; Sheehe, S. L.; Kurtz, J.; O'Byrne, S.

    2016-11-01

    A new measurement technique for gas viscosity coefficient is designed and demonstrated using the technique of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Gas flow is driven by a pressure gradient between two gas cells, through a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) surrounded by a furnace for temperature adjustment. PCF with 20-micron diameter affords physical space for gas-light interaction and provides a basis for gas viscosity measurement by determining the time for flow to exit a capillary tube under the influence of a pressure gradient. Infrared radiation from a diode laser is coupled into the fiber to be guided through the gas, and the light attenuation due to absorption from the molecular absorbing species is measured by a photo detector placed at the exit of the fiber. A numerical model from Sharipov and Graur describing local number density distribution in a unsteady state is applied for the determination of gas viscosity, based on the number density of gas measured by the absorption of the laser light, using the Beer-Lambert law. The measurement system is confirmed by measuring the viscosity of CO2 as a reference gas.

  18. Functional Imaging of the Lungs with Gas Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Stanley J.; Nagle, Scott K.; Couch, Marcus J.; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Albert, Mitchell; Fain, Sean B.

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the three major classes of gas contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – hyperpolarized (HP) gas, molecular oxygen, and fluorinated gas – and their application to clinical pulmonary research. During the past several years there has been accelerated development of pulmonary MRI. This has been driven in part by concerns regarding ionizing radiation using multi-detector computed tomography (CT). However, MRI also offers capabilities for fast multi-spectral and functional imaging using gas agents that are not technically feasible with CT. Recent improvements in gradient performance and radial acquisition methods using ultra-short echo time (UTE) have contributed to advances in these functional pulmonary MRI techniques. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the main functional imaging methods and gas agents are compared and applications to measures of ventilation, diffusion, and gas exchange are presented. Functional lung MRI methods using these gas agents are improving our understanding of a wide range of chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis (CF) in both adults and children. PMID:26218920

  19. Four-fluid MHD simulations of the plasma and neutral gas environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko near perihelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Jia, Xianzhe; Rubin, Martin; Fougere, Nicolas; Tenishev, Valeriy; Combi, Michael R.; Bieler, Andre; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Shou, Yinsi; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    The neutral and plasma environment is critical in understanding the interaction of the solar wind and comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the target of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. To serve this need and support the Rosetta mission, we have developed a 3-D four-fluid model, which is based on BATS-R-US (Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme) within SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework) that solves the governing multifluid MHD equations and the Euler equations for the neutral gas fluid. These equations describe the behavior and interactions of the cometary heavy ions, the solar wind protons, the electrons, and the neutrals. This model incorporates different mass loading processes, including photoionization and electron impact ionization, charge exchange, dissociative ion-electron recombination, and collisional interactions between different fluids. We simulated the plasma and neutral gas environment near perihelion in three different cases: an idealized comet with a spherical body and uniform neutral gas outflow, an idealized comet with a spherical body and illumination-driven neutral gas outflow, and comet CG with a realistic shape model and illumination-driven neutral gas outflow. We compared the results of the three cases and showed that the simulations with illumination-driven neutral gas outflow have magnetic reconnection, a magnetic pileup region and nucleus directed plasma flow inside the nightside reconnection region, which have not been reported in the literature.

  20. Audiologist-driven versus patient-driven fine tuning of hearing instruments.

    PubMed

    Boymans, Monique; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2012-03-01

    Two methods of fine tuning the initial settings of hearing aids were compared: An audiologist-driven approach--using real ear measurements and a patient-driven fine-tuning approach--using feedback from real-life situations. The patient-driven fine tuning was conducted by employing the Amplifit(®) II system using audiovideo clips. The audiologist-driven fine tuning was based on the NAL-NL1 prescription rule. Both settings were compared using the same hearing aids in two 6-week trial periods following a randomized blinded cross-over design. After each trial period, the settings were evaluated by insertion-gain measurements. Performance was evaluated by speech tests in quiet, in noise, and in time-reversed speech, presented at 0° and with spatially separated sound sources. Subjective results were evaluated using extensive questionnaires and audiovisual video clips. A total of 73 participants were included. On average, higher gain values were found for the audiologist-driven settings than for the patient-driven settings, especially at 1000 and 2000 Hz. Better objective performance was obtained for the audiologist-driven settings for speech perception in quiet and in time-reversed speech. This was supported by better scores on a number of subjective judgments and in the subjective ratings of video clips. The perception of loud sounds scored higher than when patient-driven, but the overall preference was in favor of the audiologist-driven settings for 67% of the participants.

  1. Gas-driven lava lake fluctuations at Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) revealed by MODIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniolle, Sylvie; Bouche, Emmanuella

    2016-09-01

    The long-lived lava lake of Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) is remotely monitored by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometers (MODIS) installed on satellites. The Normalised Thermal Index (NTI) (Wright et al. Remote Sens Environ 82:135-155 2002) is shown to be proportional to the volume of the lava lake based on visual observations. The lava lake's variable level can be plausibly related to a stable foam, i.e. a mixture composed of densely packed non-coalescing bubbles in suspension within a liquid. This foam is trapped at the top of the magma reservoir, and its thickness changes in response to the gas flux feeding the foam being successively turned on and off. The temporal evolution of the foam thickness, and the resulting variation of the volume of the lava lake, is calculated numerically by assuming that the gas flux feeding the foam, initially constant and homogeneous since December 9, 2002, is suddenly stopped on December 13, 2002 and not restarted before May 2003. The best fit between the theoretical foam thickness and the level of the lava lake deduced from the NTI provides an estimate of both the reservoir radius, 155-170 m, and the gas flux feeding the foam, 5.5×10-3-7.2×10-3 m 3 s -1 when existing. This is in agreement with previous estimates from acoustic measurements (Bouche et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 295:37-48 2010). The very good agreement between the theoretical foam thickness and that deduced from MODIS data shows for the first time the existence of a regime based on the behaviour of a stable foam, whose spreading towards the conduit ("wide" conduit condition), can explain the long-lived activity. Our predictive model, which links the gas flux at the vent to the foam spreading, could potentially be used on any volcano with a long-lived activity. The underlying gas flux and the horizontal surface area of the magma reservoir can then be deduced by combining modelling to continuous measurements of gas flux. The lava lake, when high, often shows

  2. Fluid Aspects of Solar Wind Disturbances Driven by Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Riley, Pete

    2001-01-01

    Transient disturbances in the solar wind initiated by coronal eruptions have been modeled for many years, beginning with the self-similar analytical models of Parker and Simon and Axford. The first numerical computer code (one-dimensional, gas dynamic) to study disturbance propagation in the solar wind was developed in the late 1960s, and a variety of other codes ranging from simple one-dimensional gas dynamic codes through three-dimensional gas dynamic and magnetohydrodynamic codes have been developed in subsequent years. For the most part, these codes have been applied to the problem of disturbances driven by fast CMEs propagating into a structureless solar wind. Pizzo provided an excellent summary of the level of understanding achieved from such simulation studies through about 1984, and other reviews have subsequently become available. More recently, some attention has been focused on disturbances generated by slow CMEs, on disturbances driven by CMEs having high internal pressures, and disturbance propagation effects associated with a structured ambient solar wind. Our purpose here is to provide a brief tutorial on fluid aspects of solar wind disturbances derived from numerical gas dynamic simulations. For the most part we illustrate disturbance evolution by propagating idealized perturbations, mimicking different types of CMEs, into a structureless solar wind using a simple one-dimensional, adiabatic (except at shocks), gas dynamic code. The simulations begin outside the critical point where the solar wind becomes supersonic and thus do not address questions of how the CMEs themselves are initiated. Limited to one dimension (the radial direction), the simulation code predicts too strong an interaction between newly ejected solar material and the ambient wind because it neglects azimuthal and meridional motions of the plasma that help relieve pressure stresses. Moreover, the code ignores magnetic forces and thus also underestimates the speed with which

  3. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  4. Numerical modeling of laser-driven ion acceleration from near-critical gas targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatomirescu, Dragos; Vizman, Daniel; d’Humières, Emmanuel

    2018-06-01

    In the past two decades, laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications have been intensely researched. Recently, it has been shown through experiments that proton beams with characteristics comparable to those obtained with solid targets can be obtained from gaseous targets. By means of particle-in-cell simulations, this paper studies in detail the effects of a near-critical density gradient on ion and electron acceleration after the interaction with ultra high intensity lasers. We can observe that the peak density of the gas jet has a significant influence on the spectrum features. As the gas jet density increases, so does the peak energy of the central quasi-monoenergetic ion bunch due to the increase in laser absorption while at the same time having a broadening effect on the electron angular distribution.

  5. Effects of Mean Flow Profiles on the Instability of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedantam, NandaKishore; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar N.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the mean velocity profiles on the instability characteristics in the near-injector region of axisymmetric low density gas jets injected vertically upwards into a high-density gas medium were investigated using linear inviscid stability analysis. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel. Three velocity profiles, signifying different changes in the mean velocity in the shear layer, were used in the analysis. The effects of the inhomogeneous shear layer and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) on the instability for each set of mean profiles were delineated. At a large Froude number (negligible gravity), a critical density ratio was found for the three profiles at which the jet became absolutely unstable. The critical density ratio for each velocity profile was increased as the Froude number was reduced. A critical Froude number was found for the three sets of profiles, below which the jet was absolutely unstable for all the density ratios less than unity, which demarcated the jet flow into the momentum-driven regime and the buoyancy-driven regime.

  6. 40 CFR 86.884-8 - Dynamometer and engine equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), turbocharger outlet(s), exhaust aftertreatment device(s), or crossover junction (on Vee engines), whichever is... manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. (3) For... smoke levels 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust...

  7. 40 CFR 86.884-8 - Dynamometer and engine equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), turbocharger outlet(s), exhaust aftertreatment device(s), or crossover junction (on Vee engines), whichever is... manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. (3) For... smoke levels 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 86.884-8 - Dynamometer and engine equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), turbocharger outlet(s), exhaust aftertreatment device(s), or crossover junction (on Vee engines), whichever is... manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. (3) For... smoke levels 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust...

  9. 40 CFR 86.884-8 - Dynamometer and engine equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), turbocharger outlet(s), exhaust aftertreatment device(s), or crossover junction (on Vee engines), whichever is... manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. (3) For... smoke levels 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust...

  10. Computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase particle-gas system

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    This paper considers the interaction of a shock wave with a multiphase particle-gas system which creates an instability somewhat similar to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability but with a larger parameter space. Because this parameter space is large, we only present an introductory survey of the effects of many of these parameters. We highlight the effects of particle-gas coupling, incident shock strength, particle size, effective system density differences, and multiple particle relaxation time effects. We focus on dilute flows with mass loading up to 40% and do not attempt to cover all parametric combinations. Instead, we vary one parameter at a timemore » leaving additional parametric combinations for future work. The simulations are run with the Ares code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses a multiphase particulate transport method to model two-way momentum and energy coupling. A brief validation of these models is presented and coupling effects are explored. It is shown that even for small particles, on the order of 1μm, multi-phase coupling effects are important and diminish the circulation deposition on the interface by up to 25%. These coupling effects are shown to create large temperature deviations from the dusty gas approximation, up to 20% greater, especially at higher shock strengths. It is also found that for a multiphase instability, the vortex sheet deposited at the interface separates into two sheets. In conclusion, depending on the particle and particle-gas Atwood numbers, the instability may be suppressed or enhanced by the interactions of these two vortex sheets.« less

  11. Computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase particle-gas system

    DOE PAGES

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the interaction of a shock wave with a multiphase particle-gas system which creates an instability somewhat similar to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability but with a larger parameter space. Because this parameter space is large, we only present an introductory survey of the effects of many of these parameters. We highlight the effects of particle-gas coupling, incident shock strength, particle size, effective system density differences, and multiple particle relaxation time effects. We focus on dilute flows with mass loading up to 40% and do not attempt to cover all parametric combinations. Instead, we vary one parameter at a timemore » leaving additional parametric combinations for future work. The simulations are run with the Ares code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses a multiphase particulate transport method to model two-way momentum and energy coupling. A brief validation of these models is presented and coupling effects are explored. It is shown that even for small particles, on the order of 1μm, multi-phase coupling effects are important and diminish the circulation deposition on the interface by up to 25%. These coupling effects are shown to create large temperature deviations from the dusty gas approximation, up to 20% greater, especially at higher shock strengths. It is also found that for a multiphase instability, the vortex sheet deposited at the interface separates into two sheets. In conclusion, depending on the particle and particle-gas Atwood numbers, the instability may be suppressed or enhanced by the interactions of these two vortex sheets.« less

  12. Computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase particle-gas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Jacob A.; Black, Wolfgang J.; Dahal, Jeevan; Morgan, Brandon E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the interaction of a shock wave with a multiphase particle-gas system which creates an instability similar in some ways to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability but with a larger parameter space. As this parameter space is large, we only present an introductory survey of the effects of many of these parameters. We highlight the effects of particle-gas coupling, incident shock strength, particle size, effective system density differences, and multiple particle relaxation time effects. We focus on dilute flows with mass loading up to 40% and do not attempt to cover all parametric combinations. Instead, we vary one parameter at a time leaving additional parametric combinations for future work. The simulations are run with the Ares code, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses a multiphase particulate transport method to model two-way momentum and energy coupling. A brief validation of these models is presented and coupling effects are explored. It is shown that even for small particles, on the order of 1 μm, multi-phase coupling effects are important and diminish the circulation deposition on the interface by up to 25%. These coupling effects are shown to create large temperature deviations from the dusty gas approximation, up to 20% greater, especially at higher shock strengths. It is also found that for a multiphase instability, the vortex sheet deposited at the interface separates into two sheets. Depending on the particle and particle-gas Atwood numbers, the instability may be suppressed or enhanced by the interactions of these two vortex sheets.

  13. Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

  14. Emergent dynamic structures and statistical law in spherical lattice gas automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhenwei

    2017-12-01

    Various lattice gas automata have been proposed in the past decades to simulate physics and address a host of problems on collective dynamics arising in diverse fields. In this work, we employ the lattice gas model defined on the sphere to investigate the curvature-driven dynamic structures and analyze the statistical behaviors in equilibrium. Under the simple propagation and collision rules, we show that the uniform collective movement of the particles on the sphere is geometrically frustrated, leading to several nonequilibrium dynamic structures not found in the planar lattice, such as the emergent bubble and vortex structures. With the accumulation of the collision effect, the system ultimately reaches equilibrium in the sense that the distribution of the coarse-grained speed approaches the two-dimensional Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution despite the population fluctuations in the coarse-grained cells. The emergent regularity in the statistical behavior of the system is rationalized by mapping our system to a generalized random walk model. This work demonstrates the capability of the spherical lattice gas automaton in revealing the lattice-guided dynamic structures and simulating the equilibrium physics. It suggests the promising possibility of using lattice gas automata defined on various curved surfaces to explore geometrically driven nonequilibrium physics.

  15. Emergent dynamic structures and statistical law in spherical lattice gas automata.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenwei

    2017-12-01

    Various lattice gas automata have been proposed in the past decades to simulate physics and address a host of problems on collective dynamics arising in diverse fields. In this work, we employ the lattice gas model defined on the sphere to investigate the curvature-driven dynamic structures and analyze the statistical behaviors in equilibrium. Under the simple propagation and collision rules, we show that the uniform collective movement of the particles on the sphere is geometrically frustrated, leading to several nonequilibrium dynamic structures not found in the planar lattice, such as the emergent bubble and vortex structures. With the accumulation of the collision effect, the system ultimately reaches equilibrium in the sense that the distribution of the coarse-grained speed approaches the two-dimensional Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution despite the population fluctuations in the coarse-grained cells. The emergent regularity in the statistical behavior of the system is rationalized by mapping our system to a generalized random walk model. This work demonstrates the capability of the spherical lattice gas automaton in revealing the lattice-guided dynamic structures and simulating the equilibrium physics. It suggests the promising possibility of using lattice gas automata defined on various curved surfaces to explore geometrically driven nonequilibrium physics.

  16. Design considerations for a pressure-driven multi-stage rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, Steven Craig

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using propellant tank pressurization to eliminate the use of high-pressure turbopumps in multi-stage liquid-fueled satellite launchers. Several new technologies were examined to reduce the mass of such a rocket. Composite materials have a greater strength-to-weight ratio than metals and can be used to reduce the weight of rocket propellant tanks and structure. Catalytically combined hydrogen and oxygen can be used to heat pressurization gas, greatly reducing the amount of gas required. Ablatively cooled rocket engines can reduce the complexity and cost of the rocket. Methods were derived to estimate the mass of the various rocket components. These included a method to calculate the amount of gas needed to pressurize a propellant tank by modeling the behavior of the pressurization gas as the liquid propellant flows out of the tank. A way to estimate the mass and size of a ablatively cooled composite cased rocket engine. And a method to model the flight of such a rocket through the atmosphere in conjunction with optimization of the rockets trajectory. The results show that while a liquid propellant rocket using tank pressurization are larger than solid propellant rockets and turbopump driven liquid propellant rockets, they are not impractically large.

  17. Effects of Initial Condition Spectral Content on Shock Driven-Turbulent Mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Nicholas James; Grinstein, Fernando F.

    2015-07-15

    The mixing of materials due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and the ensuing turbulent behavior is of intense interest in a variety of physical systems including inertial confinement fusion, combustion, and the final stages of stellar evolution. Extensive numerical and laboratory studies of shock-driven mixing have demonstrated the rich behavior associated with the onset of turbulence due to the shocks. Here we report on progress in understanding shock-driven mixing at interfaces between fluids of differing densities through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations using the RAGE code in the implicit large eddy simulation context. We consider a shock-tube configuration with a band ofmore » high density gas (SF 6) embedded in low density gas (air). Shocks with a Mach number of 1.26 are passed through SF 6 bands, resulting in transition to turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The system is followed as a rarefaction wave and a reflected secondary shock from the back wall pass through the SF 6 band. We apply a variety of initial perturbations to the interfaces between the two fluids in which the physical standard deviation, wave number range, and the spectral slope of the perturbations are held constant, but the number of modes initially present is varied. By thus decreasing the density of initial spectral modes of the interface, we find that we can achieve as much as 25% less total mixing at late times. This has potential direct implications for the treatment of initial conditions applied to material interfaces in both 3D and reduced dimensionality simulation models.« less

  18. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and all related components. (ii) Replacing an original turbocharger, except that small-volume engine manufacturers may replace an original turbocharger on a recreational engine with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the marine engine cooling or aftercooling...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and all related components. (ii) Replacing an original turbocharger, except that small-volume engine manufacturers may replace an original turbocharger on a recreational engine with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the marine engine cooling or aftercooling...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and all related components. (ii) Replacing an original turbocharger, except that small-volume engine manufacturers may replace an original turbocharger on a recreational engine with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the marine engine cooling or aftercooling...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and all related components. (ii) Replacing an original turbocharger, except that small-volume engine manufacturers may replace an original turbocharger on a recreational engine with one that matches the performance of the original turbocharger. (iii) Modify or design the marine engine cooling or aftercooling...

  2. HST Observations Reveal the Curious Geometry of Circumgalactic Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2016-06-01

    We have discovered that warm gas flows along galaxy major and minor axes detected out to 200 kpc. Our results are derived from a sample of HST-imaged isolated galaxies with nearby background quasars used to probe their 105K CGM detected in HST/COS UV spectra (traced by OVI absorption). We constrain the geometry of the gas to reside between 20-40 degrees of the projected major axis and within 60 degrees of the projected minor axis, with little-to-no gas found in between. Furthermore, strong absorption systems tend to be found along the minor axes of star-forming galaxies. All of our results are consistent with the current view of the CGM originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows.

  3. HST Observations Reveal the Curious Geometry of Circumgalactic Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2017-03-01

    We have discovered that warm gas flows along galaxy major and minor axes detected out to 200 kpc. Our results are derived from a sample of HST-imaged isolated galaxies with nearby background quasars used to probe their 105K CGM detected in HST/COS UV spectra (traced by Ovi absorption). We constrain the geometry of the gas to reside between 20-40 degrees of the projected major axis and within 60 degrees of the projected minor axis, with little-to-no gas found in between. Furthermore, strong absorption systems tend to be found along the minor axes of star-forming galaxies. All of our results are consistent with the current view of the CGM originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows.

  4. The Independence of Neutral and Ionized Gas Outflows in Low-z Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2018-02-01

    Using a large sample of emission line galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the kinematics of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) based on the Na I λλ5890,5896 (Na D) doublet absorption line. By removing the Na D contribution from stellar atmospheres, we isolate the line profile of the Na D excess, which represents the neutral gas in the ISM. The kinematics traced by the Na D excess show high velocity and velocity dispersion for a fraction of galaxies, indicating the presence of neutral gas outflows. We find that the kinematics measured from the Na D excess are similar between AGNs and star-forming galaxies. Moreover, by comparing the kinematics traced by the Na D excess and those by the [O III] λ5007 line taken from Woo et al., which traces ionized outflows driven by AGNs, we find no correlation between them. These results demonstrate that the neutral gas in the ISM traced by the Na D excess and the ionized gas traced by [O III] are kinematically independent, and AGNs have no impact on the neutral gas outflows. In contrast to [O III], we find that the measured line-of-sight velocity shift and velocity dispersion of the Na D excess increase for more face-on galaxies due to the projection effect, supporting that Na D outflows are radially driven (i.e., perpendicular to the major axis of galaxies), presumably due to star formation.

  5. NOAA Mobile Laboratory Measures Oil and Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, J. D.; Petron, G.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P. M.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Patrick, L.; Crepinsek, S.; Chen, H.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Lang, P. M.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Wolter, S.; Williams, J.; Jordan, A.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    A van capable of continuous real time measurements of CH4 , CO2, CO, Water Vapor, Ozone, NO, NO2, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs including aromatics and other traces gases was driven in the oil and gas fields of the Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah. Compressor Stations, processing plants, oil and gas well heads. Separators, condensate tanks, evaporation pond disposal facilities, holding tanks, hydraulic fracturing sites, gas pipelines and more were studied using the van. The mobile measurements provide a powerful tool to get to the source of the emissions and reveal the unique chemical signature of each of the stages and components of oil and gas production as well as the overall basin and background gas concentrations. In addition to a suite of gas analyzers, the van includes a meteorological system (temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction), GPS tracking, flask sampling system and a batter power system. Aspects of the vans hardware, sampling methods and operations are discussed along with a few highlights of the measurements.

  6. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely-driven particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes. I will describe some results on this phenomenon obtained by simple physical arguments and computer simulations. Laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with Peclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely-driven colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas. Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  7. Measuring Micro-Friction Torque in MEMS Gas Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xudong; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    An in situ measurement of micro-friction torque in MEMS gas bearings, which has been a challenging research topic for years, is realized by a system designed in this paper. In the system, a high accuracy micro-force sensor and an electronically-driven table are designed, fabricated and utilized. With appropriate installation of the sensor and bearings on the table, the engine rotor can be driven to rotate with the sensor using a silicon lever beam. One end of the beam is fixed to the shaft of the gas bearing, while the other end is free and in contact with the sensor probe tip. When the sensor begins to rotate with the table, the beam is pushed by the sensor probe to rotate in the same direction. For the beam, the friction torque from the gas bearing is balanced by the torque induced by pushing force from the sensor probe. Thus, the friction torque can be calculated as a product of the pushing force measured by the sensor and the lever arm, which is defined as the distance from the sensor probe tip to the centerline of the bearing. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this system, with a sensitivity of 1.285 mV/μN·m in a range of 0 to 11.76 μN·m when the lever arm is 20 mm long. The measuring range can be modified by varying the length of the lever arm. Thus, this system has wide potential applications in measuring the micro-friction torque of gas bearings in rotating MEMS machines. PMID:27213377

  8. Modeling Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation in Marine Sediments Using a K-Nearest Neighbor Machine-Learning Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, W. T.; Runyan, T. E.; Palmsten, M.; Dale, J.; Crawford, C.

    2016-12-01

    Natural Gas (primarily methane) and gas hydrate accumulations require certain bio-geochemical, as well as physical conditions, some of which are poorly sampled and/or poorly understood. We exploit recent advances in the prediction of seafloor porosity and heat flux via machine learning techniques (e.g. Random forests and Bayesian networks) to predict the occurrence of gas and subsequently gas hydrate in marine sediments. The prediction (actually guided interpolation) of key parameters we use in this study is a K-nearest neighbor technique. KNN requires only minimal pre-processing of the data and predictors, and requires minimal run-time input so the results are almost entirely data-driven. Specifically we use new estimates of sedimentation rate and sediment type, along with recently derived compaction modeling to estimate profiles of porosity and age. We combined the compaction with seafloor heat flux to estimate temperature with depth and geologic age, which, with estimates of organic carbon, and models of methanogenesis yield limits on the production of methane. Results include geospatial predictions of gas (and gas hydrate) accumulations, with quantitative estimates of uncertainty. The Generic Earth Modeling System (GEMS) we have developed to derive the machine learning estimates is modular and easily updated with new algorithms or data.

  9. An Effective Continuum Model for the Gas Evolution in Internal Steam Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    This report examines the gas phase growth from a supersaturated, slightly compressible, liquid in a porous medium, driven by heat transfer and controlled by the application of a constant-rate decline of the system pressure.

  10. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D [Ammon, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-22

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates a vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas is used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line or recirculation within the system for further processing.

  11. Electromagnetic PIC modeling with a background gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verboncoeur, J. P.; Cooperberg, D.

    1997-02-01

    Modeling the interaction of relativistic electromagnetic plasmas with a background gas is described. The timescales range over many orders of magnitude, from the electromagnetic Courant condition (˜10-12 sec) to electron-neutral collision times (˜10-7 sec) to ion transit times (˜10-5 sec). For this work, the traditional Monte Carlo algorithm [1] is described for relativistic electrons. Subcycling is employed to improve efficiency, and smoothing is employed to reduce particle noise. Applications include plasma-focused electron guns, gas-filled microwave tubes, surface wave discharges driven at microwave frequencies, and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. The method is implemented in the OOPIC code [2].

  12. 40 CFR 86.884-8 - Dynamometer and engine equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appropriate type of smokemeter placed no more than 32 feet from the exhaust manifold(s), turbocharger outlet(s..., turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. (3) For engines with... 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine. (4) For turbocharged engines, each turbocharger must be operated through that part of the climb profile for which operation with the turbocharger is requested. (5) For a reciprocating engine, the... than 100 degrees F. (c) Correction factor (except cylinder barrels). Temperatures of engine fluids and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1043 - Cooling tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine. (4) For turbocharged engines, each turbocharger must be operated through that part of the climb profile for which operation with the turbocharger is requested. (5) For a reciprocating engine, the... than 100 degrees F. (c) Correction factor (except cylinder barrels). Temperatures of engine fluids and...

  15. Suppression of Spontaneous Gas Oscillations by Acoustic Self-Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Sawada, Yoshiki; Hyodo, Hiroaki; Kato, Soichiro

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a method of acoustical self-feedback to suppress spontaneous gas oscillations such as those observed in combustors of gas-turbine engines. Whereas a conventional feedback system consists of electromechanical devices, the present method achieves acoustical self-feedback with a hollow tube that connects two positions of the oscillation system. A model oscillator of combustion-driven gas oscillations is designed and built to demonstrate the applicability of the self-feedback concept. Stability analysis through measurements of Q values (quality factor) of oscillations shows that the desired delay time and gain are obtained when the tube length is equal to the odd integer times half the wavelength of the anticipated acoustic oscillations.

  16. Dynamic simulations of under-rib convection-driven flow-field configurations and comparison with experiment in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, Vinh Nguyen; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Ahn, Jiwoong; Park, Seongho; Kim, Taeeun; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-10-01

    The under-rib convection-driven flow-field design for the uniform distribution of reacting gas and the generation of produced water generates broad scientific interest, especially among those who study the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, we simulate the effects of an under-rib convection-driven serpentine flow-field with sub-channel and by-pass (SFFSB) and a conventional advanced serpentine flow-field (CASFF) on single cell performance, and we compare the simulation results with experimental measurements. In the under-rib convection-driven flow-field configuration with SFFSB, the pressure drop is decreased because of the greater cross-sectional area for gas flow, and the decreased pressure drop results in the reduction of the parasitic loss. The anode liquid water mass fraction increases with increasing channel height because of increased back diffusion, while the cathode liquid water mass fraction does not depend upon the sub-channels but is ascribed mainly to the electro-osmotic drag. Simulation results verify that the maximum current and the power densities of the SFFSB are increased by 18.85% and 23.74%, respectively, due to the promotion of under-rib convection. The findings in this work may enable the optimization of the design of under-rib convection-driven flow-fields for efficient PEMFCs.

  17. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetrical Flow Control-Part II: Nonaxisymmetrical Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.

  18. Optimum oil production planning using infeasibility driven evolutionary algorithm.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Ray, Tapabrata; Sarker, Ruhul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a practical oil production planning optimization problem. For oil wells with insufficient reservoir pressure, gas is usually injected to artificially lift oil, a practice commonly referred to as enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The total gas that can be used for oil extraction is constrained by daily availability limits. The oil extracted from each well is known to be a nonlinear function of the gas injected into the well and varies between wells. The problem is to identify the optimal amount of gas that needs to be injected into each well to maximize the amount of oil extracted subject to the constraint on the total daily gas availability. The problem has long been of practical interest to all major oil exploration companies as it has the potential to derive large financial benefit. In this paper, an infeasibility driven evolutionary algorithm is used to solve a 56 well reservoir problem which demonstrates its efficiency in solving constrained optimization problems. Furthermore, a multi-objective formulation of the problem is posed and solved using a number of algorithms, which eliminates the need for solving the (single objective) problem on a regular basis. Lastly, a modified single objective formulation of the problem is also proposed, which aims to maximize the profit instead of the quantity of oil. It is shown that even with a lesser amount of oil extracted, more economic benefits can be achieved through the modified formulation.

  19. Modeling a Material's Instantaneous Velocity during Acceleration Driven by a Detonation's Gas-Push Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backofen, Joseph E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper will describe both the scientific findings and the model developed in order to quantfy a material's instantaneous velocity versus position, time, or the expansion ratio of an explosive's gaseous products while its gas pressure is accelerating the material. The formula derived to represent this gas-push process for the 2nd stage of the BRIGS Two-Step Detonation Propulsion Model was found to fit very well the published experimental data available for twenty explosives. When the formula's two key parameters (the ratio Vinitial / Vfinal and ExpansionRatioFinal) were adjusted slightly from the average values describing closely many explosives to values representing measured data for a particular explosive, the formula's representation of that explosive's gas-push process was improved. The time derivative of the velocity formula representing acceleration and/or pressure compares favorably to Jones-Wilkins-Lee equation-of-state model calculations performed using published JWL parameters.

  20. Acoustic instability driven by cosmic-ray streaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1994-01-01

    We study the linear stability of compressional waves in a medium through which cosmic rays stream at the Alfven speed due to strong coupling with Alfven waves. Acoustic waves can be driven unstable by the cosmic-ray drift, provided that the streaming speed is sufficiently large compared to the thermal sound speed. Two effects can cause instability: (1) the heating of the thermal gas due to the damping of Alfven waves driven unstable by cosmic-ray streaming; and (2) phase shifts in the cosmic-ray pressure perturbation caused by the combination of cosmic-ray streaming and diffusion. The instability does not depend on the magnitude of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, and occurs whether or not cosmic-ray diffusion is important relative to streaming. When the cosmic-ray pressure is small compared to the gas pressure, or cosmic-ray diffusion is strong, the instability manifests itself as a weak overstability of slow magnetosonic waves. Larger cosmic-ray pressure gives rise to new hybrid modes, which can be strongly unstable in the limits of both weak and strong cosmic-ray diffusion and in the presence of thermal conduction. Parts of our analysis parallel earlier work by McKenzie & Webb (which were brought to our attention after this paper was accepted for publication), but our treatment of diffusive effects, thermal conduction, and nonlinearities represent significant extensions. Although the linear growth rate of instability is independent of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, the onset of nonlinear eff ects does depend on absolute value of DEL (vector differential operator) P(sub c). At the onset of nonlinearity the fractional amplitude of cosmic-ray pressure perturbations is delta P(sub C)/P(sub C) approximately (kL) (exp -1) much less than 1, where k is the wavenumber and L is the pressure scale height of the unperturbed cosmic rays. We speculate that the instability may lead to a mode of cosmic-ray transport in which plateaus of uniform cosmic

  1. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing ©more » overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.« less

  2. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D [Ammon, ID; Carney, Francis H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-29

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream.

  3. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10-4 torr (3×1012 cm-3) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors.

  4. Modeling laser-driven electron acceleration using WARP with Fourier decomposition

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, P.; Audet, T. L.; Lehe, R.; ...

    2015-12-31

    WARP is used with the recent implementation of the Fourier decomposition algorithm to model laser-driven electron acceleration in plasmas. Simulations were carried out to analyze the experimental results obtained on ionization-induced injection in a gas cell. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones, confirming the ability of the code to take into account the physics of electron injection and reduce calculation time. We present a detailed analysis of the laser propagation, the plasma wave generation and the electron beam dynamics.

  5. Modeling laser-driven electron acceleration using WARP with Fourier decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.; Audet, T. L.; Lehe, R.

    WARP is used with the recent implementation of the Fourier decomposition algorithm to model laser-driven electron acceleration in plasmas. Simulations were carried out to analyze the experimental results obtained on ionization-induced injection in a gas cell. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones, confirming the ability of the code to take into account the physics of electron injection and reduce calculation time. We present a detailed analysis of the laser propagation, the plasma wave generation and the electron beam dynamics.

  6. Efimov-driven phase transitions of the unitary Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Piatecki, Swann; Krauth, Werner

    2014-03-20

    Initially predicted in nuclear physics, Efimov trimers are bound configurations of three quantum particles that fall apart when any one of them is removed. They open a window into a rich quantum world that has become the focus of intense experimental and theoretical research, as the region of 'unitary' interactions, where Efimov trimers form, is now accessible in cold-atom experiments. Here we use a path-integral Monte Carlo algorithm backed up by theoretical arguments to show that unitary bosons undergo a first-order phase transition from a normal gas to a superfluid Efimov liquid, bound by the same effects as Efimov trimers. A triple point separates these two phases and another superfluid phase, the conventional Bose-Einstein condensate, whose coexistence line with the Efimov liquid ends in a critical point. We discuss the prospects of observing the proposed phase transitions in cold-atom systems.

  7. The role of hydrodynamic transport in greenhouse gas fluxes at a wetland with emergent vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Gilson, E.; Knox, S. H.; Matthes, J. H.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Variano, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In wetlands with emergent vegetation, the hydrodynamic transport of dissolved gases is often neglected because emergent plants transport gases directly and limit wind-driven air-water gas exchange by sheltering the water surface. Nevertheless, wetland hydrodynamics, and thermally-driven stirring in particular, have the potential to impact gas fluxes in these environments. We are evaluating the importance of hydrodynamic dissolved gas transport at a re-established marsh on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (California, USA). At this marsh, the U.S. Geological Survey has previously observed rapid accumulation of organic material (carbon sequestration) as well as very high methane emissions. To assess the role of hydrodynamics in the marsh's greenhouse gas fluxes, we measured dissolved carbon dioxide and methane in the water column on a bi-weekly basis beginning in July 2012. We employed a model for air-water gas fluxes in wetlands with emergent vegetation that predicts gas transfer velocities from meteorological conditions. Modeled air-water gas fluxes were compared with net gas fluxes measured at the marsh via the eddy covariance technique. This comparison revealed that hydrodynamic transport due to thermal convection was responsible for approximately one third of net carbon dioxide and methane fluxes. The cooling at the water surface driving thermal convection occurred each night and was most pronounced during the warmest months of the year. These finding have implications for the prediction and management of greenhouse gas fluxes at re-established marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and other similar wetlands.

  8. Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the

  9. Propane-Fueled Jet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwell, D. A.; Svenson, A. J.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2001-04-01

    We present our recent efforts to design, construct, and test a gas turbine, or jet, engine. Our design utilizes a turbocharger and ignition system from an automobile, and a flame tube/reaction chamber unit fabricated by hand from stainless steel. Once the engine is running, it is completely self-sustaining as long as there is a fuel supply, which in our case is propane. Air is forced into the intake where it is compressed and then injected into the combustion chamber where it is mixed with propane. The spark plugs ignite the air-propane mixture which burns to produce thrust at the exhaust. We have performed operational tests under different environmental conditions and with several turbochargers. We are currently working on adding a lubrication system to the engine, and will discuss our plan to experiment with the reaction chamber and flame tube design in an effort to improve performance and efficiency. *Corresponding author: rex@uakron.edu

  10. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2018-07-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  11. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2017-11-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  12. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Joel B., E-mail: joel.b.stewart2.civ@mail.mil; Pecora, Collin, E-mail: collin.r.pecora.civ@mail.mil

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goalmore » was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.« less

  13. Red Geyser: A New Class of Galaxy with Large-scale AGN-driven Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Namrata; Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; MaNGA Team

    2018-01-01

    A new class of quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies harboring possible AGN-driven winds have been discovered using the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. These galaxies named "red geysers" constitute 5%-10% of the local quiescent galaxy population and are characterized by narrow bisymmetric ionized gas emission patterns. These enhanced patterns are seen in equivalent width maps of Hα, [OIII] and other strong emission lines. They are co-aligned with the ionized gas velocity gradients but significantly misaligned with stellar velocity gradients. They also show very high gas velocity dispersions (~200 km/s). Considering these observations in light of models of the gravitational potential, Cheung et al. argued that red geysers host large-scale AGN-driven winds of ionized gas that may play a role in suppressing star formation at late times. In this work, we test the hypothesis that AGN activity is ultimately responsible for the red geyser phenomenon. We compare the nuclear radio activity of the red geysers to a matched control sample of galaxies of similar stellar mass, redshift, rest frame NUV–r color and axis ratio. and additionally, control for the presence of ionized gas. We have used 1.4 GHz radio continuum data from the VLA FIRST Survey to stack the radio flux from the red geyser sample and control sample. We find that the red geysers have a higher average radio flux than the control galaxies at > 3σ significance. Our sample is restricted to rest-frame NUV–r color > 5, thus ruling out possible radio emission due to star formation activity. We conclude that red geysers are associated with more active AGN, supporting a feedback picture in which episodic AGN activity drives large-scale but relatively weak ionized winds in many in many early-type galaxies.

  14. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  15. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cyclemore » efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.« less

  16. Measurements of an ablator-gas atomic mix in indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Smalyuk, V A; Tipton, R E; Pino, J E; Casey, D T; Grim, G P; Remington, B A; Rowley, D P; Weber, S V; Barrios, M; Benedetti, L R; Bleuel, D L; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J A; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hatarik, R; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J; Knauer, J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; McNaney, J M; Mintz, M; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Pak, A; Parham, T; Petrasso, R; Sayre, D B; Schneider, M B; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Widmann, K; Wilson, D C; Yeamans, C B

    2014-01-17

    We present the first results from an experimental campaign to measure the atomic ablator-gas mix in the deceleration phase of gas-filled capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic capsules containing CD layers were filled with tritium gas; as the reactants are initially separated, DT fusion yield provides a direct measure of the atomic mix of ablator into the hot spot gas. Capsules were imploded with x rays generated in hohlraums with peak radiation temperatures of ∼294  eV. While the TT fusion reaction probes conditions in the central part (core) of the implosion hot spot, the DT reaction probes a mixed region on the outer part of the hot spot near the ablator-hot-spot interface. Experimental data were used to develop and validate the atomic-mix model used in two-dimensional simulations.

  17. Appraisal of UTIAS implosion-driven hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, I. I.

    1972-01-01

    A critical appraisal is made of the design, research, development, and operation of the novel UTIAS implosion-driven hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes. Explosively driven (PbN6-lead azide, PETN-pentaerythritetetranitrate) implosions in detonating stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixtures have been successfully developed as drivers for hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes in a safe and reusable facility. Intense loadings at very high calculated pressures, densities, and temperatures, at the implosion center, cause severe problems with projectile integrity. Misalignment of the focal point can occur and add to the difficulty in using small caliber projectiles. In addition, the extreme driving conditions cause barrel expansion, erosion, and possible gas leakage from the base to the head of the projectile which cut the predicted muzzle velocities to half or a third of the lossless calculated values. However, in the case of a shock-tube operation these difficulties are minimized or eliminated and the possibilities of approaching Jovian reentry velocities are encouraging.

  18. Granular segregation driven by particle interactions.

    PubMed

    Lozano, C; Zuriguel, I; Garcimartín, A; Mullin, T

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C. All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  19. Granular Segregation Driven by Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, C.; Zuriguel, I.; Garcimartín, A.; Mullin, T.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C . All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  20. Scaling Study of Wave Rotor Turbo-normalization of a Small Internal Combustion Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    14 Figure 6: Acceleration response of turbocharger versus Comprex...for increased engine performance. Turbo-normalization can be accomplished through the addition of a turbocharger , supercharger, or a pressure wave... turbocharger over the same test regime (12). The Comprex® was first used on a passenger car in 1978 on an Opel 2.1 liter diesel engine (13). In 1987

  1. Mobility Demonstrator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-22

    charging system for increased power density. Compact two-stage turbocharger systems. UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...advanced waste heat recovery, solid state cooling, turbocharging /turbocompounding UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release... Turbocharging For Official Use Only For Official Use Only 77 •System – develop components capable of handling multiple roles within thermal

  2. Planet-driven Spiral Arms in Protoplanetary Disks. II. Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    We examine whether various characteristics of planet-driven spiral arms can be used to constrain the masses of unseen planets and their positions within their disks. By carrying out two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations varying planet mass and disk gas temperature, we find that a larger number of spiral arms form with a smaller planet mass and a lower disk temperature. A planet excites two or more spiral arms interior to its orbit for a range of disk temperatures characterized by the disk aspect ratio 0.04≤slant {(h/r)}p≤slant 0.15, whereas exterior to a planet’s orbit multiple spiral arms can form only in cold disks with {(h/r)}p≲ 0.06. Constraining the planet mass with the pitch angle of spiral arms requires accurate disk temperature measurements that might be challenging even with ALMA. However, the property that the pitch angle of planet-driven spiral arms decreases away from the planet can be a powerful diagnostic to determine whether the planet is located interior or exterior to the observed spirals. The arm-to-arm separations increase as a function of planet mass, consistent with previous studies; however, the exact slope depends on disk temperature as well as the radial location where the arm-to-arm separations are measured. We apply these diagnostics to the spiral arms seen in MWC 758 and Elias 2–27. As shown in Bae et al., planet-driven spiral arms can create concentric rings and gaps, which can produce a more dominant observable signature than spiral arms under certain circumstances. We discuss the observability of planet-driven spiral arms versus rings and gaps.

  3. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control-Part I: Non-Axisymmetrical Flow in Centrifugal Compressor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingyang; Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki; Huenteler, Joern; Li, Zhigang

    2013-03-01

    This is Part I of a two-part paper documenting the development of a novel asymmetric flow control method to improve the stability of a high-pressure-ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressor. Part I focuses on the nonaxisymmetrical flow in a centrifugal compressor induced by the nonaxisymmetrical geometry of the volute while Part II describes the development of an asymmetric flow control method to avoid the stall on the basis of the characteristic of nonaxisymmetrical flow. To understand the asymmetries, experimental measurements and corresponding numerical simulation were carried out. The static pressure was measured by probes at different circumferential and stream-wise positions to gain insights about the asymmetries. The experimental results show that there is an evident nonaxisymmetrical flow pattern throughout the compressor due to the asymmetric geometry of the overhung volute. The static pressure field in the diffuser is distorted at approximately 90 deg in the rotational direction of the volute tongue throughout the diffuser. The magnitude of this distortion slightly varies with the rotational speed. The magnitude of the static pressure distortion in the impeller is a function of the rotational speed. There is a significant phase shift between the static pressure distributions at the leading edge of the splitter blades and the impeller outlet. The numerical steady state simulation neglects the aforementioned unsteady effects found in the experiments and cannot predict the phase shift, however, a detailed asymmetric flow field structure is obviously obtained.

  4. Mixed Gas Hydrogen Sulfide Permeability and Separation Using Supported Polyphosphazene Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme

    Three phosphazene polymers were characterized for permeability using a suite of pure gases, including H2S where high permeabilities were measured with respect to the other gases in the study. Furthermore, mixed gas selectivities were determined and compared to the ideal gas selectivities for the H2S/CH4, CO2/CH4, and Ar/CH4 gas pairs. The three phosphazenes represent a set of membrane materials differing by their polarities. Description of the polarity of each was performed using Hansen solubility parameters derived from group contributions for each chemical structure. A good correlation was observed between the polar Hansen parameter (äp) and the gas permeabilities of bothmore » CO2 and H2S. Furthermore, permeant gas critical temperatures were also found to correlate with permeability suggesting a solubility driven transport process. A comparison of the mixed gas permeabilities with the corresponding pure gas data revealed good agreement in the data, although the presence of more condensable gases hinders non-polar gas transport resulting in higher separation factors.« less

  5. Perspective: THz-driven nuclear dynamics from solids to molecules.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus; Johnson, Steve L; Beaud, Paul; Staub, Urs

    2017-11-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic developments in the technology of intense pulsed light sources in the THz frequency range. Since many dipole-active excitations in solids and molecules also lie in this range, there is now a tremendous potential to use these light sources to study linear and nonlinear dynamics in such systems. While several experimental investigations of THz-driven dynamics in solid-state systems have demonstrated a variety of interesting linear and nonlinear phenomena, comparatively few efforts have been made to drive analogous dynamics in molecular systems. In the present Perspective article, we discuss the similarities and differences between THz-driven dynamics in solid-state and molecular systems on both conceptual and practical levels. We also discuss the experimental parameters needed for these types of experiments and thereby provide design criteria for a further development of this new research branch. Finally, we present a few recent examples to illustrate the rich physics that may be learned from nonlinear THz excitations of phonons in solids as well as inter-molecular vibrations in liquid and gas-phase systems.

  6. Perspective: THz-driven nuclear dynamics from solids to molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus; Johnson, Steve L.; Beaud, Paul; Staub, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic developments in the technology of intense pulsed light sources in the THz frequency range. Since many dipole-active excitations in solids and molecules also lie in this range, there is now a tremendous potential to use these light sources to study linear and nonlinear dynamics in such systems. While several experimental investigations of THz-driven dynamics in solid-state systems have demonstrated a variety of interesting linear and nonlinear phenomena, comparatively few efforts have been made to drive analogous dynamics in molecular systems. In the present Perspective article, we discuss the similarities and differences between THz-driven dynamics in solid-state and molecular systems on both conceptual and practical levels. We also discuss the experimental parameters needed for these types of experiments and thereby provide design criteria for a further development of this new research branch. Finally, we present a few recent examples to illustrate the rich physics that may be learned from nonlinear THz excitations of phonons in solids as well as inter-molecular vibrations in liquid and gas-phase systems. PMID:29308420

  7. Analysis of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends using kernel-based extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Silitonga, Arridina Susan; Hassan, Masjuki Haji; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Kusumo, Fitranto

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a four-cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends. A kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM) model is developed in this study using MATLAB software in order to predict the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. To acquire the data for training and testing the KELM model, the engine speed was selected as the input parameter, whereas the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics were chosen as the output parameters of the KELM model. The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics predicted by the KELM model were validated by comparing the predicted data with the experimental data. The results show that the coefficient of determination of the parameters is within a range of 0.9805-0.9991 for both the KELM model and the experimental data. The mean absolute percentage error is within a range of 0.1259-2.3838. This study shows that KELM modelling is a useful technique in biodiesel production since it facilitates scientists and researchers to predict the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of internal combustion engines with high accuracy.

  8. Buoyancy Driven Shear Flows of Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. L.; Hill, R. J.; Chellppannair, T.; Zenit, R.; Zenit, R.; Spelt, P. D. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the gas volume fraction and the root-mean-squared fluid velocity are measured in buoyancy driven shear flows of bubble suspensions in a tall, inclined, rectangular channel. The experiments are performed under conditions where We << 1a nd Re >> 1, for which comparisons are made with kinetic theory and numerical simulations. Here Re = gamma(a(exp 2)/nu is the Reynolds number and We = rho(gamma(exp 2))a(exp 3)/sigma is the Weber number; gamma is the shear rate, a is the bubble radius, nu is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid, rho is the density of the liquid, and sigma is the surface tension of the gas/liquid interface. Kang et al. calculated the bubble phase pressure and velocity variance of sheared bubble suspensions under conditions where the bubbles are spherical and the liquid phase velocity field can be approximated using potential flow theory, i.e. We= 0 and Re >> 1. Such conditions can be achieved in an experiment using gas bubbles, with a radius of O(0.5mm), in water. The theory requires that there be no average relative motion of the gas and liquid phases, hence the motivation for an experimental program in microgravity. The necessity of performing preliminary, Earth based experiments, however, requires performing experiments where the gas phase rises in the liquid, which significantly complicates the comparison of experiments with theory. Rather than comparing experimental results with theory for a uniform, homogeneous shear flow, experiments can be compared directly with solutions of the averaged equations of motion for bubble suspensions. This requires accounting for the significant lift force acting on the gas phase when the bubbles rise parallel to the average velocity of the sheared suspension. Shear flows can be produced in which the bubble phase pressure gradient, arising from shear induced collisions amongst the bubbles, balances a body force (centrifugal or gravitational) on the gas phase. A steady, non-uniform gas volume fraction

  9. Radio jets clearing the way through galaxies: the view from Hi and molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    2015-03-01

    Massive gas outflows are considered a key component in the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Because of this, they are the topic of many studies aimed at learning more about their occurrence, location and physical conditions as well as the mechanism(s) at their origin. This contribution presents recent results on two of the best examples of jet-driven outflows traced by cold and molecular gas. Thanks to high-spatial resolution observations, we have been able to locate the region where the outflow occurs. This appears to be coincident with bright radio features and regions where the interaction between radio plasma jet and ISM is known to occur, thus strongly supporting the idea of jet-driven outflows. We have also imaged the distribution of the outflowing gas. The results clearly show the effect that expanding radio jets and lobes have on the ISM. This appears to be in good agreement with what predicted from numerical simulations. Furthermore, the results show that cold gas is associated with these powerful phenomena and can be formed - likely via efficient cooling - even after a strong interaction and fast shocks. The discovery of similar fast outflows of cold gas in weak radio sources is further increasing the relevance that the effect of the radio plasma can have on the surrounding medium and on the host galaxy.

  10. Triboelectric-based harvesting of gas flow energy and powerless sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, Majid; Sadeghi, Ali; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we propose an approach that can convert gas flow energy to electric energy by using the triboelectric effect, in a structure integrating at least two conductive parts (i.e. electrodes) and one non-conductive sheet. The gas flow induces vibration of the cited parts. Therefore, the frequent attaching and releasing between a non-conductive layer with at least one electrode generates electrostatic charges on the surfaces, and then an electron flow between the two electrodes. The effect of blown gas on the output signals is studied to evaluate the gas flow sensing. We also illustrate that the introduced system has an ability to detect micro particles driven by air into the system. Finally we show how we can use this approach for a self sustainable system demonstrating smoke detection and LED lightening.

  11. A Review of Advanced Vehicular Diesel Research and Development Programs Which Have Potential Application to Stationary Diesel Power Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    throttle torque capability. Various schemes are under development to reduce this disadvantage. These schemes include reducing compressor and turbine rotor...inertia, using a pelton wheel or burners, electronic feedback systems, and variable area turbocharging. Other turbocharging disadvantages include...around the turbine ) and using exhaust augmenters or combustors (wasteful of fuel, costly, and complex), and the variable area turbocharger (VAT). An

  12. Milestone report: The simulation of radiation driven gas diffusion in UO 2 at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Michael William; Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Burr, Patrick A

    2016-10-24

    Below 1000 K it is thought that fission gas diffusion in nuclear fuel during irradiation occurs through atomic mixing due to radiation damage. This is an important process for nuclear reactor performance as it affects fission gas release, particularly from the periphery of the pellet where such temperatures are normal. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of Xe and Kr diffusion due to irradiation. Thermal spikes and cascades have been used to study the electronic stopping and ballistic phases of damage, respectively. Our results predict that O and Kr exhibit the greatest diffusivity and U the least, while Xemore » lies in between. It is concluded that the ballistic phase does not sufficiently account for the experimentally observed diffusion. Preliminary thermal spike calculations indicate that the electronic stopping phase generates greater fission gas displacement than the ballistic phase, although further calculation must be carried out to confirm this. A good description of the system by the empirical potentials is important over the very wide temperatures induced during thermal spike and damage cascade simulations. This has motivated the development of a parameter set for gas-actinide and gas-oxygen interactions that is complementary for use with a recent many-body potential set. A comprehensive set of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study Xe and Kr incorporation at a number of sites in CeO 2, ThO 2, UO 2 and PuO 2. These structures were used to fit a potential, which was used to generate molecular dynamics (MD) configurations incorporating Xe and Kr at 300 K, 1500 K, 3000 K and 5000 K. Subsequent matching to the forces predicted by DFT for these MD configurations was used to refine the potential set. This fitting approach ensured weighted fitting to configurations that are thermodynamically significant over a broad temperature range, while avoiding computationally expensive DFT-MD calculations. The resultant gas potentials

  13. Battery-Powered RF Pre-Ionization System for the Caltech Magnetohydrodynamically-Driven Jet Experiment: RF Discharge Properties and MHD-Driven Jet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.

    This thesis describes investigations of two classes of laboratory plasmas with rather different properties: partially ionized low pressure radiofrequency (RF) discharges, and fully ionized high density magnetohydrodynamically (MHD)-driven jets. An RF pre-ionization system was developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and create hotter, faster jets in the Caltech MHD-Driven Jet Experiment. The RF plasma source used a custom pulsed 3 kW 13.56 MHz RF power amplifier that was powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 4-6 kV with the cathode of the jet experiment. The argon RF discharge equilibrium and transport properties were analyzed, and novel jet dynamics were observed. Although the RF plasma source was conceived as a wave-heated helicon source, scaling measurements and numerical modeling showed that inductive coupling was the dominant energy input mechanism. A one-dimensional time-dependent fluid model was developed to quantitatively explain the expansion of the pre-ionized plasma into the jet experiment chamber. The plasma transitioned from an ionizing phase with depressed neutral emission to a recombining phase with enhanced emission during the course of the experiment, causing fast camera images to be a poor indicator of the density distribution. Under certain conditions, the total visible and infrared brightness and the downstream ion density both increased after the RF power was turned off. The time-dependent emission patterns were used for an indirect measurement of the neutral gas pressure. The low-mass jets formed with the aid of the pre-ionization system were extremely narrow and collimated near the electrodes, with peak density exceeding that of jets created without pre-ionization. The initial neutral gas distribution prior to plasma breakdown was found to be critical in determining the ultimate jet structure. The visible radius of the dense central jet column was several times narrower than the axial current channel

  14. Ultraviolet spectroscopic breath analysis using hollow-optical fiber as gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.

    2017-02-01

    For breath analysis on ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, an analysis system using a hollow optical fiber as gas cell is developed. The hollow optical fiber functions as a long path and extremely small volume gas cell. Firstly, the measurement sensitivity of the system is evaluated by using NO gas as a gas sample. The result shows that NO gas with 50 ppb concentration is measured by using a system with a laser-driven, high intensity light source and a 3-meter long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber. Then an absorption spectrum of breath sample is measured in the wavelength region of around 200-300 nm and from the spectrum, it is found that the main absorbing components in breath were H2O, isoprene, and O3 converted from O2 by radiation of ultraviolet light. Then the concentration of isoprene in breath is estimated by using multiple linear regression analysis.

  15. xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catinella, Barbara; Saintonge, Amélie; Janowiecki, Steven; Cortese, Luca; Davé, Romeel; Lemonias, Jenna J.; Cooper, Andrew P.; Schiminovich, David; Hummels, Cameron B.; Fabello, Silvia; Geréb, Katinka; Kilborn, Virginia; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    We present the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (xGASS), a gas fraction-limited census of the atomic hydrogen (H I) gas content of 1179 galaxies selected only by stellar mass (M⋆ = 109-1011.5 M⊙) and redshift (0.01 < z < 0.05). This includes new Arecibo observations of 208 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H I spectra. In addition to extending the GASS H I scaling relations by one decade in stellar mass, we quantify total (atomic+molecular) cold gas fractions and molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios, Rmol, for the subset of 477 galaxies observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that atomic gas fractions keep increasing with decreasing stellar mass, with no sign of a plateau down to log M⋆/M⊙ = 9. Total gas reservoirs remain H I-dominated across our full stellar mass range, hence total gas fraction scaling relations closely resemble atomic ones, but with a scatter that strongly correlates with Rmol, especially at fixed specific star formation rate. On average, Rmol weakly increases with stellar mass and stellar surface density μ⋆, but individual values vary by almost two orders of magnitude at fixed M⋆ or μ⋆. We show that, for galaxies on the star-forming sequence, variations of Rmol are mostly driven by changes of the H I reservoirs, with a clear dependence on μ⋆. Establishing if galaxy mass or structure plays the most important role in regulating the cold gas content of galaxies requires an accurate separation of bulge and disc components for the study of gas scaling relations.

  16. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peinado, Charles O.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  17. Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.

  18. Terahertz emission driven by two-color laser pulses at various frequency ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-M.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a simulation study of terahertz radiation from a gas driven by two-color laser pulses in a broad range of frequency ratios ω1/ω0 . Our particle-in-cell simulation results show that there are three series with ω1/ω0=2 n , n +1 /2 , n ±1 /3 (n is a positive integer) for high-efficiency and stable radiation generation. The radiation strength basically decreases with the increasing ω1 and scales linearly with the laser wavelength. These rules are broken when ω1/ω0<1 and much stronger radiation may be generated at any ω1/ω0 . These results can be explained with a model based on gas ionization by two linear-superposition laser fields, rather than a multiwave mixing model.

  19. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many metamorphic reactions lead to large volume changes, and potentially to reaction-driven cracking [1,2]. Large-scale hydration of mantle peridotite to produce serpentine or talc is invoked to explain the rheology of plate boundaries, the nature of earthquakes, and the seismic properties of slow-spread ocean crust and the 'mantle wedge' above subduction zones. Carbonation of peridotite may be an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Zones of 100% magnesite + quartz replacing peridotite, up to 200 m thick, formed where oceanic mantle was thrust over carbonate-bearing metasediments in Oman. Talc + carbonate is an important component of the matrix in subduction mélanges at Santa Catalina Island , California, and the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, Japan. Engineered systems to emulate natural mineral carbonation could provide relatively inexpensive CO2 capture and storage [3]. More generally, engineered reaction-driven cracking could supplement or replace hydraulic fracture in geothermal systems, solution mining, and extraction of tight oil and gas. The controls on reaction-driven cracking are poorly understood. Hydration and carbonation reactions can be self-limiting, since they potentially reduce permeability and armor reactive surfaces [4]. Also, in some cases, hydration or carbonation may take place at constant volume. Small changes in volume due to precipitation of solid products increases stress, destabilizing solid reactants, until precipitation and dissolution rates become equal at a steady state stress [5]. In a third case, volume change due to precipitation of solid products causes brittle failure. This has been invoked on qualitative grounds to explain, e.g., complete serpentinization of mantle peridotite [6]. Below ~ 300°C, the available potential energy for hydration and carbonation of olivine could produce stresses of 100's of MPa [2], sufficient to fracture rocks to 10 km depth or more, causing brittle failure below the steady state stress required

  20. a High Frequency Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Coaxial Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G. Y.; Wang, X. T.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2010-04-01

    High frequency thermoacoustically-driven pulse tube cryocoolers are quite promising due to their compact size and high reliability, which can find applications in space use. With continuous effort, a lowest cold head temperature of 68.3 K has been obtained on a 300 Hz pulse tube cryocooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic heat engine with 4.0 MPa helium gas and 750 W heat input. To further reduce the size of the system, a coaxial resonator was designed and the two sub-systems, i.e., the pulse tube cryocooler and the standing-wave thermoacoustic heat engine were properly coupled through an acoustic amplifier tube, which leads to a system axial length of only about 0.7 m. The performance of the system with the coaxial resonator was tested, and shows moderate degradation compared to that with the in-line resonator, which might be attributed to the large flow loss of the 180 degree corner.

  1. The Effect of Back Pressure on the Operation of a Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    increased back pressure on a turbocharged diesel engine. Steady state and varying back pressure are considered. The results show that high back...a turbocharged diesel engine using the Ricardo Wave engine modelling software, to gain understanding of the problem and provide a good base for...higher pressure. The pressure ratios across the turbocharger compressor and turbine decrease, reducing the mass flow of air through these components

  2. The Effect of Back Pressure on the Operation of a Disel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    increased back pressure on a turbocharged diesel engine. Steady state and varying back pressure are considered. The results show that high back...a turbocharged diesel engine using the Ricardo Wave engine modelling software, to gain understanding of the problem and provide a good base for...higher pressure. The pressure ratios across the turbocharger compressor and turbine decrease, reducing the mass flow of air through these components

  3. Experimental investigation of adiabatic compression and heating using collision of an MHD-driven jet with a gas target cloud for magnetized target fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Byonghoon; Li, Hui; Bellan, Paul

    2017-10-01

    We are studying magnetized target fusion using an experimental method where an imploding liner compressing a plasma is simulated by a high-speed MHD-driven plasma jet colliding with a gas target cloud. This has the advantage of being non-destructive so orders of magnitude more shots are possible. Since the actual density and temperature are much more modest than fusion-relevant values, the goal is to determine the scaling of the increase in density and temperature when an actual experimental plasma is adiabatically compressed. Two new-developed diagnostics are operating and providing data. The first new diagnostic is a fiber-coupled interferometer which measures line-integrated electron density not only as a function of time, but also as a function of position along the jet. The second new diagnostic is laser Thomson scattering which measures electron density and temperature at the location where the jet collides with the cloud. These diagnostics show that when the jet collides with a target cloud the jet slows down substantially and both the electron density and temperature increase. The experimental measurements are being compared with 3D MHD and hybrid kinetic numerical simulations that model the actual experimental geometry.

  4. Gas and seismicity within the Istanbul seismic gap.

    PubMed

    Géli, L; Henry, P; Grall, C; Tary, J-B; Lomax, A; Batsi, E; Riboulot, V; Cros, E; Gürbüz, C; Işık, S E; Sengör, A M C; Le Pichon, X; Ruffine, L; Dupré, S; Thomas, Y; Kalafat, D; Bayrakci, G; Coutellier, Q; Regnier, T; Westbrook, G; Saritas, H; Çifçi, G; Çağatay, M N; Özeren, M S; Görür, N; Tryon, M; Bohnhoff, M; Gasperini, L; Klingelhoefer, F; Scalabrin, C; Augustin, J-M; Embriaco, D; Marinaro, G; Frugoni, F; Monna, S; Etiope, G; Favali, P; Bécel, A

    2018-05-01

    Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the "Istanbul seismic gap") has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources. Here, we show that a large number of the aftershocks that followed the M 5.1 earthquake of July, 25 th 2011 in the western Sea of Marmara, occurred within a zone of gas overpressuring in the 1.5-5 km depth range, from where pressurized gas is expected to migrate along the MMF, up to the surface sediment layers. Hence, gas-related processes should also be considered for a complete interpretation of the micro-seismicity (~M < 3) within the Istanbul offshore domain.

  5. Free-piston regenerative hot gas hydraulic engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A displacer piston which is driven pneumatically by a high-pressure or low-pressure gas is included in a free-piston regenerative hydraulic engine. Actuation of the displacer piston circulates the working fluid through a heater, a regenerator and a cooler. The present invention includes an inertial mass such as a piston or a hydraulic fluid column to effectively store and supply energy during portions of the cycle. Power is transmitted from the working fluid to a hydraulic fluid across a diaphragm or lightweight piston to achieve a hydraulic power out-put. The displacer piston of the present invention may be driven pneumatically, hydraulically or electromagnetically. In addition, the displacer piston and the inertial mass of the present invention may be positioned on the same side of the diaphragm member or may be separated by the diaphragm member.

  6. Investigation of ionization-induced electron injection in a wakefield driven by laser inside a gas cell

    DOE PAGES

    Audet, T. L.; Hansson, M.; Lee, P.; ...

    2016-02-16

    Ionization-induced electron injection was investigated experimentally by focusing a driving laser pulse with a maximum normalized potential of 1.2 at different positions along the plasma density profile inside a gas cell, filled with a gas mixture composed of 99%H 2+1%N 2. Changing the laser focus position relative to the gas cell entrance controls the accelerated electron bunch properties, such as the spectrum width, maximum energy, and accelerated charge. Simulations performed using the 3D particle-in-cell code WARP with a realistic density profile give results that are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Lastly, we discuss the interest of this regimemore » for optimizing the bunch charge in a selected energy window.« less

  7. Optical diagnostics of turbulent mixing in explosively-driven shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Explosively-driven shock tube experiments were performed to investigate the turbulent mixing of explosive product gases and ambient air. A small detonator initiated Al / I2O5 thermite, which produced a shock wave and expanding product gases. Schlieren and imaging spectroscopy were applied simultaneously along a common optical path to identify correlations between turbulent structures and spatially-resolved absorbance. The schlieren imaging identifies flow features including shock waves and turbulent structures while the imaging spectroscopy identifies regions of iodine gas presence in the product gases. Pressure transducers located before and after the optical diagnostic section measure time-resolved pressure. Shock speed is measured from tracking the leading edge of the shockwave in the schlieren images and from the pressure transducers. The turbulent mixing characteristics were determined using digital image processing. Results show changes in shock speed, product gas propagation, and species concentrations for varied explosive charge mass. Funded by DTRA Grant HDTRA1-14-1-0070.

  8. Bubble transport and sticking in gas embolotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Pressure-driven bubble transport in a two-dimensional, bifurcating channel is investigated as a model of gas emboli transport in the microcirculation. Gas emboli are relevant to a number of clinical situations, and our particular interest is a novel gas embolotherapy technique, which involves using gas bubbles to occlude blood flow to tumors. This minimally invasive treatment modality allows selective delivery of emboli. The bubbles originate as 6 micron-diameter liquid droplets of perfluorocarbon (PFC), mixed in saline, and are injected into the vascular system. The droplet forms are small enough to pass through capillary beds, so they can circulate until the next stage of the therapy. By strategically placing an ultrasound source over the artery feeding the tumor, the droplets may be vaporized at that location. Our model is developed using the Stokes equation subject to interfacial and wall boundary conditions, and is solved using the boundary element method. The conditions under which bubbles 'stick' to the channel walls and occlude flow are investigated. Clinically, these results are important because the location and homogeneity of bubble sticking determines the degree of tumor necrosis and the efficacy of the treatment.

  9. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal, utility...

  10. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal, utility...

  11. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal, utility...

  12. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal, utility...

  13. 14 CFR 36.9 - Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. 36.9 Section 36.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General § 36.9 Acoustical change: Propeller-driven small airplanes and propeller-driven commuter category airplanes. For propeller-driven small airplanes in the primary, normal, utility...

  14. Stimulus-driven and knowledge-driven processes in attention to warbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, W. Jay; Tillmann, Barbara

    2003-10-01

    Listeners identified warbles differing in amplitude-modulation rate (3-10 Hz). And measured RT while listeners maintained above 90% correct responses. After a practice session listeners identified target warbles following stimulus-driven or knowledge-driven cues. The stimulus-driven cue was a 250-ms ``beep'' at the target pitch (valid) or another pitch (invalid); the knowledge-driven cue was a midrange ``melody'' pointing to the target pitch (always valid). A 500-ms target warble followed the cue after delays of 0-500 ms (250-750 ms SOA). The listener pressed a key to indicate ``slow'' or ``fast.'' RTs were shortest at the briefest delay. In contrast to results from a memory task, RTs here were much shorter, and we found no evidence for IOR or attentional blink. Listeners began generating responses while the target was still sounding. Invalid ``beeps'' slowed responses at the briefest (but not the longer) delays; adding a valid ``beep'' to the valid ``melody'' did not speed responses.

  15. Numerical simulation of gas-phonon coupling in thermal transpiration flows.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaohui; Singh, Dhruv; Murthy, Jayathi; Alexeenko, Alina A

    2009-10-01

    Thermal transpiration is a rarefied gas flow driven by a wall temperature gradient and is a promising mechanism for gas pumping without moving parts, known as the Knudsen pump. Obtaining temperature measurements along capillary walls in a Knudsen pump is difficult due to extremely small length scales. Meanwhile, simplified analytical models are not applicable under the practical operating conditions of a thermal transpiration device, where the gas flow is in the transitional rarefied regime. Here, we present a coupled gas-phonon heat transfer and flow model to study a closed thermal transpiration system. Discretized Boltzmann equations are solved for molecular transport in the gas phase and phonon transport in the solid. The wall temperature distribution is the direct result of the interfacial coupling based on mass conservation and energy balance at gas-solid interfaces and is not specified a priori unlike in the previous modeling efforts. Capillary length scales of the order of phonon mean free path result in a smaller temperature gradient along the transpiration channel as compared to that predicted by the continuum solid-phase heat transfer. The effects of governing parameters such as thermal gradients, capillary geometry, gas and phonon Knudsen numbers and, gas-surface interaction parameters on the efficiency of thermal transpiration are investigated in light of the coupled model.

  16. Rotary Engine Friction Test Rig Development Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    fundamental research is needed to understand the friction characteristics of the rotary engine that lead to accelerated wear and tear on the seals...that includes a turbocharger . Once the original GT-Suite model is validated, the turbocharger model will be more accurate. This validation will...prepare for turbocharger and fuel-injector testing, which will lead to further development and calibration of the model. Further details are beyond the

  17. Cummins 903, Low Viscosity Synthetic Oil Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-17

    Cylinder Aspiration Turbocharged & Aftercooled Bore & Stroke - in. (mm) 5.5(140) X 4.75 (121) Displacement -in3...6.0 (152) Maximum Bending Moment to the Turbocharger Exhaust Outlet Flanges - Lb*ft (N*m) 30 (41) Lubrication System...21.6CFM of rated airflow 1440CFM) 9. Set the inlet restriction to the turbocharger compressor at no more than 10 +/-2 in-H2O when at full load

  18. A multi-stage traveling-wave thermoacoustically-driven refrigeration system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, K.; Sun, D. M.; Zhang, J.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a multi-stage travelling-wave thermoacoustically refrigeration system (TAD-RS) operating at liquefied natural gas temperature, which consists of two thermoacoustic engines (TAE) and one thermoacoustic refrigerator (TAR) in a closed-loop configuration. Three thermoacoustic units connect each other through a resonance tube of small cross-sectional area, achieving “self-matching” for efficient thermoacoustic conversion. Based on the linear thermoacoustic theory, a model of the proposed system has been built by using DeltaEC program to show the acoustic field characteristics and performance. It is shown that with pressurized 5 MPa helium as working gas, the TAEs are able to build a stable and strong acoustic field with a frequency of about 85 Hz. When hot end temperature reaches 923 K, this system can provide about 1410 W cooling power at 110 K with an overall exergy efficiency of 15.5%. This study indicates a great application prospect of TAD-RS in the field of natural gas liquefaction with a large cooling capacity and simple structure.

  19. 30 CFR 7.83 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Performance specifications of turbocharger, if applicable. (c) The application shall include dimensional...) Injector nozzle; (9) Injection fuel pump; (10) Governor; (11) Turbocharger, if applicable; (12) Aftercooler...

  20. 30 CFR 7.83 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Performance specifications of turbocharger, if applicable. (c) The application shall include dimensional...) Injector nozzle; (9) Injection fuel pump; (10) Governor; (11) Turbocharger, if applicable; (12) Aftercooler...

  1. 30 CFR 7.83 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Performance specifications of turbocharger, if applicable. (c) The application shall include dimensional...) Injector nozzle; (9) Injection fuel pump; (10) Governor; (11) Turbocharger, if applicable; (12) Aftercooler...

  2. 30 CFR 7.83 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Performance specifications of turbocharger, if applicable. (c) The application shall include dimensional...) Injector nozzle; (9) Injection fuel pump; (10) Governor; (11) Turbocharger, if applicable; (12) Aftercooler...

  3. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D [Ammon, ID; Raterman, Kevin T [Idaho Falls, ID; Palmer, Gary L [Shelley, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Vranicar, John J [Concord, CA

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

  4. Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Rateman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klinger, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2005-11-08

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

  5. Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Raterman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2005-05-03

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

  6. Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Raterman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

  7. Achieving Simultaneous CO2 and H2 S Conversion via a Coupled Solar-Driven Electrochemical Approach on Non-Precious-Metal Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiguang; Wang, Hong; Yu, Wei; Wang, Xiaomei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zong, Xu; Li, Can

    2018-03-19

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) are generally concomitant with methane (CH 4 ) in natural gas and traditionally deemed useless or even harmful. Developing strategies that can simultaneously convert both CO 2 and H 2 S into value-added products is attractive; however it has not received enough attention. A solar-driven electrochemical process is demonstrated using graphene-encapsulated zinc oxide catalyst for CO 2 reduction and graphene catalyst for H 2 S oxidation mediated by EDTA-Fe 2+ /EDTA-Fe 3+ redox couples. The as-prepared solar-driven electrochemical system can realize the simultaneous conversion of CO 2 and H 2 S into carbon monoxide and elemental sulfur at near neutral conditions with high stability and selectivity. This conceptually provides an alternative avenue for the purification of natural gas with added economic and environmental benefits. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Investigation of the gas-jet ejector in KamAZ trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Shkret, L.Y.; Berezea, A.I.; Lobkov, A.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article considers the possibility of using gas-jet vacuum pumps in tank trucks for transporting liquids (water) at drilling sites. The discharge system of the KamAZ trucks can be reliably sealed by an engine brake, an important prerequisite of reliable operation of a gas-jet ejector that is switched on when the tank is being filled. The ejector consists of a housing, a Laval nozzle, a front wall with cylindrical neck, a tin-plate diffuser, an air supply pipe, and a flange for attaching the ejector to the flange of the exhaust muffler of the truck. The gas-jet ejectors are driven bymore » the exhaust gas (EG) of the trucks. The dependences of the EG flow rate, fuel expenditure, EG temperature ahead of the ejector, and the rotational frequency of the engine crankshaft on the diameter at different EG pressures. It is recommended that gas-jet ejectors be used on series produced tank trucks instead of rotary vacuum pumps with mechanical drive.« less

  9. Efficient common-envelope ejection through dust-driven winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanz, Hila; Perets, Hagai B.

    2018-04-01

    Common-envelope evolution (CEE) is the short-lived phase in the life of an interacting binary-system during which two stars orbit inside a single shared envelope. Such evolution is thought to lead to the inspiral of the binary, the ejection of the extended envelope and the formation of a remnant short-period binary. However, detailed hydrodynamical models of CEE encounter major difficulties. They show that following the inspiral most of the envelope is not ejected; though it expands to larger separations, it remains bound to the binary. Here we propose that dust-driven winds can be produced following the CEE. These can evaporate the envelope following similar processes operating in the ejection of the envelopes of AGB stars. Pulsations in an AGB-star drives the expansion of its envelope, allowing the material to cool down to low temperatures thus enabling dust condensation. Radiation pressure on the dust accelerates it, and through its coupling to the gas it drives winds which eventually completely erode the envelope. We show that the inspiral phase in CE-binaries can effectively replace the role of stellar pulsation and drive the CE expansion to scales comparable with those of AGB stars, and give rise to efficient mass-loss through dust-driven winds.

  10. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  11. Ejection of Particles from the Free Surface of Shock-Loaded Lead into Vacuum and Gas Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikov, V. A.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Erunov, S. V.; Antipov, M. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Syrunin, M. A.; Kulakov, E. V.; Kleshchevnikov, O. A.; Yurtov, I. V.; Utenkov, A. A.; Finyushin, S. A.; Chudakov, E. A.; Kalashnikov, D. A.; Pupkov, A. S.; Chapaev, A. V.; Mishanov, A. V.; Glushikhin, V. V.; Fedoseev, A. V.; Tagirov, R. R.; Kostyukov, S. A.; Tagirova, I. Yu.; Saprykina, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The presence and behavior of a gas-metal interfacial layer at the free surface of shock-wave driven flying vehicles in gases of various compositions and densities has not been sufficiently studied so far. We present new comparative data on "dusting" from the free surface of lead into vacuum and gas as dependent on the surface roughness, pressure amplitude at the shock-wave front, and phase state of the material. Methods of estimating the mass flux of ejected particles in the presence of a gas medium at the free metal surface are proposed.

  12. Installation of water and gas-sampling wells in low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1978-01-01

    A low-level radioactive-waste burial site, West Valley, N.Y., operated from 1963 to 1975, contains 12 refuse-filled trenches about 20 feet deep in till. Twenty-eight wells, 1.25 inch in diameter, were driven to selected depths in 11 of the 12 trenches to obtain gas and water samples for chemical and radiochemical analysis, water-level measurements for evaluation of trench-cover permeability. Gas from unsaturated refuse above the trench water level was detected in nearly all wells. Rapid water-level response in most wells to pumping of water from trench sumps 20 to 275 feet distant showed the refuse to be highly permeable. Described in detail are the methods and equipment used to (1) install the wells, (2) collect gas and water samples, and (3) monitor radiation and methane concentrations while driving wells into trenches. A record of each well driven into the burial trenches is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. New projects developed by COMOTI in gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitulescu, Marian; Silivestru, Valentin; Toma, Niculae; Slujitoru, Cristian; Petrescu, Valentin; Leahu, Mihai; Oniga, Ciprian; Ulici, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    The paper aims to present two new projects developed by the Romanian Research and Development Institute for Gas Turbines (COMOTI) in partnership with City University of London and GHH-Rand Germany, in the field of screw compressors/expanders. COMOTI passed, in recent years, from being a GHH-Rand licensed manufacturer for a range of oil-injected screw compressors, of CU type, to a new phase of range diversification, approaching screw compressors with a maximum discharge pressure of 45 bara. So, in cooperation with City University and GHH-Rand we design, manufacture and test, with air, in COMOTI test bench the new type of screw compressor named CHP 220. Also, the cooperation with GHH-Rand has resulted in the design, manufacture and air testing on the test bench, and then gas testing - in a gas compression station - for an electric generator driven by a screw expander. This paper presents how the tests were carried out, the experimental data and the interpretation of results

  14. Overview of Necessary Modifications for Commercial Diesel Engines in Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-20

    TURBOCHARGING If the EGR system is removed from a COTS engine, changes to the turbocharger mostly likely will need to be made. Typically, EGR makes up...the compressor needs to compensate by drawing more fresh air. For optimum power and response, the turbocharger needs to be resized to handle the...7. Heywood, J, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals . New York : McGraw-Hill, 1988. 8. Brandt, A, Muzzell, P, Sattler, E, Likos, W, Military fuel

  15. Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    contracting officers purchased Heavy Fuel Engine 2.0 Liter Turbochargers at an average unit cost of for a total value of General Atomics proposed...Liter Turbocharger to establish an accurate baseline and could potentially overpay on future contracts. See Figure 10 for a picture of the Heavy...Fuel Engine 2.0 Liter Turbocharger . 19 Federal Acquisition Regulation 15.402, “Pricing Policy,” May 29, 2014. 20 Federal Acquisition Regulation 15.404

  16. Model Driven Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan

    A relevant initiative from the software engineering community called Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is being developed in parallel with the Semantic Web (Mellor et al. 2003a). The MDE approach to software development suggests that one should first develop a model of the system under study, which is then transformed into the real thing (i.e., an executable software entity). The most important research initiative in this area is the Model Driven Architecture (MDA), which is Model Driven Architecture being developed under the umbrella of the Object Management Group (OMG). This chapter describes the basic concepts of this software engineering effort.

  17. The influence of data-driven versus conceptually-driven processing on the development of PTSD-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Merel; van den Hout, Marcel; Arntz, Arnoud; Drost, Jolijn

    2008-12-01

    Ehlers and Clark [(2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345] propose that a predominance of data-driven processing during the trauma predicts subsequent PTSD. We wondered whether, apart from data-driven encoding, sustained data-driven processing after the trauma is also crucial for the development of PTSD. Both hypotheses were tested in two analogue experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that relative to conceptually-driven processing (n=20), data-driven processing after the film (n=14), resulted in more intrusions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that relative to the neutral condition (n=24) and the data-driven encoding condition (n=24), conceptual encoding (n=25) reduced suppression of intrusions and a trend emerged for memory fragmentation. The difference between the two encoding styles was due to the beneficial effect of induced conceptual encoding and not to the detrimental effect of data-driven encoding. The data support the viability of the distinction between data-driven/conceptually-driven processing for the understanding of the development of PTSD.

  18. Thermally Driven Josephson Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A concept is proposed of the thermally driven Josephson effect in superfluid helium. Heretofore, the Josephson effect in a superfluid has been recognized as an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady pressure difference between two superfluid reservoirs separated by an array of submicron-sized orifices, which act in unison as a single Josephson junction. Analogously, the thermally driven Josephson effect is an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady temperature difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect is partly a consequence of a quantum- mechanical effect known as the fountain effect, in which a temperature difference in a superfluid is accompanied by a pressure difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect may have significance for the development of a high-resolution gyroscope based on the Josephson effect in a superfluid: If the pressure-driven Josephson effect were used, then the fluid on the high-pressure side would become depleted, necessitating periodic interruption of operation to reverse the pressure difference. If the thermally driven Josephson effect were used, there would be no net flow and so the oscillatory flow could be maintained indefinitely by maintaining the required slightly different temperatures on both sides of the junction.

  19. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... turbocharger (uncoupled) for cracks, distortion, and evidence indicative of improper surface mating. (3) Inspect the three exhaust system slip joints between each turbocharger and its closest riser for seizure...

  20. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  1. Metal enrichment of the intracluster medium: SN-driven galactic winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, V.; Breitschwerdt, D.

    2009-12-01

    % We investigate the role of supernova (SN)-driven galactic winds in the chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM). Such outflows on galactic scales have their origin in huge star forming regions and expel metal enriched material out of the galaxies into their surroundings as observed, for example, in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253. As massive stars in OB-associations explode sequentially, shock waves are driven into the interstellar medium (ISM) of a galaxy and merge, forming a superbubble (SB). These SBs expand in a direction perpendicular to the disk plane following the density gradient of the ISM. We use the 2D analytical approximation by Kompaneets (1960) to model the expansion of SBs in an exponentially stratified ISM. This is modified in order to describe the sequence of SN-explosions as a time-dependent process taking into account the main-sequence life-time of the SN-progenitors and using an initial mass function to get the number of massive stars per mass interval. The evolution of the bubble in space and time is calculated analytically, from which the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in the shell can be determined. In its further evolution, the shell will break up and high-metallicity gas will be ejected into the halo of the galaxy and even into the ICM. We derive the number of stars needed for blow-out depending on the scale height and density of the ambient medium, as well as the fraction of alpha- and iron peak elements contained in the hot gas. Finally, the amount of metals injected by Milky Way-type galaxies to the ICM is calculated confirming the importance of this enrichment process.

  2. Probing Gas Stripping with Resolved Star-Formation Maps of Virgo Filament Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collova, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    We are conducting a multi-wavelength study of the gas in galaxies at a variety of positions in the cosmic web surrounding the Virgo cluster, one of the best studied regions of high density in the Universe. Galaxies are very likely pre-processed in filaments before falling into clusters, and our goal is to understand how galaxies are altered as they move through the cosmic web and enter the densest regions. We present spatially-resolved H-alpha imaging results from the KPNO 0.9-m and INT 2.54-m telescopes for a preliminary sample of 30 galaxies. We will combine the star-formation maps with observations of molecular and atomic gas to calculate gas consumption timescales, characterize multiple phases of the galactic gas, and look for signatures of environmentally-driven depletion. This work is supported in part by NSF grant AST-1716657.

  3. Propulsion Selection for 85kft Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Science Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Hahn, Andrew; Cyrus, John; Schmitz, Paul; Harp, Jim; King, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how a 3 stage turbocharged gasoline engine was selected to power NASA's atmospheric science unmanned aircraft now under development. The airplane, whose purpose is to fly sampling instruments through targeted regions of the upper atmosphere at the exact location and time (season, time of day) where the most interesting chemistry is taking place, must have a round trip range exceeding 1000 km, carry a payload of about 500 lb to altitudes exceeding 80 kft over the site, and be able to remain above that altitude for at least 30 minutes before returning to base. This is a subsonic aircraft (the aerodynamic heating and shock associated with supersonic flight could easily destroy the chemical species that are being sampled) and it must be constructed so it will operate out of small airfields at primitive remote sites worldwide, under varying climate and weather conditions. Finally it must be low cost, since less than $50 M is available for its development. These requirements put severe constraints on the aircraft design (for example, wing loading in the vicinity of 10 psf) and have in turn limited the propulsion choices to already-existing hardware, or limited adaptations of existing hardware. The only candidate that could emerge under these circumstances was a propeller driven aircraft powered by spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines, whose intake pressurization is accomplished by multiple stages of turbo-charging and intercooling. Fortunately the turbocharged SI powerplant, owing to its rich automotive heritage and earlier intensive aero powerplant development during WWII, enjoys in addition to its potentially low development costs some subtle physical advantages (arising from its near-stochiometric combustion) that may make it smaller and lighter than either a turbine engine or a diesel for these altitudes. Just as fortunately, the NASA/industry team developing this aircraft includes the same people who built multi-stage turbocharged SI powerplants

  4. BSRs Elevated by Fluid Upwelling on the Upper Amazon Fan : Bottom-up Controls on Gas Hydrate Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praeg, D.; Silva, C. G.; dos Reis, A. T.; Ketzer, J. M.; Unnithan, V.; Perovano Da Silva, R. J.; Cruz, A. M.; Gorini, C.

    2017-12-01

    The stability of natural gas hydrate accumulations on continental margins has mainly been considered in terms of changes in seawater pressures and temperatures driven from above by climate. We present evidence from the Amazon deep-sea fan for stability zone changes driven from below by fluid upwelling. A grid of 2D and 3D multichannel seismic data show the upper Amazon fan in water depths of 1200-2000 m to contain a discontinuous bottom-simulating seismic reflection (BSR) that forms `patches' 10-50 km wide and up to 140 km long, over a total area of at least 5000 km2. The elongate BSR patches coincide with anticlinal thrust-folds that record on-going gravitational collapse of the fan above décollements at depths of up to 10 km. The BSR lies within 100-300 m of seafloor, in places rising beneath features that seafloor imagery show to be pockmarks and mud volcanoes, some venting gas to the water column. The BSR patches are up to 500 m shallower than predicted for methane hydrate based on geothermal gradients as low as 17˚C/km measured within the upper fan, and inversion of the BSR to obtain temperatures at the phase boundary indicates gradients 2-5 times background levels. We interpret the strongly elevated BSR patches to record upwelling of warm gas-rich fluids through thrust-fault zones 101 km wide. We infer this process to favour gas hydrate occurrences that are concentrated in proportion to flux and locally pierced by vents, and that will be sensitive to temporal variations in the upward flux of heat and gas. Thus episodes of increased flux, e.g. during thrusting, could dissociate gas hydrates to trigger slope failures and/or enhanced gas venting to the ocean. Structurally-driven fluid flow episodes could account for evidence of recurrent large-scale failures from the compressive belt on the upper fan during its Neogene collapse, and provide a long-term alternative to sea level triggering. The proposed mechanism of upward flux links the distribution and

  5. Data-Driven and Expectation-Driven Discovery of Empirical Laws.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-10

    occurred in small integer proportions to each other. In 1809, Joseph Gay- Lussac found evidence for his law of combining volumes, which stated that a...of Empirical Laws Patrick W. Langley Gary L. Bradshaw Herbert A. Simon T1he Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Data-Driven and Expectation-Driven Discovery Interim Report 2/82-10/82 of Empirical Laws S. PERFORMING ORG

  6. Motor vehicle technology:Mobility for prosperity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on internal combustion engines for vehicles. Topics considered at the conference included combustion chambers, the lubrication of turbocharged engines, oil filters, fuel consumption, traffic control, crashworthiness, brakes, acceleration, unleaded gasoline, methanol fuels, pressure drop, safety regulations, tire vibration, detergents, fuel economy, ceramics in engines, steels, catalytic converters, fuel additives, heat exchangers, pump systems, emissions control, fuel injection systems, noise pollution control, natural gas fuels, assembly plant productivity, aerodynamics, torsion, electronics, and automatic transmissions.

  7. Gas-driven microturbine

    DOEpatents

    Sniegowski, Jeffrey J.; Rodgers, Murray S.; McWhorter, Paul J.; Aeschliman, Daniel P.; Miller, William M.

    2002-01-01

    A microturbine fabricated by a three-level semiconductor batch-fabrication process based on polysilicon surface-micromachining. The microturbine comprises microelectromechanical elements formed from three polysilicon multi-layer surfaces applied to a silicon substrate. Interleaving sacrificial oxide layers provides electrical and physical isolation, and selective etching of both the sacrificial layers and the polysilicon layers allows formation of individual mechanical and electrical elements as well as the required space for necessary movement of rotating turbine parts and linear elements.

  8. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  9. Knudsen temperature jump and the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics of granular gases driven by thermal walls.

    PubMed

    Khain, Evgeniy; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2008-10-01

    Thermal wall is a convenient idealization of a rapidly vibrating plate used for vibrofluidization of granular materials. The objective of this work is to incorporate the Knudsen temperature jump at thermal wall in the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic modeling of dilute granular gases of monodisperse particles that collide nearly elastically. The Knudsen temperature jump manifests itself as an additional term, proportional to the temperature gradient, in the boundary condition for the temperature. Up to a numerical prefactor O(1) , this term is known from kinetic theory of elastic gases. We determine the previously unknown numerical prefactor by measuring, in a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, steady-state temperature profiles of a gas of elastically colliding hard disks, confined between two thermal walls kept at different temperatures, and comparing the results with the predictions of a hydrodynamic calculation employing the modified boundary condition. The modified boundary condition is then applied, without any adjustable parameters, to a hydrodynamic calculation of the temperature profile of a gas of inelastic hard disks driven by a thermal wall. We find the hydrodynamic prediction to be in very good agreement with MD simulations of the same system. The results of this work pave the way to a more accurate hydrodynamic modeling of driven granular gases.

  10. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Deming; Cai Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-19

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  11. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Deming; Cai, Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  12. Surfactant effects on heat transfer at gas/liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, J. M.; Hirsa, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    A formulation of a canonical model to elucidate the interplay and competition between three primary sources of heat and mass transfer in non-isothermal systems with gas/liquid interfaces is presented. The nonlinear interaction between (i) buoyancy driven flow in the bulk, (ii) thermal Marangoni flow at the gas/liquid interface, and (iii) surfactant Marangoni flow at the interface is considered. A numerical model of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations is being developed for a simple, axisymmetric flow geometry. The boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes equations are functions of the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the interface, specifically the surface tension and the surface viscosities. A flow geometry which is amenable to both experiments and computations for elucidating the separate effects of the three mechanisms consists of an annular region bounded by a stationary inner and an outer cylinder and floor, and a free surface. The flow is driven by the temperature difference between the inner and outer cylinder which are set independently, and the floor is insulated. The predictions of the model for earth-g can be compared to laboratory measurements of the velocity field, and the surface temperature distribution. The predictions of the model for arbitrary gravity may be subsequently tested in the microgravity environment. .

  13. Laser-driven heat-front propagation in foam vs. gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, F.; Colvin, J. D.; May, M. J.; Gammon, S. A.; Fournier, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    A high-energy laser (several kJ, 1015 W/cm2) can propagate inside an underdense plasma over millimeters, along its associated heat front. This creates a large volume of hot plasma (several keV) able to produce bright hard-x-ray sources when a high-Z dopant is included in the material. In the past years, we investigated the behavior of both gases and foams under these circumstances. Their design and predictability relies on the understanding of the heat front propagation. In the case of foams, several studies tried to assess the effect of their micro-structure in altering the laser interaction and the heat front propagation, but no experimental data has shown clear evidence. We present here the design and results of a recent experiment, using the OMEGA laser, where a Ge-doped silica foam was compared to a Ne/Kr gas of very similar characteristics, the only difference between these two materials being their micro-structure to allow for a straightforward determination of its influence. The design of future similar experiments will also be reported. J. Colvin presents theoretical and modeling aspects of this subject in a companion presentation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Impact of roughness on the instability of a free-cooling granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzó, Vicente; Santos, Andrés; Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2018-05-01

    A linear stability analysis of the hydrodynamic equations with respect to the homogeneous cooling state is carried out to identify the conditions for stability of a granular gas of rough hard spheres. The description is based on the results for the transport coefficients derived from the Boltzmann equation for inelastic rough hard spheres [Phys. Rev. E 90, 022205 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.022205], which take into account the complete nonlinear dependence of the transport coefficients and the cooling rate on the coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. As expected, linear stability analysis shows that a doubly degenerate transversal (shear) mode and a longitudinal ("heat") mode are unstable with respect to long enough wavelength excitations. The instability is driven by the shear mode above a certain inelasticity threshold; at larger inelasticity, however, the instability is driven by the heat mode for an inelasticity-dependent range of medium roughness. Comparison with the case of a granular gas of inelastic smooth spheres confirms previous simulation results about the dual role played by surface friction: while small and large levels of roughness make the system less unstable than the frictionless system, the opposite happens at medium roughness. On the other hand, such an intermediate window of roughness values shrinks as inelasticity increases and eventually disappears at a certain value, beyond which the rough-sphere gas is always less unstable than the smooth-sphere gas. A comparison with some preliminary simulation results shows a very good agreement for conditions of practical interest.

  15. 40 CFR 86.004-25 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... injectors. (B) Turbocharger. (C) Electronic engine control unit and its associated sensors and actuators. (D... paragraphs (b)(4)(iv) (A)-(G) of this section. (A) Fuel injectors. (B) Turbocharger. (C) Electronic engine...

  16. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  17. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  18. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Anders; Visser, Eric J W; Colmer, Timothy D; Brodersen, Klaus P; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole

    2016-07-01

    Traits for survival during flooding of terrestrial plants include stimulation or inhibition of shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation and efficient gas exchange. Leaf gas films form on superhydrophobic cuticles during submergence and enhance underwater gas exchange. The main hypothesis tested was that the presence of leaf gas films influences the distribution of plant species along a natural flood gradient. We conducted laboratory experiments and field observations on species distributed along a natural flood gradient. We measured presence or absence of leaf gas films and specific leaf area of 95 species. We also measured, gas film retention time during submergence and underwater net photosynthesis and dark respiration of 25 target species. The presence of a leaf gas film was inversely correlated to flood frequency and duration and reached a maximum value of 80% of the species in the rarely flooded locations. This relationship was primarily driven by grasses that all, independently of their field location along the flood gradient, possess gas films when submerged. Although the present study and earlier experiments have shown that leaf gas films enhance gas exchange of submerged plants, the ability of species to form leaf gas films did not show the hypothesized relationship with species composition along the flood gradient. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. From current-driven to neoclassically driven tearing modes.

    PubMed

    Reimerdes, H; Sauter, O; Goodman, T; Pochelon, A

    2002-03-11

    In the TCV tokamak, the m/n = 2/1 island is observed in low-density discharges with central electron-cyclotron current drive. The evolution of its width has two distinct growth phases, one of which can be linked to a "conventional" tearing mode driven unstable by the current profile and the other to a neoclassical tearing mode driven by a perturbation of the bootstrap current. The TCV results provide the first clear observation of such a destabilization mechanism and reconcile the theory of conventional and neoclassical tearing modes, which differ only in the dominant driving term.

  20. Superstatistical Energy Distributions of an Ion in an Ultracold Buffer Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, I.; Willitsch, S.

    2017-04-01

    An ion in a radio frequency ion trap interacting with a buffer gas of ultracold neutral atoms is a driven dynamical system which has been found to develop a nonthermal energy distribution with a power law tail. The exact analytical form of this distribution is unknown, but has often been represented empirically by q -exponential (Tsallis) functions. Based on the concepts of superstatistics, we introduce a framework for the statistical mechanics of an ion trapped in an rf field subject to collisions with a buffer gas. We derive analytic ion secular energy distributions from first principles both neglecting and including the effects of the thermal energy of the buffer gas. For a buffer gas with a finite temperature, we prove that Tsallis statistics emerges from the combination of a constant heating term and multiplicative energy fluctuations. We show that the resulting distributions essentially depend on experimentally controllable parameters paving the way for an accurate control of the statistical properties of ion-atom hybrid systems.

  1. Characteristics of a DC-Driven Atmospheric Pressure Air Microplasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaegu; Matsuo, Keita; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2008-08-01

    A dc-driven atmospheric pressure air plasma jet has been investigated for some applications, such as local dental treatment, the inner surface treatment of capillaries, stimuli for microorganisms, and the local cleaning of semiconductor devices. The main experimental results are as follows. The discharge in the pulsed mode occurs repetitively despite of the dc input, and the pulsed mode transfers to the continuous mode as the current exceeds a threshold. The measured emission spectrum from the arc column of the air discharge reveals that most energy of activated electrons is used for the excitation of N2 (second positive system bands) and part of the energy for the dissociation of O2. The length of the plasma torch depends on the tube length, inner gap distance, and flow rate. The maximum torch length of about 40 mm is obtained under certain conditions. The spatial distributions of plasma gas temperature are measured and confirmed by the visualization of the gas flow using Schlieren images. Furthermore, surface treatment and decolorization using the generated plasma torch are carried out, focusing on industrial applications.

  2. Photoionization and heating of a supernova-driven turbulent interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. E.; Wood, Kenneth; Hill, Alex S.; Haffner, L. M.

    2014-06-01

    The diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in galaxies traces photoionization feedback from massive stars. Through three-dimensional photoionization simulations, we study the propagation of ionizing photons, photoionization heating and the resulting distribution of ionized and neutral gas within snapshots of magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a supernova-driven turbulent interstellar medium. We also investigate the impact of non-photoionization heating on observed optical emission line ratios. Inclusion of a heating term which scales less steeply with electron density than photoionization is required to produce diagnostic emission line ratios similar to those observed with the Wisconsin Hα Mapper. Once such heating terms have been included, we are also able to produce temperatures similar to those inferred from observations of the DIG, with temperatures increasing to above 15 000 K at heights |z| ≳ 1 kpc. We find that ionizing photons travel through low-density regions close to the mid-plane of the simulations, while travelling through diffuse low-density regions at large heights. The majority of photons travel small distances (≲100 pc); however some travel kiloparsecs and ionize the DIG.

  3. Radical production inside an acoustically driven microbubble.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Laura; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    The chemical production of radicals inside acoustically driven bubbles is determined by the local temperature inside the bubbles and by their composition at collapse. By means of a previously validated ordinary differential equations (ODE) model [L. Stricker, A. Prosperetti, D. Lohse, Validation of an approximate model for the thermal behavior in acoustically driven bubbles, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130 (5) (2011) 3243-3251], based on boundary layer assumption for mass and heat transport, we study the influence of different parameters on the radical production. We perform different simulations by changing the driving frequency and pressure, the temperature of the surrounding liquid and the composition of the gas inside the bubbles. In agreement with the experimental conditions of new generation sonochemical reactors, where the bubbles undergo transient cavitation oscillations [D. F. Rivas, L. Stricker, A. Zijlstra, H. Gardeniers, D. Lohse, A. Prosperetti, Ultrasound artificially nucleated bubbles and their sonochemical radical production, Ultrason. Sonochem. 20 (1) (2013) 510-524], we mainly concentrate on the initial chemical transient and we suggest optimal working ranges for technological applications. The importance of the chemical composition at collapse is reflected in the model, including the role of entrapped water vapor. We in particular study the exothermal reactions taking place in H2 and O2 mixtures. At the exact stoichiometric mixture 2:1 the highest internal bubble temperatures are achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear activity of acoustically driven gas bubble near a rigid boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimov, Alexey

    2015-10-28

    The presence of a boundary can produce considerable changes in the oscillation amplitude of the bubble and its scattered echo. The present study fills a gap in the literature, in that it is concerned theoretically with the bubble activity at relatively small distances from the rigid boundary. It was shown that the bi-spherical coordinates provide separation of variables and are more suitable for analysis of the dynamics of these constrained bubbles. Explicit formulas have been derived which describe the dependence of the bubble emission near a rigid wall on its size and the separation distance between the bubble and themore » boundary. As applications, time reversal technique for gas leakage detection and radiation forces that are induced by an acoustic wave on a constrained bubble were analyzed.« less

  5. Ultraviolet gas absorption and dust extinction toward M8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Don; Bohm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Interstellar absorption lines are analyzed using high-resolution IUE spectra of 11 stars in the young cluster NGC 6530 located in the M8 region. High-velocity clouds at -35 km/s and -60 km/s are seen toward all cluster stars. The components arise in gases that are part of large interstellar bubbles centered on the cluster and driven by stellar winds of the most luminous members. Absorption lines of species of different ionization states are separated in velocity. The velocity stratification is best explained as a 'champagne' flow of ionized gas away from the cluster. The C IV/Si IV ratios toward the hotter cluster members are consistent with simple photoionization models if the gas-phase C/Si ratio is increased by preferential accretion onto dust grains. High ion column densities in the central cluster decline with distance from W93, suggesting that radiation from a hot source near W93 has photoionized gas in the central cluster.

  6. Plasma processes in inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters, particularly with large diameters, have continued to be of interest for space propulsion applications. Two plasma processes are treated in this study: electron diffusion across magnetic fields and double ion production in inert-gas thrusters. A model is developed to describe electron diffusion across a magnetic field that is driven by both density and potential gradients, with Bohm diffusion used to predict the diffusion rate. This model has applications to conduction across magnetic fields inside a discharge chamber, as well as through a magnetic baffle region used to isolate a hollow cathode from the main chamber. A theory for double ion production is presented, which is not as complete as the electron diffusion theory described, but it should be a useful tool for predicting double ion sputter erosion. Correlations are developed that may be used, without experimental data, to predict double ion densities for the design of new and especially larger ion thrusters.

  7. Is "Market-Driven" Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Discusses marketing and management strategies and evaluates the path most traveled; going beyond market-driven; proactive and reactive organizational positioning; ways to manage human and physical resources to make both market-driven and market-making contributions; and values necessary for an organization to move from market-driven to…

  8. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  9. Discharge runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of carbon: the effect of gas pressure, composition and target peak voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelaru, Catalin; Aijaz, Asim; Constantina Parau, Anca; Kiss, Adrian Emil; Sobetkii, Arcadie; Kubart, Tomas

    2018-04-01

    Pressure and target voltage driven discharge runaway from low to high discharge current density regimes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of carbon is investigated. The main purpose is to provide a meaningful insight of the discharge dynamics, with the ultimate goal to establish a correlation between discharge properties and process parameters to control the film growth. This is achieved by examining a wide range of pressures (2–20 mTorr) and target voltages (700–850 V) and measuring ion saturation current density at the substrate position. We show that the minimum plasma impedance is an important parameter identifying the discharge transition as well as establishing a stable operating condition. Using the formalism of generalized recycling model, we introduce a new parameter, ‘recycling ratio’, to quantify the process gas recycling for specific process conditions. The model takes into account the ion flux to the target, the amount of gas available, and the amount of gas required for sustaining the discharge. We show that this parameter describes the relation between the gas recycling and the discharge current density. As a test case, we discuss the pressure and voltage driven transitions by changing the gas composition when adding Ne into the discharge. We propose that standard Ar HiPIMS discharges operated with significant gas recycling do not require Ne to increase the carbon ionization.

  10. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R.; Dodson, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846.

  12. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, J.R.; Dodson, M.G.

    1999-05-25

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846. 8 figs.

  13. HOW SIGNIFICANT IS RADIATION PRESSURE IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE GAS AROUND YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo, E-mail: silich@inaoep.mx

    2013-03-01

    The impact of radiation pressure on the dynamics of the gas in the vicinity of young stellar clusters is thoroughly discussed. The radiation over the thermal/ram pressure ratio time evolution is calculated explicitly and the crucial roles of the cluster mechanical power, the strong time evolution of the ionizing photon flux, and the bolometric luminosity of the exciting cluster are stressed. It is shown that radiation has only a narrow window of opportunity to dominate the wind-driven shell dynamics. This may occur only at early stages of the bubble evolution and if the shell expands into a dusty and/or amore » very dense proto-cluster medium. The impact of radiation pressure on the wind-driven shell always becomes negligible after about 3 Myr. Finally, the wind-driven model results allow one to compare the model predictions with the distribution of thermal pressure derived from X-ray observations. The shape of the thermal pressure profile then allows us to distinguish between the energy and the momentum-dominated regimes of expansion and thus conclude whether radiative losses of energy or the leakage of hot gas from the bubble interior have been significant during bubble evolution.« less

  14. Gas/Surface Interaction Study Applied to Si-based Materials Used in Driven Micro- and Nano-scale Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    science and engineering. For example, by measuring the frequency shift of sensor oscillations, one can measure gas adsorption on the sensor surface...free-molecular regime with varied gas pressure. The measurement path of the experimental setup is schematically shown in Fig. 3.1. The sensor is...excited by the electric field between the sensor and fixed electrode by means of a specially designed system of self-induced oscillations. The

  15. Supernova-driven outflows and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yong-Zhong; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a general phenomenological model for the metallicity distribution (MD) in terms of [Fe/H] for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). These galaxies appear to have stopped accreting gas from the intergalactic medium and are fossilized systems with their stars undergoing slow internal evolution. For a wide variety of infall histories of unprocessed baryonic matter to feed star formation, most of the observed MDs can be well described by our model. The key requirement is that the fraction of the gas mass lost by supernova-driven outflows is close to unity. This model also predicts a relationship between the total stellar mass and the mean metallicity for dSphs in accord with properties of their dark matter halos. The model further predicts as a natural consequence that the abundance ratios [E/Fe] for elements such as O, Mg, and Si decrease for stellar populations at the higher end of the [Fe/H] range in a dSph. We show that, for infall rates far below the net rate of gas loss to star formation and outflows, the MD in our model is very sharply peaked at one [Fe/H] value, similar to what is observed in most globular clusters. This result suggests that globular clusters may be end members of the same family as dSphs. PMID:22411827

  16. Supernova-driven outflows and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong-Zhong; Wasserburg, G J

    2012-03-27

    We present a general phenomenological model for the metallicity distribution (MD) in terms of [Fe/H] for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). These galaxies appear to have stopped accreting gas from the intergalactic medium and are fossilized systems with their stars undergoing slow internal evolution. For a wide variety of infall histories of unprocessed baryonic matter to feed star formation, most of the observed MDs can be well described by our model. The key requirement is that the fraction of the gas mass lost by supernova-driven outflows is close to unity. This model also predicts a relationship between the total stellar mass and the mean metallicity for dSphs in accord with properties of their dark matter halos. The model further predicts as a natural consequence that the abundance ratios [E/Fe] for elements such as O, Mg, and Si decrease for stellar populations at the higher end of the [Fe/H] range in a dSph. We show that, for infall rates far below the net rate of gas loss to star formation and outflows, the MD in our model is very sharply peaked at one [Fe/H] value, similar to what is observed in most globular clusters. This result suggests that globular clusters may be end members of the same family as dSphs.

  17. A Three Parsec-Scale Jet-Driven Outflow from Sgr A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H.; Cotton, W.; Haggard, D.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.

    2012-01-01

    The compact radio source Sgr A* is coincident with a 4x 10(exp 6) solar Mass black hole at the dynamical center of the Galaxy and is surrounded by dense orbiting ionized and molecular gas. We present high resolution radio continuum images of the central 3' and report a faint continuous linear structure centered on Sgr A*. This feature is rotated by 28 deg in PA with respect to the Galactic plane. A number of weak blobs of radio emission with X-ray counterparts are detected along the axis of the linear structure. In addition, the continuous linear feature appears to be terminated symmetrically by two linearly polarized structures at 8.4 GHz, approx 75" from Sgr A*. The linear structure is best characterized by a mildly relativistic jet-driven outflow from Sgr A*, and an outflow rate 10(exp 6) solar M / yr. The near and far-sides of the jet are interacting with orbiting ionized and molecular gas over the last 1-3 hundred years and are responsible for the origin of a 2" hole, the "minicavity", where disturbed kinematics, enhanced FeII/III line emission, and diffuse X-ray gas have been detected. The estimated kinetic luminosity of the outflow is approx 1.2 X 10(exp 41) erg/s which can produce the Galactic center X-ray flash that has recently been identified

  18. Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactionsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Yong

    2009-05-01

    The generation of intense terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions is studied on a basis of transient electron current model. When an ultrashort pulse laser's fundamental and its second harmonic fields are mixed to ionize a gas, a nonvanishing, directional photoelectron current can be produced, which simultaneously emits terahertz radiation in the far field. Here, the generation mechanism is examined with an analytic derivation and numerical simulations, in which tunneling ionization and subsequent electron motion in the combined laser field play a key role. In the simulations, three types of laser-gas interactions are considered: (i) mixing the fundamental and its second harmonic fields, (ii) mixing nonharmonic, two-color fields, and (iii) focusing single-color, few-cycle pulses. In these interactions, terahertz generation and other nonlinear effects driven by the transient current are investigated. In particular, anticorrelation between terahertz and second (or third) harmonic generation is observed and analyzed.

  19. Micron-size hydrogen cluster target for laser-driven proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Uno, M.; Matsui, R.; Uesaka, M.; Kishimoto, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

    2018-04-01

    As a new laser-driven ion acceleration technique, we proposed a way to produce impurity-free, highly reproducible, and robust proton beams exceeding 100 MeV using a Coulomb explosion of micron-size hydrogen clusters. In this study, micron-size hydrogen clusters were generated by expanding the cooled high-pressure hydrogen gas into a vacuum via a conical nozzle connected to a solenoid valve cooled by a mechanical cryostat. The size distributions of the hydrogen clusters were evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of laser light scattered from the clusters. The data were analyzed mathematically based on the Mie scattering theory combined with the Tikhonov regularization method. The maximum size of the hydrogen cluster at 25 K and 6 MPa in the stagnation state was recognized to be 2.15 ± 0.10 μm. The mean cluster size decreased with increasing temperature, and was found to be much larger than that given by Hagena’s formula. This discrepancy suggests that the micron-size hydrogen clusters were formed by the atomization (spallation) of the liquid or supercritical fluid phase of hydrogen. In addition, the density profiles of the gas phase were evaluated for 25 to 80 K at 6 MPa using a Nomarski interferometer. Based on the measurement results and the equation of state for hydrogen, the cluster mass fraction was obtained. 3D particles-in-cell (PIC) simulations concerning the interaction processes of micron-size hydrogen clusters with high power laser pulses predicted the generation of protons exceeding 100 MeV and accelerating in a laser propagation direction via an anisotropic Coulomb explosion mechanism, thus demonstrating a future candidate in laser-driven proton sources for upcoming multi-petawatt lasers.

  20. Response characteristic of high-speed on/off valve with double voltage driving circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. X.; Su, M.; Zhang, D. B.

    2017-07-01

    High-speed on/off valve, an important part of turbocharging system, its quick response has a direct impact on the turbocharger pressure cycle. The methods of improving the response characteristic of high speed on/off valve include increasing the magnetic force of armature and the voltage, decreasing the mass and current of coil. The less coil number of turns, the solenoid force is smaller. The special armature structure and the magnetic material will raise cost. In this paper a new scheme of double voltage driving circuit is investigated, in which the original driving circuit of high-speed on/off valve is replaced by double voltage driving circuit. The detailed theoretical analysis and simulations were carried out on the double voltage driving circuit, it showed that the switching time and delay time of the valve respectively are 3.3ms, 5.3ms, 1.9ms and 1.8ms. When it is driven by the double voltage driving circuit, the switching time and delay time of this valve are reduced, optimizing its response characteristic. By the comparison related factors (such as duty cycle or working frequency) about influences on response characteristic, the superior of double voltage driving circuit has been further confirmed.