Science.gov

Sample records for gas emissions monitoring

  1. Predictive emission monitoring successfully replaces CEMS in gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    As more and more regulations require enhanced monitoring of stack emissions, a number of industries are turning from conventional continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) to predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS). PEMS typically cost less to install and operate than CEMS, and they frequently offer a number of additional advantages, including low maintenance and high reliability. The advantages of PEMS are discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  3. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produced in process units that are intolerant to sulfur contamination, such as fuel gas streams produced in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES... monitoring and recording the concentration (dry basis, 0 percent excess air) of SO2 emissions into...

  4. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produced in process units that are intolerant to sulfur contamination, such as fuel gas streams produced in... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES... monitoring and recording the concentration (dry basis, 0 percent excess air) of SO2 emissions into...

  5. Sensor-based analyzer for continuous emission monitoring in gas pipeline applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.F.; Sheridan, D.R.; Cooper, M.D.; Banchieri, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of gas turbine engines in pipeline service have typically been monitored using either laboratory derived instruments (CEMS), or predicted using data from low cost sensors on the engines and algorithms generated by mapping engine performance (PEMS). A new cost-effective system developed under a program sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (Chicago) combines the advantages of both systems to monitor engine emissions in gas transmission service. This hybrid system is a sensor-based analyzer that uses a sensor array, including a newly developed NO{sub x} sensor, to directly monitor NO{sub x}, CO, and O{sub 2} emissions at the stack. The gases are measured hot and wet. The new systems were installed and tested on a gas-fired Rolls Royce Spey turbine engine and on Ingersoll-Rand KVG-410 and Cooper GMVH-10 reciprocating engines in gas transmission service. These systems passed the Relative Accuracy Test (Part B) required under US EPA regulations (40 CFR 60).

  6. Use of UAVs for greenhouse gas monitoring at hotspot emissions zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, J. R.; Allen, G.; Mead, M. I.; Hollingsworth, P.; Kabbabe, K.; Roberts, G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring greenhouse gas emissions from individual localised sources, or "hotspots", is important for both compliance monitoring and validating the techniques used to compile national emission inventories. Frequently ground based techniques are used, such as flux chamber measurements, which suffer from issues regarding sample representativeness, and tracer release methods, which for area sources rely heavily on release site configuration. Obtaining vertically resolved data can enable the use of a mass balance method to calculate greenhouse gas fluxes. This has been achieved using remote sensing techniques, but this usually requires the deployment of expensive, bulky instrumentation. Here we evaluate the suitability of using UAVs, in conjunction with emerging miniaturised sensor technology, as a highly manoeuvrable, low cost alternative for measuring hotspot greenhouse gas emissions. We describe a case study performed at a UK landfill site, where greenhouse gas measurements made on board a fixed wing UAV were used to estimate the bulk CH4 emission rate. Details of the mass balance technique employed, along with the key uncertainties associated with it, are discussed. This work is part of an ongoing study at the University of Manchester into the application of UAVs in atmospheric research, with the rapid advancement in miniaturised sensor technology providing new opportunities for integrating trace gas measurement with existing lightweight UAVs.

  7. Continuous emission monitoring technologies applicable to the natural gas transmission industry. Topical report, September 1993-September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    All major sources of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions must obtain operating permits under Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Each permit application must contain a plan for monitoring emissions that will demonstrate the source`s compliance with its permitted emission limits. Several established methods for demonstrating compliance are available, including the use of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems--sampling and analytical equipment that allows gaseous emissions to be measured directly and continuously. In response to pending regulations, the Gas Research Institute recently sponsored a study on the types of CEM systems currently available to the natural gas industry for continuously monitoring NOx and CO emissions. The report describes various advantages and disadvantages of using particular types of continuous monitoring equipment for reciprocating engines and gas turbines.

  8. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Albertson, J. D.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.; Rudek, J.; Thoma, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools for estimating emission rates from mobile methane measurements, and examines results from recent field measurements conducted downwind of several industrial plants using a specialized vehicle equipped with fast response methane sensor. Using these data along with local meteorological data measured by a 3-D sonic anemometer, a Bayesian approach is applied to probabilistically infer methane emission rates based on a modified Gaussian dispersion model. Source rates are updated recursively with repeated traversals of the downwind methane plume when the vehicle was circling around the targeted facilities. Data from controlled tracer release experiments are presented and used to validate the approach. With access via public roads, this mobile monitoring method is able to quickly assess the emission strength of facilities along the sensor path. This work is developing the capacity for efficient regional coverage of potential methane emission rates in support of leak detection and mitigation efforts.

  9. Application network for monitoring of green house gas emission from lithosphere in Khibina territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Nivin, Valentin; Litvinov, Artur; Chesalova, Elena; Baskov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The aim of project is to estimate the contribution of lithospheric flue gas emission of gases CH4, CO2, H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Arctic zone. The main task is organization of the ecological monitoring in the area of exploitation of large apatite and rare earth ore deposit from Khibine massive on the base of modern WSN (wireless sensor network) technologies. Application network consist from sensors of gas H2, CH4, CO2, complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer technical decisions for experimentally-methodical monitoring network on the base of WSN and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. The advantages of this technology is autonomous work (to several months and more), high-frequency programmable measurement of gas sensor, low cost (on one node of network), possibility to connect to one node of supervision a several types of sensors. And as a result is complex monitoring of environment. It has long been known that the pollution in Arctic Khibine and Lovosero region contains unusually high levels of hydrocarbon gases (HCG) [Petersilie,1964]. The presence of these gases has a number of practical implications and it is therefore important to understand their source and distribution. Among alkaline intrusive complexes with high (for magmatic rocks) concentrations of hydrocarbon and hydrogen- hydrocarbon gases occluded as fluid inclusions in minerals. The Khibina and Lovozero massives are well known, as region of spontaneous emissions of these gases from lithosphere [Khitarov et al., 1979; Ikorskii et al., 1992; Beeskow 2007; Nivin 2005, 2009]. The presence of the HCG, however, raises a number of questions and possibilities. It is unclear how homogeneously the HCG are distributed through the complex? What is the

  10. Acoustic monitoring of gas emissions from the seafloor. Part I: quantifying the volumetric flow of bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Isabelle; Scalabrin, Carla; Berger, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Three decades of continuous ocean exploration have led us to identify subsurface fluid related processes as a key phenomenon in marine earth science research. The number of seep areas located on the seafloor has been constantly increasing with the use of multi-scale imagery techniques. Due to recent advances in transducer technology and computer processing, multibeam echosounders are now commonly used to detect submarine gas seeps escaping from the seafloor into the water column. A growing number of en- route surveys shows that sites of gas emissions escaping from the seafloor are much more numerous than previously thought. Estimating the temporal variability of the gas flow rate and volumes escaping from the seafloor has thus become a challenge of relevant interest which could be addressed by sea-floor continuous acoustic monitoring. Here, we investigate the feasibility of estimating the volumetric flow rates of gas emissions from horizontal backscattered acoustic signals. Different models based on the acoustic backscattering theory of bubbles are presented. The forward volume backscattering strength and the inversion volumetric flow rate solutions were validated with acoustic measurements from artificial gas flow rates generated in controlled sea-water tank experiments. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate the behavior of the 120-kHz forward solution with respect to model input parameters (horizontal distance between transducer and bubble stream, bubble size distribution and ascent rate). The most sensitive parameter was found to be the distance of the bubble stream which can affect the volume backscattering strength by 20 dB within the horizontal range of 0-200 m. Results were used to derive the detection probability of a bubble stream for a given volume backscattering strength threshold according to different bubble flow rates and horizontal distance.

  11. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  12. Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

  13. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not yet been well quantified. This presentation introduces new m...

  14. The Mobile Monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools ...

  15. Application network for monitoring of green house gas emission from lithosphere in Khibina territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Nivin, Valentin; Litvinov, Artur; Chesalova, Elena; Baskov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The aim of project is to estimate the contribution of lithospheric flue gas emission of gases CH4, CO2, H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Arctic zone. The main task is organization of the ecological monitoring in the area of exploitation of large apatite and rare earth ore deposit from Khibine massive on the base of modern WSN (wireless sensor network) technologies. Application network consist from sensors of gas H2, CH4, CO2, complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer technical decisions for experimentally-methodical monitoring network on the base of WSN and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. The advantages of this technology is autonomous work (to several months and more), high-frequency programmable measurement of gas sensor, low cost (on one node of network), possibility to connect to one node of supervision a several types of sensors. And as a result is complex monitoring of environment. It has long been known that the pollution in Arctic Khibine and Lovosero region contains unusually high levels of hydrocarbon gases (HCG) [Petersilie,1964]. The presence of these gases has a number of practical implications and it is therefore important to understand their source and distribution. Among alkaline intrusive complexes with high (for magmatic rocks) concentrations of hydrocarbon and hydrogen- hydrocarbon gases occluded as fluid inclusions in minerals. The Khibina and Lovozero massives are well known, as region of spontaneous emissions of these gases from lithosphere [Khitarov et al., 1979; Ikorskii et al., 1992; Beeskow 2007; Nivin 2005, 2009]. The presence of the HCG, however, raises a number of questions and possibilities. It is unclear how homogeneously the HCG are distributed through the complex? What is the

  16. Continuous Monitoring of CH4 Emissions from Marcellus Shale Gas Extraction in South West Pennsylvania Using Top Down Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, D. P.; Belmecheri, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Sowers, T. A.; Bryant, S.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Aikins, J.; Sweeney, C.; Petron, G.; Davis, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas extraction from shale formations via hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) is expanding rapidly in several regions of North America. In Pennsylvania, the number of wells drilled to extract natural gas from the Marcellus shale has grown from 195 in 2008 to 1,386 in 2010. The gas extraction process using the fracking technology results in the escape of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas and the principal component of natural gas, into the atmosphere. Emissions of methane from fracking operations remain poorly quantified, leading to a large range of scenarios for the contribution of fracking to climate change. A mobile measurement campaign provided insights on methane leakage rates and an improved understanding of the spatio-temporal variability in active drilling areas in the South West of Pennsylvania. Two towers were then instrumented to monitor fugitive emissions of methane from well pads, pipelines, and other infrastructures in the area. The towers, one within a drilling region and one upwind of active drilling, measured atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios continuously. Isotopic measurements from air flasks were also collected. Data from the initial mobile campaign were used to estimate emission rates from single sites such as wells and compressor stations. Tower data will be used to construct a simple atmospheric inversion for regional methane emissions. Our results show the daily variability in emissions and allow us to estimate leakage rates over a one month period in South West Pennsylvania. We discuss potential deployment strategies in drilling zones to monitor emissions of methane over longer periods of time.

  17. Strategies to meet the challenges of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  18. Diffuse gas emissions at the Ukinrek Maars, Alaska: Implications for magmatic degassing and volcanic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; McGimsey, R.G.; Hunt, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse CO2 efflux near the Ukinrek Maars, two small volcanic craters that formed in 1977 in a remote part of the Alaska Peninsula, was investigated using accumulation chamber measurements. High CO2 efflux, in many places exceeding 1000 g m-2 d-1, was found in conspicuous zones of plant damage or kill that cover 30,000-50,000 m2 in area. Total diffuse CO2 emission was estimated at 21-44 t d-1. Gas vents 3-km away at The Gas Rocks produce 0.5 t d-1 of CO2 that probably derives from the Ukinrek Maars basalt based on similar ??13C values (???-6???), 3He/4He ratios (5.9-7.2 RA), and CO2/3He ratios (1-2 ?? 109) in the two areas. A lower 3He/4He ratio (2.7 RA) and much higher CO2/3He ratio (9 ?? 1010) in gas from the nearest arc-front volcanic center (Mount Peulik/Ugashik) provide a useful comparison. The large diffuse CO2 emission at Ukinrek has important implications for magmatic degassing, subsurface gas transport, and local toxicity hazards. Gas-water-rock interactions play a major role in the location, magnitude and chemistry of the emissions.

  19. Verification of greenhouse gas emission reductions: the prospect of atmospheric monitoring in polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Hammer, Samuel; Eichelmann, Elke; Vogel, Felix R

    2011-05-28

    Independent verification of greenhouse gas emissions reporting is a legal requirement of the Kyoto Protocol, which has not yet been fully accomplished. Here, we show that dedicated long-term atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)), continuously conducted at polluted sites can provide the necessary tool for this undertaking. From our measurements at the semi-polluted Heidelberg site in the upper Rhine Valley, we find that in the catchment area CH(4) emissions decreased on average by 32±6% from the second half of the 1990s until the first half of the 2000s, but the observed long-term trend of emissions is considerably smaller than that previously reported for southwest Germany. In contrast, regional fossil fuel CO(2) levels, estimated from high-precision (14)CO(2) observations, do not show any significant decreasing trend since 1986, in agreement with the reported emissions for this region. In order to provide accurate verification, these regional measurements would best be accompanied by adequate atmospheric transport modelling as required to precisely determine the relevant catchment area of the measurements. Furthermore, reliable reconciliation of reported emissions will only be possible if these are known at high spatial resolution in the catchment area of the observations. This information should principally be available in all countries that regularly report their greenhouse gas emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  20. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...” type measurement) following the “Gas Processors Association Standard 2377-86, Test for Hydrogen Sulfide... heating capacity of less than 100 MMBtu and is equipped with low-NOX burners (LNB) or ultra low-NOX burners (ULNB) is not subject to the monitoring requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (5) of...

  1. Experience with in-situ gas measurement systems for monitoring power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, G.F.; Karpinske, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    In-situ pollutant/diluent monitors have been used for continuous emission monitoring since the early `70s. Probe type in-situ analyzers have enjoyed considerable success in these applications. With the advent of the 1990 CAAA and the Acid Rain CEMS requirements, the old SM810/8100 style instruments were redesigned to meet these new requirements. This paper describes some of the notable improvements which have been made in the design of these instruments and the performance which has been achieved, operating under 40CFR75 regulations.

  2. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  3. Study of Differential Column Measurements for Urban Greenhouse Gas Emission Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia; Hedelius, Jacob K.; Viatte, Camille; Jones, Taylor; Franklin, Jonathan E.; Parker, Harrison; Wennberg, Paul O.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are home to 54% of the total global population and account for ˜ 70% of total fossil fuel emissions. Accurate methods for measuring urban and regional scale carbon fluxes are required in order to design and implement policies for emissions reduction initiatives. In this paper, we demonstrate novel applications of compact solar-tracking Fourier transform spectrometers (Bruker EM27/SUN) for differential measurements of the column-averaged dry-air mole fractions (DMFs) of CH4 and CO2 within urban areas. Our differential column method uses at least two spectrometers to make simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4 and O2 column number densities. We then compute the column-averaged DMFs XG for a gas G and the differences ΔXG between downwind and upwind stations. By accurately measuring the small differences in integrated column amounts across local and regional sources, we directly observe the mass loading of the atmosphere due to the influence of emissions in the intervening locale. The inference of the source strength is much more direct than inversion modeling using only surface concentrations, and less subject to errors associated with modeling small-scale transport phenomena. We characterize the differential sensor system using Allan variance analysis and show that the differential column measurement has a precision of 0.01% for XCO2 and XCH4 using an optimum integration time of 10 min, which corresponds to standard deviations of 0.04 ppm, and 0.2 ppb, respectively. The sensor system is very stable over time and after relocation across the contiguous US, i.e. the scaling factors between the two Harvard EM27/SUNs and the measured instrument line function parameters are consistent. We use the differential column measurements to determine the emission of an area source. We measure the downwind minus upwind column gradient ΔXCH4 (˜ 2 ppb, 0.1%) across dairy farms in the Chino California area, and input the data to a simple column model for comparison with

  4. The entrance of the Izmit Gulf : a key site for monitoring gas emissions and seismicity in the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Luca; Polonia, Alina; Favali, Paolo; Marinaro, Giuditta; Etiope, Giuseppe; Namık Ćaǧatay, M.; Henry, Pierre; Geli, Louis

    2010-05-01

    The Sea of Marmara has been widely recognized as a seismic gap that will be probably filled in the next decades by a large (M >=7) earthquake along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) system. Accordingly, new research activities started in the last years, and the possibility of installing seafloor observatories, considered. Only long-term observatories allow continuous observation of large numbers of parameters. This capability is crucial for observing natural processes that are either very episodic, or statistically require long time series to be detected. Among these phenomena, gas seepage at the seabed, occurring in various locations in the Sea of Marmara (Geli et al., 2008) may be sensitive to seismicity, providing possible precursor signals. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Gulf of Izmit, in the eastern Sea of Marmara, is a key area for monitoring the activity of the NAF through seismometers and gas sensors, because: 1) it is an area characterized by a "focusing" of the NAF principal deformation zone into a single strike-slip fault, along which the dextral strike-slip rate averaged over geological times (10 mm/y) has been measured (Polonia et al., 2004); 2) it is close to the western end of the surface rupture associated with the 1999 Izmit earthquake; thus, it is a probable area where the next earthquake will nucleate; 3) it is characterized by gas and fluids emission related to the fault activity, as documented by acoustic images of the water-column and direct observations carried out using ROVs (Gasperini et al., 2009). The methane and hydrogen sulphide escape is also confirmed by the presence of "black patches" at the seafloor observed during MarNaut cruise. Seafloor multi-parameters monitoring in this area is therefore essential to unravel relationships between geochemical, physical and geophysical parameters and the mechanical behaviour of faults; the information could then be used for seismic risk assessments and to define early-warning strategies

  5. Automatic semi-continuous accumulation chamber for diffuse gas emissions monitoring in volcanic and non-volcanic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Norelli, Francesco; Virgili, Giorgio; Continanza, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Since various decades the accumulation chamber method is intensively used in monitoring activities of diffuse gas emissions in volcanic areas. Although some improvements have been performed in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility of the detectors, the equipment used for measurement of gas emissions temporal variation usually requires expensive and bulky equipment. The unit described in this work is a low cost, easy to install-and-manage instrument that will make possible the creation of low-cost monitoring networks. The Non-Dispersive Infrared detector used has a concentration range of 0-5% CO2, but the substitution with other detector (range 0-5000 ppm) is possible and very easy. Power supply unit has a 12V, 7Ah battery, which is recharged by a 35W solar panel (equipped with charge regulator). The control unit contains a custom programmed CPU and the remote transmission is assured by a GPRS modem. The chamber is activated by DataLogger unit, using a linear actuator between the closed position (sampling) and closed position (idle). A probe for the measure of soil temperature, soil electrical conductivity, soil volumetric water content, air pressure and air temperature is assembled on the device, which is already arranged for the connection of others external sensors, including an automatic weather station. The automatic station has been tested on the field at Lipari island (Sicily, Italy) during a period of three months, performing CO2 flux measurement (and also weather parameters), each 1 hour. The possibility to measure in semi-continuous mode, and at the same time, the gas fluxes from soil and many external parameters, helps the time series analysis aimed to the identification of gas flux anomalies due to variations in deep system (e.g. onset of volcanic crises) from those triggered by external conditions.

  6. Acoustic monitoring of gas emissions from the seafloor. Part II: a case study from the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Scalabrin, Carla; Dupré, Stéphanie; Leblond, Isabelle; Tary, Jean-Baptiste; Lanteri, Nadine; Augustin, Jean-Marie; Berger, Laurent; Cros, Estelle; Ogor, André; Tsabaris, Christos; Lescanne, Marc; Géli, Louis

    2014-09-01

    A rotating, acoustic gas bubble detector, BOB (Bubble OBservatory) module was deployed during two surveys, conducted in 2009 and 2011 respectively, to study the temporal variations of gas emissions from the Marmara seafloor, along the North Anatolian Fault zone. The echosounder mounted on the instrument insonifies an angular sector of 7° during a given duration (of about 1 h). Then it rotates to the next, near-by angular sector and so forth. When the full angular domain is insonified, the "pan and tilt system" rotates back to its initial position, in order to start a new cycle (of about 1 day). The acoustic data reveal that gas emission is not a steady process, with observed temporal variations ranging between a few minutes and 24 h (from one cycle to the other). Echo-integration and inversion performed on the acoustic data as described in the companion paper of Leblond et al. (Mar Geophys Res, 2014), also indicate important variations in, respectively, the target strength and the volumetric flow rates of individual sources. However, the observed temporal variations may not be related to the properties of the gas source only, but reflect possible variations in sea-bottom currents, which could deviate the bubble train towards the neighboring sector. During the 2011 survey, a 4-component ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) was co-located at the seafloor, 59 m away from the BOB module. The acoustic data from our rotating, monitoring system support, but do not provide undisputable evidence to confirm, the hypothesis formulated by Tary et al. (2012), that the short-duration, non-seismic micro-events recorded by the OBS are likely produced by gas-related processes within the near seabed sediments. Hence, the use of a multibeam echosounder, or of several split beam echosounders should be preferred to rotating systems, for future experiments.

  7. Realtime Gas Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a Distributed Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Manes, Gianfranco; Collodi, Giovanni; Gelpi, Leonardo; Fusco, Rosanna; Ricci, Giuseppe; Manes, Antonio; Passafiume, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed point-source monitoring platform for gas level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant’s critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks) gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events. PMID:26805832

  8. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K.; Dimotakis, Paul E.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  9. Realtime Gas Emission Monitoring at Hazardous Sites Using a Distributed Point-Source Sensing Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Manes, Gianfranco; Collodi, Giovanni; Gelpi, Leonardo; Fusco, Rosanna; Ricci, Giuseppe; Manes, Antonio; Passafiume, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed point-source monitoring platform for gas level and leakage detection in hazardous environments. The platform, based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture, is organised into sub-networks to be positioned in the plant's critical areas; each sub-net includes a gateway unit wirelessly connected to the WSN nodes, hence providing an easily deployable, stand-alone infrastructure featuring a high degree of scalability and reconfigurability. Furthermore, the system provides automated calibration routines which can be accomplished by non-specialized maintenance operators without system reliability reduction issues. Internet connectivity is provided via TCP/IP over GPRS (Internet standard protocols over mobile networks) gateways at a one-minute sampling rate. Environmental and process data are forwarded to a remote server and made available to authenticated users through a user interface that provides data rendering in various formats and multi-sensor data fusion. The platform is able to provide real-time plant management with an effective; accurate tool for immediate warning in case of critical events. PMID:26805832

  10. EPA’s Hg Gas Traceability Approach for Source Emissions Measurement and Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solicited presentation (special topic) at the International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant on how EPA establishes the NIST traceability of reference materials used to support regulatory mercury emissions measurements.

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  12. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  13. Continuous monitoring of soil CO2 flux in tectonic active area of Sicily: relationship between gas emissions and crustal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarda, Marco; De Gregorio, Sofia; Favara, Rocco; Di Martino, Roberto M. R.

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic active areas are subjected to continue modification of the stress fields as result of the relative movement of portions of the crust. In these areas the stress generated the seismogenetic processes and at same time produces detectable modifications in the shallower portion of the crust such as superficial deformation, increase or decrease of pore pressure and change in fluids circulation. As results a wide variety of changes can be recorded in several parameters due to stress field modifications. The aim of this study was to monitor in continuous soil gas emissions of selected tectonic active area of the Sicily in order to investigate the relation between changes on this parameter and stress field modifications linked to seismogenetic processes. For this reason, in cooperation with DPC Sicilia a network of 20 stations for continuous monitoring of soil CO2 flux in the main seismic area of Sicily was deployed. The selection of the monitoring sites was based on a detailed geological structural study aimed to recognize active tectonic structures and on geochemical survey for identifying areas of anomalous degassing along the structures. Time series of soil CO2 flux long from 1 to 3 years were obtained. The acquired series were filtered for removing atmospheric parameters induced variations by applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and regression analysis.The results of comparison of filtered signals showed as almost all the stations have a low coefficient correlation, indicating that the recorded variations are likely due to minor stress modification having small spatial scale. A discrete correlation was founded between the signals of three stations placed in the same tectonic context in northeastern sector of Sicily. Interesting these stations showed a contemporary steep increase few days before the onset of seismic sequence, with events of magnitude up to 4.4, occurred in August 2013 in the northeastern Sicily. The concomitance of change in soil CO2 flux

  14. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continuous monitoring system for measuring nitrogen oxides (NOX). The pollutant gas mixtures under Performance Specification 2 and for calibration checks under § 60.13(d) of this part shall be nitrogen dioxide... defined as any 3-hour period during which the average nitrogen oxides emissions (arithmetic average...

  15. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous monitoring system for measuring nitrogen oxides (NOX). The pollutant gas mixtures under Performance Specification 2 and for calibration checks under § 60.13(d) of this part shall be nitrogen dioxide... defined as any 3-hour period during which the average nitrogen oxides emissions (arithmetic average...

  16. Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Beck, H A; Niessner, R; Haisch, C

    2003-04-01

    Upcoming regulations for vehicle exhaust emission demand substantial reduction of particle emission in diesel exhaust. To achieve these emission levels, the car manufacturing industry is developing new combustion concepts and exhaust after-treatment techniques such as the use of catalysts and particle filters. Many of the state-of-the-art analytical instruments do not meet the required detection limits, in combination with a high temporal resolution necessary for engine optimization. This paper reports a new detection system and the first results of its application to on-line diesel exhaust soot measurements on a engine test bench (MAN diesel engine facility Nürnberg, Germany). The instrument is based on differential photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy of black carbon aerosol. It contains two identical PA cells, one for the measurement of the aerosol particles and one which analyses the particle-free gas. Thus, a potential cross-sensitivity to gaseous absorbers in the exhaust gas can be excluded. The PA cells were characterized in a laboratory set-up, with water vapor as reference gas and artificial soot generated by a spark discharge generator. The detection limit was found to be 2 microg m(-3) BC (for diesel soot) with a sampling rate of 3 Hz. The temporal response of the system was found to be in the order of 1 s. After full characterization of the cells, the system was transferred into a mobile 19"-rack. Characterization of the mobile sensor system under real-world conditions was performed during several measurement campaigns at an engine test bench for heavy-duty diesel engines. Results for the limit of detection, the time resolution, accuracy, repeatability, and robustness of the sensor system are very promising with regards to a routine application of the system in engine development. PMID:12733029

  17. Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring in Davos, Switzerland, Before, During and After the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Davis, Ken; Richardson, Scott; Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Deng, Aijun; Calonder, Gian-Paul; Ruesch, Marc; Lehning, Michael; Bals, Andre; DeCola, Phil; Rella, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions require validation. Atmospheric measurements capture all emissions, and provide a unique and powerful means of continuous validation and feedback. To demonstrate the utility of real time greenhouse gas measurements, in-situ GHG mixing ratio instruments were deployed in Davos, Switzerland to measure emissions from the city before, during and after the World Economic Forum (WEF). Three Instruments were deployed at two separate locations over 3 months (late December 2011 to February 2012). One site was located in the middle of the Davos urban area and a second site was located out of the valley in the surrounding mountains. Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) were measured continuously by Picarro G2401 instruments at both sites. Additionally, a Picarro flux analyzer was deployed in the city to evaluate the inverse fluxes. The mesoscale atmospheric model, WRF nudged to meteorological observations (WRF-FDDA), was used to simulate the transport of GHG over the valley of Davos at 1.3km resolution. A Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) from Sigma Space was deployed to evaluate the simulated planetary boundary layer depth from the WRF-FDDA model. The initial flux estimates for CO2 were constructed based on inventories reported for 2005. CO2 mixing ratio measurements prior to WEF suggest the difference between modeled (real-time) and inventory (annual) emissions to be on the order of +40%. The enhancement is likely due to the increased use of heating fuel in the winter. We present here the temporal variability in the inverse fluxes, which are correlated with a cold wave severely affecting Western Europe during the past winter, as well as changes in anthropogenic activities during the week of the WEF meeting. Also presented are new analyses of composite diurnal cycles of hourly CO/CO2 ratios, which provide additional information on the contributions of traffic relative to heating

  18. High-accuracy, high-precision, high-resolution, continuous monitoring of urban greenhouse gas emissions? Results to date from INFLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Brewer, A.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Deng, A.; Hardesty, M.; Gurney, K. R.; Heimburger, A. M. F.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lopez-Coto, I.; McKain, K.; Miles, N. L.; Patarasuk, R.; Prasad, K.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Shepson, P. B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.; Wu, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is testing the boundaries of our ability to use atmospheric measurements to quantify urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The project brings together inventory assessments, tower-based and aircraft-based atmospheric measurements, and atmospheric modeling to provide high-accuracy, high-resolution, continuous monitoring of emissions of GHGs from the city. Results to date include a multi-year record of tower and aircraft based measurements of the urban CO2 and CH4 signal, long-term atmospheric modeling of GHG transport, and emission estimates for both CO2 and CH4 based on both tower and aircraft measurements. We will present these emissions estimates, the uncertainties in each, and our assessment of the primary needs for improvements in these emissions estimates. We will also present ongoing efforts to improve our understanding of atmospheric transport and background atmospheric GHG mole fractions, and to disaggregate GHG sources (e.g. biogenic vs. fossil fuel CO2 fluxes), topics that promise significant improvement in urban GHG emissions estimates.

  19. Features of a micro-gas chromatograph equipped with enrichment device and microchip plasma emission detection (muPED) for air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tienpont, Bart; David, Frank; Witdouck, Wim; Vermeersch, Dries; Stoeri, Herbert; Sandra, Pat

    2008-11-01

    A field portable gas chromatograph (GC) was constructed allowing the enrichment of organic solutes from air samples on a miniaturized chemical trap and the subsequent gas chromatographic analysis on a resistively heated capillary column. The heart of the system is an integrated chip-based plasma emission detector (muPED). As a non-selective detector, the sensitivity is similar to that of a flame ionization detector (FID). The detector shows good selectivity for phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine-containing compounds with relative selectivities of ca. 5 x 10(5) gP gC(-1), 50 gS gC(-1) and 10(2) gCl gC(-1). The lifetime of the plasma chip under air monitoring conditions exceeded 3000 analyses. PMID:18941680

  20. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  1. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  2. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  4. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl...

  5. Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total emissions based on optical scintillation cross-correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhirong; Pang, Tao; Yang, Yang; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Sun, Pengshuai; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-05-16

    We report the first application of gas total emission using a DFB diode laser for gas concentration measurements combined with two LEDs for gas velocity measurements. In situ gas total emissions and particle density measurements in an industrial pipeline using simultaneous tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical scintillation cross-correlation technique (OSCC) are presented. Velocity mean values obtained are 7.59 m/s (OSCC, standard deviation is 1.37 m/s) and 8.20 m/s (Pitot tube, standard deviation is 1.47 m/s) in a steel plant pipeline for comparison. Our experiments demonstrate that the combined system of TDLAS and OSCC provides a new versatile tool for accurate measurements of total gas emissions. PMID:27409967

  6. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices and flares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced in the hydrogen plant, catalytic reforming unit, isomerization unit, and HF alkylation process... Association Standard 2377-86, Test for Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in Natural Gas Using Length of... the 95-percent confidence interval for the distribution of daily ratios basedon the 10...

  7. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices and flares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produced in the hydrogen plant, catalytic reforming unit, isomerization unit, and HF alkylation process... Association Standard 2377-86, Test for Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in Natural Gas Using Length of... the 95-percent confidence interval for the distribution of daily ratios based on the 10...

  8. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  9. Trace Gas Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Space technology is contributing to air pollution control primarily through improved detectors and analysis methods. Miniaturized mass spectrometer is under development to monitor vinyl chloride and other hydrocarbon contaminants in an airborne laboratory. Miniaturized mass spectrometer can be used to protect personnel in naval and medical operations as well as aboard aircraft.

  10. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  11. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  12. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  13. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  14. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  15. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  16. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  17. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  18. EDITORIAL: Tropical deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Herold, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have long been recognized as a key component of the global carbon budget, and more recently of our global climate system. Tropical forest clearing accounts for roughly 20% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and destroys globally significant carbon sinks (IPCC 2007). Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to address these emissions and to more actively include developing countries in greenhouse gas mitigation (e.g. Santilli et al 2005, Gullison et al 2007). In 2005, at the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Montreal, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) launched a new initiative to assess the scientific and technical methods and issues for developing policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in developing countries (Gullison et al 2007). Over the last two years the methods and tools needed to estimate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation have quickly evolved, as the scientific community responded to the UNFCCC policy needs. This focus issue highlights those advancements, covering some of the most important technical issues for measuring and monitoring emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and emphasizing immediately available methods and data, as well as future challenges. Elements for effective long-term implementation of a REDD mechanism related to both environmental and political concerns are discussed in Mollicone et al. Herold and Johns synthesize viewpoints of national parties to the UNFCCC on REDD and expand upon key issues for linking policy requirements and forest monitoring capabilities. In response to these expressed policy needs, they discuss a remote-sensing-based observation framework to start REDD implementation activities and build historical deforestation databases on the national level. Achard et al offer an assessment of remote sensing measurements across the world

  19. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  20. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  1. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.73 Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner...

  2. 76 FR 18415 - Continuous Emission Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 75 Continuous Emission Monitoring CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal... read as follows: Sec. 75.11 Specific provisions for monitoring SO 2 emissions. * * * * * (f)...

  3. Fault monitoring using acoustic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danlu; Venkatesan, Gopal; Kaveh, Mostafa; Tewfik, Ahmed H.; Buckley, Kevin M.

    1999-05-01

    Automatic monitoring techniques are a means to safely relax and simplify preventive maintenance and inspection procedures that are expensive and necessitate substantial down time. Acoustic emissions (AEs), that are ultrasonic waves emanating from the formation or propagation of a crack in a material, provide a possible avenue for nondestructive evaluation. Though the characteristics of AEs have been extensively studied, most of the work has been done under controlled laboratory conditions at very low noise levels. In practice, however, the AEs are buried under a wide variety of strong interference and noise. These arise due to a number of factors that, other than vibration, may include fretting, hydraulic noise and electromagnetic interference. Most of these noise events are transient and not unlike AE signals. In consequence, the detection and isolation of AE events from the measured data is not a trivial problem. In this paper we present some signal processing techniques that we have proposed and evaluated for the above problem. We treat the AE problem as the detection of an unknown transient in additive noise followed by a robust classification of the detected transients. We address the problem of transient detection using the residual error in fitting a special linear model to the data. Our group is currently working on the transient classification using neural networks.

  4. A Novel Infrared Gas Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingding; Zhong, Hongjie

    2000-03-01

    In the paper a novel non-dispersive infrared(IR) gas monitor is described.It is based on the principle that certain gases absorb IR radiation at specific(and often unique) wavelengths.Conventional devices typically include several primary components:a broadband source, usually an incandescent filament,a rotating chopper shutter,a narrow-band filter,a sample tube and a detector. We have developed a number of IR light emitting diodes(LED) having narrow optical bandwidths and which can be intensity modulated by electrical means,for example InAsSbP(4.2 micron)LED.The IR LED can thus replace the thermal source,narrow-band filter and chopper assembly of the conventional IR gas monitor,yielding a solid state,low- powered,compact and almost maintenance-free instrument with high sensitivity and stability and which free of the effects of mechanical vibration too. The detector used in the IR gas monitor is the solid-state detector,such as PbS,PbSe, InSb,HgCdTe,TGS,LT and PZT detector etc. The different configuration of the IR gas monitor is designed.For example,two-path version for measuring methane concentration by monitoring the 3.31 micron absorption band,it can eliminate the interference effects,such as to compensate for LED intensity changes caused by power and temperature variations,and for signal fluctuations due to changes in detector bias. we also have designed portable single-beam version without the sample tube.Its most primary advantage is very cheap(about cost USD 30 ).It measures carbon dioxide concentration by monitoring the 4.25 micron absorption band.Thought its precisions is low,it is used to control carbon dioxide concentration in the air in the green houses and plastic houses(there are about twenty millon one in the China).Because more carbon dioxide will increase the quanity of vegetable and flower production to a greatextent. It also is used in medical,sanitary and antiepidemic applications,such as hospital, store,hotel,cabin and ballroom etc. Key words

  5. Stimulated Cherenkov emission in gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzelev, M. V. Rukhadze, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    A linear theory is developed for stimulated Cherenkov emission from planar and cylindrical gas flows in gaseous environments. An analogy is demonstrated between Cherenkov emission in gas dynamics and stimulated Cherenkov electromagnetic emission from a charged particle beam in a medium.

  6. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  7. 40 CFR 60.84 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....84 Emission monitoring. (a) A continuous monitoring system for the measurement of sulfur dioxide... under § 60.13(d), shall be sulfur dioxide (SO2). Method 8 shall be used for conducting monitoring system performance evaluations under § 60.13(c) except that only the sulfur dioxide portion of the Method 8...

  8. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia

    2015-07-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely "off-the-shelf" components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  9. 40 CFR 60.646 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Onshore Natural Gas Processing for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification... monitoring method may incorporate the use of an instrument to measure and record the liquid sulfur production rate, or may be a procedure for measuring and recording the sulfur liquid levels in the storage...

  10. 40 CFR 60.646 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Onshore Natural Gas Processing for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification... monitoring method may incorporate the use of an instrument to measure and record the liquid sulfur production rate, or may be a procedure for measuring and recording the sulfur liquid levels in the storage...

  11. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... units that are intolerant to sulfur contamination, such as fuel gas streams produced in the hydrogen.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... by volume (dry basis, zero percent excess air) of SO2 emissions into the atmosphere or monitoring...

  12. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... units that are intolerant to sulfur contamination, such as fuel gas streams produced in the hydrogen.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... by volume (dry basis, zero percent excess air) of SO2 emissions into the atmosphere or monitoring...

  13. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Parametric modeling of exhaust gas emission from natural gas fired gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bakken, L.E.; Skogly, L.

    1996-07-01

    Increased focus on air pollution from gas turbines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has resulted in taxes on CO{sub 2}. Statements made by the Norwegian authorities imply regulations and/or taxes on NO{sub x} emissions in the near future. The existing CO{sub 2} tax of NOK 0.82/Sm{sup 3} (US Dollars 0.12/Sm{sup 3}) and possible future tax on NO{sub x} are analyzed mainly with respect to operating and maintenance costs for the gas turbine. Depending on actual tax levels, the machine should be operated on full load/optimum thermal efficiency or part load to reduce specific exhaust emissions. Based on field measurements, exhaust emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, UHC, etc.) are established with respect to load and gas turbine performance, including performance degradation. Different NO{sub x} emission correlations are analyzed based on test results, and a proposed prediction model presented. The impact of machinery performance degradation on emission levels is particularly analyzed. Good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted NO{sub x} emissions from the proposed correlation. To achieve continuous exhaust emission control, the proposed NO{sub x} model is implemented to the on-line condition monitoring system on the Sleipner A platform, rather than introducing sensitive emission sensors in the exhaust gas stack. The on-line condition monitoring system forms an important tool in detecting machinery condition/degradation and air pollution, and achieving optimum energy conservation.

  15. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  16. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  17. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  18. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  19. Monitoring the progress of emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.A. Jr.; Solomon, D.; Husk, M.; Irving, B.; Kruger, D.; Levin. L.

    2006-12-15

    This issue of EM contains three articles which focus on the latest improvements on the emissions inventory process. The first, 'Building the national emissions inventory: challenges and plans for improvements' by Doug Solomon and Martin Husk (pages 8-11), looks at the US national emissions inventory. The next, 'Greenhouse gas inventories - a historical perspective and assessment of improvements since 1990' by Bill Irving and Dina Kruger (pages 12-19) assesses improvements in national and international greenhouse gas emissions inventories over the last 15 years. The third article, 'The global mercury emissions inventory' by Leonard Levin (pages 20-25) gives an overview of the challenges associated with conducting a worldwide inventory of mercury emissions.

  20. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely “off-the-shelf” components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  1. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate concentration of vinyl chloride. The gas composition of the calibration gas cylinder standard is... this section, are emitted to the atmosphere without passing through the control system and required... vinyl chloride emission to the atmosphere determined in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section...

  2. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate concentration of vinyl chloride. The gas composition of the calibration gas cylinder standard is... this section, are emitted to the atmosphere without passing through the control system and required... vinyl chloride emission to the atmosphere determined in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section...

  3. OIL AND GAS FIELD EMISSIONS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an oil and gas field emissions survey. The production segment of the oil and gas industry has been identified as a source category that requires the development of more reliable emissions inventory methodologies. The overall purpose of the project was ...

  4. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-06-01

    TEMPO, selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest-cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 %. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well-proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement

  5. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.; Tempo Science Team

    2013-05-01

    TEMPO has been selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (Mexico City is measured at 1.6 km N/S by 4.5 km E/W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary

  6. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Janz, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    TEMPO is a proposed concept to measure pollution for greater North America using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (9 km2). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  8. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  9. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  10. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  12. Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

  13. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants §...

  14. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  15. Continuous Emissions Monitoring System Monitoring Plan for the Y-12 Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), managed by BWXT, is submitting this Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) Monitoring Plan in conformance with the requirements of Title 40 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 75. The state of Tennessee identified the Y-12 Steam Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a non-electrical generation unit (EGU) nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) budget source as a result of the NO{sub x} State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-3-27. Following this introduction, the monitoring plan contains the following sections: CEMS details, NO{sub x} emissions, and quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC). The following information is included in the attachments: fuel and flue gas diagram, system layout, data flow diagrams, Electronic Monitoring Plan printouts, vendor information on coal and natural gas feed systems, and the Certification Test Protocol. The Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes boilers. Each is rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 296.8 MMBtu/hour or 250,000 lb/hour of 250-psig steam. Although pulverized coal is the principal fuel, each of the units can fire natural gas or a combination of coal and gas. Each unit is equipped with a Joy Manufacturing Company reverse air baghouse to control particulate emissions. Flue gases travel out of the baghouse, through an induced draft fan, then to one of two stacks. Boilers 1 and 2 exhaust through Stack 1. Boilers 3 and 4 exhaust through Stack 2. A dedicated CEMS will be installed in the ductwork of each boiler, downstream of the baghouse. The CEMS will be designed, built, installed, and started up by URS Group, Inc. (URS). Data acquisition and handling will be accomplished using a data acquisition and handling system (DAHS) designed, built, and programmed by Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC). The installed CEMS will continuously monitor NO{sub x}, flue gas flowrate, and carbon

  16. Acoustic-emission monitoring of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, L. J.; Randall, R. L.; Hong, C.

    1982-04-01

    A method for the on-line detection of crack growth in steam turbine rotors based on acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is discussed. A systematic study involving a number of tasks was performed to evaluate the potential for the detection and correct identification of crack growth AE signals during various turbine operating conditions. These included acoustic wave propagation and attenuation measurements, background noise characterization, laboratory rotor material tests, monitoring equipment optimization, dynamic stress analysis of the rotor under transient operation and on-line source location and signal characterization. No crack growth was detected during the monitoring periods but there was sufficient information from the combined tasks to estimate the flaw growth detectability during different operating conditions if it occurs. The experience also suggests that AE monitoring can be useful for diagnosis of other turbine problems such as blade rubbing, out-of-balance condition, bearing deterioration, lubricating oil contamination and perhaps boiler exfoliation and blade erosion.

  17. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Bert; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2001-01-01

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO2 emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO2 emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

  18. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B; Kheshgi, H S

    2001-04-24

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO(2) emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO(2) emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO(2) concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them.

  19. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B; Kheshgi, H S

    2001-04-24

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO(2) emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO(2) emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO(2) concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

  20. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  1. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90

  2. Evolved gas composition monitoring by repetitive injection gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    White, Robert L

    2015-11-20

    Performance characteristics and applications of a small volume gas chromatograph oven are described. Heating and cooling properties of the apparatus are evaluated and examples are given illustrating the advantages of greatly reducing the air bath volume surrounding fused silica columns. Fast heating and cooling of the oven permit it to be employed for repetitive injection analyses. By using fast gas chromatography separations to achieve short assay cycle times, the apparatus can be employed for on-line species-specific gas stream composition monitoring when volatile species concentrations vary on time scales of a few minutes or longer. This capability facilitates repeated sampling and fast gas chromatographic separations of volatile product mixtures produced during thermal analyses. Applications of repetitive injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evolved gas analyses to monitoring purge gas effluent streams containing volatile acid catalyzed polymer cracking products are described. The influence of thermal analysis and chromatographic experimental parameters on effluent sampling frequency are delineated.

  3. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  4. Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)

  5. Destruction of acid gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Fu, Yuan C.; Ekmann, J.M.; Boyle, J.M.

    1990-12-31

    A method of destroying NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} in a combustion gas is disclosed. The method includes generating active species by treating stable molecules in a high temperature plasma. Ammonia, methane, steam, hydrogen, nitrogen or a combustion of these gases can be selected as the stable molecules. The gases are subjected to plasma conditions sufficient to create free radicals, ions or excited atoms such as N, NH, NH{sub 2}, OH, CH and/or CH{sub 2}. These active species are injected into a combustion gas at a location of sufficiently high temperature to maintain the species in active state and permit them to react with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. Typically the injection is made into the immediate post-combustion gases at temperatures of 475--950{degrees}C. 1 fig.

  6. Destruction of acid gas emissions

    DOEpatents

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Fu, Yuan C.; Ekmann, James M.; Boyle, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of destroying NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 in a combustion gas in disclosed. The method includes generating active species by treating stable moleucles in a high temperature plasma. Ammonia, methane, steam, hydrogen, nitrogen or a combination of these gases can be selected as the stable molecules. The gases are subjected to plasma conditions sufficient to create free radicals, ions or excited atoms such as N, NH, NH.sub.2, OH.sup.-, CH and/or CH.sub.2. These active species are injected into a combustion gas at a location of sufficiently high temperature to maintain the species in active state and permit them to react with NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2. Typically the injection is made into the immediate post-combustion gases at temperatures of 475.degree.-950.degree. C.

  7. Methane Gas Emissions - is Older Infrastructure Leakier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L. P.; Caulton, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Golston, L.; Pan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large gains in natural gas production from hydraulic fracturing is reinvigorating the US energy economy. It is a clean burning fuel with lower emissions than that of coal or oil. Studies show that methane (CH4) leaks from natural gas infrastructure vary widely. A broader question is whether leak rates of methane might offset the benefits of combustion of natural gas. Excess methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas with a radiative forcing constant of 25 times that of CO2 when projected over a 100-year period. An extensive field study of 250 wells in the Marcellus Shale conducted in July 2015 examined the emission rates of this region and identifed super-emitters. Spud production data will provide information as to whether older infrastructure is responsible for more of the emissions. Quantifying the emission rate was determined by extrapolating methane releases at a distance from private well pads using an inverse Gaussian plume model. Wells studied were selected by prevailing winds, distance from public roads, and topographical information using commercial (ARCGIS and Google Earth), non-profit (drillinginfo), and government (State of PA) databases. Data were collected from the mobile sensing lab (CH4, CO2 and H2O sensors), as well as from a stationary tower. Emission rates from well pads will be compared to their original production (spud dates) to evaluate whether infrastructure age and total production correlates with the observed leak rates. Very preliminary results show no statistical correlation between well pad production rates and observed leak rates.

  8. Acoustic emission monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Damage to wind turbine blades can, if left uncorrected, evolve into catastrophic failures resulting in high costs and significant losses for the operator. Detection of damage, especially in real time, has the potential to mitigate the losses associated with such catastrophic failure. To address this need various forms of online monitoring are being investigated, including acoustic emission detection. In this paper, pencil lead breaks are used as a standard reference source and tests are performed on unidirectional glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer plates. The mechanical pencil break is used to simulate an acoustic emission (AE) that generates elastic waves in the plate. Piezoelectric sensors and a data acquisition system are used to detect and record the signals. The expected dispersion curves generated for Lamb waves in plates are calculated, and the Gabor wavelet transform is used to provide dispersion curves based on experimental data. AE sources using an aluminum plate are used as a reference case for the experimental system and data processing validation. The analysis of the composite material provides information concerning the wave speed, modes, and attenuation of the waveform, which can be used to estimate maximum AE event - receiver separation, in a particular geometry and materials combination. The foundational data provided in this paper help to guide improvements in online structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic emission.

  9. Method for cleaning sinter plant gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, S.T.; Jassund, S.A.; Mazer, M.R.

    1981-03-17

    A method for cleaning sinter plant gas emissions using a wet electrostatic precipitator system having separate recirculating wash liquor loops for the high voltage precipitator section and the pre-scrubber section. The system is operated with acidic washing liquor to avoid scaling and deposition of solids within the system.

  10. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  11. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-04-01

    Accurate reporting of mercury concentration requires a detailed model that includes experimental parameters that vary, such as: pressure, temperature, concentration, absorption cross-section, and isotopic structure etc. During this quarter a theoretical model has been developed to model the 253.7 nm mercury transition. In addition, while testing the interferent species SO{sub 2}, SRD was able to determine the absorption cross-section experimentally and add this to the theoretical model. Assuming that the baseline losses are due to the mirror reflectivity and SO{sub 2}, SRD can now determine the concentrations of both mercury and SO{sub 2} from the data taken. For the CRD instrument to perform as a continuous emission monitor it will be required to monitor mercury concentrations over extended periods of time. The stability of monitoring mercury concentrations over time with the CRD apparatus was tested during the past quarter. During a test which monitored the mercury concentration every 2 seconds it was found that the standard deviation, of a signal from about 1.25 ppb Hg, was only 30 ppt. SRD continued interferent gas testing during this past quarter. This included creating a simulated flue gas composed of the gases tested individually by SRD. The detection limits for mercury, although dependent on the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the simulated gas matrix, remained well below the ppb range. It was determined that for the gases tested the only measurable changes in the baseline level occurred for SO{sub 2} and mercury. Speciation studies continued with mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}). This included checking for spectral speciation with both Hg and HgCl{sub 2} present in the CRD cavity. There was no observable spectral shift. Also a pyrolysis oven was incorporated into the gas delivery system both for tests with HgCl{sub 2} as well as atomization of the entire gas stream. The pyrolysis tests conducted have been inconclusive thus far.

  12. Lidar for monitoring methane emission in Siberian permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, A. S.; Zhevlakov, A. P.; Sidorov, I.; Elizarov, V. V.; Mak, A. A.; Kascheev, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Identifying methane anomalies responsible for the temperature increase, by hiking trails in the Arctic requires great human labor .According to the tentative forecast by the year 2100 Arctic permafrost will greatly deteriorate, which will have numerous consequences. Indeed, release of less than 0.1% of the organic carbon stored in the upper 100-meter permafrost level (approximately 10000 ppm of carbon in the CH4 form) can double concentration of atmospheric methane, which is roughly 20 times more potent greenhouse gas than the CO2. Necessary to create a Raman lidar for monitoring of emissions of methane hydrate from the permafrost.

  13. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  14. 40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for particulate... emission rates of 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu) heat input or less and that do not use a post-combustion... by the CO CEMS times the corresponding average hourly flue gas flow rate and divided by...

  15. 40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for particulate... emission rates of 26 ng/J (0.060 lb/MMBtu) heat input or less and that do not use a post-combustion... by the CO CEMS times the corresponding average hourly flue gas flow rate and divided by...

  16. Silicon Carbide Gas Sensors for Propulsion Emissions and Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J.; Neudeck, P. G.; Lukco, D.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Lampard, P.; Androjna, D.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have the ability to meet the needs of a range of aerospace propulsion applications including emissions monitoring, leak detection, and hydrazine monitoring. These applications often require sensitive gas detection in a range of environments. An effective sensing approach to meet the needs of these applications is a Schottky diode based on a SiC semiconductor. The primary advantage of using SiC as a semiconductor is its inherent stability and capability to operate at a wide range of temperatures. The complete SiC Schottky diode gas sensing structure includes both the SiC semiconductor and gas sensitive thin film metal layers; reliable operation of the SiC-based gas sensing structure requires good control of the interface between these gas sensitive layers and the SiC. This paper reports on the development of SiC gas sensors. The focus is on two efforts to better control the SiC gas sensitive Schottky diode interface. First, the use of palladium oxide (PdOx) as a barrier layer between the metal and SiC is discussed. Second, the use of atomically flat SiC to provide an improved SiC semiconductor surface for gas sensor element deposition is explored. The use of SiC gas sensors in a multi-parameter detection system is briefly discussed. It is concluded that SiC gas sensors have potential in a range of propulsion system applications, but tailoring of the sensor for each application is necessary.

  17. Real-time atomic absorption mercury continuous emission monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamzow, Daniel S.; Bajic, Stanley J.; Eckels, David E.; Baldwin, David P.; Winterrowd, Chris; Keeney, Robert

    2003-08-01

    A continuous emission monitor (CEM) for mercury (Hg) in combustor flue gas streams has been designed and tested for the detection of Hg by optical absorption. A sampling system that allows continuous introduction of stack gas is incorporated into the CEM, for the sequential analysis of elemental and total Hg. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in the system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg for analysis of total Hg; the pyrolysis tube is bypassed to determine the elemental Hg concentration in the gas stream. A key component of the CEM is a laboratory-designed and -assembled echelle spectrometer that provides simultaneous detection of all of the emission lines from a Hg pen lamp, which is used as the light source for the optical absorption measurement. This feature allows for on-line spectroscopic correction for interferent gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, typically present in combustion stack gas streams, that also absorb at the Hg detection wavelength (253.65 nm). This article provides a detailed description of the CEM system, the characteristics and performance of the CEM, and the results of field tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency-Rotary Kiln at Research Triangle Park, NC.

  18. Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  19. Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.

    PubMed

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  20. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  1. Impact of routine episodic emissions on the expected frequency distribution of emissions from oil and gas production sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.; Blewitt, D.; Hebert, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    In coordination with oil and gas operators, we developed a high resolution (< 1 min) simulation of temporal variability in well-pad oil and gas emissions over a year. We include routine emissions from condensate tanks, dehydrators, pneumatic devices, fugitive leaks and liquids unloading. We explore the variability in natural gas emissions from these individual well-pad sources, and find that routine short-term episodic emissions such as tank flashing and liquids unloading result in the appearance of a skewed, or 'fat-tail' distribution of emissions, from an individual well-pad over time. Additionally, we explore the expected variability in emissions from multiple wells with different raw gas composition, gas/liquids production volumes and control equipment. Differences in well-level composition, production volume and control equipment translate into differences in well-level emissions leading to a fat-tail distribution of emissions in the absence of operational upsets. Our results have several implications for recent studies focusing on emissions from oil and gas sources. Time scale of emission estimates are important and have important policy implications. Fat tail distributions may not be entirely driven by avoidable mechanical failures, and are expected to occur under routine operational conditions from short-duration emissions (e.g., tank flashing, liquid unloading). An understanding of the expected distribution of emissions for a particular population of wells is necessary to evaluate whether the observed distribution is more skewed than expected. Temporal variability in well-pad emissions make comparisons to annual average emissions inventories difficult and may complicate the interpretation of long-term ambient fenceline monitoring data. Sophisticated change detection algorithms will be necessary to identify when true operational upsets occur versus routine short-term emissions.

  2. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research.

  3. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  4. Tropospheric emissions: monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2013-09-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch circa 2018. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (~2 km N/S×4.5 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring together with European Sentinel-4 and Korean GEMS.

  5. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  6. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  7. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  8. Continuous monitoring of particle emissions during showering.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth A; Ollison, Will M

    2006-12-01

    Particle formation from showering may be attributed to dissolved mineral aerosols remaining after evaporation of micron-sized satellite droplets produced by the showerhead or from splashing of larger shower water droplets on surfaces. Duplicate continuous particle monitors measured particle size distributions in a ventilated residential bathroom under various showering conditions, using a full-size mannequin in the shower to simulate splashing effects during showering. Particle mass concentrations were estimated from measured shower particle number densities and used to develop emission factors for inhalable particles. Emission source strengths of 2.7-41.3 microg/ m3/min were estimated under the various test conditions using residential tap water in Columbus, OH. Calculated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the bathroom reached several hundred micrograms per cubic meter; calculated coarse particulate matter (PM10) levels approached 1000 microg/m3. Rates of particle formation tended to be highest for coarse shower spray settings with direct impact on the mannequin. No consistent effects of water temperature, water pressure, or spray setting on overall emission rates were apparent, although water temperature and spray setting did have an effect when varied within a single shower sampling run. Salt solutions were injected into the source water during some tests to assess the effects of total dissolved solids on particle emission rates. Injection of salts was shown to increase the PM2.5 particle formation rate by approximately one third, on average, for a doubling in tap water-dissolved solids content; PM10 source strengths approximately doubled under these conditions, because very few particles >10 microm were formed. PMID:17195485

  9. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  10. Monitoring, reporting and verifying emissions in the climate economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Stephan, Nicolas; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie; Barker, Alexandra; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Chiquet, Caspar; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Dimopoulos, Christopher; Foucherot, Claudine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Morel, Romain; Robinson, Roderick; Shishlov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse-gas emissions is the cornerstone of carbon pricing and management mechanisms. Here we consider peer-reviewed articles and 'grey literature' related to existing MRV requirements and their costs. A substantial part of the literature is the regulatory texts of the 15 most important carbon pricing and management mechanisms currently implemented. Based on a comparison of key criteria such as the scope, cost, uncertainty and flexibility of procedures, we conclude that conventional wisdom on MRV is not often promoted in existing carbon pricing mechanisms. Quantification of emissions uncertainty and incentives to reduce this uncertainty are usually only partially applied, if at all. Further, the time and resources spent on small sources of emissions would be expected to be limited. Although provisions aiming at an effort proportionate to the amount of emissions at stake -- 'materiality' -- are widespread, they are largely outweighed by economies of scale: in all schemes, MRV costs per tonne are primarily driven by the size of the source.

  11. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc’h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

  12. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  13. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

  14. Quasi-simultaneous in-line flue gas monitoring of NO and NO₂ emissions at a caloric power plant employing mid-IR laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reidl-Leuthner, Christoph; Viernstein, Alexander; Wieland, Karin; Tomischko, Wolfgang; Sass, Ludwig; Kinger, Gerald; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard

    2014-09-16

    Two pulsed thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were used for the quasi-simultaneous in-line determination of NO and NO2 at the caloric power plant Dürnrohr (Austria). The QCL beams were combined using a bifurcated hollow fiber, sent through the flue tube (inside diameter: 5.5 m), reflected by a retro-reflector and recorded using a fast thermoelectrically cooled mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The thermal chirp during 300 ns pulses was about 1.2 cm(-1) and allowed scanning of rotational vibrational doublets of the analytes. On the basis of the thermal chirp and the temporal resolution of data acquisition, a spectral resolution of approximately 0.02 cm(-1) was achieved. The recorded rotational vibrational absorption lines were centered at 1900 cm(-1) for NO and 1630 cm(-1) for NO2. Despite water content in the range of 152-235 g/m(3) and an average particle load of 15.8 mg/m(3) in the flue gas, in-line measurements were possible achieving limits of detection of 73 ppb for NO and 91 ppb for NO2 while optimizing for a single analyte. Quasi-simultaneous measurements resulted in limits of detection of 219 ppb for NO and 164 ppb for NO2, respectively. Influences of temperature and pressure on the data evaluation are discussed, and results are compared to an established reference method based on the extractive measurements presented.

  15. Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, Kimberly R; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry.

  16. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  17. Continuous emission monitoring and accounting automated systems at an HPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.; Kondrateva, O. E.; Borovkova, A. M.; Seregin, V. A.; Morozov, I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Environmental and industrial emission monitoring at HPP's is a very urgent task today. Industrial monitoring assumes monitoring of emissions of harmful pollutants and optimization of fuel combustion technological processes at HPP's. Environmental monitoring is a system to assess ambient air quality with respect to a number of separate sources of harmful substances in pollution of atmospheric air of the area. Works on creating an industrial monitoring system are carried out at the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) on the basis of the MPEI combined heat and power plant, and environmental monitoring stations are installed in Lefortovo raion, where the CHPP is located.

  18. Gas emissions as influenced by home composting system configuration.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José; Daumoin, Mylène

    2013-02-15

    Home composting systems (HC) are known to facilitate municipal solid waste management, but little is known about their environmental impact including their greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). The present research focused on selecting HC configuration producing the least CH(4) and N(2)O. Thus, 4 HC types were used to compost food and yard waste for 150 days and monitored for CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O as of day 15: the wood and plastic bins (WB and PB), the mixed and unmixed ground pile (GPM and GP). Using the same waste recipe, all HC were filled at once (batch fed) to maximize gaseous emissions. Weekly as of day 15, CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) emissions were measured during 2-h sessions using a closed chamber inserted into the compost surface. Monitored compost characteristics indicated little differences over time except for moisture content. From day 15 to 150, CH(4) emissions were not measurable. Generation of N(2)O occurred between day 20 and 120 with PB producing the least because of top and bottom slots providing continuous convective aeration, as compared to the WB with slats over its full height and the naturally aerated mixed and unmixed ground piles. Total N(2)O emissions of 56 kg CO(2)-eq (tonne wet waste treated)(-1) for PB, 75 for GP, 97 for WB and 99 for GPM represented average value for centralized composting facilities. Present and past scientific works suggest the need for more research to establish the combined effect of management and HC configuration on gaseous emissions, with close CH(4) measurements from day 0 to 15.

  19. OTP for belhaven flammable gas monitor at 241-T-104

    SciTech Connect

    Zuroff, W.F.

    1996-03-08

    This Operational Test Procedure tests the operability of the Safety Class 3 flammable gas monitoring system with equipment shutdown capability. This test includes the flammable gas monitor, heat trace system, pneumatic system, and the interface with existing equipment.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results.

  2. 40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5407 What are the... natural gas processing plants? (a) If your sweetening unit affected facility is located at an...

  3. 40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5407 What are the... natural gas processing plants? (a) If your sweetening unit affected facility is located at an...

  4. Apparatus and method for monitoring of gas having stable isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Clegg, Samuel M; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna E

    2013-03-05

    Gas having stable isotopes is monitored continuously by using a system that sends a modulated laser beam to the gas and collects and transmits the light not absorbed by the gas to a detector. Gas from geological storage, or from the atmosphere can be monitored continuously without collecting samples and transporting them to a lab.

  5. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  6. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  7. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  8. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  9. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  11. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  12. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined.

  13. Carbonyl Emissions From Oil and Gas Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Tran, T.

    2015-12-01

    A number of recent studies have targeted emissions of methane and other hydrocarbons from oil and gas exploration and production activity. These measurements are greatly increasing understanding of the atmospheric impacts of oil and gas development. Very few measurements exist, however, of emissions of formaldehyde and other carbonyls from oil and gas equipment. Carbonyls are toxic and serve as important ozone precursors, especially during winter ozone episodes in places like Utah's Uintah Basin. Current air quality models are only able to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone if they incorporate emissions inventories with very high carbonyl emissions. We measured carbonyl emissions from oil and gas equipment and facilities—including glycol dehydrators, liquid storage tanks, raw gas leaks, raw gas-burning engines, and produced water surface impoundments—in Rocky Mountain oil and gas fields. Carbonyl emissions from raw gas were below detection, but emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other carbonyls were detected from liquid storage tanks, glycol dehydrators, and other oil and gas equipment. In some cases, carbonyls may be formed from the degradation of methanol and other chemicals used in oil and gas production, but the collected data provide evidence for other non-combustion formation pathways. Raw gas-burning engines also emitted carbonyls. Emissions from all measured sources were a small fraction of total volatile organic compound emissions. We incorporated our measurements into an emissions inventory, used that inventory in an air quality model (WRF-SMOKE-CAMx), and were unable to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone. This could be because (1) emission sources we have not yet measured, including compressors, gas processing plants, and others, are large; (2) non-carbonyl emissions, especially those that quickly degrade into carbonyls during photochemical processing, are underestimated in the inventory; or (3) the air quality model is unable

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from a managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. K.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Ball, B. C.

    2005-07-01

    Managed grasslands contribute to global warming by the exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. To reduce uncertainties of the global warming potential of European grasslands and to assess potential mitigation options, an integrated approach quantifying fluxes from all three gases is needed. Greenhouse gas emissions from a grassland site in the SE of Scotland were measured in 2002 and 2003. Closed static chambers were used for N 2O and CH 4 flux measurements, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Closed dynamic chambers were used for soil respiration measurements, using infrared gas analysis. Three organic manures and two inorganic fertilizers were applied at a rate of 300 kg N ha -1 a -1 (available N) and compared with a zero-N control on grassland plots in a replicated experimental design. Soil respiration from plots receiving manure was up to 1.6 times larger than CO 2 release from control plots and up to 1.7 times larger compared to inorganic treatments ( p<0.05). A highly significant ( p<0.001) effect of fertilizer and manure treatments on N 2O release was observed. Release of N 2O from plots receiving inorganic fertilizers resulted in short term peaks of up to 388 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1. However losses from plots receiving organic manures were both longer lasting and greater in magnitude, with an emission of up to 3488 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1 from the sewage sludge treatments. During the 2002 growing season the cumulative total N 2O flux from manure treatments was 25 times larger than that from mineral fertilizers. CH 4 emissions were only significantly increased ( p<0.001) for a short period following applications of cattle slurry. Although soil respiration in manure plots was high, model predictions and micrometeorological flux measurements at an adjacent site suggest that all plots receiving fertilizer or manure acted as a sink for CO 2. Therefore in terms of global warming potentials the contribution of N 2O from

  15. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A

    2004-09-03

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of {eta}{sub e} {le} 130 and {eta}{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 4} respectively, with 1 MeV K{sup +} incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as {eta}{sub e} {proportional_to} 1/cos({theta}), where {theta} is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90{sup o}) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62{sup o}. Gas desorption varies more slowly with {theta} (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of {approx}2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K{sup +} ions backscatter when incident at 88-89{sup o} from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within {approx}10{sup o} of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90{sup o}. Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams.

  16. Inventory of Alabama greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chumeng; Herz, W.J.; Griffin, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have been increasing since the industrial revolution. Worldwide efforts are being made to study anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This study quantified the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Alabama in 1990. Alabama anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks from 13 sources were studied. 1990 Alabama total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were estimated to be 153.42 and 21.66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. As a result, the net total greenhouse gas emissions were estimated to be 131.76 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. Fossil fuel combustion is the major source of emissions, representing approximately 78 percent. Coal mining and landfills are other two significant emission sources, representing approximately 10 and 6 percent of the total emissions respectively. Forests in Alabama represent the major sink, offsetting approximately 14 percent of the total emissions. On a per capita basis, Alabama`s emission rate is 32.3 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita in 1990, compared to the national per capita average of 23.4 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. The high emission rate is attributed to higher emissions than the national average from fossil fuel combustion, from coal mining and landfills in Alabama.

  17. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick W.; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Follistein, Duke W.

    2004-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response times and detection limits. A Table lists common gases monitored for aerospace applications. The first five gases, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are historically the focus of the HGDL.

  18. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  19. Monitoring of SO2 emissions from industry by passive DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Pinhua; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Min; Dou, Ke; Fang, Wu; Liu, Wenqing

    2005-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide is a highly toxic air contaminant that harms human health and damages the environment. It is easily converted to sulfuric acid which is the major component in acid rain and to sulfate particles. Coal-burning power plants are the main sources of SO2 pollution. It is necessary to evaluate the emissions from industry for emission reduction strategies. Passive DOAS method has been successfully applied in volcanic plume and atmosphere monitoring because of its advantage of relative simple system with no light source. Here we report the measurement of SO2 total flux from a chimney in plant area in Hefei city (China) with a compact passive DOAS system. The system consists of a small telescope pointing zenith direction and a fibre-coupled OceanOptics USB2000 spectrometer. In the measurement the system was mounted on a mobile platform moving under the plume approximately perpendicular to the plume transport direction and the spectra of the zenith direction were recorded. By combining the integrated gas concentration over the plume cross section with wind velocity data SO2 flux was estimated.

  20. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.

  1. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  2. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  3. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  4. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  5. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  6. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  8. Enhanced nighttime gas emissions from a lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlée, E.; Rutgersson, A.

    2016-05-01

    Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are two important greenhouse gases. Previous studies have shown that lakes can be important natural sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2. It is therefore important to monitor the fluxes of these gases between lakes and the atmosphere in order to understand the processes that govern the exchange. Most previous lake flux studies are based on chamber measurements, by using the eddy covariance method, the resolution in time and in space of the fluxes is increased, which gives more information on the governing processes. Eddy covariance measurements at a Swedish lake show that both methane fluxes (FCH4 ) and carbon dioxide fluxes (FCO2 ) experience high nighttime fluxes for a large part of the data set (largest median FCH4night ≈ 13 nmol m2 s-1 and smallest median FCH4day ≈ 4.0 nmol m-2 s-1, largest median FCO2night ≈ 0.2 μmol m2 s-1 and smallest median FCO2day ≈ 0.02 μmol m-2 s-1, with larger variability during night). For the diel cycle of the CH4 fluxes it is suggested that water side convection could enhance the transfer velocity, transport CH4 rich water to the surface, as well as trigger ebullition. The high nighttime CO2 fluxes could to a large extent be explained with enhanced transfer velocities due to water side convection. If gas fluxes are not measured during nighttime, when water side convection normally is generated, periods of potential high gas flux might be missed and estimations of the total amount of gas released from lakes to the atmosphere will be biased.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  10. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to calculate... applicable duty cycle as specified in 40 CFR 1065.650. Do not apply infrequent regeneration...

  11. 40 CFR 60.73a - Emissions testing and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and stack gas flow rate, you will determine hourly NOX emissions rate (e.g., lb/hr) and with measured..., and operate a CEMS for measuring and recording the concentration of NOX emissions in accordance with... concentration CEMS, use a span value, as defined in Performance Specification 2, section 3.11, of Appendix B...

  12. 40 CFR 60.73a - Emissions testing and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and stack gas flow rate, you will determine hourly NOX emissions rate (e.g., lb/hr) and with measured..., and operate a CEMS for measuring and recording the concentration of NOX emissions in accordance with... concentration CEMS, use a span value, as defined in Performance Specification 2, section 3.11, of Appendix B...

  13. Research Spotlight: Satellites monitor air pollutant emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    A new satellite study verifies that Chinese emission control efforts did reduce power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a harmful gas that causes acid rain and can form sulfate aerosols; these aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting clouds and precipitation patterns and altering the amount of sunlight that is reflected away from Earth.

  14. 40 CFR 60.464 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coil Surface Coating § 60.464 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Where compliance with the numerical limit specified in § 60.462(a) (1) or (2) is achieved through the use of low VOC-content coatings without the use of emission control devices or through the use of higher VOC-content coatings...

  15. 40 CFR 60.646 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for... atmosphere. The SO2 emission rate shall be expressed in terms of equivalent sulfur mass flow rates (kg/hr (lb/hr)). The span of this monitoring system shall be set so that the equivalent emission limit of §...

  16. 40 CFR 60.646 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for... atmosphere. The SO2 emission rate shall be expressed in terms of equivalent sulfur mass flow rates (kg/hr (lb/hr)). The span of this monitoring system shall be set so that the equivalent emission limit of §...

  17. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and POM emissions from anode bake furnaces. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor TF and POM emissions from each anode bake furnace on an... owner or operator of a new or existing potline or anode bake furnace shall install, operate,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and POM emissions from anode bake furnaces. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor TF and POM emissions from each anode bake furnace on an... owner or operator of a new or existing potline or anode bake furnace shall install, operate,...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  1. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring system... §§ 75.11(a) through (e) or § 75.16, except that the phrase “CO2 continuous emission monitoring...

  2. USERS MANUAL: LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL - VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's guide for a computer model, Version 2.0 of the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM), for estimating air pollution emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmet...

  3. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  4. 40 CFR 60.84 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... times daily by measuring the concentration of sulfur dioxide entering the converter using suitable...=percentage of sulfur dioxide by volume entering the gas converter. Appropriate corrections must be made...

  5. ETV TEST OF PCDD/F EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emission monitors were tested under the EPA Environmental Technology and Verification (ETV) program. Two long-term sampling devices, the DioxinMonitoringSystem and Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans, and two sem...

  6. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the... percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system. (b) Any owner or operator subject to the... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring...

  7. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the... percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system. (b) Any owner or operator subject to the... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring...

  8. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the... percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system. (b) Any owner or operator subject to the... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring...

  9. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the... percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system. (b) Any owner or operator subject to the... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring...

  10. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the... percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system. (b) Any owner or operator subject to the... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring...

  11. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid supply pressure to the control device. The monitoring device must be accurate within ±5 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply... operator of any affected phosphate rock facility using a wet scrubbing emission control device shall not...

  12. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid supply pressure to the control device. The monitoring device must be accurate within ±5 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply... operator of any affected phosphate rock facility using a wet scrubbing emission control device shall not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid supply pressure to the control device. The monitoring device must be accurate within ±5 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply... operator of any affected phosphate rock facility using a wet scrubbing emission control device shall not...

  14. 40 CFR 60.646 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information on a daily basis: (1) The accumulation of sulfur product over each 24-hour period: The monitoring... a level indicator or by manual soundings, with subsequent calculation of the sulfur production rate... emission monitoring system performance evaluation required by § 60.13(c), Performance Specification 2...

  15. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous samplers and real or semi-real-time continuous monitors for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans provide significant advantages relative to conventional methods of extractive sampling. Continuous samplers collect long term samples over a time period of days to wee...

  16. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  17. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  18. Volcanic Carbon: Global Variations in Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Magmas degas volatiles during ascent from the mantle and mafic melts with 7 wt% H2O attain volatile saturation at ~15km depth. Magmatic gases are dominated by H2O, CO2 and S species, independent of their tectonic setting. At rift volcanoes, C is sourced from the mantle whereas arc volcanoes sample both mantle and subducted C. Volcanic gases provide detailed information on volatile sources and degassing processes. Comparison of fumarole gases with melt inclusions and volcanic plumes shows that most fumaroles sample degassed magma. Water, CO2 and S vary significantly between tectonic settings. The Kuriles, Japan, and Kamchatka have H2O/CO2 of 40 to 800 while other arcs such as the Cascades, Central America, S. America, Java, and Aeolian have ratios of 1 to 70. Gases from rift volcanoes have H2O/CO2 between 3 and 9. Some of these variations are due to addition of meteoric and subducted water, as evidenced by O and H isotopes. Speciation of H and C in volcanic gases are typically controlled by redox buffer reactions imposed by the Fe3+-Fe2+ (i.e. QFM) rock buffer or the SO2-H2S gas buffer. In more exotic systems such as Poás, hydrothermal S phases such as liquid native S can play a role in high T gas C and H speciation. Arcs dominate the global subaerial volcanic CO2 emission budget and arc total fluxes vary significantly i.e. only about 2 t/yr/km from the Aleutians and about 65 t/yr/km from Central America. Reasons for this are poorly constrained and may include variability in subducted material or slab/mantle conditions at depth. A large uncertainty results from use of generalized arc-wide C/S ratios, used in calculating C fluxes, and the paucity of data for remote arcs. Resolving C fluxes from subducted versus mantle or crustal (assimilated) C relies on C isotope ratios, which can vary spatially and temporally as a function of source or degassing processes. Therefore, when considering the deep C cycle and Cexchange between the interior and surface of the Earth

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Contrasting Management Scenarios in the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping systems field plots were established in 2002 in west central Minnesota to compare tillage, rotation and fertilizer treatments and to identify and develop economically viable and environmentally sustainable farming systems. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was monitored in three scena...

  20. Endogenous monitoring and enforcement of a transferable emissions permit system

    SciTech Connect

    Stranlund, J.K.; Dhanda, K.K.

    1999-11-01

    The literature on noncompliant firms in transferable emissions permit systems offers little guidance to policymakers that must determine how to commit resources to monitor firms and punish violations in such systems. The authors consider how a budget-constrained enforcement authority that seeks to minimize aggregate noncompliance in a transferable emissions permit system should allocate its monitoring and enforcement efforts among heterogeneous firms. With a conventional model of firm behavior in a transferable permit system, they find that differences in the allocation of monitoring and enforcement effort between any two types of firms should be independent of differences in their exogenous characteristics.

  1. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  2. 40 CFR 60.84 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60...) Alternatively, a source that processes elemental sulfur or an ore that contains elemental sulfur and uses air to... determining SO2 emission rates in terms of the standard. This procedure is not required, but is an...

  3. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  4. A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-12-15

    The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of

  5. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 60.403 Section 60.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... system, except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, to monitor and record the opacity... measurement of the pressure loss of the gas stream through the scrubber. The monitoring device must...

  6. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  7. Wellhead monitors automate Lake Maracaibo gas lift

    SciTech Connect

    Adjunta, J.C. ); Majek, A. )

    1994-11-28

    High-performance personal computer (PC) and intelligent remote terminal unit (IRTU) technology have optimized the remote control of gas lift injection and surveillance of over 1,000 offshore production wells at Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. In its 3-year program, Maraven expects a 27,000 b/d increase in oil production by reducing deferred production and optimizing gas lift injection by as much as 20%. In addition, real time data on well performance will enhance production management as well as allocation of operational and maintenance resources. The remote control system consists of a solar-powered wellhead monitor (WHM) installed on each well platform. At each flow gathering station within a 2-mile range of a family of wells, a host terminal unit polls and stores the well data with low power, 250-mw radios. From a remote location, 60 miles onshore, an operator interface polls the host units for real time data with 5-watt radios operating in the 900-megahertz band. The paper describes the design, optimization, telemetry management, and selection of a single vendor for this system. The economic impact of this system to Maraven is also discussed.

  8. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 3090- 00XX; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot, by any of the...

  9. Measurement of gas and aerosol agricultural emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Agriculture impacts can include primary dust emission, on-facility combustion from vehicles or seasonal field burning, and gaseous emissions from waste...

  10. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr-1 to more than 4000 kt yr-1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005-2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr-1 and not detected by OMI.

  11. Initial Development of a Continuous Emission Monitor for Dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Coggiola; Harald Oser; Gregory W. Faris; David R. Crosley

    2002-03-30

    Under contract DE-AC26-98FT-40370, SRI International has completed the third phase of a planned three-phase effort to develop a laboratory prototype continuous emission monitor (CEM) for dioxins and furans generated during the incineration of waste materials at DOE remediation sites. The project was initiated on July 29, 1998 with the technical effort completed in October 2001. During this research effort, SRI has made numerous improvements in our jet-REMPI instrument. These improvements have involved characterization and optimization of the molecular cooling in the gas jet, implementation of a custom-fabricated, four pulsed valve assembly, new data acquisition and display software, and preliminary development of a wavelength and mass calibration approach. We have also measured the REMPI excitation spectra of numerous organic compounds that are likely to be present in the exhaust stream of a waste incinerator. These spectra must be well characterized in the laboratory to understand any potential interferences that might arise when monitoring for dioxin and furan congeners. Our results to date continue to validate the original concept of using jet-REMPI as the detection method in a dioxin CEM. Using only commercial components with minor modifications, we have already demonstrated a detection sensitivity in the low ppt range with sufficient chemical specificity to separately detect two closely related congeners of dichlorodibenzodioxin present in a mixture. To demonstrate the utility of this methodology outside of the controlled conditions of the laboratory, we performed a series of pseudo-field experiments at the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The instrument used for those studies was built by SRI under contract with US EPA, and was an exact duplicate of the SRI system. This duplication allowed the experiments to be conducted without transporting the SRI system to the EPA site. Using the

  12. NOVAC - A global network for volcanic gas monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, B.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the global network, NOVAC (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change), aiming at automatic gas emission monitoring at active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the network will primarily be used for volcanic risk assessment but also for geophysical research, studies of atmospheric change and ground validation of satellite instruments. A novel type of instrument, the Scanning miniaturized Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instrument, is applied in the network to measure volcanic gas emissions by UV absorption spectroscopy. The instrument is set up 5-10 km downwind of the volcano under study and typically 2-4 instruments are deployed at each volcano in order to cover different wind directions and facilitate measurements of plume height and plume direction. Two different versions of the instrument have been developed. Version I was designed to be a robust and simple instrument for measurement of volcanic SO2 emissions at high time-resolution with minimal power consumption. Version II was designed to allow the best possible spectroscopy, and enhanced flexibility in regard to measurement geometry at the cost of larger complexity, power consumption and price. In the paper the project is described as well as the developed software, the hardware of the two instrument versions, measurement strategies, data communication and archiving routines. As of December 2008 a total of 46 instruments have been installed at 18 volcanoes worldwide. As a typical example the installation at Tungurahua Volcano in Ecuador is described, together with some results from the first 21 months of operation at this volcano.

  13. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  14. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  15. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  16. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. In addition, copies... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900... MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel Exhaust Gas Monitoring § 70.1900 Exhaust...

  17. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. In addition, copies... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900... MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust...

  18. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust...

  19. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust...

  20. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel Exhaust Gas Monitoring § 70.1900 Exhaust...

  1. Characteristics of seabed tremors induced by gas emissions off Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Hsu, S.; Liang, C.; Doo, W.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Gas emissions out of the seabed have been observed in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan by 38 kHz echo sounders and sub-bottom profilers. The intensities of the gas emissions are closely modulated by the tidal variation. In this study, we use ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) to monitor the gas emissions and analyze the behavior of the seabed tremors. Among the recorded seismic signals, the long-duration tremors are very prounced. Those tremors are characterized by monochromatic signals and mainly horizontally oscillate for several hours. Becuse the particle motions are almost along horizontal directions, it suggests that the tremor source is from near-seafloor source link to gas emission out of the seabed. Gas-induced tremors mainly occur during both the rising periods and falling period of the tides, probably related to the higher stress variations induced by the tidal variation. However, although they may be recorded at different sites within a time interval, their amplitudes are not coherent, indicating the source is small and origin at the vicinity of each receiver. Because of the lack of temporal coherence, it's hard to identify the tremors' sources by traditional earthquake relocation methods. Here, we use the horizontal particle motions of the tremors to define the azimuths of the gas emission sources to each receiver. By summarizing multiple sources azimuths, we are able us to minimize the source spots. The results can also be used to characterize the seabed attributes in the offshore area of SW Taiwan.

  2. Reconstruction of inundation and greenhouse gas emissions from Siberian wetlands over the last half-century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.; Pinto, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Chiu, C.; Bowling, L. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    Changes in greenhouse gas emissions such as methane and carbon dioxide from high-latitude wetlands in a warming climate may have important implications for global warming, due to the large amounts of carbon stored in high-latitude soils and the high greenhouse warming potential of methane. As much as 1/3 of global natural methane emissions come from high latitudes. Efforts to monitor high-latitude greenhouse gas emissions are hampered by the sparseness of in situ data at high latitudes, especially in Northern Eurasia. While biogeochemical modeling can provide estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in such areas, the lack of in situ measurements also makes it difficult to constrain these models. Fortunately, emissions of greenhouse gases, especially methane, are sensitive to hydrologic variables such as inundation that now can be observed via passive microwave and synthetic aperture radar remote sensors. Here we apply a combination of large-scalehydrologic/biogeochemical models and remote sensing observations across the West Siberian lowlands to estimate soil moisture, inundation, and greenhouse gas fluxes. Our modeling framework consists of the Variable Infiltration Capacity macroscale hydrological model (VIC), extended to include carbon cycling and coupled to a methane emissions model. In particular, we include a representation of the spatial distribution of soil moisture, which allows us to compare our simulated emissions to both large-scale remote sensing observations and point-scale in-situ observations. We have calibrated this framework using observed streamflow, inundation products derived from PALSAR and AMSR-E, and in situ water table and greenhouse gas emissions observations. Using the calibrated model, we examine the interannual variabilityof a model-derived inundation and greenhouse gas emission data set across W. Siberia for the period 1948-2007.

  3. Reconstruction of inundation and greenhouse gas emissions from Siberian wetlands over the last half-century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Chiu, C.; Bowling, L. C.; Glagolev, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in greenhouse gas emissions such as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from high-latitude wetlands in a warming climate may have important implications for projections of global warming, due to the large amounts of carbon stored in high-latitude soils and the high greenhouse warming potential of methane. As much as 1/3 of global natural methane emissions come from high latitudes. Efforts to monitor high-latitude greenhouse gas emissions are hampered by the sparseness of in situ data at high latitudes, especially in Northern Eurasia. While biogeochemical modeling can provide estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in such areas, the lack of in situ measurements also makes it difficult to constrain these models. Fortunately, emissions of greenhouse gases, especially methane, are sensitive to hydrologic variables such as inundation that now can be observed via passive microwave and synthetic aperture radar remote sensors. Here we apply a combination of large-scale hydrologic/biogeochemical models and remote sensing observations across the West Siberian lowlands to estimate soil moisture, inundation, and greenhouse gas fluxes. Our modeling framework consists of the Variable Infiltration Capacity macroscale hydrological model (VIC), extended to include carbon cycling and coupled to a methane emissions model. In particular, our modeling framework includes a parameterization of the spatial distribution of soil moisture, which allows us to compare our simulated emissions to both large-scale remote sensing observations and point-scale in-situ observations. We have calibrated this framework using observed streamflow, inundation products derived from PALSAR and AMSR-E, and in situ water table and greenhouse gas emissions observations. Using the calibrated model, we examine the interannual variability of simulated inundation and greenhouse gas emissions across W. Siberia for the period 1948-2007.

  4. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  5. Improving emissions factors for estimating urban natural gas leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    Emissions factors for pipeline natural gas leaks are in need of refinement. In addition to limitations from the small sample sizes of leaks that were initially used to develop emissions factors, a further limitation to emissions factors is lack of knowledge of characteristic statistical distributions of pipeline leak rates. For example, leaks were implicitly assumed to be normally distributed so that an average leak rate was used for pipelines of a given construction. Our natural gas leak data from Boston, USA, in which we found over 3,000 natural gas leaks, indicates that leaks rates are highly skewed, with relatively few leaks likely contributing disproportionately to the total. The long-tailed distribution of gas leak rates is mirrored by a similarly skewed distribution of surface methane concentrations in air. These data suggest that emissions factors should be based on correctly specified statistical distributions, and that fixing relatively few large leaks first may provide the most environmental benefit per cost.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gas chromatography/atomic emission detector (GC/AED) system has been evaluated for its applicability to environmental analysis. Detection limits, elemental response factors, and regression analysis data were determined for 58 semivolatile environmental contaminants. Detection l...

  7. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO2... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring...

  8. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO2... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring...

  9. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  10. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  11. Failed suicide attempt by emission gas poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, P.; Bornstein, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    After prolonged exposure to emission gases from his car, a patient survived, probably because of low carbon monoxide levels in the emission gases of his modern car. The authors anticipate a reduction in fatalities when this method of suicide is used.

  12. 40 CFR 63.649 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Connectors in gas/vapor service and light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.649 Alternative means of emission limitation....640(h), a sample of 200 connectors shall be randomly selected and monitored using Method 21 of 40 CFR... specified in § 63.640(h), all connectors in gas/vapor service shall be monitored using Method 21 of 40...

  13. 40 CFR 63.649 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Connectors in gas/vapor service and light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.649 Alternative means of emission limitation....640(h), a sample of 200 connectors shall be randomly selected and monitored using Method 21 of 40 CFR... specified in § 63.640(h), all connectors in gas/vapor service shall be monitored using Method 21 of 40...

  14. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Franzluebbers, Alan J; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C

    2007-11-01

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O. It can also be a sink for CO(2) through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH(4) consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N(2)O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH(4) and N(2)O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint.

  15. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1992 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the 1992 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research Symposium held in Washington, DC, August 18-20, 1992. The symposium provided a forum for exchange of technical information on global change emissions and potential mitigation technologies. The primary ...

  16. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  17. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David R.; Alvarez, Ramón A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Harriss, Robert; Herndon, Scott C.; Karion, Anna; Kort, Eric Adam; Lamb, Brian K.; Lan, Xin; Marchese, Anthony J.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Robinson, Allen L.; Shepson, Paul B.; Sweeney, Colm; Talbot, Robert; Townsend-Small, Amy; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Published estimates of methane emissions from atmospheric data (top-down approaches) exceed those from source-based inventories (bottom-up approaches), leading to conflicting claims about the climate implications of fuel switching from coal or petroleum to natural gas. Based on data from a coordinated campaign in the Barnett Shale oil and gas-producing region of Texas, we find that top-down and bottom-up estimates of both total and fossil methane emissions agree within statistical confidence intervals (relative differences are 10% for fossil methane and 0.1% for total methane). We reduced uncertainty in top-down estimates by using repeated mass balance measurements, as well as ethane as a fingerprint for source attribution. Similarly, our bottom-up estimate incorporates a more complete count of facilities than past inventories, which omitted a significant number of major sources, and more effectively accounts for the influence of large emission sources using a statistical estimator that integrates observations from multiple ground-based measurement datasets. Two percent of oil and gas facilities in the Barnett accounts for half of methane emissions at any given time, and high-emitting facilities appear to be spatiotemporally variable. Measured oil and gas methane emissions are 90% larger than estimates based on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory and correspond to 1.5% of natural gas production. This rate of methane loss increases the 20-y climate impacts of natural gas consumed in the region by roughly 50%. PMID:26644584

  18. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Davis, Kenneth J; Harriss, Robert; Herndon, Scott C; Karion, Anna; Kort, Eric Adam; Lamb, Brian K; Lan, Xin; Marchese, Anthony J; Pacala, Stephen W; Robinson, Allen L; Shepson, Paul B; Sweeney, Colm; Talbot, Robert; Townsend-Small, Amy; Yacovitch, Tara I; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-12-22

    Published estimates of methane emissions from atmospheric data (top-down approaches) exceed those from source-based inventories (bottom-up approaches), leading to conflicting claims about the climate implications of fuel switching from coal or petroleum to natural gas. Based on data from a coordinated campaign in the Barnett Shale oil and gas-producing region of Texas, we find that top-down and bottom-up estimates of both total and fossil methane emissions agree within statistical confidence intervals (relative differences are 10% for fossil methane and 0.1% for total methane). We reduced uncertainty in top-down estimates by using repeated mass balance measurements, as well as ethane as a fingerprint for source attribution. Similarly, our bottom-up estimate incorporates a more complete count of facilities than past inventories, which omitted a significant number of major sources, and more effectively accounts for the influence of large emission sources using a statistical estimator that integrates observations from multiple ground-based measurement datasets. Two percent of oil and gas facilities in the Barnett accounts for half of methane emissions at any given time, and high-emitting facilities appear to be spatiotemporally variable. Measured oil and gas methane emissions are 90% larger than estimates based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory and correspond to 1.5% of natural gas production. This rate of methane loss increases the 20-y climate impacts of natural gas consumed in the region by roughly 50%.

  19. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Davis, Kenneth J; Harriss, Robert; Herndon, Scott C; Karion, Anna; Kort, Eric Adam; Lamb, Brian K; Lan, Xin; Marchese, Anthony J; Pacala, Stephen W; Robinson, Allen L; Shepson, Paul B; Sweeney, Colm; Talbot, Robert; Townsend-Small, Amy; Yacovitch, Tara I; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-12-22

    Published estimates of methane emissions from atmospheric data (top-down approaches) exceed those from source-based inventories (bottom-up approaches), leading to conflicting claims about the climate implications of fuel switching from coal or petroleum to natural gas. Based on data from a coordinated campaign in the Barnett Shale oil and gas-producing region of Texas, we find that top-down and bottom-up estimates of both total and fossil methane emissions agree within statistical confidence intervals (relative differences are 10% for fossil methane and 0.1% for total methane). We reduced uncertainty in top-down estimates by using repeated mass balance measurements, as well as ethane as a fingerprint for source attribution. Similarly, our bottom-up estimate incorporates a more complete count of facilities than past inventories, which omitted a significant number of major sources, and more effectively accounts for the influence of large emission sources using a statistical estimator that integrates observations from multiple ground-based measurement datasets. Two percent of oil and gas facilities in the Barnett accounts for half of methane emissions at any given time, and high-emitting facilities appear to be spatiotemporally variable. Measured oil and gas methane emissions are 90% larger than estimates based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory and correspond to 1.5% of natural gas production. This rate of methane loss increases the 20-y climate impacts of natural gas consumed in the region by roughly 50%. PMID:26644584

  20. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  1. Novel method for online monitoring of dissolved N2O concentrations through a gas stripping device.

    PubMed

    Mampaey, Kris E; van Dongen, Udo G J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants are currently measured by online gas phase analysis or grab sampling from the liquid phase. In this study, a novel method is presented to monitor the liquid phase N2O concentration for aerated as well as non-aerated conditions/reactors, following variations both in time and in space. The monitoring method consists of a gas stripping device, of which the measurement principle is based on a continuous flow of reactor liquid through a stripping flask and subsequent analysis of the N2O concentration in the stripped gas phase. The method was theoretically and experimentally evaluated for its fit for use in the wastewater treatment context. Besides, the influence of design and operating variables on the performance of the gas stripping device was addressed. This method can easily be integrated with online off-gas measurements and allows to better investigate the origin of the gas emissions from the treatment plant. Liquid phase measurements of N2O are of use in mitigation of these emissions. The method can also be applied to measure other dissolved gasses, such as methane, being another important greenhouse gas.

  2. Novel method for online monitoring of dissolved N2O concentrations through a gas stripping device.

    PubMed

    Mampaey, Kris E; van Dongen, Udo G J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants are currently measured by online gas phase analysis or grab sampling from the liquid phase. In this study, a novel method is presented to monitor the liquid phase N2O concentration for aerated as well as non-aerated conditions/reactors, following variations both in time and in space. The monitoring method consists of a gas stripping device, of which the measurement principle is based on a continuous flow of reactor liquid through a stripping flask and subsequent analysis of the N2O concentration in the stripped gas phase. The method was theoretically and experimentally evaluated for its fit for use in the wastewater treatment context. Besides, the influence of design and operating variables on the performance of the gas stripping device was addressed. This method can easily be integrated with online off-gas measurements and allows to better investigate the origin of the gas emissions from the treatment plant. Liquid phase measurements of N2O are of use in mitigation of these emissions. The method can also be applied to measure other dissolved gasses, such as methane, being another important greenhouse gas. PMID:25573615

  3. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  4. Colorimetric blood-gas monitoring sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Keith J.; Seifert, George P.

    1993-05-01

    Colorimetric fiber optic sensors have been developed for measuring the pH and pCO2 of blood. These sensors are fabricated using a single 125 micrometers diameter optical fiber. Located at the distal end of the fiber is a capsule that contains a pH sensitive dye. The pCO2 sensor is fabricated from a pH sensor with the addition of a salt, bicarbonate, and the encapsulation with an ion impermeable gas permeable membrane. The distal end of the capsule is terminated with a reflective surface. The reflective surface can either be a polished metallic surface or, in this case, a TiO2 impregnated epoxy. The disposable sensor mates with an optical connector that contains two optical fibers of the same size as the disposable sensor. The two fibers within the optical cable provide a light path for both the antegrade and retrograde optical signals. These fibers are terminated at either the LED source or the detector. A prototype sensor assembly that incorporates the measurement of three physiological parameters (pH, pCO2, and sO2) has been demonstrated to fit within a standard 20 gauge arterial catheter, typically used for radial artery blood pressure monitoring, without significant damping of the blood pressure waveform. The pH sensor has a range of 6.9 - 7.8 with a precision of 0.01 pH units and the pCO2 sensor has a range of 15 - 95 mm Hg with a precision of 3 mm Hg. The long term drift pH drift is less than 0.01 pH unit per 8 hours and the pCO2 drift is less than 1 mm Hg per 8 hours. Sensor performance in the canine has demonstrated that the pH sensor is accurate to within +/- 0.03 pH units and the pCO2 sensor is accurate to within +/- 3 mm Hg when compared to a typical blood gas analyzer.

  5. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  6. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  7. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  8. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  9. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  10. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  11. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  12. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must represent a complete operating cycle. (b) POM emissions from Soderberg potlines. Using the... operating cycle. The primary control system must be sampled over an 8-hour period, unless site-specific... alternative monitoring method. All runs must represent a full process cycle. (4) The owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  14. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  15. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  16. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Fonte, Steven J.; Six, Johan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-03-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative review of the overall effect of earthworms on the soil greenhouse-gas balance. Our results suggest that although earthworms are largely beneficial to soil fertility, they increase net soil greenhouse-gas emissions.

  17. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravel, Jean-Francois Y.; Babin, Francois; Allard, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  18. Alternative control techniques document. NOx emissions from stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Alternative Control Techniques document describes available control technologies for reducing NOx emissions levels from stationary combustion gas turbines. Information on the formation of NOx and uncontrolled NOx emissions from gas turbines is included. Water injection, steam injection, and low-NOx combustors, used independently or in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are discussed. Achievable controlled NOx emissions levels, costs and cost effectiveness, and environmental impacts are presented and applicability to new equipment as well as retrofit applications is discussed. The application of these technologies to gas turbines operating in offshore platform applications is included. Information on the use of alternate fuels, catalytic combustion, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions is also briefly presented.

  19. The Effect of Natural Gas Supply on US Renewable Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Bistline, J.; Inman, M.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that more abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall energy use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-2055 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable energy, more abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  20. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  1. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  2. On-road heavy-duty vehicle emissions monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Hottor-Raguindin, Rachel; Stedman, Donald H; McClintock, Peter; Theobald, Ed; Johnson, Jeremy D; Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Misra, Chandan

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of particulate and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) after-treatment controls on heavy-duty vehicles has spurred the need for fleet emissions data to monitor their reliability and effectiveness. The University of Denver has developed a new method for rapidly measuring heavy-duty vehicles for gaseous and particulate fuel specific emissions. The method was recently used to collect 3088 measurements at a Port of Los Angeles location and a weigh station on I-5 in northern California. The weigh station NOx emissions for 2014 models are 73% lower than 2010 models (3.8 vs 13.9 gNOx/kg of fuel) and look to continue to decrease with newer models. The Port site has a heavy-duty fleet that has been entirely equipped with diesel particulate filters since 2010. Total particulate mass and black carbon measurements showed that only 3% of the Port vehicles measured exceed expected emission limits with mean gPM/kg of fuel emissions of 0.031 ± 0.007 and mean gBC/kg of fuel emissions of 0.020 ± 0.003. Mean particulate emissions were higher for the older weigh station fleet but 2011 and newer trucks gPM/kg of fuel emissions were nevertheless more than a factor of 30 lower than the means for pre-DPF (2007 and older) model years. PMID:25606715

  3. On-road heavy-duty vehicle emissions monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Hottor-Raguindin, Rachel; Stedman, Donald H; McClintock, Peter; Theobald, Ed; Johnson, Jeremy D; Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Misra, Chandan

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of particulate and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) after-treatment controls on heavy-duty vehicles has spurred the need for fleet emissions data to monitor their reliability and effectiveness. The University of Denver has developed a new method for rapidly measuring heavy-duty vehicles for gaseous and particulate fuel specific emissions. The method was recently used to collect 3088 measurements at a Port of Los Angeles location and a weigh station on I-5 in northern California. The weigh station NOx emissions for 2014 models are 73% lower than 2010 models (3.8 vs 13.9 gNOx/kg of fuel) and look to continue to decrease with newer models. The Port site has a heavy-duty fleet that has been entirely equipped with diesel particulate filters since 2010. Total particulate mass and black carbon measurements showed that only 3% of the Port vehicles measured exceed expected emission limits with mean gPM/kg of fuel emissions of 0.031 ± 0.007 and mean gBC/kg of fuel emissions of 0.020 ± 0.003. Mean particulate emissions were higher for the older weigh station fleet but 2011 and newer trucks gPM/kg of fuel emissions were nevertheless more than a factor of 30 lower than the means for pre-DPF (2007 and older) model years.

  4. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, David R.; Notestein, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  5. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  6. Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anthony J; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Martinez, David M; Williams, Laurie L; Robinson, Allen L; Mitchell, Austin L; Subramanian, R; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C

    2015-09-01

    New facility-level methane (CH4) emissions measurements obtained from 114 natural gas gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in 13 U.S. states were combined with facility counts obtained from state and national databases in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate CH4 emissions from U.S. natural gas gathering and processing operations. Total annual CH4 emissions of 2421 (+245/-237) Gg were estimated for all U.S. gathering and processing operations, which represents a CH4 loss rate of 0.47% (±0.05%) when normalized by 2012 CH4 production. Over 90% of those emissions were attributed to normal operation of gathering facilities (1697 +189/-185 Gg) and processing plants (506 +55/-52 Gg), with the balance attributed to gathering pipelines and processing plant routine maintenance and upsets. The median CH4 emissions estimate for processing plants is a factor of 1.7 lower than the 2012 EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate, with the difference due largely to fewer reciprocating compressors, and a factor of 3.0 higher than that reported under the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Since gathering operations are currently embedded within the production segment of the EPA GHGI, direct comparison to our results is complicated. However, the study results suggest that CH4 emissions from gathering are substantially higher than the current EPA GHGI estimate and are equivalent to 30% of the total net CH4 emissions in the natural gas systems GHGI. Because CH4 emissions from most gathering facilities are not reported under the current rule and not all source categories are reported for processing plants, the total CH4 emissions from gathering and processing reported under the EPA GHGRP (180 Gg) represents only 14% of that tabulated in the EPA GHGI and 7% of that predicted from this study.

  7. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  8. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified in... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1235 Section 60.1235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1235 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1230 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 62.15180 Section 62.15180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15180 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  11. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the

  12. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  13. Continuous Emission Monitor for Toxic Metals in the Off-Gases of Thermal Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Loge

    1998-12-01

    Self-calibration procedures for continuous monitoring of toxic metals in the off-gases of thermal treatment facilities using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were tested. The tests were performed using a heated aerosol/gas flow system that generated simulated off-gas conditions with calibrated amounts of metal in an optical cell. Calibration curves of LIBS signal for metal concentration in the cell were obtained for various gas and optical conditions. Gas conditions that were varied include water in either vapor and condensed aerosol droplet form, the presence of easily ionizable elements (i. e., potassium), speciation of the metal analyte, and the gas temperature. In addition, laser pulse energy, focal length, and detector alignment were independently varied. Two different sets of calibration curves were obtained, one set with Mn(II) and N(II) emission obtained simultaneously and a second set with Cd(I) and Cd(II) emission obtained simultaneously with N(I) emission obtained in a sequential manner. For both sets of data, calibration curves were obtained using 1) single line intensities, 2) the ratio of metal single line intensity to nitrogen single line intensity, and 3) the ratio of total metal emission to total nitrogen emission obtained using the temperature and electron density. Results show that correction using the ratio of metal single line intensity to nitrogen single line intensity does help in maintaining a constant slope of calibration curves for various conditions. However, the total emission self-calibration procedure shows better performance in most cases.

  14. Climate change : enhanced : recent reductions in China's greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Jiang, K.; Hu, X.; Sinton, J. E.; Zhang, X.-Q.; Xu, D.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Hansen, J. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Energy Research Inst.; LBNL; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Stanford Univ.; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    2001-11-30

    Using the most recent energy and other statistical data, we have estimated the annual trends in China's greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1990 to 2000. The authors of this Policy Forum calculate that CO2 emissions declined by 7.3% between 1996 and 2000, while CH4 emissions declined by 2.2% between 1997 and 2000. These reductions were due to a combination of energy reforms, economic restructuring, forestry policies, and economic slowdown. The effects of these emission changes on global mean temperatures are estimated and compared with the effects of concurrent changes in two aerosol species, sulfate and black carbon.

  15. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13 of subpart A of 40...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13 of subpart A of 40...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Operator Training and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2941 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment...

  18. GAS EMISSION FROM DEBRIS DISKS AROUND A AND F STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorovsky, Kyryl; Brandeker, Alexis; Wu Yanqin E-mail: alexis@astro.su.s

    2010-09-01

    Gas has been detected in a number of debris disk systems. This gas may have arisen from grain sublimation or grain photodesorption. It interacts with the surrounding dust grains through a number of charge and heat exchanges. Studying the chemical composition and physical state of this gas can therefore reveal much about the dust component in these debris disks. We have produced a new code, ONTARIO, to address gas emission from dusty gas-poor disks around A-F stars. This code computes the gas ionization and thermal balance self-consistently, with particular care taken of heating/cooling mechanisms. Line emission spectra are then produced for each species (up to zinc) by statistical equilibrium calculations of the atomic/ionic energy levels. For parameters that resemble the observed {beta} Pictoris gas disk, we find that the gas is primarily heated by photoelectric emission from dust grains, and primarily cooled through the C II 157.7 {mu}m line emission. The gas can be heated to a temperature that is warmer than that of the dust and may in some cases reach temperature for thermal escape. The dominant cooling line, C II 157.7 {mu}m, should be detectable by Herschel in these disks, while the O I 63.2 {mu}m line will be too faint. We also study the dependence of the cooling line fluxes on a variety of disk parameters, in light of the much improved sensitivity to thermal line emission in the mid/far-infrared and at submillimeter wavelengths provided by, in particular, Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. These new instruments will yield much new information about dusty debris disks.

  19. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  20. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity.

  1. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity. PMID:25363162

  2. Measurement of Emissions from Produced Water Ponds: Upstream Oil and Gas Study #1; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant uncertainty exists regarding air pollutant emissions from upstream oil and gas production operations. Oil and gas operations present unique and challenging emission testing issues due to the large variety and quantity of potential emissions sources. This report summ...

  3. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies. PMID:25897974

  4. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies.

  5. LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

    2004-08-01

    In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  7. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  8. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and for monitoring air. Technical status report

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.D.

    1999-01-31

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team was assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  11. Quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the UK using a dense monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Manning, A. J.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D. E.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2015-01-01

    The UK is one of several countries around the world that has enacted legislation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Monitoring of emissions has been done through a detailed sectoral level bottom-up inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, NAEI) from which national totals are submitted yearly to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change. In parallel, the UK government has funded four atmospheric monitoring stations to infer emissions through top-down methods that assimilate atmospheric observations. In this study, we present top-down emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) for the UK and Ireland over the period August 2012 to August 2014. We used a hierarchical Bayesian inverse framework to infer fluxes as well as a set of covariance parameters that describe uncertainties in the system. We inferred average UK emissions of 2.08 (1.72-2.47) Tg yr-1 CH4 and 0.105 (0.087-0.127) Tg yr-1 N2O and found our derived estimates to be generally lower than the inventory. We used sectoral distributions from the NAEI to determine whether these discrepancies can be attributed to specific source sectors. Because of the distinct distributions of the two dominant CH4 emissions sectors in the UK, agriculture and waste, we found that the inventory may be overestimated in agricultural CH4 emissions. We also found that N2O fertilizer emissions from the NAEI may be overestimated and we derived a significant seasonal cycle in emissions. This seasonality is likely due to seasonality in fertilizer application and in environmental drivers such as temperature and rainfall, which are not reflected in the annual resolution inventory. Through the hierarchical Bayesian inverse framework, we quantified uncertainty covariance parameters and emphasized their importance for high-resolution emissions estimation. We inferred average model errors of approximately 20 and 0.4 ppb and correlation timescales of 1.0 (0.72-1.43) and 2.6 (1.9-3.9) days for CH4 and N2O

  12. Capturing fugitive methane emissions from natural gas compressor buildings.

    PubMed

    Litto, R; Hayes, R E; Liu, B

    2007-08-01

    Fugitive methane emissions account for about 50% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian conventional oil and gas sector. Sources include leaks in natural gas transmission facilities such as pipelines and compressor stations. There are three sources of methane emissions in a compressor station. The first is emissions resulting from incomplete combustion in the engine; the second is leaks in valves, flanges and other equipment in the building; and the third results from instrument venting. Fugitive methane emissions may be in low concentration relative to air, and thus cannot be destroyed by conventional combustion (below flammability limits of about 5-16%). The present study investigates the feasibility of capturing methane emissions from a compressor station. Computer modelling of the flow patterns of lean methane emissions inside the building is used to show the influence of doors, vents and leak location. Simulations show that for a typical building most fugitive methane exits through the ridge vent provided that the main doors remain closed. When the extraction rate through the ridge vent is controlled, the methane concentration is at acceptable levels for destruction in a catalytic flow reverse reactor, that is, in the range of 0.1-1% by volume. PMID:16891053

  13. Stand-alone sensors monitor for combustible gas leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Elizabeth Gas Co., a gas distribution company in New Jersey, has added a network of combustible gas sensors to a computer system already in place for continuous monitoring of gas leaks. The computer center at the company's Erie St. facility controls all dispatching, which includes routing gas through the system and controlling gas pressure. The system uses redundant Hewlett-Packard A900 central processing units (CPU), 6 monitors, including a Mitsubishi 35-in. color monitor, and Fisher control software. The company's primary tank farm, which contains over a million gallons of propane and LNG, is located near several chemical plants, an oil refinery and a residential neighborhood. To monitor for combustible leaks at the site, the company installed 49 stand-alone combustible gas sensors manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances Co. (MSA) of Pittsburgh, Pa. The sensors are designed to measure the concentrations of propane and LNG and trigger alarms at 20% of the lower explosive limit (LEL). The sensors are diffusion types that sample ambient air rather than drawing in samples through a pump. Using the principle of catalytic oxidation, the sensors produce a signal proportional to the concentration of combustible gas in the atmosphere. If gas is detected above 20% of the LEL, a relay driver signal is sent into a remote annunciator panel which contains LED alarm displays for each sensor. The remote annunciator panel also houses a 24 VDC power supply.

  14. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  15. Gas emissions and slug dynamics at Stromboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pering, Tom D.; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; James, Mike R.; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    We present UV camera data for 200 strombolian and hornito degassing events at Stromboli during June and July 2014. This data was processed to calculate SO2 masses for each event. In addition to calculating SO2 masses of the slugs which generate these events we also observe periods of elevated flux following events, termed the gas coda, lasting ≈ 30 - 180 s, which we also calculate SO2masses for. This provided a range of explosive plus coda SO2 masses of ≈ 18 - 225 kg. In combination with 3D fluid numerical simulations of slug flow we begin to probe a possible generation mechanism for the observed gas codas. The simulations show that 'daughter bubbles' are produced from the base of ascending slugs, which result in gas mass loss rates from the slugs of between ≈ 1.2 - 14.2 kg s‑1. Nf, the dimensionless inverse viscosity number, can be used to characterise the form of a slug wake, and hence when mass loss through daughter bubble production may occur. However, the observed daughter bubble behaviour occurs at lower levels of Nf than predicted by previous mm- to cm-scale studies and suggests that extra physics (e.g. surface tension), beyond that included in Nf, may be needed to parameterise daughter bubble production. We suggest that daughter bubbles could play a role in modulating explosivity of strombolian eruptions as a potential causal mechanism for gas coda production.

  16. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  17. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  18. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  19. Applications of optical measurement technology in pollution gas monitoring at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Yu, Dahai; Ye, Huajun; Yang, Jianhu; Ke, Liang; Han, Shuanglai; Gu, Haitao; Chen, Yingbin

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the work of using advanced optical measurement techniques to implement stack gas emission monitoring and process control. A system is designed to conduct online measurement of SO2/NOX and mercury emission from stacks and slipping NH3 of de-nitrification process. The system is consisted of SO2/NOX monitoring subsystem, mercury monitoring subsystem, and NH3 monitoring subsystem. The SO2/NOX monitoring subsystem is developed based on the ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) technique. By using this technique, a linearity error less than +/-1% F.S. is achieved, and the measurement errors resulting from optical path contamination and light fluctuation are removed. Moreover, this subsystem employs in situ extraction and hot-wet line sampling technique to significantly reduce SO2 loss due to condensation and protect gas pipeline from corrosion. The mercury monitoring subsystem is used to measure the concentration of element mercury (Hg0), oxidized mercury (Hg2+), and total gaseous mercury (HgT) in the flue gas exhaust. The measurement of Hg with a low detection limit (0.1μg/m3) and a high sensitivity is realized by using cold vapor atom fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS) technique. This subsystem is also equipped with an inertial separation type sampling technique to prevent gas pipeline from being clogged and to reduce speciation mercury measurement error. The NH3 monitoring subsystem is developed to measure the concentration of slipping NH3 and then to help improving the efficiency of de-nitrification. The NH3 concentration as low as 0.1ppm is able to be measured by using the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) and the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. The problem of trace NH3 sampling loss is solved by applying heating the gas pipelines when the measurement is running.

  20. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2 Emissions...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2 Emissions...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2 Emissions...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2 Emissions...

  5. Black Carbon Emissions from Associated Natural Gas Flaring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Shepson, P. B.; Subramanian, R.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Mccabe, D. C.; Baum, E. K.; Caulton, D.; Heimburger, A. M. F.; Bond, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 150 billion cubic meters (BCM) of associated natural gas is flared and vented in the world, annually, emitting greenhouse gases and other pollutants with no energy benefit. Based on estimates from satellite observations, the United States flares about 7 BCM of gas, annually (the 5th highest flaring volume worldwide). The volume of gas flared in the US is growing, largely due to flaring in the Bakken formation in North Dakota. Black carbon (BC), a combustion by-product from gas flaring, is a short-term climate pollutant that absorbs shortwave radiation both in the atmosphere and on snow and ice surfaces. Flaring may be a significant source of global BC climate effects. For example, modeling estimates suggest that associated gas flares are the source of a significant percentage of BC surface concentrations in the Arctic, where BC-induced ice melting occurs. However, there are no direct field measurements of BC emission factors from associated gas flares. Emission measurements of BC that include a range of flaring conditions are needed to ascertain the magnitude of BC emissions from this source. Over one hundred flare plumes were sampled in the Bakken formation using a small aircraft. Methane, carbon dioxide, and BC were measured simultaneously, allowing the calculation of BC mass emission factors using the carbon balance method. BC was measured using two methods; optical absorption was measured using a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and BC particle number and mass concentrations were measured with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Simultaneous sampling of BC absorption and mass allows for the calculation of the BC mass absorption cross-section. Results indicate that emission factor variability between flares in the region is significant; there are two orders of magnitude variation in the BC emission factors.

  6. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOEpatents

    Von Drasek, William A.; Saucedo, Victor M.

    2005-02-22

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  7. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  8. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

  9. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries. PMID:24754816

  10. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Skiba, U; Jones, S K; Dragosits, U; Drewer, J; Fowler, D; Rees, R M; Pappa, V A; Cardenas, L; Chadwick, D; Yamulki, S; Manning, A J

    2012-05-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N(2)O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N(2)O emissions. Microbial N(2)O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling.

  11. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries.

  12. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  13. A Survey of Methane Emissions from California's Natural Gas Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Cui, X.; Jeong, S.; Conley, S. A.; Mehrotra, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Chen, T.; Blake, D. R.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Lloyd, M.; Fairley, D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions from natural gas infrastructure are estimated to contribute small but uncertain fractions of total natural gas consumed in California and of California's total GHG budget. Because natural gas (NG) methane is an energy resource, an economic commodity, a potential health hazard, and a potent greenhouse gas, it is important to identify and quantify and control both intentional venting, and un-intentional leakages. Here, we report results of an observational survey, measuring NG methane emissions across examples from subsectors of California's natural gas infrastructure, ranging from production and processing, to transmission and distribution, and notably including examples from the consumption subsector. At regional scales, a combination of tower and aircraft measurements are used to estimate emissions of NG methane for the San Francisco Bay Area. At facility scales, aircraft mass balance measurements are applied to estimate NG methane emissions from associated with individual petroleum production fields, NG storage facilities, and petroleum refineries. At local scales, ground-based roadway surveys are applied to place lower limits on NG emissions from aggregate leakage sources in selected urban and suburban areas, a sample of NG fueling stations, and a small number of capped gas wells. For a subset of the consumption subsector, mass balance and CH4:CO2 emission ratio measurements are used to estimate leakage from a sample of quiescent residential buildings and example operating gas appliances. In general, CH4 emissions are found to grow with the NG throughput in a given area or facility, though the observed ratio of leakage to throughput varies by more than an order of magnitude for some cases (e.g., urban areas), presumably in response to varied infrastructure type, vintage, and maintenance. Taken in sum, preliminary results of this initial survey are consistent with the commonly held assumption that total NG methane emissions from California NG

  14. Proposed rule highlights need for effective emissions monitoring, control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    While the regulated community for the last year or so has found comfort in reports that EPA has failed to meet its mandated schedule for issuing new CAA regulations and setting compliance deadlines, the Agency has not been idle. The Agency in October proposed a major rule that would, in effect, abandon traditional methods of monitoring and enforcing compliance with CAA's air pollution control regulations. Instead of relying on plant inspections or citizens' complaints to uncover regulatory infractions, the proposed regulations would require most emissions sources to demonstrate--not during a single test or inspection, but continuously--compliance with emissions regulations. This proposed continuous, or enhanced,'' monitoring rule would be tied to CAA's Title 5 operating permit program.

  15. Monitoring of acoustic emission activity using thin wafer piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Blaine; Zagrai, Andrei; Meisner, Daniel; Momeni, Sepand

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a well-known technique for monitoring onset and propagation of material damage. The technique has demonstrated utility in assessment of metallic and composite materials in applications ranging from civil structures to aerospace vehicles. While over the course of few decades AE hardware has changed dramatically with the sensors experiencing little changes. A traditional acoustic emission sensor solution utilizes a thickness resonance of the internal piezoelectric element which, coupled with internal amplification circuit, results in relatively large sensor footprint. Thin wafer piezoelectric sensors are small and unobtrusive, but they have seen limited AE applications due to low signal-to-noise ratio and other operation difficulties. In this contribution, issues and possible solutions pertaining to the utility of thin wafer piezoelectrics as AE sensors are discussed. Results of AE monitoring of fatigue damage using thin wafer piezoelectric and conventional AE sensors are presented.

  16. Project W-030 flammable gas verification monitoring test

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    1999-02-24

    This document describes the verification monitoring campaign used to document the ability of the new ventilation system to mitigate flammable gas accumulation under steady state tank conditions. This document reports the results of the monitoring campaign. The ventilation system configuration, process data, and data analysis are presented.

  17. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture. PMID:25354441

  18. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  19. Constraining Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Northeastern Pennsylvania Using Aircraft Observations and Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Z.; Davis, K.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Martins, D. K.; Deng, A.; Cao, Y.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.; Schwietzke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Leaks in natural gas infrastructure release methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated fugitive emission rate associated with the production phase varies greatly between studies, hindering our understanding of the natural gas energy efficiency. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional fugitive emission rates from natural gas production. Methane observations across the Marcellus region in northeastern Pennsylvania were obtained during a three week flight campaign in May 2015 performed by a team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division and the University of Michigan. In addition to these data, CH4 observations were obtained from automobile campaigns during various periods from 2013-2015. An inventory of CH4 emissions was then created for various sources in Pennsylvania, including coalmines, enteric fermentation, industry, waste management, and unconventional and conventional wells. As a first-guess emission rate for natural gas activity, a leakage rate equal to 2% of the natural gas production was emitted at the locations of unconventional wells across PA. These emission rates were coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the chemistry module (WRF-Chem) and atmospheric CH4 concentration fields at 1km resolution were generated. Projected atmospheric enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations, and the emission rate from unconventional wells was adjusted to minimize errors between observations and simulation. We show that the modeled CH4 plume structures match observed plumes downwind of unconventional wells, providing confidence in the methodology. In all cases, the fugitive emission rate was found to be lower than our first guess. In this initial emission configuration, each well has been assigned the same fugitive emission rate, which can potentially impair our ability to match the observed spatial variability

  20. Acoustic emission monitoring for assessment of steel bridge details

    SciTech Connect

    Kosnik, D. E.; Corr, D. J.; Hopwood, T.

    2011-06-23

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing was deployed on details of two large steel Interstate Highway bridges: one cantilever through-truss and one trapezoidal box girder bridge. Quantitative measurements of activity levels at known and suspected crack locations were made by monitoring AE under normal service loads (e.g., live traffic and wind). AE indications were used to direct application of radiography, resulting in identification of a previously unknown flaw, and to inform selection of a retrofit detail.

  1. A feasibility study on the predictive emission monitoring system applied to the Hsinta power plant of Taiwan Power Company.

    PubMed

    Chien, T W; Chu, H; Hsu, W C; Tseng, T K; Hsu, C H; Chen, K Y

    2003-08-01

    The continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) can monitor flue gas emissions continuously and instantaneously. However, it has the disadvantages of enormous cost, easily producing errors in sampling periods of bad weather, lagging response in variable ambient environments, and missing data in daily zero and span tests and maintenance. The concept of a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) is to use the operating parameters of combustion equipment through thermodynamic or statistical methods to construct a mathematic model that can predict emissions by a computer program. The goal of this study is to set up a PEMS in a gas-fired combined cycle power generation unit at the Hsinta station of Taiwan Power Co. The emissions to be monitored include nitrogen oxides (NOx) and oxygen (O2) in flue gas. The major variables of the predictive model were determined based on the combustion theory. The data of these variables then were analyzed to establish a regression model. From the regression results, the influences of these variables are discussed and the predicted values are compared with the CEMS data for accuracy. In addition, according to the cost information, the capital and operation and maintenance costs for a PEMS can be much lower than those for a CEMS.

  2. Passive landfill gas emission - Influence of atmospheric pressure and implications for the operation of methane-oxidising biofilters.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A passively vented landfill site in Northern Germany was monitored for gas emission dynamics through high resolution measurements of landfill gas pressure, flow rate and composition as well as atmospheric pressure and temperature. Landfill gas emission could be directly related to atmospheric pressure changes on all scales as induced by the autooscillation of air, diurnal variations and the passage of pressure highs and lows. Gas flux reversed every 20 h on average, with 50% of emission phases lasting only 10h or less. During gas emission phases, methane loads fed to a connected methane oxidising biofiltration unit varied between near zero and 247 g CH4 h(-1)m(-3) filter material. Emission dynamics not only influenced the amount of methane fed to the biofilter but also the establishment of gas composition profiles within the biofilter, thus being of high relevance for biofilter operation. The duration of the gas emission phase emerged as most significant variable for the distribution of landfill gas components within the biofilter.

  3. Results of gas monitoring of double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-01-19

    Tanks 103-SY; 101-AW; 103-, 104-, and 105-AN are on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Recently, standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) cabinets have been installed in the vent header of each of these tanks. Grab samples have been taken once per week, and a gas chromatograph was installed on tank 104-AN as a field test. The data that have been collected since gas monitoring began on these tanks are summarized in this document.

  4. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  5. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  6. Trace gas emissions from chaparral and boreal forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggan, Philip J.; Stocks, Brian J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1989-01-01

    Using smoke samples collected during low-level helicopter flights, the mixing ratios of CO2, CO, CH4, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, H2, and N2O over burning chaparral in southern California and over a burning boreal forest site in northern Ontario, Canada, were determined. Carbon dioxide-normalized emission ratios were determined for each trace gas for conditions of flaming, mixed, and smoldering combustion. The emission ratios for these trace gases were found to be highest for the smoldering combustion, generally thought to be the least efficient combustion stage. However, high emission ratios for these gases could be also produced during very vigorous flaming combustion.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1255 - What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? 60.1255 Section 60.1255 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1255 What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? You must establish the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide during...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1255 - What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? 60.1255 Section 60.1255 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1255 What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? You must establish the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide during...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1255 - What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? 60.1255 Section 60.1255 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1255 What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? You must establish the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide during...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1255 - What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? 60.1255 Section 60.1255 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1255 What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? You must establish the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide during...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1255 - What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? 60.1255 Section 60.1255 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1255 What must I do if I choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent gas? You must establish the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide during...

  12. The Gas Monitoring of the Besiii Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianggao; Chen, Chang; Chen, Yuanbo; Wu, Zhi; Gu, Yunting; Ma, Xiaoyan; Jin, Yan; Liu, Rongguang; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Lan; Zhu, Qiming

    Two monitoring proportional counters (MPCs), installed at the inlet and outlet of the gas system of BESIII drift chamber (DC), were used to monitor the operation of the BESIII DC successfully and effectively as reported in this paper. The ratio of Gout/Gin (full energy photoelectron peak position of 55Fe 5.9 keV X-ray in inlet MPC as Gin and outlet MPC as Gout) is used as the main monitoring parameter. The MPC method is very useful for the gas detector system.

  13. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Garvin A.; O’Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices. PMID:25049378

  14. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices. PMID:25049378

  15. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  16. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  17. Trends in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Malik, Arunima; Lan, Jun; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are known to alter hydrological cycles, disrupt marine ecosystems and species lifecycles, and cause global habitat loss. In this study, we use a comprehensive global input-output database to assess the driving forces underlying the change in global CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2010. We decompose the change in emissions for the 20 year period into six mutually exclusive causal determinants. Our assessment of trends in fuel-use reveals that a 10.8 Peta-gram (Pg) rise in emissions from 1990 to 2010 constitutes emissions from the consumption of coal (49%), petroleum (25%), natural gas (17%), and biomass (9%). We demonstrate that affluence (per-capita consumption) and population growth are outpacing any improvements in carbon efficiency in driving up emissions worldwide. Our results suggest that supply chain measures to improve technological efficiency are not sufficient to reduce emissions. To achieve significant emission savings, policy makers need to address the issue of affluence. We argue that policies to address unsustainable lifestyles and consumer behavior are largely unheard of, and governments may need to actively intervene in nonsustainable lifestyles to achieve emission reductions. The results presented in this paper are vital for informing future policy decisions for mitigating climate change. PMID:27063930

  18. Fracture of human femur tissue monitored by acoustic emission sensors.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure.

  19. Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, Dimitrios. G.; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  20. Monitoring damage growth in titanium matrix composites using acoustic emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Prosser, W. H.; Johnson, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the acoustic emission (AE) technique to locate and monitor damage growth in titanium matrix composites (TMC) was investigated. Damage growth was studied using several optical techniques including a long focal length, high magnification microscope system with image acquisition capabilities. Fracture surface examinations were conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AE technique was used to locate damage based on the arrival times of AE events between two sensors. Using model specimens exhibiting a dominant failure mechanism, correlations were established between the observed damage growth mechanisms and the AE results in terms of the events amplitude. These correlations were used to monitor the damage growth process in laminates exhibiting multiple modes of damage. Results revealed that the AE technique is a viable and effective tool to monitor damage growth in TMC.

  1. Fracture of human femur tissue monitored by acoustic emission sensors.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

  3. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1235 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide,...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1250 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 13 months after the previous evaluation was conducted. (b) Evaluate your continuous emission monitoring... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1250 Section 60.1250 Protection of Environment...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1740 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 13 months after the previous evaluation was conducted. (b) Evaluate your... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1740 Section 60.1740 Protection of Environment...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 12 months after the previous evaluation was conducted. (b) Evaluate your continuous... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15195 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 13 months after the previous evaluation was conducted. (b) Evaluate your continuous emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of 40 CFR part 60....

  10. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  11. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-03-31

    The construction of the sampling system was completed during the past quarter. The sampling system has been built on a 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. The laser system, all the associated optics, and the mounts and hardware needed to couple the UV light into the fiber optic have also been condensed and placed on an identical 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. This reduces the footprint of each system for ease of operation at a field test facility. The two systems are only connected with a fiber optic, to bring the UV light to the CRD cavity, and a single coaxial cable used to apply a voltage to the diode seed laser to scan the frequency over the desired mercury transition. SRD software engineers applied a couple of software fixes to correct the problems of the diode seed laser drifting or mode hopping. Upon successful completion of the software fixes another long-term test was conducted. A nearly 3 day long, 24 hours/day, test was run to test out the new subroutines. Everything appeared to work as it should and the mercury concentrations were accurately reported for the entire test, with the exception of a small interval of time when the intensity of the UV light dropped low enough that the program was no longer triggering properly. After adjusting the power of the laser the program returned to proper operation. With the successful completion of a relatively long test SRD software engineer incorporated the new subroutine into an entirely new program. This program operates the CRD instrument automatically as a continuous emissions monitor for mercury. In addition the program also reports the concentration of SO{sub 2} determined in the sample flue gas stream. Various functions, operation of, and a description of the new program have been included with this report. This report concludes the technical work associated with Phase II of the Cavity Ring-Down project for the continuous detection of trace levels of mercury. The project is presently

  12. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic Systems in New York State.

    PubMed

    Truhlar, Allison M; Rahm, Brian G; Brooks, Rachael A; Nadeau, Sarah A; Makarsky, Erin T; Walter, M Todd

    2016-07-01

    Onsite septic systems use microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Current USEPA estimates for septic system GHG emissions are based on one study conducted in north-central California and are limited to methane; therefore, the contribution of these systems to the overall GHG emission budget is unclear. This study quantified and compared septic system GHG emissions from the soil over leach fields and the roof vent, which are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal septic system operation. At each of eight septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH, CO, and NO using a static chamber method. The roof vent released the majority of septic system gas emissions. In addition, the leach field was a significant source of NO fluxes. Comparisons between leach field and vent emissions suggest that biological processes in the leach field soil may influence the type and quantity of gas released. Overall, our results suggest that (i) revisions are needed in USEPA guidance (e.g., septic systems are not currently listed as a source of NO emissions) and (ii) similar studies representing a wider range of climatic and geographic settings are needed. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.17, 0.045, and 0.050 t CO-equivalents capita yr, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the United States. PMID:27380062

  14. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan; Lind, Saara E; Martikainen, Pertti J; Ferrer, Ivet

    2012-04-15

    Constructed wetlands are nowadays successfully employed as an alternative technology for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. In these systems organic matter and nutrients are transformed and removed by a variety of microbial reaction and gaseous compounds such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) may be released to the atmosphere. The aim of this work is to introduce a method to determine greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands (STW) and use the method in a full-scale system. Sampling and analysing techniques used to determine greenhouse gas emissions from croplands and natural wetlands were successfully adapted to the quantification of CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from an STW. Gas emissions were measured using the static chamber technique in 9 points of the STW during 13 days. The spatial variation in the emission along the wetland did not follow some specific pattern found for the temporal variation in the fluxes. Emissions ranged from 10 to 5400 mg CH(4)/m(2)d and from 20 to 950 mgN(2)O/m(2)d, depending on the feeding events. The comparison between the CH(4) and N(2)O emissions of different sludge management options shows that STW have the lowest atmospheric impact in terms of CO(2) equivalent emissions (Global warming potential with time horizon of 100 years): 17 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for STW, 36 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for centrifuge and 162 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for untreated sludge transport, PE means Population Equivalent.

  15. Volcanic Gas Emissions Through History and Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmer, M. M.

    2003-12-01

    The total gaseous output of a volcano is in most cases closely related to its actual phase of activity. A volcano undergoes different stages of activity during its "life-time". For estimating the gas input into the atmosphere from ancient volcanoes these activity stages have to be considered very intensely. We considered the global distribution of 360 subaerial active volcanoes that erupted at least once during the past 100 years. A significant feature is the high concentration of active volcanoes along the subduction zone of the Circumpacific Ring of Fire. Volcanoes related to subduction zones are the major gas-emitters because of the large number of very active and highly explosive volcanoes. More than 300 of the 360 active subaerial volcanoes are related to subduction zones, 24 to rift zones and 22 to ocean islands. There is no tendency for volcanoes of a certain tectonic setting to be located at a specific latitude. We summarized altitudes of 360 volcanoes and determined their altitudinal range for each tectonic setting. Volcanoes of the three main tectonic settings show average heights between 1-3km: a) subduction zones: 2-3km, b) rift zones: 1-3km, and c) ocean islands: 1.5-2.5km. Active volcanoes cluster in the equatorial latitudes (0° to 30° ) on both hemispheres with volcanoes in the southern hemisphere reaching heights of over 6000m a.s.l. Thus, most eruptions (30 eruptions/a) occurred at equatorial latitudes (0° - 30° ). In general, the number of volcanoes located in the northern exceeds those in the southern hemisphere by 3:1. We assume a higher SO2 input into the northern hemisphere. But we found also a relatively high volcanic SO2 output in the southern hemisphere, which may be caused by higher magma supply rates. The increased frequency of eruptions in the southern hemisphere in the equatorial latitudes could be partly caused by shorter intervals between eruptions (Takada, 1999). Volcanoes between 50° -60° N showed also a relatively high annual

  16. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    DOEpatents

    Day, Clifford K.; Pedersen, Herbert N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One specific embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose.

  17. Trace gas emissions from the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Liss, Peter S

    2007-07-15

    A wide variety of trace gases (e.g. dimethyl sulphide, organohalogens, ammonia, non-methane and oxygenated hydrocarbons, volatile oxygenated organics and nitrous oxide) are formed in marine waters by biological and photochemical processes. This leads in many, but not all, cases to supersaturation of the water relative to marine air concentrations and a net flux of trace gas to the atmosphere. Since the gases are often in their reduced forms in the water, once in the atmosphere they are subject to oxidation by photolysis or radical attack to form chemically reactive species that can affect the oxidizing capacity of the air. They can also lead to the formation of new particles or the growth of existing ones that can then contribute to both direct and indirect (via the formation of cloud condensation nuclei) aerosol effects on climate. These cycles are discussed with respect to their impacts on the chemistry of the atmosphere, climate and human health. This whole topic was the subject of an extensive review (Nightingale & Liss 2003 In Treatise in geochemistry (eds H. D. Holland & K. K. Turekian), pp. 49-81) and what will be attempted here is a brief update of the earlier paper. There is no attempt to be comprehensive either in terms of gases covered or to give a complete review of all the recent literature. It is a personal view of recent advances both from my own research group as well as significant work from others. Questions raised at the meeting 'Trace gas biogeochemistry and global change' are dealt with at appropriate places in the text (rather than at the end of the piece). Discussion of each of the gases or group of gases is given in the following separate sections.

  18. Subsurface banding poultry litter impacts greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) has on greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Thus, a study was conducted in established bermudagrass pastures located in Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions to determine the effects subsurface applying PL has on soil flux using two different band spaci...

  19. Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON NITROUS OXIDE GAS EMISSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) gas is produced by micro-organisms during nitrification and/or denitrification of fertilizer nitrogen in soil. Atmospheric emissions of N2O can be important from an agronomic standpoint since any escape of N from the soil represents N that cannot be utilized by the crop. Once in ...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from soil under changing environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the Guest Editors’ Introduction to a special issue on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The papers were assembled following presentation at EuroSoil 2012. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soils and the atmosphere is a natural consequence of several ecosystem process...

  3. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller. PMID:26114481

  4. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  5. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  6. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  8. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  9. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  10. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  11. Exhaust gas emissions of a vortex breakdown stabilized combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, R. A.; Gouldin, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    Exhaust gas emission data are described for a swirl stabilized continuous combustor. The combustor consists of confined concentric jets with premixed fuel and air in the inner jet and air in the outer jet. Swirl may be induced in both inner and outer jets with the sense of rotation in the same or opposite directions (co-swirl and counter-swirl). The combustor limits NO emissions by lean operation without sacrificing CO and unburned hydrocarbon emission performance, when commercial-grade methane and air fired at one atmosphere without preheat are used. Relative swirl direction and magnitude are found to have significant effects on exhaust gas concentrations, exit temperatures, and combustor efficiencies. Counter-swirl gives a large recirculation zone, a short luminous combustion zone, and large slip velocities in the interjet shear layer. For maximum counter-swirl conditions, the efficiency is low.

  12. Air toxics emissions from gas-fired engines

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, H.N. Jr. )

    1992-07-01

    In 1190, 14 natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines (ICE's) in oilfield service were tested in Santa Barbara County, CA, to satisfy California air toxics legislation. The combustion exhaust was tested for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, xylences, naphthalene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel was tested for aromatics to enable calculation of destruction efficiencies. Two-stroke and four-stroke engines were tested. Four-stroke engines ranging from 39 to 208 hp were used in pumping unit and constant load service. Emissions from four-stroke engines were unrelated to size and service. The two-stroke engines produced considerably higher emissions than the four-stroke engines. This paper reports that test results indicate natural-gas-fired ICE's produce toxic substances in small amounts. Formaldehyde and benzene dominated the toxic emission profile.

  13. New mud gas monitoring system aboard D/V Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yusuke; Inagaki, Fumio; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Mud gas logging has been commonly used in oil industry and continental scientific drilling to detect mainly hydrocarbon gases from the reservoir formation. Quick analysis of the gas provides almost real-time information which is critical to evaluate the formation and, in particular, safety of drilling operation. Furthermore, mud gas monitoring complements the lack of core or fluid samples particularly in a deep hole, and strengthen interpretations of geophysical logs. In scientific ocean drilling, on the other hand, mud gas monitoring was unavailable in riserless drilling through the history of DSDP and ODP, until riser drilling was first carried out in 2009 by D/V Chikyu. In IODP Exp 319, GFZ installed the same system with that used in continental drilling aboard Chikyu. High methane concentrations are clearly correlated with increased wood content in the cuttings. The system installation was, however, temporary and gas separator was moved during the expedition for a technical reason. In 2011, new mud gas monitoring system was installed aboard Chikyu and was used for the first time in Exp 337. The gas separator was placed on a newly branched bypass mud flow line, and the gas sample was sent to analysis unit equipped with methane carbon isotope analyzer in addition to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. The data from the analytical instruments is converted to depth profiles by calculating the lag effects due to mud circulation. Exp 337 was carried out from July 26 to Sep 30, 2011, at offshore Shimokita peninsula, northeast Japan, targeting deep sub-seafloor biosphere in and around coal bed. Data from the hole C0020A, which was drilled to 2466 mbsf with riser drilling, provided insights into bio-geochemical process through the depth of the hole. In this presentation, we show the design of Chikyu's new mud gas monitoring system, with preliminary data from Exp 337.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from forestry operations: a life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Edie

    2006-01-01

    Most forest carbon assessments focus only on biomass carbon and assume that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forestry activities are minimal. This study took an in-depth look at the direct and indirect emissions from Pacific Northwest (PNW) Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] forestry activities to support or deny this claim. Greenhouse gas budgets for 408 "management regimes" were calculated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These management regimes were comprised of different combinations of three types of seedlings (P + 1, 1 + 1, and large plug), two types of site preparation (pile and burn, and chemical), 17 combinations of management intensity including fertilization, herbicide treatment, pre-commercial thinning (PCT), commercial thinning (CT), and nothing, and four different rotation ages (30, 40, 50, and 60 yr). Normalized to 50 yr, average direct GHG emissions were 8.6 megagrams (Mg) carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) ha(-1), which accounted for 84% of total GHG emissions from the average of 408 management regimes. Harvesting (PCT, CT, and clear cutting) contributed the most to total GHG emissions (5.9 Mg CO2e per 700 m3 harvested timber), followed by pile and burn site preparation (4.0 Mg CO2e ha(-1) or 32% of total GHG emissions) and then fertilization (1.9 Mg CO2e ha(-1) or 15% of total GHG emissions). Seedling production, seedling transportation, chemical site preparation, and herbicide treatment each contributed less than 1% of total GHG emissions when assessed per hectare of planted timberland. Total emissions per 100 m3 averaged 1.6 Mg CO2e ha(-1) over all 408 management regimes. An uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo simulations revealed that there are significant differences between most alternative management regimes. PMID:16825464

  15. High-voltage spark atomic emission detector for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkin, C. L.; Koeplin, S. M.; Crouch, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A dc-powered, double-gap, miniature nanosecond spark source for emission spectrochemical analysis of gas chromatographic effluents is described. The spark is formed between two thoriated tungsten electrodes by the discharge of a coaxial capacitor. The spark detector is coupled to the gas chromatograph by a heated transfer line. The gas chromatographic effluent is introduced into the heated spark chamber where atomization and excitation of the effluent occurs upon breakdown of the analytical gap. A microcomputer-controlled data acquisition system allows the implementation of time-resolution techniques to distinguish between the analyte emission and the background continuum produced by the spark discharge. Multiple sparks are computer averaged to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The application of the spark detector for element-selective detection of metals and nonmetals is reported.

  16. The effect of local parameters on gas turbine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Correa, S. M.; Orozco, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Gas turbine engine inlet parameters reflect changes in local atmospheric conditions. The pollutant emissions for the engine reflects these changes. In attempting to model the effect of the changing ambient conditions on the emissions it was found that these emissions exhibit an extreme sensitivity to some of the details of the combustion process such as the local fuel-air ratio and the size of the drops in the fuel spray. Fuel-air ratios have been mapped under nonburning conditions using a single JT8D-17 combustion can at simulated idle conditions, and significant variations in the local values have been found. Modelling of the combustor employs a combination of perfectly stirred and plug flow reactors including a finite rate vaporization treatment of the fuel spray. Results show that a small increase in the mean drop size can lead to a large increase in hydrocarbon emissions and decreasing the value of the CO-OH rate constant can lead to large increases in the carbon monoxide emissions. These emissions may also be affected by the spray characteristics with larger drops retarding the combustion process. Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions calculated using the model accurately reflect measured emission variations caused by changing engine inlet conditions.

  17. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  18. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  19. 40 CFR 75.11 - Specific provisions for monitoring SO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring SO2... monitoring SO2 emissions. (a) Coal-fired units. The owner or operator shall meet the general operating requirements in § 75.10 for an SO2 continuous emission monitoring system and a flow monitoring system for...

  20. 40 CFR 75.11 - Specific provisions for monitoring SO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring SO2... monitoring SO2 emissions. (a) Coal-fired units. The owner or operator shall meet the general operating requirements in § 75.10 for an SO2 continuous emission monitoring system and a flow monitoring system for...

  1. 40 CFR 75.11 - Specific provisions for monitoring SO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring SO2... monitoring SO2 emissions. (a) Coal-fired units. The owner or operator shall meet the general operating requirements in § 75.10 for an SO2 continuous emission monitoring system and a flow monitoring system for...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a continuous emission monitoring system for nitrogen oxides. Install the continuous emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... monitor nitrogen oxides. (d) You may choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a continuous emission monitoring system for nitrogen oxides. Install the continuous emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... monitor nitrogen oxides. (d) You may choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring system for nitrogen oxides. Install the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution...) concentration at the location where you monitor nitrogen oxides. (d) You may choose to monitor carbon...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a continuous emission monitoring system for nitrogen oxides. Install the continuous emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... monitor nitrogen oxides. (d) You may choose to monitor carbon dioxide instead of oxygen as a diluent...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring system for nitrogen oxides. Install the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution...) concentration at the location where you monitor nitrogen oxides. (d) You may choose to monitor carbon...

  10. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  11. Microfabricated Gas Sensors Demonstrated in Fire and Emission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2003-01-01

    A range of microfabricated chemical sensors are being developed to meet the needs of fire detection and emission monitoring in aerospace applications. These sensors have the advantages over traditional technology of minimal size, weight, and power consumption as well as the ability to be placed closer to where the measurements need to be made. Sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in environments where multiple species need to be measured. For example, the monitoring of chemical species such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons, and other species is important in the detection of fires on airplanes and spacecraft. In contrast, different sensors are necessary for characterizing some aircraft engine designs where the monitoring of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and CO is of high interest. Demonstration of both fire and emission microsensor technology was achieved this year in a collaborative effort undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, and Makel Engineering, Inc.

  12. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  13. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the

  14. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must...

  16. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2003-09-30

    The work performed during this quarter by SRD scientists and engineers focused on a number of tasks. The initial acquisition of some hardware needed and the actual construction of the sampling system have begun. This sampling system will contain the pyrolysis oven to atomize the sample gas stream needed for total gaseous mercury measurements, the CRD cavity to acquire the ring-down signal needed to obtain the mercury concentration, various tubing, and temperature and pressure measurement equipment. The amount of tubing and valves have been cut to a minimum to try and reduce the resident time the sample flue gas stream is in the sampling system and minimize the possibility that the gases in the sample gas stream will react with the elements of the sampling system and change the component mixture contained in the flue gas. In an effort to minimize the equipment that needs to be close to the actual sampling port, SRD scientists decided to fiber optically couple the laser to the CRD cavity. However, the ultra-violet (UV) light needed for the mercury transition presents a problem as fiber optics can be solarized by the UV radiation thereby changing the transmission characteristics. SRD has obtained a solarization-resistant fiber. SRD scientists were then able to couple the UV laser light into the fiber and inject the output of the fiber into the CRD cavity and obtain a ring-down signal. Long-term effects of the UV radiation on the fiber optic are being monitored to detect any change in the transmission of the laser light to the cavity. Additional requirements of the mercury CRD monitor will be to not only monitor the mercury concentration continuously but also perform the measurements over extended periods of time. SRD has extended some previously performed shorter-term studies to longer time intervals. The results of these initial long-term studies are very promising.

  17. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class..., nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  18. Greenlandic Microbiomes and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, C. S.; Nielsen, M. S.; Priemé, A.; Holben, W. E.; Stibal, M.; Morales, S.; Bælum, J.; Elberling, B.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2014-12-01

    the potential (DNA) and activity (mRNA) found in the soils. However, distinct differences were found in the active microbiomes of the thawed soils, and this is discussed in relation to the emission of N2O, CH4 and CO2.

  19. Characterization of a quantum cascade laser-based emissivity monitor for CORSAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, Maung; Wojcik, Michael; Latvakoski, Harri; Scott, Deron; Watson, Mike; Marchant, Alan; Topham, Shane; Mlynczak, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Continuous improvements of quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology have extended the applications in environmental trace gas monitoring, mid-infrared spectroscopy in medicine and life science, law enforcement and homeland security and satellite sensor systems. We present the QCL based emissivity monitor for the CORSAIR blackbody. The emissivity of the blackbody was designed to be better than 0.9999 for the spectral range between 5 to 50μm. To actively monitor changes in blackbody emissivity we employ a QCL-based infrared illumination source. The illumination source consisted of a QCL and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) unit mounted on a copper fixture. The stability of the QCL was measured for 30, 60, and 90s operation time at 1.5A driving current. The temperature distribution along the laser mounting fixture and time dependent system heat dispersion were analyzed. The results were compared to radiative and conductive heat transfer models to define the potential laser operating time and required waiting time to return to initial temperature of the laser mount. The observed cooling behaviour is consistent with a primarily conductive heat transfer mechanism.

  20. A Snapshot of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Cattle Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mei; Flesch, Thomas K; McGinn, Sean M; Chen, Deli

    2015-11-01

    Beef cattle feedlots emit large amounts of the greenhouse gases (GHG) methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO), as well as ammonia (NH), which contributes to NO emission when NH is deposited to land. However, there is a lack of simultaneous, in situ, and nondisturbed measurements of the major GHG gas components from beef cattle feedlots, or measurements from different feedlot sources. A short-term campaign at a beef cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia, quantified CH, NO, and NH emissions from the feedlot pens, manure stockpiles, and surface run-off pond. Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers and open-path lasers (OP-Laser) were used with an inverse-dispersion technique to estimate emissions. Daily average emissions of CH, NO, and NH were 132 (± 2.3 SE), 0, and 117 (± 4.5 SE) g animal d from the pens and 22 (± 0.7 SE), 2 (± 0.2 SE), and 9 (± 0.6 SE) g animal d from the manure stockpiles. Emissions of CH and NH from the run-off pond were less than 0.5 g animal d. Extrapolating these results to the feedlot population of cattle across Australia would mean that feedlots contribute approximately 2% of the agricultural GHG emissions and 2.7% of livestock sector emissions, lower than a previous estimate of 3.5%.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from septic systems in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Brooks, R. A.; Nadeau, S. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Onsite septic systems are a practical way to treat wastewater in rural or less-densely populated areas. Septic systems utilize microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). At each of nine septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O from the soil over the leach field and sand filter, and from the roof outlet vent. These are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal operation of the septic system. The majority of all septic system gas emissions were released from the roof vent. However, our comparisons of the gas fluxes from these locations suggest that biological processes in the soil, especially the soil over the leach field, can influence the type and quantity of gas that is released from the system. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.12, 0.045, and 0.046 tonne CO2e capita-1 year-1, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the US.

  2. A GAS TEMPERATURE PROFILE BY INFRARED EMISSION-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program calculates the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas. Emphasis is on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing water vapor or carbon dioxide as radiating gases. The temperature profile is assumed to be axisymmetric with a functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters are calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Infrared emission and absorption measurements at two or more wavelengths provide a method of determining a gas temperature profile along a path through the gas by using a radiation source and receiver located outside the gas stream being measured. This permits simplified spectral scanning of a jet or rocket engine exhaust stream with the instrumentation outside the exhaust gas stream. This program provides an iterative-cyclic computation in which an initial assumed temperature profile is altered in shape until the computed emission and absorption agree, within specified limits, with the actual instrument measurements of emission and absorption. Temperature determination by experimental measurements of emission and absorption at two or more wavelengths is also provided by this program. Additionally, the program provides a technique for selecting the wavelengths to be used for determining the temperature profiles prior to the beginning of the experiment. By using this program feature, the experimenter has a higher probability of selecting wavelengths which will result in accurate temperature profile measurements. This program provides the user with a technique for determining whether this program will be sufficiently accurate for his particular application, as well as providing a means of finding the solution. The input to the program consists of four types of data: (1) computer program control constants, (2) measurements of gas radiance and transmittance at selected wavelengths, (3) tabulations from the literature of gas

  3. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  4. Gas Emissions Acquired during the Aircraft Particle Emission Experiment (APEX) Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changlie, Wey; Chowen, Chou Wey

    2007-01-01

    NASA, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, engine/airframe manufacturers, airlines, and airport authorities, recently sponsored a series of 3 ground-based field investigations to examine the particle and gas emissions from a variety of in-use commercial aircraft. Emissions parameters were measured at multiple engine power settings, ranging from idle to maximum thrust, in samples collected at 3 different down stream locations of the exhaust. Sampling rakes at nominally 1 meter down stream contained multiple probes to facilitate a study of the spatial variation of emissions across the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices measured at 1 m were in good agreement with the engine certification data as well as predictions provided by the engine company. However at low power settings, trace species emissions were observed to be highly dependent on ambient conditions and engine temperature.

  5. How to select a continuous emission monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, M.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Selecting a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) involves more than picking an analyzer. Successful CEMS interface sampling and data-management systems to produce accurate, reliable reports required by regulatory agencies. Following objective guidelines removes some of the misery from CEMS shopping. However, prospective CEMS buyers should do their homework and develop well-thought-out, detailed specification for the processes' sampling criteria. Fine tuning the analyzer/data management system can eliminate maintenance costs and keep the facility operating within its permit restrictions.

  6. CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTYLATED ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS: INTERLABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED) method was developed for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, NV, for determination of selected organotin compounds. Here we report on an interlabora...

  7. Precipitation events and management practices affect greenhouse gas emissions from vineyards in a Mediterranean climate (Lodi American Viticulture Area, California)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We monitored greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from nine vineyards in Lodi, California from April 2011 – December 2012. These commercial vineyards are replicates of three soil series (Redding, San Joaquin, and Tokay), representing a spectrum of soil texture. We hypothesized that soil characteristics wo...

  8. Neural network analysis on the effect of heat fluxes on greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes) that potentially affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine waste lagoon. GHG concentrations (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were monitored using a photoacous...

  9. The Measurement of Landfill Gas Emissions with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and CarbonSAT Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S. A.; Bovensmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    landfill gas control system ground based landfill gas monitoring systems. These ground-based measurements can be used to calibrate OCO-2 and CarbonSAT landfill gas measurements. OCO-2 and CarbonSAT can be used to measure landfill emissions from the large landfills and open dumps of the emerging megacities in the developing world where accurate ground measurements are not available. For example Mexico City generates 26,000 MT of municipal solid waste that is disposed of in two uncontrolled landfills. Similar conditions exist in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Satellite based measurements of these landfill gas emissions could help prioritize greenhouse gas remediation projects for these countries.

  10. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Felipe A. M.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Barros, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Brazil plans to meet the majority of its growing electricity demand with new hydropower plants located in the Amazon basin. However, large hydropower plants located in tropical forested regions may lead to significant carbon dioxide and methane emission. Currently, no predictive models exist to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions before the reservoir is built. This paper presents two different approaches to investigate the future carbon balance of eighteen new reservoirs in the Amazon. The first approach is based on a degradation model of flooded carbon stock, while the second approach is based on flux data measured in Amazonian rivers and reservoirs. The models rely on a Monte Carlo simulation framework to represent the balance of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that results when land and river are converted into a reservoir. Further, we investigate the role of the residence time/stratification in the carbon emissions estimate. Our results imply that two factors contribute to reducing overall emissions from these reservoirs: high energy densities reservoirs, i.e., the ratio between the installed capacity and flooded area, and vegetation clearing. While the models’ uncertainties are high, we show that a robust treatment of uncertainty can effectively indicate whether a reservoir in the Amazon will result in larger greenhouse gas emissions when compared to other electricity sources.

  11. Black Carbon Emissions from Associated Natural Gas Flaring.

    PubMed

    Weyant, Cheryl L; Shepson, Paul B; Subramanian, R; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Heimburger, Alexie; McCabe, David; Baum, Ellen; Stirm, Brian H; Bond, Tami C

    2016-02-16

    Approximately 150 billion cubic meters (BCM) of natural gas is flared and vented in the world annually, emitting greenhouse gases and other pollutants with no energy benefit. About 7 BCM per year is flared in the United States, and half is from North Dakota alone. There are few emission measurements from associated gas flares and limited black carbon (BC) emission factors have been previously reported from the field. Emission plumes from 26 individual flares in the Bakken formation in North Dakota were sampled. Methane, carbon dioxide, and BC were measured simultaneously, allowing the calculation of BC mass emission factors using the carbon balance method. Particle optical absorption was measured using a three-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and BC particle number and mass concentrations were measured with a single particle soot photometer. The BC emission factors varied over 2 orders of magnitude, with an average and uncertainty range of 0.14 ± 0.12 g/kg hydrocarbons in associated gas and a median of 0.07 g/kg which represents a lower bound on these measurements. An estimation of the BC emission factor derived from PSAP absorption provides an upper bound at 3.1 g/kg. These results are lower than previous estimations and laboratory measurements. The BC mass absorption cross section was 16 ± 12 m(2)/g BC at 530 nm. The average absorption Ångström exponent was 1.2 ± 0.8, suggesting that most of the light absorbing aerosol measured was black carbon and the contribution of light absorbing organic carbon was small. PMID:26764563

  12. Black Carbon Emissions from Associated Natural Gas Flaring.

    PubMed

    Weyant, Cheryl L; Shepson, Paul B; Subramanian, R; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Heimburger, Alexie; McCabe, David; Baum, Ellen; Stirm, Brian H; Bond, Tami C

    2016-02-16

    Approximately 150 billion cubic meters (BCM) of natural gas is flared and vented in the world annually, emitting greenhouse gases and other pollutants with no energy benefit. About 7 BCM per year is flared in the United States, and half is from North Dakota alone. There are few emission measurements from associated gas flares and limited black carbon (BC) emission factors have been previously reported from the field. Emission plumes from 26 individual flares in the Bakken formation in North Dakota were sampled. Methane, carbon dioxide, and BC were measured simultaneously, allowing the calculation of BC mass emission factors using the carbon balance method. Particle optical absorption was measured using a three-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and BC particle number and mass concentrations were measured with a single particle soot photometer. The BC emission factors varied over 2 orders of magnitude, with an average and uncertainty range of 0.14 ± 0.12 g/kg hydrocarbons in associated gas and a median of 0.07 g/kg which represents a lower bound on these measurements. An estimation of the BC emission factor derived from PSAP absorption provides an upper bound at 3.1 g/kg. These results are lower than previous estimations and laboratory measurements. The BC mass absorption cross section was 16 ± 12 m(2)/g BC at 530 nm. The average absorption Ångström exponent was 1.2 ± 0.8, suggesting that most of the light absorbing aerosol measured was black carbon and the contribution of light absorbing organic carbon was small.

  13. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    PubMed

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  14. Gas emissions and the eruptions of Mount St. Helens through 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.; Rose, W.; Gerlach, T.; Greenland, L.P.; Ewert, J.; Wunderman, R.; Symonds, R.

    1983-01-01

    The monitoring of gas emissions from Mount St. Helens includes daily airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume and monthly sampling of gases from crater fumaroles. The composition of the fumarolic gases has changed slightly since 1980: the water content increased from 90 to 98 percent, and the carbon dioxide concentrations decreased from about 10 to 1 percent. The emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide were at their peak during July and August 1980, decreased rapidly in late 1980, and have remained low and decreased slightly through 1981 and 1982. These patterns suggest steady outgassing of a single batch of magma (with a volume of not less than 0.3 cubic kilometer) to which no significant new magma has been added since mid-1980. The gas data were useful in predicting eruptions in August 1980 and June 1981.

  15. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  16. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiello, Francesco N.; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961-2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961-2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO2 yr-1 in 2010 (up to 5.4-5.8 Gt CO2 yr-1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade 2000-2010, the

  17. Detection and Monitoring of Changing Natural Methane Emissions in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Miller, J. B.; Karion, A.; Miller, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate models suggest that the future Arctic climate will continue to warm and become wetter as well. This implies increased emissions of CH4 from wetlands, however, the future of Arctic hydrology is uncertain given expected melting of permafrost. In addition, vast stores of organic carbon are thought to be frozen in Arctic soils; as much as 1,700 billion tonnes of carbon, several times the amount emitted by fossil fuel use to date and about equal to known coal reserves. If mobilized to the atmosphere, this carbon would have significant impacts on global climate, especially if emitted as CH4. NOAA ESRL, Environment Canada, and other agencies have collected observations of greenhouse gases in the Arctic and the rest of the world for at least several decades. Analysis of this data does not currently support increased Arctic emissions of CO2 or CH4. However, it is difficult to detect changes in Arctic emissions because of transport from lower latitudes and high inter-annual variability. Arctic surface emissions are also especially difficult to detect from space, and current satellite platforms do not provide useful information about greenhouse gas budgets in the lower Arctic troposphere. Modeling/assimilation systems, such as NOAA's CarbonTracker-CH4 system can help untangle the Arctic budget and trends of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the CarbonTracker is dependent on assumptions about prior fluxes and wetland distributions and source estimates are highly uncertain. We address the plausibility of monitoring the Arctic greenhouse gas emission trends. How large would Arctic emission trends have to be before they could be identified in network observations? What spatial information could be recovered? How would the spatial density of observations affect our ability to perceive and attribute trends in Arctic emissions? Could emission have already been increasing during the close of the 20th century? Trends in emissions need to be large before they can be

  18. Nondispersive infrared monitoring of NO emissions in exhaust gases of vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A. J.; Meneses, J.; Briz, S.; López, F.

    1999-07-01

    Road traffic is one of the most important contributors to air pollution, being that a small fraction of the running vehicles is responsible for more than a half of the emissions. Roadside emission monitoring of individual cars appears to be an efficient way to identify these gross polluters. In this sense, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) systems have been developed to monitor the gas emissions of individual vehicles. However, these systems do not include NOx detection because of the strong interference of NO and NO2 absorption bands with the water band. This work is focused on the roadside monitoring of NO emissions by NDIR techniques. A theoretical study of the interference between NO and H2O absorption bands in the 1800-1950 cm-1 spectral region has been performed. Two absorption lines, centered at 1876 and 1900 cm-1 have been selected due to the very low water interference. The development of a new application based on the buildup of a high order interference filter, the solid state Fabry-Pérot filter, is presented. Design of the filter system has been done, optimizing the transmittance at these two absorption lines. Finally, the ability of such a filter to discriminate NO absorption has been tested by using experimental absorption spectra measured by a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer working in the active mode. The buildup of such a filter would permit us to increase the capabilities of on road exhaust monitoring systems using the NDIR technique, extending the range of analyzed gases to the nitrogen oxides.

  19. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  20. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION RATES AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMISSION FACTORS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable green house gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. (NOTE: Estimates are available for the amount of methane (CH4) emitted from certain types of waste facilities, but there is not adeq...

  1. Software to Control and Monitor Gas Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C.; Curley, Charles; Gore, Eric; Floyd, David; Lucas, Damion

    2012-01-01

    This software package interfaces with various gas stream devices such as pressure transducers, flow meters, flow controllers, valves, and analyzers such as a mass spectrometer. The software provides excellent user interfacing with various windows that provide time-domain graphs, valve state buttons, priority- colored messages, and warning icons. The user can configure the software to save as much or as little data as needed to a comma-delimited file. The software also includes an intuitive scripting language for automated processing. The configuration allows for the assignment of measured values or calibration so that raw signals can be viewed as usable pressures, flows, or concentrations in real time. The software is based on those used in two safety systems for shuttle processing and one volcanic gas analysis system. Mass analyzers typically have very unique applications and vary from job to job. As such, software available on the market is usually inadequate or targeted on a specific application (such as EPA methods). The goal was to develop powerful software that could be used with prototype systems. The key problem was to generalize the software to be easily and quickly reconfigurable. At Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the prior art consists of two primary methods. The first method was to utilize Lab- VIEW and a commercial data acquisition system. This method required rewriting code for each different application and only provided raw data. To obtain data in engineering units, manual calculations were required. The second method was to utilize one of the embedded computer systems developed for another system. This second method had the benefit of providing data in engineering units, but was limited in the number of control parameters.

  2. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  3. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  4. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  5. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis. PMID:18338701

  6. Subsea Gas Emissions from the Barbados Accretionary Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, A.; Sager, W. W.; Snow, J. E.; Max, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We study newly identified gas plumes in the water column from the Barbados Accretionary Complex using multibeam echo soundings from cruise AT21-02. The multibeam data were used to define a region with several ~600 - 900 m tall gas plumes in the water column directly above cratered hummocky regions of the sea floor that have relatively high backscatter, at a water depth of ~1500 m. The natural gas hydrate stability zone reaches a minimum depth of ~600 m in the water column, similar to that of the tallest imaged bubble plumes, implying hydrate shells on the gas bubbles. Maximum tilt of the plume shows current shear in a direction from northwest to southeast (~128°), similar to the transport direction of North Atlantic Deep Water. The source of hydrocarbons, determined from existing geochemical data, suggests the gas source was subjacent marine Cretaceous source rocks. North-south trending faults, craters and mud volcanoes associated with the gas plumes point to the presence of a deep plumbing system and indicate that gas is a driver of mud volcanism. The widespread occurrence of seafloor morphology related to venting indicates that subsea emissions from the Barbados Accretionary Complex are substantial.

  7. Unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions: Chinese transportation 1978-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, G. Q.

    2010-09-01

    To facilitate the aggregation of both quantity and quality of waste emissions, the concept of chemical exergy combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics is introduced for a unified account of gas pollutants and greenhouse gases, by a case study for the Chinese transportation system 1978-2004 with main gas pollutants of NO, SO2, CO and main greenhouse gases of CO2 and CH4. With chemical exergy emission factors concretely estimated, the total emission as well as emission intensity by exergy of the overall transportation system and of its four modes of highways, railways, waterways and civil aviation are accounted in full detail and compared with those by the conventionally prevailing metrics of mass, with essential implications for environmental policy making.

  8. FRP/steel composite damage acoustic emission monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhi

    2015-04-01

    FRP is a new material with good mechanical properties, such as high strength of extension, low density, good corrosion resistance and anti-fatigue. FRP and steel composite has gotten a wide range of applications in civil engineering because of its good performance. As the FRP/steel composite get more and more widely used, the monitor of its damage is also getting more important. To monitor this composite, acoustic emission (AE) is a good choice. In this study, we prepare four identical specimens to conduct our test. During the testing process, the AE character parameters and mechanics properties were obtained. Damaged properties of FRP/steel composite were analyzed through acoustic emission (AE) signals. By the growing trend of AE accumulated energy, the severity of the damage made on FRP/steel composite was estimated. The AE sentry function has been successfully used to study damage progression and fracture emerge release rate of composite laminates. This technique combines the cumulative AE energy with strain energy of the material rather than analyzes the AE information and mechanical separately.

  9. Mobile station for monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Arshinov, Yu.F.; Belan, B.D.; Bobrovnikov, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    At present different types of mobile stations for ecological monitoring of the environment has been created at various environmental protection agencies. Mostly, such stations differ from each other by the set of equipment employed though they use, as a rule, the same measurement and sampling techniques. Basically, such mobile stations use sampling of air, water, and soil. The collected samples are then analyzed with the laboratory instrumentation. The mobile station we are going to discuss in this paper presents a new type of such systems. The matter is that it enables, in addition to traditional sampling, remote determination of the composition and intensity of the emissions at the mouth of a stack. To do this the station is equipped with a Raman lidar. This station has been tested in a number of field experiments at the territories of different plants and now it is presented for meteorological certification at the Scientific and Production Association {open_quotes}Dal`standart{close_quotes} in Khabarovsk. Thus, the mobile station discussed is capable of monitoring air quality near the ground surface using standard techniques of analysis and of performing air quality police functions, that is to control the emissions from industrial enterprises.

  10. In situ optical absorption mercury continuous emission monitor.

    PubMed

    Thiebaud, Jérôme; Thomson, Murray J; Mani, Reza; Morrow, William H; Morris, Eric A; Jia, Charles Q

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports the development of an in situ continuous emission monitor (CEM) for measuring elemental mercury (Hg(0)) concentration in the exhaust stream of coal-fired power plants. The instrument is based on the ultraviolet atomic absorption of a mercury lamp emission line by elemental mercury and a light-emitting diode (LED) background correction system. This approach allows an in situ measurement since the absorption of other species such as SO(2) can be removed to monitor the Hg(0) contribution only. Proof of concept was established through a laboratory-based investigation, and a limit of detection, [Hg(0)](min), of 2 microg/m(3) was measured for a 1-min averaged sample and an absorption path length of 49 cm. [Hg(0)](min) is anticipated to be better than 0.2 microg/m(3) across a 7 m diameter stack. Finally, the apparatus was field-tested in a 230 MW coal-fired power plant. The operability of the measurement in real conditions was demonstrated, leading to the first Hg(0) concentration values recorded by the in situ CEM. Comparison with an accepted standard method is required for validation.

  11. Mapping Fugitive Gas Emission Sources and Severity Across Southeastern Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, J.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Williams, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada contains a 10,000 km2 region heavily developed by oil and gas activity that has been struggling with air quality issues, arising from hundreds or thousands of oil and gas leak points. The region is also very diverse in terms of oilfield operators, who use extraction techniques including conventional, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and fracking. As regulators and operators need more knowledge about emission patterns locally, we undertook comprehensive mapping and characterization of leak sources at the regional scale using vehicle-based data collection, together with computational techniques. We measured the presence and source of fugitive emissions from infrastructure and oilfield activities in eight 100 km2 survey domains. These included two controls with no oil and gas activity, and otherwise the domains were selected to capture the diversity of development; targeting primarily conventional and EOR activities in the Weyburn-Midale beds, and unconventional activities in the Bakken play. A total of 25 unique operators fell within the survey domains. Each domain was surveyed multiple times for CO2, CH4, and H2S, allowing us to identify persistent leaks and to screen out one-time events. The multiple gas targets also provided opportunities for discriminating one type of fugitive emission from another (i.e. flares from storage tanks) using ratios of excess (above ambient) concentrations, after correcting for natural background variability with a signal-processing routine. Fugitive emissions were commonly observed in all study domains. Most emissions were associated with oil and gas infrastructure, as opposed to drilling and other short-term activities. There were obvious emissions at many well pads, storage tanks, and flares. We also observed high geochemical variability around flares, with some being very effective in combusting toxic gases, and others less so. Almost all observed concentrations fell below regulatory limits, but have a

  12. 77 FR 26476 - Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources... proposed rule, ``Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric... for the proposed Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary...

  13. Spatial variations of nitrogen trace gas emissions from tropical mountain forests in Nyungwe, Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharahi Ghehi, N.; Werner, C.; Cizungu Ntaboba, L.; Mbonigaba Muhinda, J. J.; van Ranst, E.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Kiese, R.; Boeckx, P.

    2011-12-01

    Globally, tropical forest soils represent the second largest source of N2O and NO. However, there is still considerable uncertainty on the spatial variability and soil properties controlling N trace gas emission. To investigate how soil properties affect N2O and NO emission, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from 31 locations in the Nyungwe tropical mountain forest in southwestern Rwanda. All soils were incubated at three different moisture levels (50, 70 and 90% water filled pore space (WFPS)) at 17 °C. Nitrous oxide emission varied between 4.5 and 400 μg N m-2 h-1, while NO emission varied from 6.6 to 265 μg N m-2 h-1. Mean N2O emission at different moisture levels was 46.5 ± 11.1 (50% WFPS), 71.7 ± 11.5 (70% WFPS) and 98.8 ± 16.4 (90% WFPS) μg N m-2 h-1, while mean NO emission was 69.3 ± 9.3 (50% WFPS), 47.1 ± 5.8 (70% WFPS) and 36.1 ± 4.2 (90% WFPS) μg N m-2 h-1. The latter suggests that climate (i.e. dry vs. wet season) controls N2O and NO emissions. Positive correlations with soil carbon and nitrogen indicate a biological control over N2O and NO production. But interestingly N2O and NO emissions also showed a negative correlation (only N2O) with soil pH and a positive correlation with free iron. The latter suggest that chemo-denitrification might, at least for N2O, be an important production pathway. In conclusion improved understanding and process based modeling of N trace gas emission from tropical forests will not only benefit from better spatial explicit trace gas emission and basic soil property monitoring, but also by differentiating between biological and chemical pathways for N trace gas formation.

  14. Multiplexing Technology for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William; Percy, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of damage mechanisms such as cracks and delaminations generate acoustic waves, which propagate through a structure. These waves can be detected and analyzed to provide the location and severity of damage as part of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. This methodology of damage detection is commonly known as acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and is widely used on a variety of applications on civil structures. AE has been widely considered for SHM of aerospace vehicles. Numerous successful ground and flight test demonstrations have been performed, which show the viability of the technology for damage monitoring in aerospace structures. However, one significant current limitation for application of AE techniques on aerospace vehicles is the large size, mass, and power requirements for the necessary monitoring instrumentation. To address this issue, a prototype multiplexing approach has been developed and demonstrated in this study, which reduces the amount of AE monitoring instrumentation required. Typical time division multiplexing techniques that are commonly used to monitor strain, pressure and temperature sensors are not applicable to AE monitoring because of the asynchronous and widely varying rates of AE signal occurrence. Thus, an event based multiplexing technique was developed. In the initial prototype circuit, inputs from eight sensors in a linear array were multiplexed into two data acquisition channels. The multiplexer rapidly switches, in less than one microsecond, allowing the signals from two sensors to be acquired by a digitizer. The two acquired signals are from the sensors on either side of the trigger sensor. This enables the capture of the first arrival of the waves, which cannot be accomplished with the signal from the trigger sensor. The propagation delay to the slightly more distant neighboring sensors makes this possible. The arrival time from this first arrival provides a more accurate source location

  15. Trace Gas Emission from in-Situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication. A primary process for removing excess NO3- from water is denitrification, where denitrifying bacteria use NO3- for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas. A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs). DNBRs provide conditions ideal for denitrifiers: an anaerobic environment, sufficient organic matter, and excess NO3-. These conditions are also ideal for methanogens, which produce methane (CH4), another harmful trace gas. While initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, trace gas emissions are an unintended consequence. This study's goal was to determine how bioreactor design promotes denitrification while limiting trace gas production. Reactor inflow and outflow water samples were tested for nutrients, including NO3-, and dissolved inflow and outflow gas samples were tested for N2O and CH4. NO3- reduction and trace gas production were evaluated at various residence times, pHs, and inflow NO3- concentrations in field and lab-scale reactors. Low NO3- reduction indicated conditions that stressed denitrifying bacteria while high reductions indicated designs that optimized pollutant treatment for water quality. Several factors influenced high N2O, suggesting non-ideal conditions for the final step of complete denitrification. High CH4 emissions pointed to reactor media choice for discouraging methanogens, which may remove competition with denitrifiers. It is critical to understand all of potential impacts that DNBRs may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them.

  16. GLOBAL ANTROPOGENIC NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS: 1990-2020

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report will synthesize available data on emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases by gas, source category, and country or region. Historic emissions data, as well as projected emission levels will be provided.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  18. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  19. Implementation of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The updated status of TEMPO, as it proceeds from formulation phase into implementation phase is presented. TEMPO, the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. GEO-CAPE is not planned for implementation this decade. However, instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form parts of a global GEO constellation for pollution monitoring later this decade, with a major focus on intercontinental

  20. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  1. Soil nitrogen gas emissions increase considerably in warmer forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzler, Barbara; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Climate change will likely modify ecosystem properties and processes and therefore impact nitrogen (N) dynamics of forest soils. To elucidate the effect of warming and drought conditions on the nitrogen gas emissions we measured N2O and NO fluxes from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The uppermost layer of the soil was warmed (4°C) by heating cables during the snow-free seasons. Roofs were installed during 25 days in July/August 2008 and 2009 to simulate drought conditions. Gas sampling was conducted biweekly with static chambers (N2O). Gas concentrations were detected by GC. Nitric oxide fluxes were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis. In our study the emissions of N2O were increased by up to 73 % at warmed plots, and we observed a temporary increase following first rain. However N2O emissions of the drought affected plots remained depressed for more than two months after roof removal. Nitric oxide fluxes were increased considerably during dry periods and under warmer conditions.

  2. Assessment of online monitoring strategies for measuring N2O emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Clark-Type nitrous oxide (N2O) sensors are routinely used to measure dissolved N2O concentrations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but have never before been applied to assess gas-phase N2O emissions in full-scale WWTPs. In this study, a full-scale N2O gas sensor was tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to its linearity, temperature dependence, signal saturation and drift prior to full-scale application. The sensor was linear at the concentrations tested (0-422.3, 0-50 and 0-10 ppmv N2O) and had a linear response up to 2750 ppmv N2O. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was described and predicted using a double exponential equation while the drift did not have a significant influence on the signal. The N2O gas sensor was used for online N2O monitoring in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating domestic wastewater and results were compared with those obtained by a commercial online gas analyser. Emissions were successfully described by the sensor, being even more accurate than the values given by the commercial analyser at N2O concentrations above 500 ppmv. Data from this gas N2O sensor was also used to validate two models to predict N2O emissions from dissolved N2O measurements, one based on oxygen transfer rate and the other based on superficial velocity of the gas bubble. Using the first model, predictions for N2O emissions agreed by 98.7% with the measured by the gas sensor, while 87.0% similarity was obtained with the second model. This is the first study showing a reliable estimation of gas emissions based on dissolved N2O online data in a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. PMID:27155989

  3. Assessment of online monitoring strategies for measuring N2O emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Clark-Type nitrous oxide (N2O) sensors are routinely used to measure dissolved N2O concentrations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but have never before been applied to assess gas-phase N2O emissions in full-scale WWTPs. In this study, a full-scale N2O gas sensor was tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to its linearity, temperature dependence, signal saturation and drift prior to full-scale application. The sensor was linear at the concentrations tested (0-422.3, 0-50 and 0-10 ppmv N2O) and had a linear response up to 2750 ppmv N2O. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was described and predicted using a double exponential equation while the drift did not have a significant influence on the signal. The N2O gas sensor was used for online N2O monitoring in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating domestic wastewater and results were compared with those obtained by a commercial online gas analyser. Emissions were successfully described by the sensor, being even more accurate than the values given by the commercial analyser at N2O concentrations above 500 ppmv. Data from this gas N2O sensor was also used to validate two models to predict N2O emissions from dissolved N2O measurements, one based on oxygen transfer rate and the other based on superficial velocity of the gas bubble. Using the first model, predictions for N2O emissions agreed by 98.7% with the measured by the gas sensor, while 87.0% similarity was obtained with the second model. This is the first study showing a reliable estimation of gas emissions based on dissolved N2O online data in a full-scale wastewater treatment facility.

  4. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1725 How are the data from...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous... Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1725 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15180 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  7. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  8. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    PubMed

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway.

    PubMed

    Forman, Grant S; Hahn, Tristan E; Jensen, Scott D

    2011-10-15

    Gas to liquids (GTL) products have the potential to replace petroleum-derived products, but the efficacy with which any sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the GTL pathway. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally established tool (with GHG emissions as a subset) to estimate these impacts. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 standard advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the "displacement method" or the "substitution method") for life-cycle analyses, application of this method for the GTL pathway has been limited until now because of the difficulty in quantifying potential products to be displaced by GTL coproducts. In this paper, we use LCA methodology to establish the most comprehensive GHG emissions evaluation to date of the GTL pathway. The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. These results are compared to results using energy-based allocation methods of reference GTL diesel and petroleum-diesel pathways. When substitution methodology is used, the resulting WTW GHG emissions of the GTL pathway are lower than petroleum diesel references. In terms of net GHGs, an interesting way to further reduce GHG emissions is to blend GTL diesel in refineries with heavy crudes that require severe hydrotreating, such as Venezuelan heavy crude oil or bitumen derived from Canadian oil sands and in jurisdictions with tight aromatic specifications for diesel, such as California. These results highlight the limitation of using the energy allocation approach for situations where coproduct GHG emissions reductions are downstream from the production phase.

  10. Serial Monitoring of Otoacoustic Emissions in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Poling, Gayla L; Dreisbach, Laura E; Reavis, Kelly M; McMillan, Garnett P; Lapsley Miller, Judi A; Marshall, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance on the use of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) as a clinical trial outcome measure for pharmaceutical interventions developed to prevent acquired hearing loss secondary to cochlear insult. OAEs are a rapid, noninvasive measure that can be used to monitor cochlear outer hair cell function. Serial monitoring of OAEs is most clearly established for use in hearing conservation and ototoxicity monitoring programs in which they exhibit more frequent and earlier changes compared with pure-tone audiometry. They also show promise in recent human trials of otoprotectants. Questions remain, however, concerning the most appropriate OAE protocols to use and what constitutes a "significant" OAE response change. Measurement system capabilities are expanding and test efficacy will vary across locations and patient populations. Yet, standardizing minimal measurement criteria and reporting of results is needed including documentation of test-retest variability so that useful comparisons can be made across trials. It is also clear that protocols must be theoretically sound based on known patterns of damage, generate valid results in most individuals tested, be accurate, repeatable, and involve minimal time. Based on the potential value added, OAEs should be included in clinical trials when measurement conditions and time permit. PMID:27518137

  11. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variola, A.; Jung, R.; Ferioli, G.

    2007-12-01

    The LHC (large hadron collider) [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS), and super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV) was developed and tested in the SPS ring. The results of beam size measurements and their evolution as a function of the machine parameters are presented. The image quality and resolution attainable in the LHC case have been assessed. A first full characterization of the luminescence cross section, spectrum, decay time, and afterglow effect for an ultrarelativistic proton beam is provided. Some significant results are also provided for lead ion beams.

  12. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Operator Training and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2941 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 12 months after the previous evaluation was conducted. (b) Evaluate your...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Operator Training and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2941 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 12 months after the previous evaluation was conducted. (b) Evaluate your...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a continuous emission monitoring system for nitrogen oxides. Install the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at the location where you monitor nitrogen oxides. (d) You...

  20. NOAA Mobile Laboratory Measures Oil and Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, J. D.; Petron, G.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P. M.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Patrick, L.; Crepinsek, S.; Chen, H.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Lang, P. M.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Wolter, S.; Williams, J.; Jordan, A.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    A van capable of continuous real time measurements of CH4 , CO2, CO, Water Vapor, Ozone, NO, NO2, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs including aromatics and other traces gases was driven in the oil and gas fields of the Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah. Compressor Stations, processing plants, oil and gas well heads. Separators, condensate tanks, evaporation pond disposal facilities, holding tanks, hydraulic fracturing sites, gas pipelines and more were studied using the van. The mobile measurements provide a powerful tool to get to the source of the emissions and reveal the unique chemical signature of each of the stages and components of oil and gas production as well as the overall basin and background gas concentrations. In addition to a suite of gas analyzers, the van includes a meteorological system (temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction), GPS tracking, flask sampling system and a batter power system. Aspects of the vans hardware, sampling methods and operations are discussed along with a few highlights of the measurements.

  1. Trace gas emissions from biomass burning in tropical Australian savannas

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.F.; Griffith, D.W.T.; Cook, G.D.

    1994-08-20

    The trace gas emissions of biomass burning was measured during the 1991 and 1992 dry seasons (April through October) at the Kapalga Research Station in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia. Over 100 smoke samples from savannah fires were collected, from the ground and from aircraft flying at 50 to 700 meters above the fires. The samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, and other carbon and nitrogen compounds using gas phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, matrix isolation FTIR spectroscopy, and chemiluminescence techniques. This paper describes the results of the gas analyses and discusses the potential impacts of these gases on regional atmospheric chemistry.49 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Investigation of Fuel Nozzle Technologies to Reduce Gas Turbine Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony Francis, Roger Neil

    With increasing requirements for reduced emissions from future gas turbines, a multitude of research is being conducted into fuel nozzles by gas turbine manufacturers. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel spill return nozzle, to improve combustion efficiency at starting and low power conditions -where combustion efficiency is often the poorest. The spill return nozzle has the advantage of being able to improve atomization performance and reduce internal coking potential, all while being a simple and durable design. The spill return nozzle tech- nology was subsequently applied to a design for an existing small gas turbine combustor, and its improvements over the existing nozzle were demonstrated. The proposed design was also extended to experimental testing in a simplified form. CAD drawings of the components for testing were made, and prototypes were built in plastic using a high accuracy 3D printer. Future work involves conducting experimental tests to validate results.

  3. 40 CFR 60.4350 - How do I use data from the continuous emission monitoring equipment to identify excess emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR... § 60.4345(b), is obtained for both NOX and diluent monitors, the data acquisition and handling system... be reported as monitor downtime in the excess emissions and monitoring performance report...

  4. Field measurement of greenhouse gas emission rates and development of emission factors for wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; LaCosse, J.

    1997-09-01

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. Field tests of emissions were conducted for WWT lagoons that use anaerobic processes to treat large volumes of wastewater with large biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings. Air emissions and wastewater were measured at anaerobic lagoons at three meat processing plants and two publicly owned treatment works. The overall emission rates of CH4, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ammonia (NH3), and chlorofluorocarbons were measured from each source using an open-path monitoring approach. The emitted compounds were identified and quantified by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Emission factors were developed for CH4 and NH3 as a function of the plant production rate, wastewater parameters (e.g., influent BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loadings), and WWT system performance (e.g., BOD and COD removal rates).

  5. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, L.; Mathieu-Üffing, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Schmolke, S.; Seyler, A.; Wittrock, F.

    2015-09-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measurement results of a permanent ship emission monitoring site near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA. Trace gas measurements are conducted with in situ instruments and a data set from September 2014 to January 2015 is presented. By combining measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 with ship position data, it is possible to deduce the sulfur fuel content of individual ships passing the measurement station, thus facilitating the monitoring of compliance of ships with the IMO regulations. While compliance is almost 100 % for the 2014 data, it decreases only very little in 2015 to 95.4 % despite the much stricter limit. We analysed more than 1400 ship plumes in total and for months with favourable conditions, up to 40 % of all ships entering and leaving Hamburg harbour could be checked for their sulfur fuel content.

  6. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  7. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  8. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Optional NOX Emissions Estimation Protocol for Gas-Fired Peaking Units and Oil-Fired Peaking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Optional NOX Emissions Estimation... MONITORING Pt. 75, App. E Appendix E to Part 75—Optional NOX Emissions Estimation Protocol for Gas-Fired Peaking Units and Oil-Fired Peaking Units 1. Applicability 1.1 Unit Operation Requirements This...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Peaking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Peaking Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2...

  11. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  12. Determining thresholds for mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    West, Tristram O; Peña, Naomi

    2003-03-15

    A number of countries are considering implementation of reporting requirements for greenhouse gases. Some reporting systems have been proposed that would require each entity or facility exceeding an annual emissions threshold to report their emissions to a governmental agency. The analysis presented here provides a first approximation of the number of facilities in selected U.S. economic sectors that would report under several different reporting thresholds. Results indicate that thresholds below 10,000 Mg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2E) per year may bring in relatively large numbers of facilities while minimally increasing the percentage of reported emissions. None of the reporting thresholds considered in this analysis would account for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. agricultural, transportation, or residential and commercial building sectors. If these sectors, in which large numbers of farms, vehicles, and buildings each emit relatively small amounts of greenhouse gases, are to be included in a reporting framework, additional or alternative approaches to reporting should be considered. Alternative approaches may include creating separate thresholds for individual greenhouse gases instead of using an aggregated CO2E unit, creating separate reporting thresholds for individual sectors, or combining sources of small emissions into a single reporting entity.

  13. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  14. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  15. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment reed beds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubo; Zhang, Shunli; Chen, Zhaobo; Chen, Rui; Deng, Xinnan

    2015-01-01

    Sludge treatment reed bed systems (STRBs) are considered as an alternative technology for surplus sludge treatment. Organic matter is decomposed by various microbial reactions, resulting in gases such as CO₂and CH₄emitting into the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to investigate gas emission from STRBs. The static transparent chamber was adopted to measure gas emission; it allows sunlight to enter and plants to photosynthesise. The comparison of total solids and volatile solids showed STRBs have a higher efficiency in dewatering and mineralization than a conventional unplanted sludge drying bed (USDB). The CO₂emission ranged from 28.68 to 100.42 g CO₂m⁻² d(-1) in USDB, from 16.48 to 65.18 g CO₂m⁻² d⁻¹ in STRBs; CH₄emission ranged from 0.26 to 0.99 g CH₄ m⁻² d⁻¹ in USDB, from 0.43 to 1.95 g CH₄m⁻² d⁻¹ in STRBs. Both gas fluxes decreased towards the end of vegetation and reached the highest rates during the hot and dry summer. After the system was loaded by sludge, the fluxes of CO₂and CH₄significantly decreased in the USDB, whereas they increased in STRBs. In terms of CO₂equivalent, the global warming potential of CH₄was 13.13 g CO₂eq m⁻² d⁻¹ and 15.02 g CO₂eq m⁻² d⁻¹ in USDB and STRBs, respectively.

  17. Towards national-scale greenhouse gas emissions evaluation with robust uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Matthew; Swallow, Ben; Lunt, Mark; Manning, Alistair; Ganesan, Anita; Stavert, Ann; Stanley, Kieran; O'Doherty, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Through the Deriving Emissions related to Climate Change (DECC) network and the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) programme, the UK's greenhouse gases are now monitored by instruments mounted on telecommunications towers and churches, on a ferry that performs regular transects of the North Sea, on-board a research aircraft and from space. When combined with information from high-resolution chemical transport models such as the Met Office Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), these measurements are allowing us to evaluate emissions more accurately than has previously been possible. However, it has long been appreciated that current methods for quantifying fluxes using atmospheric data suffer from uncertainties, primarily relating to the chemical transport model, that have been largely ignored to date. Here, we use novel model reduction techniques for quantifying the influence of a set of potential systematic model errors on the outcome of a national-scale inversion. This new technique has been incorporated into a hierarchical Bayesian framework, which can be shown to reduce the influence of subjective choices on the outcome of inverse modelling studies. Using estimates of the UK's methane emissions derived from DECC and GAUGE tall-tower measurements as a case study, we will show that such model systematic errors have the potential to significantly increase the uncertainty on national-scale emissions estimates. Therefore, we conclude that these factors must be incorporated in national emissions evaluation efforts, if they are to be credible.

  18. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism.

  19. Hydrological modelling as a basis for the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Frahm, Enrico; Dechow, Rene; Freibauer, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Although covering only around 5 % of the country, peatlands are the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions besides the energy sector in Germany. Thus, the compilation of the national greenhouse gas inventory according to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change requires the application of country-specific emission factors depending on climate region, soil type and land use as well as a complete set of activity data (e.g. management, soil type or groundwater level). To develop scaling methods and emission factors for greenhouse gas emissions, hydrological models specifically designed for peatlands and other organic soils (Histosols) are required to deliver input data for gas exchange modelling. The implementation of both a hydrological monitoring programme and an adequate model is part of a large project with 11 catchments with more than 60 gas flux measurement sites all over Germany aiming at the improvement of the greenhouse gas inventory. Greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands are very sensitive to changes in the - usually very shallow - groundwater level and soil moisture, which poses an enormous challenge when attempting to upscale hydrological and gas exchange models to the national scale. At the catchment scale, geohydrological models are used to develop modelling approaches for different peatlands types (bottom-up approach). At the same time, a conceptual model is developed for the national scale, which is based on a newly compiled Histosol map, official survey data, a digital elevation model and regional information from peatland inventories. Using this data, a rule-base system will be developed to identify hydrological peatland types and boundary conditions for which specific modelling approaches - e.g. for rain-fed bogs - will be applied (top-down approach). Monitoring data from the test sites as well as from conservation programmes will be used for calibration and uncertainty analysis. Finally, management scenarios will be implemented to

  20. Silicon microring refractometric sensor for atmospheric CO(2) gas monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mi, Guangcan; Horvath, Cameron; Aktary, Mirwais; Van, Vien

    2016-01-25

    We report a silicon photonic refractometric CO(2) gas sensor operating at room temperature and capable of detecting CO(2) gas at atmospheric concentrations. The sensor uses a novel functional material layer based on a guanidine polymer derivative, which is shown to exhibit reversible refractive index change upon absorption and release of CO(2) gas molecules, and does not require the presence of humidity to operate. By functionalizing a silicon microring resonator with a thin layer of the polymer, we could detect CO(2) gas concentrations in the 0-500ppm range with a sensitivity of 6 × 10(-9) RIU/ppm and a detection limit of 20ppm. The microring transducer provides a potential integrated solution in the development of low-cost and compact CO(2) sensors that can be deployed as part of a sensor network for accurate environmental monitoring of greenhouse gases.

  1. Coupled cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers with integrated emission monitoring.

    PubMed

    Krall, Michael; Martl, Michael; Bachmann, Dominic; Deutsch, Christoph; Andrews, Aaron M; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the on-chip generation and detection of terahertz radiation in coupled cavity systems using a single semiconductor heterostructure. Multiple sections of a terahertz quantum cascade laser structure in a double-metal waveguide are optically coupled and operate either as a laser or an integrated emission monitor. A detailed analysis of the photon-assisted carrier transport in the active region below threshold reveals the detection mechanism for photons emitted by the very same structure above threshold. Configurations with a single laser cavity and two coupled laser cavities are studied. It is shown that the integrated detector can be used for spatial sensing of the light intensity within a coupled cavity.

  2. Acoustic emission monitoring of recycled aggregate concrete under bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumani, A. A.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    The amount of construction and demolition waste has increased considerably over the last few years, making desirable the reuse of this waste in the concrete industry. In the present study concrete specimens are subjected at the age of 28 days to four-point bending with concurrent monitoring of their acoustic emission (AE) activity. Several concrete mixtures prepared using recycled aggregates at various percentages of the total coarse aggregate and also a reference mix using natural aggregates, were included to investigate their influence of the recycled aggregates on the load bearing capacity, as well as on the fracture mechanisms. The results reveal that for low levels of substitution the influence of using recycled aggregates on the flexural strength is negligible while higher levels of substitution lead into its deterioration. The total AE activity, as well as the AE signals emitted during failure, was related to flexural strength. The results obtained during test processing were found to be in agreement with visual observation.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  4. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from sewage sludge composting by continuous aerated turning pile].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Yang; Wei, Yuan-Song; Ge, Zhen; Zhong, Jia; Cai, Xing; Zhang, Yuan-Li; Li, Hong-Mei

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of observation data on greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions from sewage sludge composting, though the emissions can result in environmental issue and nitrogen loss. In this study, GHG and ammonia emissions were monitored under different operating parameters during sludge composting with continuous aerated turning pile at full scale. Results illustrated that the reduction of amendment addition could result in low organic matter transformation (1.38% and 8.85% for the test group and the control group, respectively). Though low C/N ratio might slightly increase the ammonia emission (8.68% higher than the control group), it was helpful to reduce both GHG emission (1.70 g x kg(-1)) DC for the test group and 2.85 g x kg(-1) DC for the control group, respectively) and total nitrogen loss (16.1% and 21.8% for the test and control groups, respectively). Through applying an aertion strategy in which the airflow rate was lower in the beginning and higher in the end of sludge composting, a higher GHG emission and a lower ammonia emission were observed in the test group, e. g., 55.1% higher of GHG emission than the control, and 66.86 g x m(-2) and 72.04 g x m(-2) of ammonia emission in the test and the control, respectively. And a good conversation of total nitrogen thus occurred in the test as a result of such aeration strategy, with only 51.34% of TN loss as compared to the control.

  5. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  6. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  7. Nutrient removal and greenhouse gas emissions in duckweed treatment ponds.

    PubMed

    Sims, Atreyee; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-01

    Stormwater treatment ponds provide a variety of functions including sediment retention, organic and nutrient removal, and habitat restoration. The treatment ponds are, however, also a source of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were to assess greenhouse gas (CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O) emissions in duckweed treatment ponds (DWPs) treating simulated stormwater and to determine the role of ammonia-oxidizing organisms in nutrient removal and methanogens in greenhouse gas emissions. Two replicated DWPs operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days were able to remove 84% (± 4% [standard deviation]) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 79% (± 3%) NH(4)(+)-N, 86% (± 2%) NO(3)(-)-N and 56% (± 7%) orthophosphate. CH(4) emission rates in the DWPs ranged from 502 to 1900 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) while those of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) ranged from 0.63 to 4 mg N(2)O m(-2) d(-1). The CO(2) emission rates ranged from 1700 to 3300 mg CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). Duckweed coverage on water surface along with the continued deposit of duckweed debris in the DWPs and low-nutrient influent water created a low dissolved oxygen environment for the growth of unique ammonia-oxidizing organisms and methanogens. Archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance in the DWPs ranged from (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10(7) to (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(8) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(3) to (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil, respectively. The 16S rRNA acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens ranged from (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10(5) to (9.0 ± 0.3) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(2) to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10(3) copies/g dry soil, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) appeared to be the dominant nitrifiers and acetoclastic Methanosaeta was the major methanogenic genus. The results suggest that methane is the predominant (>90%) greenhouse gas in the DWPs, where the relatively low stormwater nutrient inputs facilitate the growth of K-strategists such as AOA and Methanosaeta that may

  8. Characterization of SnO2 ceramic gas sensor for exhaust gas monitoring of SVE process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Won; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Young

    2004-03-01

    A Figaro-type gas sensor system was investigated for the monitoring of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) in the exhaust gas from a soil vapor extraction (SVE) process. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), and their mixtures, were tested as representative contaminants. Reasonably good correlation factors >0.98 were obtained between the GC analyses and the sensor responses for each component, and for the total gas concentrations. Although the composition of the exhaust gas from SVE process, as well as the amount of each component, change with time, the sensor can be used to estimate the residual amount of contaminants by measuring the total concentrations in the exhaust gas. The sensor can be utilized as a valuable tool for the monitoring of SVE process by indicating when the operation to remediate a contaminated site should be stopped. The proposed ceramic gas sensor system may be a good alternative to existing methods, because it can satisfy the essential monitoring necessities of SVE processes, and has many advantages over other fully equipped instrumentation, as a cost-effective device, with long-term monitoring stability.

  9. Volcanic Gas Emissions Mapping Using a Mass Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Timothy P.; Diaz, J. Andres

    2008-01-01

    The visualization of hazardous gaseous emissions at volcanoes using in-situ mass spectrometry (MS) is a key step towards a better comprehension of the geophysical phenomena surrounding eruptive activity. In-Situ gas data consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and other gas species, were acquired with an MS system. MS and global position system (GPS) data were plotted on ground imagery, topography, and remote sensing data collected by a host of instruments during the second Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) mission This combination of gas and imaging data allowed 3-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the volcanic plume end the mapping of gas concentration at several volcanic structures and urban areas This combined set of data has demonstrated a better tool to assess hazardous conditions by visualizing and modeling of possible scenarios of volcanic activity. The MS system is used for in-situ measurement of three-dimensional gas concentrations at different volcanic locations with three different transportation platforms, aircraft, auto, and hand carried. The demonstration for urban contamination mapping is also presented as another possible use for the MS system.

  10. The Nature of Temporally Variable Methane Emissions at Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Eagle Ford Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, T. N.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Stirm, B. H.; Conley, S. A.; Mehrotra, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Mayfield, M.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current state of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from oil and gas operations, policy makers refer to national inventories and reporting programs, and therefore, it is imperative that these reports are accurate and representative. Many studies exist that investigate the reliability of current monitoring methods, however, to our knowledge the temporal variability of the magnitude and source of methane (CH4) emissions from oil and gas facilities has not been reported in the literature. We present results from a field campaign conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas to assess the temporal variability of emissions from a variety of facilities using data obtained through four different methods. The variability of total CH4 emission rate from individual facilities was investigated by repeated measurement of emissions from five gathering facilities using two aircraft-based mass balance approaches. Basin-wide emissions variation was examined by conducting a series of eight four hour afternoon aerial surveys of two 35 x 35 km areas, with transects oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. The emission source-type and magnitude were further investigated using helicopter-based FLIR camera observations conducted repeatedly at eight oil wells, one gas well, and four gathering facilities. Results indicate a high degree of variability in day-to-day and sometimes hour-to-hour CH4 emissions magnitude. FLIR camera observations suggest that the component-level source of facility emissions is also highly variable over time, with both storage tank vent stacks and tank hatches representing important components of the observed day-to-day variability. While some emissions were due to scheduled maintenance, others appeared to occur due to faulty and/or aging equipment. Here we discuss what was learned in terms of factors that explain the observed emission rate variability.

  11. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    PubMed

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available.

  12. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuheng; Jiang, Xuguang; Chen, Dezhen

    2016-05-01

    The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF3, SiF4 and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF4 and SF6 were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF4 in the sample decomposed to generate BF3. Then part of BF3 reacted with SiO2 in the system to form SiF4 or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF3 and SiF4 can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF4 would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results. PMID:26808247

  13. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  14. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  16. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  17. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-06-30

    Previous work on the detection of mercury using the cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has concentrated on the detection and characterization of the desired mercury transition. Interferent species present in flue gas emissions have been tested as well as a simulated flue gas stream. Additionally, work has been done on different mercury species such as the elemental and oxidized forms. The next phase of the effort deals with the actual sampling system. This sampling system will be responsible for acquiring a sample stream from the flue gas stack, taking it to the CRD cavity where it will be analyzed and returning the gas stream to the stack. In the process of transporting the sample gas stream every effort must be taken to minimize any losses of mercury to the walls of the sampling system as well as maintaining the mercury in its specific state (i.e. elemental, oxidized, or other mercury compounds). SRD first evaluated a number of commercially available sampling systems. These systems ranged from a complete sampling system to a number of individual components for specific tasks. SRD engineers used some commercially available components and designed a sampling system suited to the needs of the CRD instrument. This included components such as a pyrolysis oven to convert all forms of mercury to elemental mercury, a calibration air source to ensure mirror alignment and quality of the mirror surfaces, and a pumping system to maintain the CRD cavity pressure from atmospheric pressure (760 torr) down to about 50 torr. SRD also began evaluating methods for the CRD instrument to automatically find the center of a mercury transition. This procedure is necessary as the instrument must periodically measure the baseline losses of the cavity off of the mercury resonance and then return to the center of the transition to accurately measure the mercury concentration. This procedure is somewhat complicated due to the isotopic structure of the 254 nm mercury transition. As a result of

  18. Preliminary Design of the Gas Cherenkov Muon Monitors for LBNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, Craig

    2011-10-01

    I am performing preliminary research for a future neutrino experiment at Fermilab called the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). More specifically, I am determining the best geometry for the gas Cherenkov muon monitors. The purpose of the monitors is to measure, at least indirectly, the energy spectrum of the muons in the beam. I use computer software to simulate a realistic muon beam going through the monitors. Muons in the particle beam that go through the monitors emit Cherenkov radiation, and this light is detected by PMTs. I then plot the number of photons detected as a function of the muon's energy that emitted the detected photons. My goal is to have a very narrow peak on this plot. This peak shifts depending on the simulated index of refraction. The best design for the monitors is an L-shaped pipe filled with Freon gas of adjustable density. It is the simplest and cheapest to build of all the designs I tried, and it can accurately recover the muon energy spectrum based solely on the total number of photons detected in each pulse: using simulation data from 5 indices of refraction, I can recover the muon energy spectrum (within the uncertainties) of a beam that has 5 discrete muon energies.

  19. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...