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Sample records for gas fermentation quarterly

  1. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation. [Quarterly status] report, October 15, 1991--January 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  2. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation. [Quarterly status] report, July 15, 1991--October 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  3. Gas controlled hydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Zeng, Raymond J; Bernet, Nicolas; Pratt, Steven; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Batstone, Damien John

    2012-04-01

    Acidogenic fermentation is an anaerobic process of double purpose, while treating organic residues it produces chemical compounds, such as hydrogen, ethanol and organic acids. Therefore, acidogenic fermentation arises as an attractive biotechnology process towards the biorefinery concept. Moreover, this process does not need sterile operating conditions and works under a wide range of pH. Changes of operating conditions produce metabolic shifts, inducing variability on acidogenic product yield. To induce those changes, experiments, based on reactor headspace N(2)-flushing (gas phase), were designed. A major result was the hydrogen yield increase from 1 to 3.25±0.4 ( [Formula: see text] ) at pH 4.5 and N(2)-flushing of 58.4 (L·d(-1)). This yield is close to the theoretical acidogenic value (4 [Formula: see text] ). The mechanisms that explain this increase on hydrogen yield shifts are related to the thermodynamics of three metabolic reactions: lactate hydrogenase, NADH hydrogenase and homoacetogenesis, which are affected by the low hydrogen partial pressures. PMID:22342590

  4. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  5. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  6. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  7. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  8. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  9. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  10. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  11. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  12. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the first quarter of 1998 (January through March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  13. Natural gas imports and exports: Third quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the third quarter of 1998 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  14. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  15. Natural gas: Imports and exports third quarter report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies with authorizations to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the third quarter of 1993 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months (October 1992--September 1993). Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  16. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs Prepares quarterly reports Summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the first quarter of 1994 (January--March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During the first three months of 1994, data indicates that gas imports grew by about 14 percent over the level of the first quarter of 1993 (668 vs. 586 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 12 and 53 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 15 percent (41 vs. 48 Bcf). Exports to Canada increased by 10 percent from the 1993 level (22 vs. 20 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 64 percent (5 vs. 14 Bcf).

  17. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. Third quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report, prepared by The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities, summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Numerical data are presented in four attachments, each of which is comprised of a series of tables. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past year are given in Attachment B. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D lists gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. Highlights of the report are very briefly summarized.

  19. Natural gas imports and exports; Fourth quarterly report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1993 (October--December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During 1993, data indicates gas imports grew by about 10 percent over the 1992 level (2328 vs. 2122 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 8 and 82 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 41 percent (144 vs. 243 Bcf). Exports to Canada decreased 47 percent from the 1992 level (50 vs. 95 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 60 percent (38 vs. 95 Bcf).

  20. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline network and

  1. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This quarter`s feature report focuses on natural gas exports to Mexico. OFP invites ideas from the public on future topics dealing with North American natural gas import/export trade. Such suggestions should be left on OFP`s electronic bulletin board. Natural Gas exports to Mexico continued to grow and reached an historic high for the month of June (7.8 Bcf). Two new long-term contracts were activated; Pennsylvania Gas & Water Company began importing 14.7 MMcf per day from TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., and Renaissance Energy (U.S.) Inc. began importing 2.8 MMcf per day from Renaissance Energy Ltd. for resale to Delmarva Power & Light Company. Algerian LNG imports remained stagnant with only one tanker being imported by Pan National Gas Sales, Inc. (Pan National). During the first six months of 1995, data indicates gas imports increased by about 10 percent over the 1994 level (1,418 vs. 1,285 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasing by 14 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 81 percent. During the same time period, exports increased by 18 percent (83 vs. 70.1 Bcf).

  2. Naturally fractured tight gas - gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, June 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, J.M.; Ortoleva, P.; Payne, D.; Sibo, W.

    1996-11-15

    This document contains the status report for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas-Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project for the contract period 9/30/93 to 3/31/97. Data from seismic surveys are analyzed for structural imaging of reflector units. The data were stacked using the new, improved statics and normal moveout velocities. The 3-D basin modeling effort is continuing with code development. The main activities of this quarter were analysis of fluid pressure data, improved sedimentary history, lithologic unit geometry reconstruction algorithm and computer module, and further improvement, verification, and debugging of the basin stress and multi-phase reaction transport module.

  3. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  4. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  5. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  6. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  7. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  8. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  9. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  10. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  11. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  13. Recession becomes major force to tighten grip on quarterly gas pipeline building costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-04-25

    This article points out that the major force affecting gas pipeline building costs, during the second quarter of 1982, was the recession. The total composite cost index for building gas pipelines increased by only 1.01%. Material prices for steel line pipe, valves, fittings, and line pipe coating showed little or no gain during the period. Installation labor costs continued to climb. Discusses construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high pressure gas station piping.

  14. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  15. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the quarterly report dated January 1-March 31, 1997 for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project. Topics covered in this report include AVOA modeling using paraxial ray tracing, AVOA modeling for gas- and water-filled fractures, 3-D and 3-C processing, and technology transfer material. Several presentations from a Geophysical Applications Workshop workbook, workshop schedule, and list of workshop attendees are also included.

  16. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the status report for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas-Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project for the contract period July 1 to September 30, 1996. Data from seismic surveys are analyzed for structural imaging of reflector units as part of a 3-D basin modeling effort. The main activities of this quarter were 3-D, 3-C processing, correlation matrix, and paraxial ray-tracing modeling.

  17. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  18. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Data includes volume and price for long term and short term, and gas exported to Canada and Mexico on a short term or spot market basis.

  19. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping.

  20. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 8, [January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1994-03-01

    During the first quarter of 1994, we continued work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. We also began work on Task 7. In Task 2, we incorporated 4.5% O{sub 2} into our simulated flue gas stream during this quarter`s NO{sub x}-absorption experiments. We also ran experiments using Cobalt (II)-phthalocyanine as an absorbing agent We observed higher absorption capacities when using this solution with the simulated flue gas containing O{sub 2}. In Task 3, we synthesized a few EDTA polymer analogs. We also began scaled up synthesis of Co(II)-phthalocyanine for use in Task 5. In Task 4, we performed experiments for measuring distribution coefficients (m{sub i}) Of SO{sub 2} between aqueous and organic phases. This was done using the liquor regenerating apparatus described in Task 6. In Task 5, we began working with Co(II)-phthalocyanine in the 301 fiber hollow fiber contactor. We also calculated mass transfer coefficients (K{sub olm}) for these runs, and we observed that the gas side resistance dominates mass transfer. In Task 6, in the liquor regeneration apparatus, we observed 90% recovery of SO{sub 2} by DMA from water used as the scrubbing solution. We also calculated the distribution of coefficients (m{sub i}). In Task 7, we established and began implementing a methodology for completing this task.

  1. [Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the

  2. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, August 25--November 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1992-12-24

    In this quarterly report, results of efforts on Tasks 2 and 3 are presented and discussed. Construction of a laboratory-type wetland (green house) has been begun and this undertaking is described in this report. The literature search has shown that clay amendments to wetlands are beginning to be used in Europe for P removal in agricultural drainage systems. The authors have undertaken similar studies on the use of inexpensive amendments to wetlands such as modified-clays and algae to enhance the performance of a constructed wetland for the treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. The results from these studies are presented and analyzed in this report. Further, the literature search (nominally completed under Task 1) unearthed more recent studies (some unpublished) and a summary is included in this quarterly report.

  3. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.M.

    1992-12-31

    Research continued on the study of coal permeability and gas desorption. This quarter, most of the effort involved identifying problems with the microbalance and then getting it repaired. Measurement of the amount of gas adsorbed with the microbalance involved corrections for the buoyancy change with pressure and several experiments with helium were made to determine this correction.

  5. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 10, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the tenth program quarter from October 1 to December 31, 1995. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: Short duration activity test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed no deactivation over a 6 hour period and preliminary data of CS{sub 2} reaction with H{sub 2} at 400 {minus} 410{degree}C and at atmospheric pressure indicates that IGT-HS-103 is an active catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis from CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}.

  6. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996 (Quarter {number_sign}10)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In the current quarter, research was focused on two different areas. The first part of this quarter the optimization of the feed slurry percent solids for the two inch water-only cyclone was completed. The optimization of the vortex finder, spigot diameter and inlet feed pressure was completed in the previous quarter. The second part of this quarter began the investigation of why water-only cycloning helps froth flotation performance. The hypothesis is that water-only cycloning scrubs the surface of the unreacted limestone. This scrubbing effect provides a clean calcium carbonate surface, which results in better flotation reagent adsorption. This study used the scanning electron microscope to investigate the surface of the unreacted limestone particles.

  7. Methods to optimize myxobacterial fermentations using off-gas analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of carbon dioxide and oxygen on microbial secondary metabolite producers and the maintenance of these two parameters at optimal levels have been studied extensively. Nevertheless, most studies have focussed on their influence on specific product formation and condition optimization of established processes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the influence of reduced or elevated carbon dioxide and oxygen levels on the overall metabolite profiles of the investigated organisms. The synergistic action of both gases has garnered even less attention. Results We show that the composition of the gas phase is highly important for the production of different metabolites and present a simple approach that enables the maintenance of defined concentrations of both O2 and CO2 during bioprocesses over broad concentration ranges with a minimal instrumental setup by using endogenously produced CO2. The metabolite profiles of a myxobacterium belonging to the genus Chondromyces grown under various concentrations of CO2 and O2 showed considerable differences. Production of two unknown, highly cytotoxic compounds and one antimicrobial substance was found to increase depending on the gas composition. In addition, the observation of CO2 and O2 in the exhaust gas allowed optimization and control of production processes. Conclusions Myxobacteria are becoming increasingly important due to their potential for bioactive secondary metabolite production. Our studies show that the influence of different gas partial pressures should not be underestimated during screening processes for novel compounds and that our described method provides a simple tool to investigate this question. PMID:22571441

  8. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In the area of gas analysis, most of the attention during the past quarter was devoted to gaining an understanding of the operation of the Antek total sulfur analyzer, and making appropriate modifications in the unit. The primary problem is that the resistance of the capillary flow restrictor is not large enough, and the amount of sulfur which reaches the UV-analyzer results in the analyzer becoming saturated. We have added a N{sub 2} diluent flow downstream of the pyrotube tube which, we believe, will permit the unit to be operated at pressures to about 50 psig. Use of larger diluent flow rates to permit higher pressure operation is not feasible since larger diluent rates increase the back pressure on the quartz pyrotube (which operates at 1050{degrees}C) to unsafe levels. In the meantime, Antek is studying the redesign of the capillary flow restrictor to provide larger flow resistance. Studies on the regeneration of FeS in the atmospheric pressure reactor were almost completed during the quarter. Only a series of multicycle sulfidation-regeneration tests remains. The effects of reactive gas mol fraction and temperature have been examined using both O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} atmospheres. The initial rate of regeneration was found to be a weak function of temperature and first-order in both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentration. In a test series in which the reactive gas contained both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, the experimental initial rate was effectively equal to the sum of the individual initial rates, suggesting that the two reactions proceed independently of one another. Detailed correlation and statistical analysis of the data is currently being done. Principal effort during the quarter using the high pressure electrobalance was devoted to studying the regeneration of FeS in a H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} atmosphere.

  9. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Seventh Quarter of the First Budget Period, April 1 through June 30, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion will include the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. Combustion Gas Turbine; Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment; and Externally Fired Gas Turbine/Water Augmented Gas Turbine. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  10. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

  11. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

  12. Wheat dextrin, psyllium, and inulin produce distinct fermentation patterns, gas volumes, and short-chain fatty acid profiles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Timm, Derek A; Stewart, Maria L; Hospattankar, Ashok; Slavin, Joanne L

    2010-08-01

    Dietary fiber fermentation decreases luminal pH by the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Additional proposed physiological benefits of fiber fermentation include decreased growth of pathogenic bacteria, increased mineral absorption, and serving as an energy source for the colon epithelium. This study examined three common fiber supplements--wheat dextrin (WD) (Benefiber, Novartis Consumer Health Inc., Parsippany, NJ, USA), psyllium (PS) (Metamucil, Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH, USA), and inulin (Fiber Sure, Procter & Gamble)--for pH, SCFAs, and gas production. An established in vitro fermentation model was used to simulate colonic fermentation at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. At 24 hours, WD and inulin significantly decreased pH compared to PS. Inulin produced significantly more hydrogen and total gas. All treatments produced similar total SCFA concentrations at 24 hours; however, the rate of production was different. PS had a declining rate of SCFA production from 12 to 24 hours, whereas WD and inulin had a higher rate during that period. Fast-fermenting substrates may not provide as much SCFAs to the distal colon as slow-fermenting substrates. Differences in fermentation rate, gas production, and SCFA production observed for WD, PS, and inulin may affect their gastrointestinal tolerance and require further study.

  13. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas.

  14. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues: Quarterly report, July 1-September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1996-12-09

    This is the eighth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, additional analyses were performed on ashes from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. Work continued on the HGCU data base being constructed in Microsoft Access. A variety of information has been entered into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Detailed design of a bench top device for high temperature measurement of ash permeability has also begun. In addition to these activities, a paper was prepared and a poster was presented summarizing recent work performed under this contract at the 1996 DOE/METC Contractor`s Conference. A presentation was also given corresponding to the manuscript entitled Particle Characteristics and High-Temperature Filtration that was prepared for publication in the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference held this September in Pittsburgh, PA. Arrangements have been made to be present at the DOE/METC Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) at the conclusion of the next run of the DOE/METC air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG). This visit will include on-site sampling to collect and characterize the filter cakes collected during FGB operation. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on

  15. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly progress report, June--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each utilize catalysts and sulfur containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2}, and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this first quarter, progress in the following areas has been made. One high surface area molybdenum catalyst has been prepared. An existing unit at IGT is being modified to accommodate the sulfur feedstocks and the higher temperatures(> 1300{degrees}K) required for studying the reactions of hydrogen sulfide and methane as proposed in Tasks 2 through 5. An HP 5890 gas chromatograph with a TCD(thermal conductivity detector) for detecting fixed gases including hydrogen and an FPD(flame photometric detector) for detecting sulfur compounds was purchased using SMP funds and has been received.

  16. Peat Biogasification Development Program. Quarterly progress report No. 3, April 1-June 30, 1980. [Pretreatment; anaerobic fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures for High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are under development that will identify and quantify fermentable material contained in pretreated peat liquors. Several of the model compounds hypothesized to be a product of peat pretreatment have been identified with HPLC and confirmed with Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). However, there are numerous unknown peaks of other products for which elution times and extinction coefficients must be determined in order to make HPLC a quantitative analytical tool for kinetic data.

  17. Ethanol fermentation of raw cassava starch with Rhizopus koji in a gas circulation type fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujio, Y.; Ogato, M.; Ueda, S.

    1985-08-01

    Studies have been conducted in a gas circulation type fermentor in order to characterize the ethanol fermentation of uncooked cassava starch with Rhizopus koji. Results showed that ethanol concentration reached 13-14% (v/v) in 4-day broth, and the maximum productivity of ethanol was 2.3 g ethanol/l broth h. This productivity was about 50% compared to the productivity of a glucose-yeast system. Ethanol yield reached 83.5-72.3% of the theoretical yield for the cassava starch used. The fermentor used in the present work has been proven by experiment to be suitable for ethanol fermentation of the broth with solid substrate. 10 references.

  18. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.

    PubMed

    Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently

  19. High-energy gas-fracturing development. Quarterly report, October-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J.F.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and optimize the High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) technique to produce multiple fractures around a wellbore in order to stimulate natural-gas production in Devonian shale. The HEGF technique uses a wellbore charge of a propellant tailored to produce pressure loading in the borehole that avoids crushing yet produces multiple fractures radiating from the wellbore. The multiple-fracture regime has been characterized and releated to parameters such as borehole size, pressure risetime, and surface-wave velocity. Pressure risetimes and peak pressures, measured for different propellants in boreholes to specify a propellant for a desired peak pressure and pressure risetime. Semiempirical models, using results from previous experiments, successfully relate stress, acceleration, and fracture radii in surrounding rock to peak pressure and pressure risetime. A finite-element model also has been developed which predicts fracture type and direction of fractures as a function of pressure loading, in situ stress, and material properties. A full-scale HEGF system has been developed for application in gas-well-stimulation experiments in Devonian shale. During this quarter, a proof test of the full-scale HEGF was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The designed pressure pulse of 0.5 ms risetime was achieved, and the tamp remained in place during the test. The borehole was successfully cleared posttest. Multiple fracturing was verified with a downhole TV camera. The test of the full-scale hardware and its operational capability was successful. As a result, the HEGF system is ready for application in gas-well-stimulation experiments in Devonian shale. Tests were conducted to determine worst-case accident scenarios to establish sensitivity to shock and fire. There appears to be no risk of initiation resulting from shock or breakage of the propellant-canister segments.

  20. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Fifth Quarterly Report documents progress in pellet testing via thermogravimetric analysis of pellet formulation FORM4-A of a manganese ore/alumina combination. This formulation, described more fully in the Quarterly Technical Progress Report of October 15, 1993, consists of manganese carbonate combined with alundum. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration; however, a minor problem has arisen during the regeneration cycle in that sulfur tends to form and plug the exit tube during the early stage of regeneration. This problem is about to be overcome by increasing the flow rate of air during the regeneration cycle resulting in more oxidizing conditions and hence less tendency for sulfide sulfur (S{sup =}) to oxidize to the intermediate elemental form (S{sup o}) rather than to 4-valent (S{sup +4}).

  1. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Comparisons were made between laboratory analyses of these PSDF ashes and field data obtained from facility operation. In addition, selected laboratory techniques were reviewed to assess their reproducibility and the influence of non-ideal effects and differences between laboratory and filter conditions on the quantities measured. Further work on the HGCU data base is planned for the next quarter. Two Dupont PRD-66 candle filters, one McDermott candle filter, one Blasch candle filter, and one Specific Surfaces candle filter were received at SRI for testing. A test plan and cutting plan for these candles was developed. Acquisition of two of the Dupont PRD-66 candle filters will allow candle-to-candle variability to be examined.

  2. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 11, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.

    1996-05-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural has to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: Hydrogenation of CS{sub 2} to liquid hydrocarbons was accomplished on two sets of catalyst a cobalt exchanged ZSM-5 and a mixture containing MoS{sub 2} hydrogenation catalyst and HZSM-5. CS{sub 2} conversions of up to 100% were achieved. The highest selectivity to C{sub 4}{sup +} hydrocarbons was 52%. There is interest within the oil companies we contacted for a process that converts natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. In addition there is also interest in a process that produces hydrogen for a refinery, while at the same time it removes hydrogen sulfide.

  3. Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-07-01

    Headspace gas composition and bicarbonate concentrations in media can affect methane production and other characteristics of rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production systems, but these 2 important factors have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated with respect to gas and methane production, in vitro digestibility of feed substrate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile using in vitro gas production techniques. Three headspace gas compositions (N2+ CO2+ H2 in the ratio of 90:5:5, CO2, and N2) with 2 substrate types (alfalfa hay only, and alfalfa hay and a concentrate mixture in a 50:50 ratio) in a 3×2 factorial design (experiment 1) and 3 headspace compositions (N2, N2 + CO2 in a 50:50 ratio, and CO2) with 3 bicarbonate concentrations (80, 100, and 120 mM) in a 3×3 factorial design (experiment 2) were evaluated. In experiment 1, total gas production (TGP) and net gas production (NGP) was the lowest for CO2, followed by N2, and then the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas after fermentation was greater for CO2 than for N2 and the gas mixture, whereas total methane production (TMP) and net methane production (NMP) were the greatest for CO2, followed by the gas mixture, and then N2. Headspace composition did not affect in vitro digestibility or the VFA profile, except molar percentages of propionate, which were greater for CO2 and N2 than for the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas, TGP, and NGP were affected by the interaction of headspace gas composition and substrate type. In experiment 2, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the headspace decreased TGP and NGP quadratically, but increased the concentrations of methane, NMP, and in vitro fiber digestibility linearly, and TMP quadratically. Fiber digestibility, TGP, and NGP increased linearly with increasing bicarbonate concentrations in the medium. Concentrations of methane and NMP were unaffected by bicarbonate concentration, but

  4. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-06-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zincbased sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Seventh Quarterly Report documents progress in bench-scale testing of a leading manganese-based sorbent pellets (FORM4-A). This formulation is a high-purity manganese carbonate-based material. This formulation was subjected to 20 consecutive cycles of sulfidation and regeneration at 900{degrees}C in a 2-inch fixed bed reactor. The sulfidation gas was a simulated Tampella U-gas with an increased hydrogen sulfide content of 3% by volume to accelerate the rate of breakthrough, arbitrarily taken as 500 ppmv. Consistent with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) on individual pellets, the fixed bed tests show small improvement in capacity and kinetics with the sulfur-loading capacity being about 22% by weight of the original pellet, which corresponds to approximately 90% bed utilization!

  5. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1995-07-11

    This project is divided into four tasks. We developed our Management Plan in Task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focused on characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, was designed to examine effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine mechanisms by which these agents alter physical properties of ash. We began Tasks 2 and 3 with an extensive literature search and assembly of existing theories. We completed this phase of the project with publication of two special Topical Reports. In our literature reviews reported in Topical Reports 1 and 2, we emphasized the roles adsorbed water can have in controlling bulk properties of powders. During the next phase of the project we analyzed a variety of fly ashes and fine powders in the laboratory. The experiments we performed were primarily designed to define the extent to which water affects key properties of ashes, powders, and mixtures of sorbents and ashes. We have recently completed a series of pilot-scale tests designed to determine the effects that adsorbed water has on fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation of entrained fly ash particles in actual flue gas environments. Under Task 4 we will issue our Final Report that will summarize the results of our laboratory and pilot-scale work and will also include a model of flue gas conditioning. Our efforts during this reporting quarter have been directed toward production of the Draft Final Report and the Flue Gas Conditioning Model. In addition to these efforts, we have prepared a paper for presentation at the Eleventh Annual Coal Preparation, Utilization, and Environmental Control Contractor`s Conference to be held in Pittsburgh in July, 1995.

  6. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas: Nineteenth Quarterly Progress Report (Second Quarter 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-06-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation, and is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  7. Study and modeling of the evolution of gas-liquid partitioning of hydrogen sulfide in model solutions simulating winemaking fermentations.

    PubMed

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Farines, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of gas-liquid partitioning of aroma compounds during winemaking fermentation could allow optimization of fermentation management, maximizing concentrations of positive markers of aroma and minimizing formation of molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), responsible for defects. In this study, the effect of the main fermentation parameters on the gas-liquid partition coefficients (Ki) of H2S was assessed. The Ki for this highly volatile sulfur compound was measured in water by an original semistatic method developed in this work for the determination of gas-liquid partitioning. This novel method was validated and then used to determine the Ki of H2S in synthetic media simulating must, fermenting musts at various steps of the fermentation process, and wine. Ki values were found to be mainly dependent on the temperature but also varied with the composition of the medium, especially with the glucose concentration. Finally, a model was developed to quantify the gas-liquid partitioning of H2S in synthetic media simulating must to wine. This model allowed a very accurate prediction of the partition coefficient of H2S: the difference between observed and predicted values never exceeded 4%.

  8. Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

  9. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, November 25, 1992--February 24, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1993-04-02

    During the first quarter of the above contract, all the elements of Task 1 were completed. The first quarterly report presented an overview of a wetland and its increasing use in industrial wastewater treatment. An idealized, reaction engineering description of wetlands was presented to demonstrate how the various processes that occur in a wetland can be modeled. Previous work on the use of wetlands to remove BOD, TSS, Phosphorus and Nitrogen was reviewed. Recent literature on the application of wetland technology to the treatment of petroleum-related wastewater was critically evaluated and an outline of the research plans for the first year was delineated. Further, our literature search (nominally completed under Task 1) unearthed more recent studies (some unpublished) and a summary was included in the second quarterly report. In the second quarterly report, results of our efforts on the construction of a laboratory-type wetland were also reported. Initial studies on the use of wetland amendments such as modified-clays and algae cells were presented and discussed. Adsorption of heavy metal ions, Cu{sup 2+} and Cr(VI) onto soils drawn from the laboratory-type wetland built as a part of this contract has been undertaken and these results are presented and discussed in this quarterly report. A number of studies on the design and preparation of modified-clays for the adsorption of Cr(VI) and {beta}-naphthoic acid (NA) has been carried out during this quarter and these are also described and discussed in this report. The choice of {beta}-naphthoic acid (NA) as an ionogenic organic compound was made on the basis of a recent personal communication to the Project Director that NA is a major contaminant in many oil and gas well wastewaters.

  10. [Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion]. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, October 1 through December 31, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; (2) hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; (3) combustion gas turbine; (4) fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  11. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, June--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of work being performed on hot coal gas desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Eighth Quarterly Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  12. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and gas production under slight pressure in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Guoqing; Liu, Yucheng; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina

    2014-07-01

    Two rounds of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation under slight pressure were carried out in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system. Spores of the clostridium were observed and counted, with the maximum number of 2.1 × 10(8) and 2.3 × 10(8)ml(-1) separately. The fermentation profiles were comparable with that at atmospheric pressure, showing an average butanol productivity of 0.14 and 0.13 g L(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the average gas productivities of 0.28 and 0.27 L L(-1)h(-1) were obtained in two rounds of CCCF, and the cumulative gas production of 52.64 and 25.92 L L(-1) were achieved, with the hydrogen volume fraction of 41.43% and 38.08% respectively. The results suggested that slight pressures have no obvious effect on fermentation performance, and also indicated the significance and feasibility of gas recovery in the continuous ABE fermentation process.

  13. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  15. Composition modification of zinc titanate sorbents for hot gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.H.; Datta, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    For new coal gasification systems, zinc titanate sorbents are being developed to remove sulfur from the hot product gas prior to its use in combined cycle turbines and high temperature fuel cells. Although most of the properties of these sorbents are very attractive, there are still concerns about durability over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles and zinc losses due to vaporization. Doping the zinc titanate with other metal ions could alleviate both concerns, which are the objectives of this project. A screening study was completed during the second quarter in which Ni, Cr, Cu, Mg, and Al were evaluated as dopants in zinc titanate. Measurements that were made include solubility, crush strength, and sulfidation-regeneration behavior in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A formulation containing Cr showed the most promise. It and other formulations containing Cr will be emphasized during the remainder of the year. Fixed bed experiments will start during the third quarter.

  16. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, Second quarter, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the second quarter of 1993 was focussed on completion of Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. Also during the report period, Task 6, Ground Support, was completed and a report containing the results was submitted to DOE. This task addressed the complete H.1 Cyclocraft system, i.e. it included the need personnel, facilities and equipment to support cyclocraft operations in wetland areas.

  17. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, Third quarter, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. In 1992, Task 1, Environmental Considerations, and Task 2, Transport Requirements, were completed. In the first two quarters of 1993, Task 3, Parametric Analysis, Task 4, Preliminary Design, and Task 6, Ground Support, were completed. Individual reports containing results obtained from each of these tasks were submitted to DOE. In addition, through June 30, 1993, a Subscale Test Plan was prepared under Task 5, Subscale Tests, and work was initiated on Task 7, Environmental Impacts, Task 8, Development Plan, Task 9, Operating Costs, and Task 10, Technology Transfer.

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research, Technical Quarterly Progress Report. October 1, 1998--December 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-19

    Major accomplishments during this reporting period by the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) are: AGTSR submitted FY99 program continuation request to DOE-FETC for $4M; AGTSR submitted program and workshop Formation to the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine (CAGT) initiative; AGTSR distributed research accomplishment summaries to DOE-FETC in the areas of combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from Arizona State, Cornell, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, Clemson, Texas and Georgia Tech; AGTSR prepared background material for DOE-FETC on three technology workshops for distribution at the DOE-ATS conference in Washington, DC; AGTSR coordinated two recommendations for reputable firms to conduct an economic impact analysis in support of new DOE gas turbine initiatives; AGTSR released letters announcing the short-list winners/non-winners from the 98RFP solicitation AGTSR updated fact sheet for 1999 and announced four upcoming workshops via the SCIES web page AGTSR distributed formation to EPRI on research successes, active university projects, and workshop offerings in 1999 AGTSR continued to conduct telephone debriefings to non-winning PI's born the 98RFP solicitation AGTSR distributed completed quarterly progress report assessments to the IRB experts in the various technology areas AGTSR provided Formation to GE-Evandale on the active combustion control research at Georgia Tech AGTSR provided information to AlliedSignal and Wright-Pat Air Force Base on Connecticut's latest short-listed proposal pertaining to NDE of thermal barrier coatings AGTSR submitted final technical reports from Georgia Tech - one on coatings and the other on active combustion control - to the HU3 for review and evaluation AGTSR coordinated the format, presentation and review of 28 university research posters for the ATS Annual Review Meeting in November, 1998 AGTSR published a research summary paper at the ATS Annual

  19. Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, N.R.; Ward, J.S.; Brower, K.R.; Cather, S.

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to show how gas can flow from the rock matrix to natural or induced fracures and be commercially produced. Flow of gas within the rock matrix has been shown to be largely controlled by sheet-like pores at grain boundaries, which are pressure sensitive. In this quarterly report, progress is reported in the following areas of advanced core analysis of low permeability gas sands: (1) surface area measurements; (2) helium porosimetry; (3) comparison of permeabilities for preserved cores and for cores subjected to drying; (4) pore space and fractures as related to diagenesis of multiwell sandstones; and (5) imbibition behavior of tight sands. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 9, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the ninth program quarter from July 1 to September 30, 1995, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has coordinated funding for Task 1 from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program (SMP), while DOE is funding Tasks 2 through 8. Progress in all tasks is reported here. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: (1) Short duration activity test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed no deactivation over a 6 hour period; (2) Tests showed that even with CO{sub 2} in the feed, H{sub 2}S conversions of 50% can be achieved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation. Quarterly technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

    1994-12-31

    To develop a new class of permselective inorganic membranes, the authors have identified electroless plating as a potential route to deposit a thin metal film on a porous substrate. Electroless plating is a controlled autocatalytic deposition of continuous film on the surface of a substrate by the interactions of a metal salt and a chemical reducing agent. This method can give thin films of metals, alloys and composites on both conducting and nonconducting surfaces. The objective of this project is to develop thin film palladium membranes for separation of hydrogen in high temperature applications. The authors plan to use electroless plating to deposit thin palladium films on microporous ceramic and silver substrates. They plan to characterize the membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity for gas separation. To accomplish the research objective, the project requires three tasks: Development of a process for composite membrane formation; Characterization of fabricated composite membrane; and Development of theoretical model for hydrogen gas separation. During this quarter, the authors attempted to measure the diffusivity and permeability of hydrogen gas through the palladium composite membrane. While running the diffusion measurements at elevated temperature and pressure, leakage of hydrogen was observed. This is a serious problem and it needs to be resolved. Currently, they are working on this problem. During this quarter, they also designed a diffusion cell to test thin-film palladium membrane in tubular structure. The diffusion cell is being fabricated and assembled by a local machine shop.

  2. [Design of gas and electric rotary furnaces for the glass industry]. Quarterly progress report, September 20--December 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have continually stressed that the two most critical material parameters for the success of the rotary furnace are the hearth plate and the molding release powder. Both of these issues have been solidly addressed in this quarter. They have tested the three best candidates for hearth plate material this quarter. Although they had to use the in-house gas furnaces for the testing, one of the materials combines the best heating efficiency with the least sticking tendency. This material will be used for the electric prototype. The molding release powder is mainly used for preventing the glass from adhering to the hearth plate while the glass is softening for pressing. They recently visited several companies in Japan who also repress glass. The release agent that they use is Boron Nitride. They have identified a supplier within New York state, but their concern is the very high price of this material. They are bringing in samples of different grades for experimentation, but the focus continues to be to eliminate the need for any powder. An additional area for material testing was addressed during this quarter. Once the glass is in the tool (mold) for pressing, the glass has the potential to adhere to the metal that the tool and die are made from (usually steel). Both the powder and a spraying of a carbon product are currently used to reduce this problem. Alternate materials for the tooling and/or surface coatings of the steel need to be identified and tested. During this quarter, they conducted some off-site test runs on two candidate coating materials: platinum and titanium.

  3. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  4. Pressurised gasification of wet ethanol fermentation residue for synthesis gas production.

    PubMed

    Koido, Kenji; Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Sakanishi, Kinya

    2013-03-01

    Pressurised steam gasification of wet biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier was implemented to identify reaction conditions yielding the highest synthesis gas concentration and efficiency, and to examine the generation of sulphur compounds. The gasification of lignin-rich fermentation residue derived from a bench-plant for bioethanol production from woody biomass was investigated at p=0.99MPa and T=750-900°C for steam to biomass ratios (S/B) of 3.4-17 and equivalence ratios (φ) of 3.3-∞. The results showed that the highest concentration of around 70mol% was obtained at T⩾850°C, φ=13 and S/B=3.4, the highest efficiency of 0.26 was obtained at T=900°C, φ=3.3 and S/B=3.4, and sulphur compounds were H2S and COS. For the production of BTL synthesis gas, pressurised gasification has the potential to convert the wet residue below 77.3wt.% moisture contents.

  5. Bacterial, SCFA and gas profiles of a range of food ingredients following in vitro fermentation by human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

    2010-08-01

    It is now apparent that there is a strong link between health and nutrition and this can be seen clearly when we talk of obesity. The food industry is trying to capitalise on this by adapting high sugar/fat foods to become healthier alternatives. In confectionery food ingredients can be used for a range of purposes including sucrose replacement. Many of these ingredients may also evade digestion in the upper gut and be fermented by the gut microbiota upon entering the colon. This study was designed to screen a range of ingredients and their activities on the gut microbiota. In this study we screened a range of these ingredients in triplicate batch culture fermentations with known prebiotics as controls. Changes in bacteriology were monitored using FISH. SCFA were measured by GC and gas production was assessed during anaerobic batch fermentations. Bacterial enumeration showed significant increases (P < or = 0.05) in bifidobacteria and lactobacilli with polydextrose and most polyols with no significant increases in Clostridium histolyticum/perfringens. SCFA and gas formation indicated that the substrates added to the fermenters were being utilised by the gut microbiota. It therefore appears these ingredients exert some prebiotic activity in vitro. Further studies, particularly in human volunteers, are necessary.

  6. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Accomplishments during this quarter are described on the study being done in the Wind River basin. Accomplishments include 3-D P-wave alternate processing, interpretation this alternate processing, P-P and P-S processing, correlation matrix, modeling, and Wind River basin geology, including a geologic history of the Wind River basin, located in the center of the Rocky Mountain foreland.

  7. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  8. Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end products.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Wrigglesworth, D J; Cone, J W; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich (in vitro run 2) substrates. Feces were collected from 3 adult retriever-type dogs fed a canned diet for at least 2 wk. Each fecal sample was divided into 3 portions: 1 portion was used immediately as an inoculum (fresh) and the other 2 portions were used after either chilling to 5°C for 30 min and storage in crushed ice for 23.5 h (chilling) or freezing to -20°C for 30 min and storage in a prefrozen (-20°C) container for 23.5 h (freezing). The medium solution for run 1 contained N whereas that for run 2 was N free. Substrates included fructooligosaccharide (FOS), sugar beet pulp, and wheat middlings in run 1 and soybean meal, poultry meat meal, and feather meal in run 2. Gas production kinetics were calculated from cumulative gas production data measured for 72 h. After incubation, fermentation liquids were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, NH3, and aromatic compounds. For both in vitro runs, chilling feces did not affect gas production kinetics and end product profiles of substrates compared with inocula from fresh feces. Freezing feces decreased the maximum rate of gas production in phase 2 for FOS (P<0.001) and across substrates increased gas produced (P≤0.005) and time of maximum gas production in phase 2 (P<0.001). Furthermore, compared with fresh fecal inocula, inocula from frozen feces resulted in increased overall indole concentrations in run 1 (P=0.006) and indole concentrations from soybean meal and poultry meat meal in run 2 (P<0.001). In run 2, phenol concentrations were greater (P=0.015) for frozen feces than for fresh feces (P=0.015). In conclusion, freezing canine feces for 24 h slightly altered fermentative characteristics of fecal inoculum whereas chilling feces in crushed ice for 24 h maintained fermentative characteristics

  9. Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end products.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Wrigglesworth, D J; Cone, J W; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich (in vitro run 2) substrates. Feces were collected from 3 adult retriever-type dogs fed a canned diet for at least 2 wk. Each fecal sample was divided into 3 portions: 1 portion was used immediately as an inoculum (fresh) and the other 2 portions were used after either chilling to 5°C for 30 min and storage in crushed ice for 23.5 h (chilling) or freezing to -20°C for 30 min and storage in a prefrozen (-20°C) container for 23.5 h (freezing). The medium solution for run 1 contained N whereas that for run 2 was N free. Substrates included fructooligosaccharide (FOS), sugar beet pulp, and wheat middlings in run 1 and soybean meal, poultry meat meal, and feather meal in run 2. Gas production kinetics were calculated from cumulative gas production data measured for 72 h. After incubation, fermentation liquids were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, NH3, and aromatic compounds. For both in vitro runs, chilling feces did not affect gas production kinetics and end product profiles of substrates compared with inocula from fresh feces. Freezing feces decreased the maximum rate of gas production in phase 2 for FOS (P<0.001) and across substrates increased gas produced (P≤0.005) and time of maximum gas production in phase 2 (P<0.001). Furthermore, compared with fresh fecal inocula, inocula from frozen feces resulted in increased overall indole concentrations in run 1 (P=0.006) and indole concentrations from soybean meal and poultry meat meal in run 2 (P<0.001). In run 2, phenol concentrations were greater (P=0.015) for frozen feces than for fresh feces (P=0.015). In conclusion, freezing canine feces for 24 h slightly altered fermentative characteristics of fecal inoculum whereas chilling feces in crushed ice for 24 h maintained fermentative characteristics

  10. Evaluation of Characteristics of High Efficiency Power Generation Systems Utilizing Fermentation Gas of Simply Sorted Municipal Refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    This paper evaluates characteristics of two kinds of power generation systems utilizing fermentation gas of municipal refuse which is generated with use of a fermentation equipment of sorted refuse from ordinary collected garbage. In evaluation, a garbage incineration plant treating refuse of 100 t/d was adopted. The two systems investigated are the following systems: (a) gas engine power generation system (Sys-GE) and (b) steam turbine power generation system with super heater of steam (Sys-SH). The characteristics of two systems have been estimated together with the conventional steam turbine power generation system (Sys-C). It has been estimated that Sys-GE and Sys-SH has 2.11 and 2.55 times greater energy saving and CO2 reduction effect compared with Sys-C, respectively.

  11. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Nineth quarterly report, [July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  12. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  13. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, November 25, 1993--March 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1994-04-15

    In the third quarterly report, adsorption of heavy metals ions such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI) onto soils drawn from the laboratory-type wetland (LW) was shown to be weak. On the other hand, it was shown that modified-clays did adsorb Cr(VI) ions strongly at pH 4.5. Further, studies on the pH dependence of the adsorption of {beta}-naphthoic acid, (NA), a well-documented contaminant in many oil and gas well waste waters (4), onto modified-clays were undertaken and it was shown that uptake of NA by modified-clays was of the high affinity type at pH 4.5 and 7.0, but weak at pH 9.0. Adsorption of heavy metal ions, Cu{sup 2+}, and CR(VI) onto algae, a proposed wetland amendment, was carried out and the results were presented and discussed in the fourth quarterly report. Studies on the dynamics of uptake of phenol and NA by laboratory-type wetlands (LWs) were initiated and preliminary results indicated that both phenol and NA were sorbed onto components of LWs. A mass balance model has been developed to quantify the fate of phenol in LWs. The model is based on the postulate that the fate of phenol in LWs can be attributed to a combination of (1) evaporation of solute and solvent, (2) adsorption of phenol onto various components of LW and (3) its biodegradation, both in solution and at solid-liquid interface. As an initial approximation, the latter two processes have been lumped together and incorporated into the model as an unit operation. Both zero order and first order kinetics for the disappearance of phenol have been considered. Evaporative losses of water and phenol have also been taken into account and this model is presented and discussed in this quarterly report.

  14. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1995-10-01

    Both the Antek total sulfur analyzer and the modifications to the Shimadzu GC-14A gas chromatograph to be used for analysis for SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were delivered during the quarter. Problems were faced during the installation and calibration phases of both instruments. By the end of the quarter we believe that the GC problems have been solved, but problems remain with the Antek analyzer. It appears that too much sulfur (as SO{sub 2}) reaches the UV detector and causes it to become saturated. This shows up as a maximum in the instrument calibration curve. At 200 psia, the capillary flow restrictor allows a total flow rate of about 180 sccm, and the maximum occurs at about 1 % H{sub 2}S in the calibration gas. Reducing the pressure so that the total flow is reduced to about 25 sccm shifts the calibration curve maximum to about 5.7% H{sub 2}S. It appears that we must reduce the total flow rate to the detector or provide additional dilution. This may be accomplished by increasing the resistance of the capillary restrictor, by diverting a portion of the flow leaving the pyrotube to vent, or adding an inert such as N{sub 2} to the gases exiting the pyrotube. We are in contact with Antek representatives about the problem. Both the atmospheric pressure and high pressure electrobalances were used during the quarter to study the regeneration of FeS in atmospheres of O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}. In the atmospheric pressure unit the effects of temperature (600 - 800{degrees}C), flow rate (130 - 500 sccm), and reactive gas mol fraction (0.005 to 0.03 O{sub 2} and 0.1 to 0.5 H{sub 2}O) are being studied. Regeneration tests completed to date in the high pressure unit have utilized only O{sub 2}/N. and the parameters studied include temperature (600 - 800{degrees}C), flow rate (500 - 1000 sccm), pressure (1 - 15 atm) ad O{sub 2} mol fraction (0.005 - 0.03).

  15. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  16. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 9, November 17, 1992--February 16, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The waste product is composed of magnesium and calcium sulfite and sulfate, with some excess lime. This product mixed with fly ash is self-stabilizing because of the excess lime values, and thus tends to retain heavy metals in insoluble forms within the fly ash. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). Progress is described for the ninth quarter.

  17. Composition modification of zinc titanate sorbents for hot gas desulfurization. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.H.; Datta, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    For new coal gasification systems, zinc titanate sorbents are being developed to remove sulfur from the hot product gas prior to its use in combined cycle turbines and high temperature fuel cells. Although most of the properties of these sorbents are very attractive, there are still concerns about durability over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles and zinc losses due to vaporization. Doping the zinc titanate with other metal ions could alleviate both concerns, which are the objectives of this project. During the first quarter of effort, several sorbent formulations were prepared and testing begun. The dopants presently under study are Ni, Cr, Cu, and Al. Crush strength results obtained to date show that Ni and Cu dopants have a large positive effect, while Cr gives a small improvement. Measurements were also made of sulfur capacity and sulfidation rates with a thermogravimetric analyzer. Of the three formulations, only the one containing Cr had a high sulfur capacity. X-ray measurements will be relied upon heavily to obtain an understanding of solubility effects and sulfidation mechanisms. Screening experiments will continue on the doped sorbents mentioned above next quarter, and Mg will be studied also.

  18. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Twelfth quarterly report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.M.

    1992-12-31

    During this quarter, work was continued on measuring the methane sorption capacity of dispersed organic matter in gas shales and maceral concentrates derived from a Kentucky coal. Although previous results have demonstrated that the microbalance technique is successful in generating sorption isotherm curves, the accuracy of the technique has not been well established. The only previous test that allowed a comparison between gravimetric data and volumetric data showed a significant discrepancy with the gravimetric data indicating a considerably greater sorption quantities than the volumetric data. During the present quarter we took advantage of an opportunity to join in a round-robin analysis of sorption capacity of carbonatious shales. A suite of four samples was sent to six laboratories with each lab measuring sorption capacity for methane and reporting the results to a central lab which would compile all of the data for comparitive purposes. Of course, none of the other laboratories were using the gravimetric approach for measuring methane sorption capacity. So this provides a unique opportunity to test the accuracy of our methods.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  20. Two-stage in situ gas stripping for enhanced butanol fermentation and energy-saving product recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, C; Zhao, JB; Liu, FF; Lu, CC; Yang, ST; Bai, FW

    2013-05-01

    Two-stage gas stripping for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 in a fibrous bed bioreactor was studied. Compared to fermentation without in situ gas stripping, more ABE (10.0 g/L acetone, 19.2 g/L butanol, 1.7 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced, with a higher butanol yield (0.25 g/g vs. 0.20 g/g) and productivity (0.40 g/L.h vs. 0.30 g/L-h) due to reduced butanol inhibition. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 175.6 g/L butanol (227.0 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 612.3 g/L butanol (660.7 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 101.3 g/L butanol (153.2 g/L ABE). After second-stage gas stripping, a highly concentrated product containing 420.3 g/L butanol (532.3 g/L ABE) was obtained. The process is thus effective in producing high-titer butanol that can be purified with much less energy. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced lipidic algae biomass production using gas transfer from a fermentative Rhodosporidium toruloides culture to an autotrophic Chlorella protothecoides culture.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Caldeira, M L; Lopes da Silva, T; Novais, J M; Reis, A

    2013-06-01

    In order to produce single-cell oil for biodiesel, a yeast and a microalga were, for the first time, grown in two separate reactors connected by their gas-phases, taking advantage of their complementary nutritional metabolisms, i.e., respiration and photosynthesis. The yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was used for lipid production, originating a carbon dioxide-enriched outlet gas stream which in turn was used to stimulate the autotrophic growth of Chlorella protothecoides in a vertical-alveolar-panel (VAP) photobioreactor. The microalgal biomass productivity was 0.015 gL(-1)h(-1), and its lipid productivity attained 2.2 mgL(-1)h(-1) when aerated with the outlet gas stream from the yeast fermenter. These values represent an increase of 94% and 87%, respectively, as compared to a control culture aerated with air. The CO2 bio-fixed by the microalgal biomass reached an estimated value of 29 mgL(-1)h(-1) in the VAP receiving the gas stream from the fermenter, a value 1.9 times higher than that measured in the control VAP.

  2. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields. PMID:27242719

  3. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  4. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. Results TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. Conclusions SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS

  5. Tunable composite membranes for gas separations. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1995--January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, J.P.; Balkus, K.J. Jr.; Musselman, I.H.

    1996-01-01

    Research continued on composite membranes for gas separations. This report describes work in the following: instrument development; polymer synthesis; membrane fabrication; and permeability measurements.

  6. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using In vitro Gas Fermentation Technique.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM) supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg). It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c) was linearly increased (p<0.01) with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h) was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus). Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology.

  7. Determination of volatile N-nitrosamines in irradiated fermented sausage by gas chromatography coupled to a thermal energy analyzer.

    PubMed

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Han, Sang-Bae

    2004-10-29

    Volatile N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in irradiated pepperoni and salami sausages were determined using a gas chromatography coupled to a thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA). These fermented sausages with aerobic or vacuum packaging were irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy, and then stored for 4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Both NDMA and NPYR in the fermented sausage were significantly reduced by irradiation. The vacuum packaging showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) N-nitrosamine levels than that of the aerobic ones. After storage, the contents of NDMA and NPYR in the irradiated sausage were lower than those of the non-irradiated control. Results indicated that a high dose of irradiation (>10 kGy) was needed to reduce the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the fermented sausage during storage and the GC-TEA analysis was effective in determining the N-nitrosamines in irradiated meats even at low trace levels. PMID:15553169

  8. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1993-04-17

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The six main accomplishments for the quarter are the following: (1) activity testing with the 7% (wt) Ce-ZrO{sub 2}, (2) activity testing the same catalyst with CO from an aluminum cylinder, (3) preparation of ZrO{sub 2} by heating zirconyl nitrate, (4) preparation of an active zirconia prepared by a modified sol gel procedure and evaluation of the catalytic activity of a commercial zirconia and the catalysts prepared by the sol gel procedure, (5) determining the effect of separator temperatures and oil flow rate on the performance of a trickle bed reactor, and (6) calculation of the equilibrium composition of the C{sub 2} to C{sub 5} olefins, and initiation of the development of a macrokinetic model. The details of each of these accomplishments are discussed.

  9. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report describes progress in the following five projects: (1) Geologic assessment of the Piceance Basin; (2) Regional stratigraphic studies, Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin, Colorado; (3) Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins--Foundation for a new approach to exploration and resource assessments of continuous type deposits; (4) Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data--Implications for fractured reservoir exploration; and (5) Gas and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado--Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin.

  10. Tunable composite membranes for gas separations. Quarterly technical progress report, May--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, J.P.; Balkus, K.J. Jr.; Musselman, I.H.

    1996-08-05

    Significant progress has been made in the synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer composite membranes for gas separations. Zeolite/polyalkylthiophene composite membranes have been prepared and characterized for zeolite NaY.

  11. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  13. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    During the third quarter, processing continued at Western Geophysical. The processing was closely monitored by Palantir and Blackhawk Geosciences. Early in the processing Palantir determined that the original DMO velocities from the combined data volume were inadequate for performing the azimuthally split DMO. A series of DMO velocity scans were therefore run on each of the data sets and new velocities picked using two work stations simultaneously. This ensured uniform picking throughout the two volumes. DMO on the separated volumes and final migration demonstrated results that showed significantly clearer reflections than the total (all Azimuth) volume for certain intervals. A difference in the two velocity fields showed that the E-W data volume is consistently higher in velocity than the N-S data volume. This result would correspond to dominant, open E-W fractures at depth. This report also reviews the states of data acquisition and seismic source drilling and placement. It documents the shothole drilling design, layout, and detector placement.

  14. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Quarterly] project status report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The anaerobic, photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is able to convert H{sub 2}S and COS in synthesis gas to elemental sulfur. The bacterium grows on CO{sub 2} as its carbon source at 30{degrees}C. In the absence of sulfide, the formed elemental sulfur is converted to sulfate. Thus, bioreactor designs must incorporate sulfur removal as an integral part of the bioprocess. In this initial study, C. thiosulfatophilum was used to convert H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in a continuous stirred tank reactor with continuous gas and liquid feed. Sulfur removal was not part of this initial system design, but will be an added feature in future work. The gas used in this study contained 2.52 percent H{sub 2}S, 10.00 percent CO{sub 2}, 14.99 percent CH{sub 4} and 72.49 percent He. The liquid flow rate to the 1380 mL reactor volume ranged from 10.8--23.6 mL/min and was a variable in the study. The initial gas flow rate was 11.6 standard mL/min, although it was also changed twice during the study. The temperature was maintained at 31{degrees}C and the agitation rate was held at 200 rpm in the Bioflo reactor. Cell density was monitored by the chlorophyl method and gas composition was monitored by gas-solid chromatography. Light at 2200 lux was supplied using two 40W tungsten light bulbs on the outside of the glass reactor vessel.

  15. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of this research project is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of known high temperature desulfurization sorbents. The contract was awarded to LSU on April 12, 1994, and this quarterly report covers accomplishments during the first 2 1/2 months of the project. Effort during the initial 2 1/2 month period has been limited to Tasks 1 and 2, and involves a search of the literature to identify concepts for producing elemental sulfur during regeneration of known metal oxide sorbents and a thermodynamic evaluation of these concepts. While searching and evaluating the literature is a continuing process, concentrated effort on that phase is now complete and a detailed summary is included in this report. Three possible concepts for the direct production of elemental sulfur were identified in the LSU proposal, and the literature search has not uncovered any additional concepts. Thus, the three concepts being investigated involve: (1) regeneration with SO{sub 2}, (2) regeneration with mixtures Of 02 and H{sub 2}O, and (3) regeneration with H{sub 2}O. While concept (3) directly produces H{sub 2}S instead of elemental sulfur, the concept is included because the possibility exists for converting H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. Each of the concepts will ultimately be compared to the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) under development by RTI. DSRP involves initial sorbent regeneration to SO{sub 2}, and the inclusion of additional processing steps to reduce the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur.

  17. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to determine methods for detection and mapping of naturally fractured systems for economic production of natural gas from fractured reservoirs. This report contains: 3D P-wave alternate processing; down hole 3C geophone analysis; fracture pattern analysis of the Fort Union and Wind River Basin; 3D-3C seismic processing; and technology transfer.

  18. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Research continued on methods to detect naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. This report contains a seismic survey map, and reports on efforts towards a source test to select the source parameters for a 37 square mile compressional wave 3-D seismic survey. Considerations of the source tests are discussed.

  19. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Technical quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Major accomplishments by AGTSR during this reporting period are highlighted and then amplified in later sections of this report. Main areas of research are combustion, heat transfer, and materials. Gas turbines are used for power generation by utilities and industry and for propulsion.

  20. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, February 17--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). One of the two flue gas ducts leading from the boiler has been retrofitted with the CZD technology. The first existing ESP installed in the station is immediately behind the air preheater. The second ESP, installed about 15 years ago, is about 80 feet away from the first ESP. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2}

  1. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Technical quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Major accomplishments by AGTSR during this reporting period are highlighted and then amplified in later sections of this report. Main areas of research are combustion, heat transfer, and materials. Gas turbines are used for power generation by utilities and industry and for propulsion.

  2. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Technical quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Major accomplishments by AGTSR during this reporting period are highlighted and then amplified in later sections of this report. Main areas of research are combustion, heat transfer, and materials. Gas turbines are used for power generation by utilities and industry and for propulsion.

  3. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George W

    1997-02-13

    Effort during this quarter was devoted to three areas: 1) analyzing the data from earlier runs with "zinc chromite"catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin®, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of "zinc chromite" catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375°C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425°C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    On September 30, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Souther Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines``. Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a ``paste`` mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a surface demonstration-test of both technologies. During the current quarter the main thrust was to develop the equipment necessary for the program. Shop drawings were completed for the pneumatic placement equipment, and purchase orders issued for many of the component parts. The final pneumatic placement system will be assembled in the SIUC Carterville facility.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  6. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  7. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Quarterly report, January--March, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy is sponsoring a series of studies related to advanced gas turbine systems. Ten universities participated in the first round studies, and an additional 13 studies have been funded this year. The five areas being covered are heat transfer, aerodynamics, materials, combustion, and dynamics. Summaries are given for the 6-month progress on the 1993 subcontract studies and on the planned research for the new subcontract studies.

  8. Nitrogen removal from natural gas. Quarterly report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required methane/nitrogen separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeate membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make a membrane denitrogenation process viable. Phase I of this project showed that this target selectivity can be achieved, and that the economics of processes based on this selectivity would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below -20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, high-nitrogen-content streams. The Phase I work demonstrated the potential usefulness of using methane-permeable membranes for the denitrogenation of natural gas. The objective of Phase II is to determine which of the two candidate membranes is the most suitable for scale up to membrane modules for laboratory tests followed by field tests of the process.

  9. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation. Quarterly technical report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

    1997-12-31

    To develop a new class of permselective inorganic membranes, the authors have identified electroless plating as a potential route to deposit a thin metal film on a porous substrate. Electroless plating is a controlled autocatalytic deposition of continuous film on the surface of a substrate by the interactions of a metal salt and a chemical reducing agent. This method can give thin films of metals, alloys and composites on both conducting and nonconducting surfaces. The objective of this project is to develop thin film palladium membranes for separation of hydrogen in high temperature applications. The authors plan to use electroless plating to deposit thin palladium films on microporous ceramic and silver substrates. They plan to characterize the membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity for gas separation. To accomplish the research objective, the project requires three tasks: (1) development of a process for composite membrane formation; (2) characterization of fabricated composite membrane; and (3) development of theoretical model for hydrogen gas separation. During this quarter they extended their single-staged complete-mixing and cross-flow models to design a Two-Unit-Series (TUS), a Two-Stage Counter-Current Recycle Membrane Cascade (CRMC) and a Five-Stage CRMC arrangement. These designs have been used to study the performance of membrane modules for the separation of hydrogen through Palladium-ceramic composite membranes. The results show that for high-selective membrane, the effect of flow arrangement is of no consequence. Multi-staged cascading significantly improve the product purity and product separation.

  10. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powdered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PER) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PER burners for satisfactory performance. During this past quarter, a porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Various gas mixtures were tested. Results indicated that the stability limits of the burner and emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. However, the maximum radiant efficiency of the burner remained constant. Results obtained from this study can be useful to develop optimum design guidelines for PER burner manufacturers.

  11. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  12. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  13. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschlich, D.; Bhown, A.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumik, D.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent S0{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO(x) and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize stationary well-known problems with S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the S0{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO(x) scrubbing media described in the open literature. Our past work with the phthalocyanine compounds, used as sensors for NO and N0{sub 2} in flue gases, shows that these compounds bind NO and N0{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from 0{sub 2}, C0{sub 2}, S0{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas.

  14. Pipeline gas demonstration plant, Phase I. Quarterly technical progress report for September 1980-November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Work was performed in the following tasks in Phase I of the Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Site Evaluation and Selection; Demonstration Plant Environmental Analysis; Feedstock Plans, Licenses, Permits and Easements; Demonstration Plant Definitive Design; Construction Planning; Economic Reassessment; Technical Support; Long Lead Procurement List; and Project Management. The Preliminary Construction Schedule was delivered to the Government on October 3, 1980, constituting an early delivery of the construction schedule called for in the scope of work for Task VI. The major work activity continues to be the effort in Task VI, Demonstration Plant Definitive Design, with two 30% Design Review meetings being held with the Government. Work in Task VII, Construction Planning, was initiated. Work has progressed satisfactorily in the other tasks in support of the Demonstration Plant Program. A Cost Change Proposal was submitted because of an increase in the scope of work and an extension of the schedule for Phase I to 47 months.

  15. Instrumentation of dynamic gas pulse loading system. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaupt, H.

    1992-04-14

    The overall goal of this work is to further develop and field test a system of stimulating oil and gas wells, which increases the effective radius of the well bore so that more oil can flow into it, by recording pressure during the gas generation phase in real time so that fractures can be induced more predictably in the producing formation. Task 1: Complete the laboratory studies currently underway with the prototype model of the instrumentation currently being studied. Task 2: Perform field tests of the model in the Taft/Bakersfield area, utilizing operations closest to the engineers working on the project, and optimize the unit for various conditions encountered there. Task 3: Perform field test of the model in DGPL jobs which are scheduled in the mid-continent area, and optimize the unit for downhole conditions encountered there. Task 4: Analyze and summarize the results achieved during the complete test series, documenting the steps for usage of downhole instrumentation in the field, and compile data specifying use of the technology by others. Task 5: Prepare final report for DOE, and include also a report on the field tests completed. Describe and estimate the probability of the technology being commercialized and in what time span. The project has made substantial technical progress, though we are running about a month behind schedule. Expenditures are in line with the schedule. Increased widespread interest in the use of DGPL stimulation has kept us very busy. The computer modeling and test instrumentation developed under this program is already being applied to commercial operations.

  16. Optimization of a corn steep medium for production of ethanol from synthesis gas fermentation by Clostridium ragsdalei.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Jyotisna; Tanner, Ralph S

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation of biomass derived synthesis gas to ethanol is a sustainable approach that can provide more usable energy and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. The effects of various medium components on ethanol production by Clostridium ragsdalei utilizing syngas components (CO:CO(2)) were investigated, and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used as an inexpensive nutrient source for ethanol production by C. ragsdalei. Elimination of Mg(2+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) decreased ethanol production from 38 to 3.7, 23 and 5.93 mM, respectively. Eliminating Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) or increasing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) concentrations had no effect on ethanol production. However, increased Na(+) concentration (171 mM) inhibited growth and ethanol production. Yeast extract (0.5 g l(-1)) and trace metals were necessary for growth of C. ragsdalei. CSL alone did not support growth and ethanol production. Nutrients limiting in CSL were trace metals, NH(4) (+) and reducing agent (Cys: cysteine sulfide). Supplementation of trace metals, NH(4) (+) and CyS to CSL (20 g l(-1), wet weight basis) yielded better growth and similar ethanol production as compared to control medium. Using 10 g l(-1), the nutritional limitation led to reduced ethanol production. Higher concentrations of CSL (50 and 100 g l(-1)) were inhibitory for cell growth and ethanol production. The CSL could replace yeast extract, vitamins and minerals (excluding NH(4) (+)). The optimized CSL medium produced 120 and 50 mM of ethanol and acetate, respectively. The CSL could provide as an inexpensive source of most of the nutrients required for the syngas fermentation, and thus could improve the economics of ethanol production from biomass derived synthesis gas by C. ragsdalei.

  17. Optimization of a corn steep medium for production of ethanol from synthesis gas fermentation by Clostridium ragsdalei.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Jyotisna; Tanner, Ralph S

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation of biomass derived synthesis gas to ethanol is a sustainable approach that can provide more usable energy and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. The effects of various medium components on ethanol production by Clostridium ragsdalei utilizing syngas components (CO:CO(2)) were investigated, and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used as an inexpensive nutrient source for ethanol production by C. ragsdalei. Elimination of Mg(2+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) decreased ethanol production from 38 to 3.7, 23 and 5.93 mM, respectively. Eliminating Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) or increasing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) concentrations had no effect on ethanol production. However, increased Na(+) concentration (171 mM) inhibited growth and ethanol production. Yeast extract (0.5 g l(-1)) and trace metals were necessary for growth of C. ragsdalei. CSL alone did not support growth and ethanol production. Nutrients limiting in CSL were trace metals, NH(4) (+) and reducing agent (Cys: cysteine sulfide). Supplementation of trace metals, NH(4) (+) and CyS to CSL (20 g l(-1), wet weight basis) yielded better growth and similar ethanol production as compared to control medium. Using 10 g l(-1), the nutritional limitation led to reduced ethanol production. Higher concentrations of CSL (50 and 100 g l(-1)) were inhibitory for cell growth and ethanol production. The CSL could replace yeast extract, vitamins and minerals (excluding NH(4) (+)). The optimized CSL medium produced 120 and 50 mM of ethanol and acetate, respectively. The CSL could provide as an inexpensive source of most of the nutrients required for the syngas fermentation, and thus could improve the economics of ethanol production from biomass derived synthesis gas by C. ragsdalei. PMID:22805937

  18. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.

    1997-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-94MT94011 during the period September 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 which covers the nineth quarter of the project. The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. As the environmental regulations become more stringent, infrared burners are receiving increasing interests.

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly status report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-15

    The objective of the study will be to demonstrate the geological and geophysical technology needed to detect and analyze, economically, naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Delays in subcontract approval for the RTM model with Indiana University had caused additional delays in commencement of the modeling effort. Now that the subcontract is signed, modeling work has commenced. Subcontract preparation and negotiations for the aeromagnetic fly-over by World Geoscience are also proceeding as planned. Because we have clearly documented production trends in the Parachute and Rulison fields, future effort will be directed toward geologic explanations of these production trends. Several regional cross-sections through these fields will be used to illustrate geologic differences and similarities between the two fields. This information will be critical to calibration of the RTM model and development of the optimal locations for infill drilling and recompletion strategies. Upon completion of the field studies, focus will be redirected toward development of a regional tectonic synthesis from Precambrian through today for the Piceance Basin and the uplifts surrounding this region. This effort will integrate published studies, seismic, wellbore, gravity and remote sensing data to delineate regions in the basin where additional field work is necessary to fully determine the geologic evolution of the basin.

  20. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eglesia, E.

    1995-10-24

    Mechanistic and kinetic studies of methanol and ethanol coupling reactions on Cs/Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/MnO catalysts using isotopically-labeled compounds have confirmed that coupling reactions proceed via intermediate dehydrogenation of alcohols to aldehydes. Ethanol coupling reactions are much faster than those of methanol because ethanol forms a more thermodynamically favored intermediate (acetaldehyde), with aldol condensation pathways kinetically available for chain growth. Cs decreases the rate of formation of aldehydes in alcohol dehydrogenation reaction and inhibits the undesired conversion of methanol and ethanol to synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}). Construction and start-up of the Catalytic Microreactor Unit (CMRU) for high pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been completed. Initial certification runs have reproduced catalytic CO conversion rates on a standard APCI material (Cs/Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Condensation of higher alcohols in the transfer lines appears to be responsible for the observed low apparent selectivity to higher alcohols. The design and construction of the Temperature-Programmed Surface Reaction (TPSR) Unit for the study of the adsorption and reaction properties of alcohols and other oxygenates on isobutanol, synthesis catalysts and components is complete. The reduction of CuO powder and of a Cs/Cu/ZnO catalyst were used to certify the apparatus before proceeding with alcohol adsorption and reaction studies.

  1. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues: Task 1.0, Assessment of ash characteristics. Quarterly report, October-- December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is the first in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Task 1. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance presented in this report were designed to address the problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash. This task is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APF`s) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. Observations of the filter assembly during site visits to the Tidd Demonstration Plant APF have led to the conclusion that that tenacious ash deposits that form in the APF apparently induce stresses that result in bent and/or broken ceramic candle filter elements. A site visit, was made to the Tidd APF on October 27, 1994 to collect ash samples from various locations in the filter vessel and to document the condition of the APF. A variety of laboratory analyses were performed on ash samples collected during this site visit to assess whether recent attempts to introduce larger particles into the ash deposits by derating the cyclone upstream of the APF have been successful. Some particles larger than 45 Jim were identified in various ash samples from the APF, but they account for less than 5 % of the mass of the ash. Although Scanning Electron Microscope EDX spectra and elemental maps lack the resolution to identify the bonds between particles in the ash agglomerates found in the APF, an excellent stereographic image of the structure of an ash nodule collected from the APF was generated with the Scanning Electron Microscope. The stereographic image was very enlightening as to the structure of the nodule.

  2. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, August 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-10-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermogravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. Preliminary results indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  3. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    PubMed

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours. PMID:20668402

  4. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2},O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Sixth Report documents progress in pellet testing two leading formulations; namely FORM 4-A and FORM 1-A via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The former is a high-purity carbonate-based material, and the latter is ore-based. Also fixed bed testing of formulation FORM 1-A is described. Included with this report is an Appendix which describes the formulations and the loading tests as performed via TGA. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor is being utilized to subject a bed of FORM 4-A pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration. Preliminary results indicate that FORM 1-A can be loaded to approximately 12 per cent of its weight in sulfur prior to breakthrough up through sixteen cycles of loading and regeneration. The sulfur loading level drops from 18.2% for fresh pellets to 11.8% after the sixteenth cycle; however, there is no significant decrease in pellet sulfur-capacity after the ninth cycle. The kinetics during the loading and regeneration cycles are rapid.

  5. Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Ren, Hengfei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Nan; Li, Zhenjian; Li, Bingbing; Niu, Huanqing; Zhuang, Wei; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-07-01

    Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<1%), and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution [∼ 70% (w/v)] after phase separation. Butanol removal by permeating-heating-gas stripping has potential for commercial ABE production.

  6. Characteristic chromatographic fingerprint study of short-chain fatty acids in human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenzuo; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Sun, Lili; Chai, Xin; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-09-01

    Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk as food products or dietary supplements provide a range of nutrients required to both infants and adults. Recently, a growing body of evidence has revealed the beneficial roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a subset of fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to establish a chromatographic fingerprint technique to investigate SCFAs in human milk and dairy products by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The multivariate method for principal component analysis assessed differences between milk types. Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk were grouped independently, mainly because of differences in formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and hexanoic acid levels. This method will be important for the assessment of SCFAs in human milk and various dairy products.

  7. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  8. Measuring carbon monoxide gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank reactor for syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Seth S; Heindel, Theodore J

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-liquid mass transfer rates in a water-filled stirred tank reactor are determined using a myoglobin protein method to measure dissolved carbon monoxide concentrations as a function of time. Data are acquired over a range of stirrer speeds (200 < or = N < or = 600 rpm) and gas flow rates (1 < or = Q < or = 6 L/min), corresponding to a gas retention time range of 1.2-7 min. Volumetric CO-water mass transfer coefficients range from 0.003 to 0.043 s(-1) and are well-correlated using the power density and the superficial gas velocity.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions and production cost of ethanol produced from biosyngas fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Dutta, Animesh; Deen, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Life cycle (LC) of ethanol has been evaluated to determine the environmental and economical viability of ethanol that was derived from biosyngas fermentation process (gasification-biosynthesis). Four scenarios [S1: untreated (raw), S2: treated (torrefied); S3: untreated-chemical looping gasification (CLG), S4: treated-CLG] were considered. The simulated biosyngas composition was used in this evaluation process. The GHG emissions and production cost varied from 1.19 to 1.32 kg-CO2 e/L and 0.78 to 0.90$/L, respectively, which were found to be dependent on the scenarios. The environmental and economical viability was found be improved when untreated feedstock was used instead of treated feedstock. Although the GHG emissions slightly reduced in the case of CLG process, production cost was nominally increased because of the cost incurred by the use of CaO. This study revealed that miscanthus is a promising feedstock for the ethanol industry, even if it is grown on marginal land, which can help abate GHG emissions.

  10. A fast method for the quantification of methylamine in fermentation broths by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jérôme, Valérie; Hermann, Markus; Hilbrig, Frank; Freitag, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the quantitative analysis of the methylamine concentration in fermentation broths of Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii ZV 580 cultures. For this purpose an established method for the quantification of free amino acids in such matrices was adapted and validated. The detection limit was 10 microM, the calibration curve showed good linearity (R2=0.9998) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 8 mM. The standard deviation of the injection-to-injection reproducibility (n=10) of the retention coefficient was <1%, that of the peak area<5%. In case of the sample-to-sample reproducibility (n=8), the standard deviation was <5% for the retention coefficient and <10% for the peak area. The validated method was successfully applied for monitoring a fed-batch bioprocess (starting volume: 8L, initial methylamine hydrochloride concentration: 10 mM) producing a dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase in H. zavarzinii ZV 580. PMID:18082472

  11. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Third quarterly technical progress report, First quarter, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-06-01

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the report period was focussed on Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. The preliminary design work was based on the results of the three preceding tasks. A report was initiated that contains descriptions of the H.1 Cyclocraft and its subsystems; options available for the final aircraft design process; performance, geometry, weights and power data; logistics and considerations relating to cyclocraft operations in wetlands.

  12. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, second quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 6, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    KAwatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources, which is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  13. Influence of forced internal air circulation on airflow distribution and heat transfer in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Qin, Lanzhi; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-02-01

    Internal air circulation affects the temperature field distribution in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor (GDSFB). To enhance heat transfer through strengthening internal air circulation in a GDSFB, we put an air distribution plate (ADP) into the bioreactor and studied the effects of forced internal air circulation on airflow, heat transfer, and cellulase activity of Trichoderma viride L3. Results showed that ADP could help form a steady and uniform airflow distribution, and with gas-guide tubes, air reversal was formed inside the bioreactor, thus resulting in a smaller temperature difference between medium and air by enhancing convective heat transfer inside the bioreactor. Using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio caused a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature difference during the solid-state fermentation process of T. viride L3. Meanwhile, the cellulase activity of T. viride L3 increased by 13.5 %. The best heat-transfer effect was attained when using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio and setting the fan power to 125 V (4.81 W) in the gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSF) process. An option of suitable aperture ratio and fan power may be conducive to ADPs' industrial amplification.

  14. Influence of forced internal air circulation on airflow distribution and heat transfer in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Qin, Lanzhi; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-02-01

    Internal air circulation affects the temperature field distribution in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor (GDSFB). To enhance heat transfer through strengthening internal air circulation in a GDSFB, we put an air distribution plate (ADP) into the bioreactor and studied the effects of forced internal air circulation on airflow, heat transfer, and cellulase activity of Trichoderma viride L3. Results showed that ADP could help form a steady and uniform airflow distribution, and with gas-guide tubes, air reversal was formed inside the bioreactor, thus resulting in a smaller temperature difference between medium and air by enhancing convective heat transfer inside the bioreactor. Using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio caused a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature difference during the solid-state fermentation process of T. viride L3. Meanwhile, the cellulase activity of T. viride L3 increased by 13.5 %. The best heat-transfer effect was attained when using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio and setting the fan power to 125 V (4.81 W) in the gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSF) process. An option of suitable aperture ratio and fan power may be conducive to ADPs' industrial amplification. PMID:24347160

  15. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Fourth year, first quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1996--December 31, 1996 (Quarter No. 13)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{circ}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{circ}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH)2), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  16. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, first quarterly technical progress report Quarter No. 9, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  17. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, fourth quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 8, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  18. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Phase 1 -- Laboratory Investigations. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The study of the kinetics of the mineral transformations which take place after the FGD materials are hydrated was continued this quarter (Task 2, Subtask 2.2). Based on X-ray diffraction data, the anhydrite was found to have essentially disappeared by the fifth day of the study, while gypsum was found to maximize in the first 14 days of the study. The relative abundance of ettringite increased throughout the period of observation (40 days). Ettringite was found to nucleate primarily on or near fly ash particles, while gypsum was found to be more mobile, readily filling in cracks and fractures. A second kinetic study was initiated during the period with an experimental setup which is similar to the current effort. The focus of this study will be to determine the effect of moisture conditions on the rate and types of mineralogical reactions which occur. Column leaching studies (Task 2, Subtask 2.4) on the ADM material were initiated during the quarter. Two columns were packed with fly ash and one with bottom ash. One of the columns was blanketed with CO{sub 2} (2.5%) to model the effects of soil gas on the leachate. The samples are being moisturized to model field conditions. Leachate analysis will be available during the next quarter. Work on the field site (Task 6) to establish background data for the demonstration continued. The proposed demonstration site at the Pleasant Valley mine was found to be displaying the effects of severe weathering. An alternate mine site will be explored.

  19. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1994-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

  20. Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential.

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Jim; Ingels, Isabel; De Winne, Ann

    2016-08-15

    Today, the cocoa industry is in great need of faster and robust analytical techniques to objectively assess incoming cocoa quality. In this work, inline roasting hyphenated with a cooled injection system coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ILR-CIS-GC-MS) has been explored for the first time to assess fermentation quality and/or overall aroma formation potential of cocoa. This innovative approach resulted in the in-situ formation of relevant cocoa aroma compounds. After comparison with data obtained by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) on conventional roasted cocoa beans, ILR-CIS-GC-MS data on unroasted cocoa beans showed similar formation trends of important cocoa aroma markers as a function of fermentation quality. The latter approach only requires small aliquots of unroasted cocoa beans, can be automatated, requires no sample preparation, needs relatively short analytical times (<1h) and is highly reproducible. PMID:27006215

  1. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Goel, Navneet; Singh, Nasib

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer.

  2. Kinetic Studies on Fermentative Production of Biofuel from Synthesis Gas Using Clostridium ljungdahlii

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Najafpour, Ghasem D.; Younesi, Habibollah; Uzir, Mohamad Hekarl

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic growth, substrate uptake, and product formation biokinetic parameters were obtained for the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium ljungdahlii, grown on synthesis gas in various pressurized batch bioreactors. A dual-substrate growth kinetic model using Luong for CO and Monod for H2 was used to describe the growth kinetics of the bacterium on these substrates. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax = 0.195 h−1) and Monod constants for CO (Ks,CO = 0.855 atm) and H2 (Ks,H2 = 0.412 atm) were obtained. This model also accommodated the CO inhibitory effects on cell growth at high CO partial pressures, where no growth was apparent at high dissolved CO tensions (PCO∗ > 0.743 atm). The Volterra model, Andrews, and modified Gompertz were, respectively, adopted to describe the cell growth, substrate uptake rate, and product formation. The maximum specific CO uptake rate (qmax = 34.364 mmol/gcell/h), CO inhibition constant (KI = 0.601 atm), and maximum rate of ethanol (Rmax = 0.172 mmol/L/h at PCO = 0.598 atm) and acetate (Rmax = 0.096 mmol/L/h at PCO = 0.539 atm) production were determined from the applied models. PMID:24672390

  3. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.R.

    1994-04-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  4. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.H.; Abbasian, J.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li, Li

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents (i.e. copper-chromium and copper-cerium) for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degrees} to 850{degrees}C. In this program, structural and kinetic studies are conducted on various compositions of the two selected copper-based sorbents to determine the optimum sorbent composition. The effect of operating conditions on the performance of the sorbents alone with the stability and regenerability of the selected sorbents in successive sulfidation/regeneration operation are determined. Parametric multicycle desulfurization tests were conducted this quarter in a bench-scale (5-cm-diameter) quartz reactor at one atmosphere using the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuO/CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The parameters studied included temperature, space velocity, and feed gas composition. Both sorbents were able to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration of the reactor feed gas to <10 ppM under all conditions tested. The apparent reactivity of the CuO/CeO{sub 2} sorbent was lower after the first cycle which may be attributed to incomplete regeneration caused by sulfate formation.

  5. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.

    1993-10-22

    Work on this coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-II) this quarter has been focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, procurement, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. Engineering efforts are nearly complete. Remaining to be finalized is an assessment of electrical heat tracing/insulation needs for pipe lines, assessment of fire protection requirements, and instrument modifications. Procurement of all major equipment items is complete, except for possible additions to fire fighting capabilities. Major focus is on expediting pipe and structural steel to the project site. Civil construction is complete except for minor pads and bases as required for pipe supports, etc. Erection of the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia scrubber vessels is complete. Installation of scrubber vessel internals is underway. A subcontractor has been retained to develop a computerized program for operations and maintenance training for the coke oven gas treatment plant. Recent developments in the coke plant operating plans will result in reductions in the rate of production of coke oven gas to be processed in the demonstration project.

  6. Chemical Composition, In vitro Gas Production, Ruminal Fermentation and Degradation Patterns of Diets by Grazing Steers in Native Range of North Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Carrete, F. O.; Ruiz, O.; Serrato, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify annual and seasonal differences in the chemical composition, in vitro gas production, in situ degradability and ruminal fermentation of grazing steers’ diets. Diet samples were collected with four esophageal cannulated steers (350±3 kg BW); and four ruminally cannulated heifers (342±1.5 kg BW) were used to study the dry matter degradation and fermentation in rumen. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements split plot design. The crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy were higher during the first year of trial and in the summer (p<0.01). The values of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper were higher in summer (p<0.05). The gas produced by the soluble and insoluble fractions, as well as the constant rate of gas production were greater in summer and fall (p<0.01). The ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) and total volatile fatty acids concentrations in rumen, the soluble and degradable fractions, the constant rate of degradation and the effective degradability of DM and NDF were affected by year (p<0.05) and season (p<0.01). Our study provides new and useful knowledge for the formulation of protein, energetic and mineral supplements that grazing cattle need to improve their productive and reproductive performance. PMID:25049495

  7. Comparative study on occurrence characteristics of matrix water in static and gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentations using low-field NMR and MRI.

    PubMed

    He, Qin; Chen, Hong-zhang

    2015-12-01

    The water in a solid substrate is generally divided into three forms: hygroscopic, capillary, and free. However, there are few methods available for detecting the contents of different states of water in substrates. In this paper, low-field NMR and MRI were used to analyze the water occurrence characteristics of steam-exploded corn straw in solid-state fermentation (SSF). A significant linear relationship was found between the total NMR peak areas and the total water contents with a correlation coefficient of 0.993. It was further proved to be successful in comparing the contents and distributions of different states of water in static SSF and gas double-dynamic SSF (GDD-SSF). The results showed that among the three states of water, capillary water was the main form of water present and lost in substrates during fermentation. Total water and capillary water contents did not significantly differ as a result of different sample treatments, but hygroscopic water and free water contents in static SSF were respectively 0.38 and 2.98 times that in GDD-SSF with a packing height of 3 cm after fermentation. A relatively uniform water distribution and deep-depth region for microbial growth were found in GDD-SSF, suggesting that GDD-SSF was more suitable for industrialization. This technology has great potential for achieving efficient on-line water supply through water loss detection in SSF. PMID:26507329

  8. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  9. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  10. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  11. Data Pre-Processing Method to Remove Interference of Gas Bubbles and Cell Clusters During Anaerobic and Aerobic Yeast Fermentations in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Princz, S.; Wenzel, U.; Miller, R.; Hessling, M.

    2014-11-01

    One aerobic and four anaerobic batch fermentations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in a stirred bioreactor and monitored inline by NIR spectroscopy and a transflectance dip probe. From the acquired NIR spectra, chemometric partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for predicting biomass, glucose and ethanol were constructed. The spectra were directly measured in the fermentation broth and successfully inspected for adulteration using our novel data pre-processing method. These adulterations manifested as strong fluctuations in the shape and offset of the absorption spectra. They resulted from cells, cell clusters, or gas bubbles intercepting the optical path of the dip probe. In the proposed data pre-processing method, adulterated signals are removed by passing the time-scanned non-averaged spectra through two filter algorithms with a 5% quantile cutoff. The filtered spectra containing meaningful data are then averaged. A second step checks whether the whole time scan is analyzable. If true, the average is calculated and used to prepare the PLSR models. This new method distinctly improved the prediction results. To dissociate possible correlations between analyte concentrations, such as glucose and ethanol, the feeding analytes were alternately supplied at different concentrations (spiking) at the end of the four anaerobic fermentations. This procedure yielded low-error (anaerobic) PLSR models for predicting analyte concentrations of 0.31 g/l for biomass, 3.41 g/l for glucose, and 2.17 g/l for ethanol. The maximum concentrations were 14 g/l biomass, 167 g/l glucose, and 80 g/l ethanol. Data from the aerobic fermentation, carried out under high agitation and high aeration, were incorporated to realize combined PLSR models, which have not been previously reported to our knowledge.

  12. A novel in situ gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for hyper n-butanol production.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Lijie; Ren, Jiangang; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Butanol is considered as an advanced biofuel, the development of which is restricted by the intensive energy consumption of product recovery. A novel two-stage gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was developed for butanol recovery, with gas stripping as the first-stage and pervaporation as the second-stage using the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Compared to batch fermentation without butanol recovery, more ABE (27.5 g/L acetone, 75.5 g/L butanol, 7.0 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced in the fed-batch fermentation, with a higher butanol productivity (0.34 g/L · h vs. 0.30 g/L · h) due to reduced butanol inhibition by butanol recovery. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 155.6 g/L butanol (199.9 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 610.8 g/L butanol (656.1 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 85.6 g/L butanol (129.7 g/L ABE). Fed with the aqueous phase of the condensate from first-stage gas stripping, the second-stage pervaporation using the CNTs-PDMS MMM produced a condensate containing 441.7 g/L butanol (593.2 g/L ABE), which after mixing with the organic phase from gas stripping gave a highly concentrated product containing 521.3 g/L butanol (622.9 g/L ABE). The outstanding performance of CNTs-PDMS MMM can be attributed to the hydrophobic CNTs giving an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface of CNTs. This gas stripping-pervaporation process with less contaminated risk is thus effective in increasing butanol production and reducing energy consumption.

  13. Mild temperature gasification: Partitioning sulfur to gas as H{sub 2}S. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.M.; Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Yang, Jidong

    1993-09-01

    Bench-scale, mild temperature fluidized bed gasification (MTFBG) will be performed on three high sulfur Illinois basin coals after mixing with phosphoric acid. The research initiates development of an advanced processing technology which partitions coal sulfur to the gas phase as H{sub 2}S. Influences of coal type, coal agglomeration, and steam injection on the properties of the solid, condensible and gaseous products produced during MTFBG will be examined. Analytical measurements of the products will be obtained and are designed to provide product quality and quantity data. Combustion reactivity testing of the char, and pressurized, hot water extraction of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from the char, will be performed to provide information for design of a continuous and integrated process for the removal and recovery of coal sulfur. MTFBG experiments were performed on Illinois coals IBC-101, -106 and -110. The yields of char, tar and gaseous products varied between 60--85% char, 0.4--1.3% tar, and 15--43% gas for IBC-101 and -106. Gas yields were sensitive to the coal/phosphoric acid mixing ratio and also dependent on the residence time within the gasifier. The mean residence time was low ({approximately}6 seconds), and was influenced by the mean particle size of the coals. The total sulfur removal was as high as 83% for IBC-106 at a temperature of 500{degrees}C. In comparison with previous fixed bed testing, it is believed that the sulfur is removed as H{sub 2}S. Experiments planned for the next quarter should define the concentration and type of sulfur in the gas.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and production controls on NORM in oil- and gas-field operations. [Quarterly report], January 1, 1994--March 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.S.

    1994-04-30

    This project is designed to investigate the geochemical, geological, and production parameters that control the occurrence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in oil-and gas-field operations. Relations between reservoir setting and NORM content of brine and scale will be interpreted on the basis of the geochemistry of natural radioactivity in oil and gas reservoirs, the compositions of produced water and production-equipment scale, and geochemical modeling to determine the type and amount of scale that can form as produced waters are transported from reservoir to land surface. Our goal is to develop screening criteria that will enable oil- and gas-field operators to identify geologic, geographic, and production characteristics that can lead to high NORM accumulations in equipment and waste. Efforts during the first quarter of 1994 focused on 5 activities. First, we continued to add data to our file of produced- and formation-water chemistry from wells throughout Texas. Second, we received Ra-226 analyses for 36 produced-water samples from wells in the Texas Panhandle and central Texas. Third, we coordinated with API and EG&G, Idaho, to obtain NORM scale samples for mineralogy analysis. Fourth, we arranged and completed a trip to west Texas to sample oil and gas wells from the Central Basin Platform/Midland Basin area. Fourth, we continued data synthesis and interpretation and began preparing our draft final report. In order to be able to include results of mineralogical and radical analyses of NORM scale in our final report, we will have requested a no-cost contract extension.

  15. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream`s composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Efficient carbon dioxide utilization and simultaneous hydrogen enrichment from off-gas of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by succinic acid producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    He, Aiyong; Kong, Xiangping; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-08-01

    The off-gas from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was firstly used to be CO2 source (co-substrate) for succinic acid production. The optimum ratio of H2/CO2 indicated higher CO2 partial pressures with presence of H2 could enhance C4 pathway flux and reductive product productivity. Moreover, when an inner recycling bioreactor was used for CO2 recycling at a high total pressure (0.2Mpa), a maximum succinic acid concentration of 65.7g·L(-1) was obtained, and a productivity of 0.76g·L(-1)·h(-1) and a high yield of 0.86g·g(-1) glucose were achieved. Furthermore, the hydrogen content was simultaneously enriched to 92.7%. These results showed one successful attempt to reuse the off-gas of ABE fermentation which can be an attractive CO2 source for succinic acid production. PMID:27142628

  17. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium beijerinckii sequential culture: effect of feedstock particle size on gas production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cellulosic biomass can be done in a single step with cellulolytic, solventogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium thermocellum. However, the suite of products is limited in consolidated bioprocessing. Fortunately, the thermophilic nature of C. thermocellum can be exploited in sequenti...

  18. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Second quarterly report, November 15, 1989--February 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Tsay, F.

    1990-12-31

    Measurement of sorption capacity of coals by microbalance in a high pressure environment requires that corrections be made for the buoyancy of the gas that is displaced by the solid coal. As the pressure increases, the gas density increases, requiring that a correction factor be applied to the weight of the sample as measured by microbalance. A brief report summarizing this correction is attached as Appendix A.

  19. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 6, February 1, 1992--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This is the sixth quarterly report for this project and it covers work performed on Phase 3a of the project from February 1, 1992 through April 30, 1992. Extension of the parametric test period through June 1992 provides an opportunity to regain most of the schedule slippage, but only if the modifications needed for continuous operation of the CZD system are installed concurrent with the extended test period. These modifications include automation of the lime preparation and transfer system, automatic injection control, and related instrumentation and controls as necessary to integrate the operation of the CZD system with Seward Station Boiler No. 15. Early installation of these modifications would permit testing, debugging and adjustment of the automatic control system during the parametric test period. Results of current testing indicate that considerable testing and adjustment will be required to optimize operation of the CZD system after it is automated for continuous operation. Therefore, we intend to incorporate in Phase 3a(parametric testing) the system modifications needed for continuous automatic operation that were originally included in Phase 3b. Phase 3b would then be limited only to the one-year continuous demonstration.

  20. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This project describes a new approach to coal liquefaction, the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas into a liquid fuel, ethanol. A new bacterium, Clostridium Ijungdahlii, strain PETC, has been discovered and developed for this conversion, which also produces acetate as a by-product. Based upon the results of an exhaustive literature search and experimental data collected in the ERI laboratories, secondary and/or branched alcohols have been selected for ethanol extraction from the fermentation broth. 2,6 Methyl 4-heptanol has a measured distribution coefficient of 0.44 and a separation factor of 47. Methods to improve the results from extraction by removing water prior to distillation are under consideration. Several runs were performed in the two-stage CSTR system with Clostridium Ijungdahlii, strain PETC, with and without cell recycle between stages. Reduced gas flow rate, trypticase limitation and ammonia limitation as methods of maximizing ethanol production were the focus of the studies. With ammonia limitation, the ethanol:acetate product ratio reached 4.0.

  1. Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer and gas holdup using palm oil in stirred tank bioreactors with xanthan solutions as simulated viscous fermentation broths.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sauid, Suhaila; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Huey Ling, Tan; Veluri, Murthy V P S

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  2. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents which can reduce the sulfur in coal gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. This report summarizes the highlights and accomplishments of the October slipstream test run of the Zinc Titanate Fluid Bed Desulfurization/Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (ZTFBD/DSRP) Mobile Laboratory at the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Although the run had to be shortened due to mechanical problems with METC`s gasifier, there was sufficient on-stream time to demonstrate highly successful operation of both the zinc titanate fluid bed desulfurization and the DSRP with actual coal gas.

  3. Development of a solid absorption process for removal of sulfur from fuel gas. First quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.; Olson, K.M.

    1980-05-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories has begun to develop a project for removing sulfur compounds from fuel gases at elevated temperature (> 700/sup 0/C) based on the use of molten mixtures of alkali metal carbonates and calcium carbonate as the active reactants. The sulfur removal capacity of the molten salt mixture may be regenerated by stripping with CO/sub 2/ and steam, usually at a reduced temperature. In this process, the molten salt mixture is contained within the pores of a porous ceramic substrate material which may be used in a packed bed, moving bed, or fluidized bed absorber. The process would be used most advantageously in applications where it is desirable to reduce or eliminate any cooling of the fuel gas between the gasifier outlet and the gas user. Examples of such applications include gas turbines, high temperature fuel cells, boilers, and furnaces which operate in relatively close proximity to a coal gasifier. In these applications, reduction or elimination of the gas cooling requirements will generally improve thermal efficiency by retaining the sensible heat in the gas and may result in simplification of the process by elimination of gas cooling (and in some cases reheating) equipment and by elimination of process condensates and the equipment required for their handling and treatment. The objectives of the program are to obtain process and materials data sufficient to demonstrate feasibility of the process at bench scale and to allow preliminary economic analysis. Process data to be obtained include sorbent sulfur capacity, reaction kinetics, and other operating characteristics. Various candidate materials will be purchased or fabricated and tested for suitability as porous ceramic substrate materials.

  4. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 5, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO{sub 2} reduction has been achieved, but the NO{sub x} reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO{sub 2} Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel`s original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO{sub 2} removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  5. Peat biogasification development program. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-15

    During this reporting period preliminary data were taken for the kinetic models necessary for a peat biogasification process. A limited number of batch experiments were conducted to obtain rate data for the solubilization kinetic model. The analysis of the pretreatment batch tests was slowed down this quarter because the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) solvent system was altered. This was done because a mass balance around the HPLC with the solvent system (85% H/sub 2/O/15% acetonitrile) was incomplete. The preliminary data indicate that the new solvent system developed seems to be acceptable. Pretreated peat, both oxidized and unoxidized, has been fermented to fuel gas with conversions up to 20%. The fermentation experiments show that oxidation temperature has little effect on anaerobic digestion. Continuous digesters were set up to obtain rate data for the fermentation model. Preliminary process models were developed for the three phases of peat biogasification, namely, solubilization, oxidation, and fermentation. Rate data for the solubilization phase were taken, but more is needed to develop the model further.

  6. Catalysts and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene.; Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1991-05-22

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE when used as an octane enhancer also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine. Hydrogen-rich synthesis gas has been converted to isobutylene using a zirconia based catalyst. However, the productivity and yields are low, and the ability of the catalyst to convert a hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to isobutylene with high productivity and yields, and without excessive deactivation is unknown.

  7. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 7, May 1, 1992--August 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The features that distinguish the CZD process from other similar injection processes are: (1) Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. (2) Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. (3) Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. (4) Localized dispersion of the reagent. (5) Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. The waste product is composed of magnesium and calcium sulfite and sulfate, with some excess lime. This product mixed with fly ash is self-stabilizing because of the excess lime values, and thus tends to retain heavy metals in insoluble forms within the fly ash.

  8. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1996--August 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite, gypsum, and unreacted limestone or lime, with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather then landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In this quarter, the installation of a laboratory-scale flotation column was completed. In addition to the installation of the flotation column, research on the determination of the surface properties of the components of the scrubber sludge was continued. Auger electron spectroscopy was investigated as a method for determining the composition of the first few monolayers of unreacted limestone and calcium sulfite/sulfate particles.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  10. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal advanced in three major research areas. One area of research resulted in the development of a method for measuring the rate of agglomeration of dilute particle suspensions and using the method to relate the rate of agglomeration of coal particles to various key parameters. A second area of research led to the development of a method for monitoring a batch agglomeration process by measuring changes in agitator torque. With this method it was possible to show that the agglomeration of a concentrated coal particle suspension is triggered by the introduction of a small amount of gas. The method was also used in conjunction with optical microscopy to study the mechanism of agglomeration. A third area of research led to the discovery that highly hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension can be agglomerated by air alone.

  11. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Revised quarterly technical report No. 17, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Riggs, T.; Bahman, A.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors, (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams).

  12. [Fecal fermentation in meteorism].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Zapata-Solari, C

    1977-12-01

    An old test to investigate fecal fermentation was modified with the purpose of changing it from qualitative to quantitative. The modified test consists in placing in stove, at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, 5 grams of feces, suspended in water. The fermentable alimentary residues, present in the feces, suffer the action of bacteria, also there present, yielding gas that is collected and measured. Using the test, fecal fermentation was determined in 3 groups of individuals: a) 40 patients with meteorism that had persisted or improved only slightly or fairly with treatment; b) 28 apparently healthy subjects; and c) 6 patients with meteorism that had disappeared or become minimal with treatment. In the group of 28 apparently healthy subject, the obtained results varied from 0.1 to 1.1 ml gas/24 h., with a mean +/- s.d. of 0.55 +/- 0.29 ml. gas/24 h. When a distribution curve was made with the results obtained in the group of 40 patients with meteorism, these results separated into 2 subgroups: one subgroup with 28 patients, in whom results varied from 1.0 to 13.3 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 4.8 gas/24 h. (only) in 1 of these 28 patients a normal result of 1.0 ml. gas/24 h. was obtained, while in the remaining 27 patients results of 1.5 or more ml. gas/24 h. were obtained); and the other subgroup with 12 patients, in whom results varied from 0.0 to 0.9 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 0.29 ml. gas/24 h. Finally, in the group of 6 patients with successfully treated meteorism, results were from 0.1 to 0.9 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 0.4 ml. gas/24 h. The above mentioned results strongly suggest the existence of a relationship between meteorism and exagerated fecal fermentation. The nature of this relationship has not yet been completely clarified. However, the test used to determine fecal fermentation already promises to be very helpful for a better understanding and management of meteorism.

  13. SOXAL combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} flue gas control demonstration. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    AQUATECH Systems, a business unit of Allied-Signal Inc., proposes to demonstrate the technical viability and cost effectiveness of the SOXAL process a combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control process on a 3 MW equivalent flue gas slip stream from Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Dunkirk Steam Station Boiler No. 4, a coal fired boiler. The SOXAL process combines 90+% sulfur dioxide removal from the flue gas using a sodium based scrubbing solution and regeneration of the spent scrubbing liquor using AQUATECH Systems` proprietary bipolar membrane technology. This regeneration step recovers a stream of sulfur dioxide suitable for subsequent processing to salable sulfur or sulfuric acid. Additionally 90+% control of NO{sub x} gases can be achieved in combination with conventional urea/methanol injection of NO{sub 2} gas into the duct. The SOXAL process is applicable to both utility and industrial scale boilers using either high or lower sulfur coal. The SOXAL demonstration Program began September 10, 1991 and is approximately 26 months in duration. During the 6 months of scheduled operations, between January and July of 1993, data was collected from the SOXAL system to define: SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control efficiencies; Current efficiency for the regeneration unit; Sulfate oxidation in the absorber; Make-up reagent rates; Product quality including concentrations and compositions; System integration and control philosophy; and Membrane stability and performance with respect to foulants. The program is expected to be concluded in November 1993.

  14. Biological conversion of synthesis gas: Quarterly report [No. 3-4, July 1, 1993--September 3, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the status of the Biological Conversion of Synthesis Gas Project. The following tasks are described as being completed: (1) the test plan, (2) culture development, and (3) the mass transfer/kinetic studies. The bioreactor studies (Task 4) are underway. The continuous stirred tank reactor system for the conversion of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur using Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum has been studied for varying light intensities. The system was also modified to include both sulfur recovery and cell recycle using ceramic membranes. Studies were also performed to observe the effects of cell recycle using a polysulfone hollow filter membrane module. Work on Task 5, limiting conditions/scale-up, includes a scale-up study with three different size reactors to establish the optimum operating conditions for hydrogen production from synthesis gas by the biological water-gas shift reaction using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. Finally, Task 6, an economic analysis, was performed for the H{sub 2} production system using R. rubrum. The analyses show that biological H{sub 2} production from syngas can be very economical if the light requirements for R. rubrum can be neglected.

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Quarterly] technical report No. 2-1, September 5, 1991--December 4, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  16. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 4, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler`s outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  17. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1994-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst; the kinetics for this catalyst; reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors; and to simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. A hydrogen-lean synthesis gas with a ratio of H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5 to 1.0 is produced from the gasification of coal, lignite, or biomass. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE, when used as an octane enhancer, also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine.

  18. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li Li

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet >750{degree}C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The effect of pre-reduction on the performance of the sorbents as well as the rate of different reactions occurring in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration, were studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sulfidation was conducted with and without H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and with and without pre-reduction in H{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The results of these tests indicate that reduction and regeneration of both sorbents occurs rapidly. Sulfidation of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, in H{sub 2}O-free and H{sub 2}-/H{sub 2}O-free gas indicates the possible sulfidation of both copper and chromium. Small quantities of SO{sub 2}, were released during sulfidation suggesting the possible oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the sorbent. Regeneration of the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was complete while regeneration of the CuO-CeO{sub 2} indicated possible limited sulfate formation.

  19. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  20. Elimination of acetate production to improve ethanol yield during continuous synthesis gas fermentation by engineered biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Vel; Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Acetogen strain Clostridum sp. MT653 produced acetate 273 mM (p < 0.005) and ethanol 250 mM (p < 0.005) from synthesis gas blend mixture of 64% CO and 36% H(2). Clostridum sp. MT653 was metabolically engineered to the biocatalyst strain Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550. The biocatalyst increased ethanol yield to 590 mM with no acetate production during single-stage continuous syngas fermentation due to expression of synthetic adh cloned in a multi-copy number expression vector. The acetate production was eliminated by inactivation of the pta gene in Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550. Gene introduction and gene elimination were achieved only using Syngas Biofuels Energy, Inc. electroporation generator. The electrotransformation efficiencies were 8.0 ± 0.2 × 10(6) per microgram of transforming DNA of the expression vector at cell viability ~15%. The frequency of suicidal vector integration to inactivate pta was ~10(-5) per the number of recipient cells. This is the first report on elimination of acetate production and overexpression of synthetic adh gene to engineer acetogen biocatalyst for selective biofuel ethanol production during continuous syngas fermentation.

  1. Trace gas detection from fermentation processes in apples; an intercomparison study between proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry and laser photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamfa, E. I.; Steeghs, M. M. L.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2004-12-01

    A custom-built proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) instrument was used to monitor the emission of various compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, acids, acetates and C-6 compounds) related to fermentation, aroma and flavour, released by four apple cultivars (Elstar, Jonaglod, Granny Smith and Pink Lady) under short anaerobic (24 h) and post-anaerobic conditions. The novel feature of our instrument is the new design of the collisional dissociation chamber, which separates the high pressure in the drift tube (2 mbar) from the high vacuum pressure in the detection region (10-6 mbar). The geometry of this chamber was changed and a second turbo pump was added to reduce the influence of collisional loss of ions, background signals and cluster ions, which facilitates the interpretation of the mass spectra and increases the signal intensity at the mass of the original protonated compound. With this system, detection limits of similar magnitude to the ones reported in literature are reached. An intercomparison study between PTR-MS and a CO laser-based photoacoustic trace gas detector is presented. The alcoholic fermentation products (acetaldehyde and ethanol) from young rice plants were simultaneously monitored by both methods. A very good agreement was observed for acetaldehyde production. The photoacoustic detector showed about two times lower ethanol concentration as compared to PTR-MS, caused by memory effects due to sticking of compounds to the walls of the nylon tube used to transport the trace gases to the detector.

  2. National Bioenergy Center--Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-12-01

    Fall 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: rapid analysis models for compositional analysis of intermediate process streams; engineered arabinose-fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strain.

  3. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  4. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, July 15, 1995--September 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-09-15

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively pursuing the development of reliable and cost-effective processes to clean coal gasifier gases for application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. A large portion of gas cleanup research has been directed towards hot gas desulfurization using Zn-based sorbents. However, zinc titinate sorbents undergo reduction to the metal at temperatures approaching 700{degrees}C. In addition, sulfate formation during regeneration leads to spalling of reactive 293 surfaces. Due to zinc-based sorbent performance, METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based sorbents. Westmoreland and Harrison evaluated numerous candidate sulfur sorbents and identified Mn as a good candidate. Later, Turkdogan and Olsson tested manganese-based sorbents which demonstrated superior desulfurization capacity under high temperatures, and reducing conditions. Recently, Ben-Slimane and Hepworth conducted several studies on formulating Mn-sorbents and desulfurizing a simulated fuel gas. Although thermodynamics predicts higher over-pressures with Mn verses Zn, under certain operating conditions Mn-based sorbents may obtain < 20 ppmv. In addition, the manganese-sulfur-oxygen (Mn-S-O) system does not reduce to the metal under even highly reducing gases at high temperatures (550-900{degrees}C). Currently, many proposed IGCC processes include a water quench prior to desulfurization. This is for two reasons; limitations in the process hardware (1000{degrees}C), and excessive Zn-based sorbent loss (about 700{degrees}C). With manganese the water quench is obviated due to sorbent loss, as Mn-based sorbents have been shown to retain reactivity under cycling testing at 900{degrees}C. This reduces system hardware, and increases thermal efficiency while decreasing the equilibrium H{sub 2}S over-pressure obtainable with a manganese sorbent.

  5. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, March 15, 1995--July 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-07-15

    Hot gas desulfurization may be accomplished by using solid sorbents such as oxides of those metals that form stable sulfides. The effectiveness of a desulfurizing agent in treating such gases is related to the predicted equilibrium partial pressure of hydrogen sulfide which will be present in a phase combination of the reduced form of sulfide and oxide phases. The focus of much current work being performed by the Department of Energy on sorbent development is in the use of zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb. The latter sorbent is a commercial product consisting of ZnO, a promoter, and a proprietary supporting matrix designed to provide stability and prolong sorbent life. Although these Zn-based sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work, all sorbents produced to date still experience structural and reactive degradation over multi-cycle use at relatively moderate temperatures. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese sorbents which withstand high temperature operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles, as investigations by Ben-Slimane and Hepworth have indicated. Thermodynamic limits may prevent MnO from achieving the low sulfur specifications of the product gas for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell, but under the correct conditions the guideline for IGCC systems can easily be achieved. Furthermore, manganese sorbents could possibly be used in conjunction with a polishing sorbent (such as zinc oxide) possessing more favorable thermodynamic properties to reach levels acceptable for fuel cell applications (< 10 ppmv). Such an arrangement may not require that the zinc sulfide be regenerated since the sulfur concentration of the cleaned gas is low enough that the zinc oxide may be discarded when exhausted.

  6. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1996--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite, gypsum, and unreacted limestone or lime, with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem.

  7. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas. Quarterly progress report No. 12, June 1--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Brown, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions.

  8. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas. Quarterly progress report No. 3, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-05-27

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  9. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas. Quarterly progress report No. 1, September 1, 1991--November 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1991-11-30

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this program is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  10. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas. Quarterly progress report No. 4, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-08-29

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  11. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, March 25, 1994--May 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1994-06-22

    In the present report, the simultaneous uptake of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) by laboratory-type wetlands has been considered. Two different molar ratios (Cu(II)/Cr(VI)) of 3.8 and 0.46 have been used. Because most oil and gas waste waters are known to contain both cationic and anionic heavy metals in the dissolved form, a study of simultaneous uptake of cationic and anionic heavy metals will be helpful in the design and construction of a wetland treatment system, for such waste waters.

  12. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, May 25, 1992---August 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to extend the knowledge base for wetland treatment to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well waste water. Collection of data on the sorption of heavy metals and the degradation of toxic organics is one of the key tasks. The toxic organics phenolics and anthracene, and chromium and copper have been selected as target adsorbates. An information search was performed on oil refinery waste treatment wetland systems.

  13. Enhancing gas-liquid mass transfer rates in non-newtonian fermentations by confining mycelial growth to microbeads in a bubble column

    SciTech Connect

    Gbewonyo, K.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1983-12-01

    The performance of a penicillin fermentation was assessed in a laboratory-scale bubble column fermentor, with mycelial growth confined to the pore matrix of celite beads. Final cell densities of 29 g/L and penicillin titres of 5.5 g/L were obtained in the confined cell cultures. In comparison, cultures of free mycelial cells grown in the absence of beads experienced dissolved oxygen limitations in the bubble column, giving only 17 g/L final cell concentrations with equally low penicillin titres of 2 g/L. The better performance of the confined cell cultures was attributed to enhanced gas liquid mass transfer rates, with mass transfer coefficients (k /SUB L/ a) two to three times higher than those determined in the free cell cultures. Furthermore, the confined cell cultures showed more efficient utilization of power input for mass transfer, providing up to 50% reduction in energy requirements for aeration.

  14. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report, [October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-01-14

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States. Since most of these ESPs are collecting flyash generated from medium- and high-sulfur coal, they are not experiencing operational limitations which are common when treating high-resistivity particles and are performing at an efficiency that is as high as could be expected. However, there are indications that the collection efficiency could be improved with flue gas conditioning. Conditioning is commonly used for solving operational problems associated with high-resistivity dusts. The purpose of conditioning for low- and moderate-resistivity applications is to increase the adhesive characteristics of the dust. Flue gas conditioning that increases particle adhesion has the potential to improve collection efficiency because a large percentage of particulate emissions from a well-performing ESP is due to reentrainment. Improved ESP performance should result if particle reentrainment could be reduced by making the particles more adhesive. This could produce a significant reduction in emissions from and ESP from the Following mechanisms: reduced erosion-type reentrainment; reduced rapping emissions; reduced hopper reentrainment; increased agglomeration of fine particles.

  15. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report {number_sign}6, [July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Stearns, P.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency hollow fiber contractors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The system will remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will make only marketable byproducts. The approach is to reduce the capital cost using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. New process chemistry is introduced to minimize well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. Past work with the phthalocyanine compounds shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas. The arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices. This cassette (stacked) arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. There will be separate liquor loops to deconvolute the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  16. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Ninth quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Eventually, the weight stabilized and the measurements commenced. Helium pressure was increased slowly and carefully, first to 15 psig then to 28 psig. The readout for the balance unit continued to exhibit unexplained fluctuation and output. Buoyancy of the empty pan was measured at pressures ranging up to 800 psig measured at approximately 100 psig increments. The balance weighing unit exhibited a progressive increase in weight with increasing pressure demonstrating that the displacement volume of the tare weight side of the balance was greater than the displacement volume of the weighing pan side of the balance. Therefore, the increased gas pressure produced a greater buoyancy of the tare side, producing a net increase in weight. The carefully collected data showed a linear change in weight with pressure (see accompanying diagram). A schematic diagram of the new configuration of the sorption apparatus is depicted in the accompanying figure.

  17. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George W

    1998-12-11

    A modified analytical system was assembled and calibrated, in preparation for a second run with cesium (Cs)-promoted "zinc chromite" catalyst. A new column for the on-line gas chromatography (GC) was purchased for the analysis of various light olefin and paraffin isomers. A run was carried out in the continuous stirred autoclave using the Cs-promoted catalyst. Decahydronaphfialene was used as the slurry liquid. Reaction conditions were 375°C, 2000 psig total pressure, 0.5 H₂/CO ratio, and 5000 sL/Kg (cat.)-hr. Analysis of the data from this run is in progress. A manuscript on the thermal stability of potential slurry liquids was submitted to 'Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,' and a paper was presented at the 1997 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Houston, Texas.

  18. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, September 15, 1995--December 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Berns, J.

    1995-12-15

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively pursuing the development of reliable and cost-effective processes to clean coal gasifier gases for application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. A large portion of gas cleanup research has been directed towards hot gas desulfurization using Zn-based sorbents. However, zinc titanate sorbents undergo reduction to the metal at temperatures approaching 700{degrees}C and lose reactivity because of volatilization. In addition, sulfate formation during regeneration leads to spalling of reactive surfaces. Because of these problems with zinc-based sorbents, METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based sorbents. Currently, many proposed IGCC processes include a water quench prior to desulfurization. This quench is required for two reasons; limitations in the process hardware (1000{degrees}C), and excessive Zn-based sorbent loss (about 700{degrees}C). With manganese, the water quench is not necessary to avoid sorbent loss, since Mn-based sorbents have been shown to retain reactivity under cyclic testing at 900{degrees}C. This advantage of manganese over zinc has potential to increase thermal efficiency as the trade-off of increasing the equilibrium H{sub 2}S over-pressure obtainable with a manganese sorbent. In the work which is reported here, lower loading temperatures (as low as 400{degrees}C) are studied. Also formulations containing titania rather then alumina are studied to attempt to improve performance.

  19. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-01-15

    It is concluded that the laboratory tests should be conducted at high levels of SO{sub 3} such that the resulting resistivity is in the range of 10{sup 7}--10{sup 8} ohm-cm. There are several reasons leading to this conclusion. At SO{sub 3} concentrations of 30 ppM and greater, the curves for both dew point and resistivity are relatively flat so that changes in gas phase SO{sub 3} will have minimal impact on particle characteristics. In addition, the electrostatic forces are relatively flat in this range so that changes in flue gas conditions will that result in a change in resistivity by up to two orders of magnitude will have little effect on the magnitude of reentrainment. Finally, at the very low resistivity conditions, reentrainment will be the highest. Since the purpose of the laboratory resistivity tests is to determine the relative ability of the various additives to reduce resistivity, the greater the reentrainment, the easier it will be to measure an improvement. Tests were conducted by first operating at baseline conditions with no additives and then repeating the test with additives. The data collected during each test includes the resistivity of the material, thickness of the collected dust layer, and subjective indications of the dust characteristics. The candidate additives were from the polymer group, cellulose derivatives, starches and gums, and oils. No waxes or synthetic compounds have been tested to date in the laboratory apparatus. Of the seventeen additives tested, eight appeared to have a positive impact on either the ash layer thickness or the physical appearance of the dust layer. Excessive deposits on the discharge electrode resulted during injection of some of the additives. Three of the additives resulted in significant deposits in the injection chamber. The build up on the electrode was interpreted as a positive indicator of increase particle adhesion. The initial observations and comments for the eight additives are listed in Table 1.

  20. Growth and setting of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic matrix imaged by X-ray microtomography: the evolution of cellular structures in fermenting wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Turbin-Orger, A; Babin, P; Boller, E; Chaunier, L; Chiron, H; Della Valle, G; Dendievel, R; Réguerre, A L; Salvo, L

    2015-05-01

    X-ray tomography is a relevant technique for the dynamic follow-up of gas bubbles in an opaque viscoelastic matrix, especially using image analysis. It has been applied here to pieces of fermenting wheat flour dough of various compositions, at two different voxel sizes (15 and 5 μm). The resulting evolution of the main cellular features shows that the creation of cellular structures follows two regimes that are defined by a characteristic time of connectivity, tc [30 and 80 min]: first (t ≤ tc), bubbles grow freely and then (t ≥ tc) they become connected since the percolation of the gas phase is limited by liquid films. During the first regime, bubbles can be tracked and the local strain rate can be measured. Its values (10(-4)-5 × 10(-4) s(-1)) are in agreement with those computed from dough viscosity and internal gas pressure, both of which depend on the composition. For higher porosity, P = 0.64 in our case, and thus occurring in the second regime, different cellular structures are obtained and XRT images show deformed gas cells that display complex shapes. The comparison of these images with confocal laser scanning microscopy images suggests the presence of liquid films that separate these cells. The dough can therefore be seen as a three-phase medium: viscoelastic matrix/gas cell/liquid phase. The contributions of the different levels of matter organization can be integrated by defining a capillary number (C = 0.1-1) that makes it possible to predict the macroscopic dough behavior.

  1. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Second [quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1992--March 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-01

    At present, the focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicate that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a preferable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. A significant domestic source of manganese in Minnesota is being explored for an in situ leach process which has potential for producing large tonnages of solutions which may be ideal for precipitation and recovery of pure manganese as a carbonate in a reactive form. In the current program the following studies will be addressed: Preparation of manganese sorbent pellets and characterization tests on pellets for strength and surface area; analysis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by individual sorbent pellets (loading tests) by thermogravimetric testing; regeneration tests via TGA on individual sorbent pellets by oxidation; and bench-scale testing on sorbent beds in a two-inch diameter reactor. The developed information will be of value to METC in its determination of whether or not a manganese-based regenerable sorbent holds real promise for sulfur cleanup of hot fuel gases. This information is necessary prior to pilot-scale testing leading to commercial development is undertaken.

  2. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by Gas Reburning: Sorbent injection. [Quarterly report], July 28--October 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has completed demonstrations of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) at two field sites. The discussions which follow pertain to measurements taken from the demonstration at City Water, Light and Power`s (CWLP) Lakeside Station Unit 7 in Springfield, Illinois. Environmental monitoring was conducted for two purposes, to satisfy the requirements of operating permits granted by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and to verify environmental acceptability of the GR-SI process. The GR-SI demonstration program at Lakeside Unit 7 was performed in three phases. Phase I -- Design and Permitting, entailed characterization of the host boiler, then finalization of process and engineering, design of the GR-SI system. Phase I was initiated in June 1987 and completed in March 1989. Phase II -- Construction and Startup, was initiated upon completion of design tasks and was completed in February 1993. Phase III -- Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition, was conducted from July 1993 to June 1994. In Phase III, the GR-SI system performance was evaluated initially through optimization tests, which are short-term tests in which specific operating parameters are varied to determine their impact on emissions and boiler performance. The optimization testing included GR only tests, SI only tests, and GR-SI tests. Results from these tests, carried out from July 28 to October 1, 1993, are presented in this report. Following Optimization testing, long-term GR-SI operation was initiated to demonstrate the combined technology over an extended period with the unit under dispatch load control. Long-term GR-SI testing was conducted from October 4, 1993 to June 3, 1994. The long-term environmental monitoring data are presented in a separate report.

  4. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  5. The study of the influence of temperature and initial glucose concentration on the fermentation process in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain immobilized on starch gels by reversed-flow gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lainioti, G Ch; Kapolos, J; Koliadima, A; Karaiskakis, G

    2012-01-01

    The technique of reversed-flow gas chromatography (RFGC) was employed for the determination of the alcoholic fermentation phases and of kinetic parameters for free and immobilized cell systems, at different initial glucose concentrations and temperature values. In addition to this, due to its considerable advantages over other techniques, RFGC was used for the characterization of a new biocatalyst, yeast cells immobilized on starch gel, and especially wheat starch gel. Immobilization of wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 was accomplished on wheat and corn starch gels in order to prepare new biocatalysts with great interest for the fermentation industry. The RFGC led with great accuracy, resulting from a literature review, to the determination of reaction rate constants and activation energies at each phase of the fermentation processes. A maximum value of rate constants was observed at initial glucose concentration of 205 g/L, where a higher number of yeast cells was observed. The increase of glucose concentrations had a negative influence on the growth of AXAZ-1 cells and rate constants were decreased. The decrease of fermentation temperature caused a substantial reduction in the viability of immobilized cells as well as in rate constant values. Activation energies of corn starch gel presented lower values than those of wheat starch gel. However, the two supports showed higher catalytic efficiency than free cell systems, proving that starch gels may act as a promoter of the catalytic activity of the yeast cells involved in the fermentation process.

  6. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  7. Optimal design of airlift fermenters

    SciTech Connect

    Moresi, M.

    1981-11-01

    In this article a modeling of a draft-tube airlift fermenter (ALF) based on perfect back-mixing of liquid and plugflow for gas bubbles has been carried out to optimize the design and operation of fermentation units at different working capacities. With reference to a whey fermentation by yeasts the economic optimization has led to a slim ALF with an aspect ratio of about 15. As far as power expended per unit of oxygen transfer is concerned, the responses of the model are highly influenced by kLa. However, a safer use of the model has been suggested in order to assess the feasibility of the fermentation process under study. (Refs. 39).

  8. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-29

    US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 Second Quarter provides information on the financial performance of energy companies during the most recent reporting period. The data are taken from public sources such as the Wall Street Journal, Energy Information Administration publications, corporate press releases, and other public sources. Based on information provided in 1993 second quarter financial disclosures, net income for 114 petroleum companies--including 19 majors--rose 33 percent between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993. Both upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations and downstream (petroleum refining, marketing, and transport) contributed to the improved financial Performance of petroleum companies consolidated operations. Rate-regulated industries also showed positive income growth between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993 due to higher natural gas prices and increased electricity consumption.

  9. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  10. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  11. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  13. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium. PMID:25049496

  14. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium.

  15. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

    PubMed Central

    Seresinhe, T.; Madushika, S. A. C.; Seresinhe, Y.; Lal, P. K.; Ørskov, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium. PMID:25049496

  16. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 third quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Based on information provided in 1993 third quarter financial disclosures, the average net income for 112 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- rose 13 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. The gain in overall petroleum income was derived from increases in refined product consumption and margins, which improved the profitability of downstream petroleum (refining, marketing and transport) operations. A 17-percent decline in crude oil prices led to reduced income for upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations. A 16-percent rise in natural gas wellhead prices only partially offset the negative effects of low crude oil prices. Electric utilities also reported improved financial results for the third quarter of 1993 as hotter summer temperatures relative to the year-earlier quarter helped boost air conditioning demand and overall electricity usage. The following points highlight third-quarter energy industry financial developments: (1) Refined product demand and margins lift downstream earnings. Petroleum product consumption rose 2 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. Although petroleum product prices declined in the most recent reporting period, they did not decline as much as crude oil input prices. As a consequence, refined product margins widened. (2) Lower crude oil prices reduce upstream earnings. Crude oil prices fell 17 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993 leading to a substantial reduction in income for the major petroleum companies` upstream operations. (3) Drilling income rises with increased North American exploratory activity.

  17. Effect of internal pressure and gas/liquid interface area on the CO mass transfer coefficient using hollow fibre membranes as a high mass transfer gas diffusing system for microbial syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Jeong, Yeseul; Lee, Eun Yeol; Lee, Jinwon; Chang, In Seop

    2014-10-01

    This study proposed a submerged hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) system capable of achieving high carbon monoxide (CO) mass transfer for applications in microbial synthesis gas conversion systems. Hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fibres were used to fabricate a membrane module, which was used for pressurising CO in water phase. Pressure through the hollow fibre lumen (P) and membrane surface area per unit working volume of the liquid (A(S)/V(L)) were used as controllable parameters to determine gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) values. We found a k(L)a of 135.72 h(-1) when P was 93.76 kPa and AS/VL was fixed at 27.5m(-1). A higher k(L)a of 155.16 h(-1) was achieved by increasing AS/VL to 62.5m(-1) at a lower P of 37.23 kPa. Practicality of HFMBR to support microbial growth and organic product formation was assessed by CO/CO2 fermentation using Eubacterium limosum KIST612.

  18. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  20. 3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. 1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. 4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  3. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  4. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  6. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 first quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-25

    Net income for 259 energy companies-- including, 20 major US petroleum companies-- rose 38 percent between the first quarter of 1992 and the first quarter of 1993. An increased level of economic activity, along with colder weather, helped lift the demand for natural gas. crude oil, coal, and electricity. The sharp rise in the domestic price of natural gas at the wellhead relative to the year-ago quarter was the most significant development in US energy during the first quarter. As a consequence of higher natural gas prices, the upstream segment of the petroleum industry reported large gains in income, while downstream income rose due to higher refined product demand. Increased economic activity and higher weather-related natural gas demand also led to improvements in income for the rate-regulated energy segment. However, declining domestic oil production continued to restrain upstream petroleum industry earnings growth, despite a moderate rise in crude oil prices.

  7. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Methodological factors affecting gas and methane production during in vitro rumen fermentation evaluated by meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Maccarana, Laura; Cattani, Mirko; Tagliapietra, Franco; Schiavon, Stefano; Bailoni, Lucia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Effects of some methodological factors on in vitro measures of gas production (GP, mL/g DM), CH4 production (mL/g DM) and proportion (% CH4 on total GP) were investigated by meta-analysis. These factors were considered: pressure in the GP equipment (0 = constant; 1 = increasing), incubation time (0 = 24; 1 = ≥ 48 h), time of rumen fluid collection (0 = before feeding; 1 = after feeding of donor animals), donor species of rumen fluid (0 = sheep; 1 = bovine), presence of N in the buffer solution (0 = presence; 1 = absence), and ratio between amount of buffered rumen fluid and feed sample (BRF/FS; 0 = ≤ 130 mL/g DM; 1 = 130-140 mL/g DM; 2 = ≥ 140 mL/g DM). The NDF content of feed sample incubated (NDF) was considered as a continuous variable. From an initial database of 105 papers, 58 were discarded because one of the above-mentioned factors was not stated. After discarding 17 papers, the final dataset comprised 30 papers (339 observations). A preliminary mixed model analysis was carried out on experimental data considering the study as random factor. Variables adjusted for study effect were analyzed using a backward stepwise analysis including the above-mentioned variables. The analysis showed that the extension of incubation time and reduction of NDF increased GP and CH4 values. Values of GP and CH4 also increased when rumen fluid was collected after feeding compared to before feeding (+26.4 and +9.0 mL/g DM, for GP and CH4), from bovine compared to sheep (+32.8 and +5.2 mL/g DM, for GP and CH4), and when the buffer solution did not contain N (+24.7 and +6.7 mL/g DM for GP and CH4). The increase of BRF/FS ratio enhanced GP and CH4 production (+7.7 and +3.3 mL/g DM per each class of increase, respectively). In vitro techniques for measuring GP and CH4 production are mostly used as screening methods, thus a full standardization of such techniques is not feasible. However, a greater harmonization

  9. High Volume--High Volume Usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) By-Products in Underground Mines. Quarterly report, July 1-September 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The focus of activity for this quarter was the final selection and preparation of a mine site for the grout emplacement field demonstration. The site chosen is located in Floyd County, Kentucky and is owned by the Sunny Ridge Mining Company. Specifically, a northeast-trending highwall was selected that contains numerous auger holes of 31 inch diameter and varying depth. The coal has been deep- mined beyond the auger holes thus limiting their length. Access to the site is good, and the overlying strata are relatively un- weathered and competent. Preparation of the site involved culling a road to the highwall, followed by uncovering the auger holes which had previously been partially filled and graded with rock. The auger holes were then extensively characterized in the context of overall dimensions, condition, and extent of communication between holes. For this portion of the work, several types of apparatus were obtained, and constructed. Selection of a grout emplacement method was also completed. It was decided that concrete trucks will transport the dry FBC flyash to the site whereupon a specified amount of water will be added. This grout will then be transferred to a concrete pumping truck that will be used to inject the material into the auger holes. In this quarter, the arrangements necessary to complete the emplacement have been made.

  10. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-07-01

    A porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Following the validation of the measurement system, various gas mixtures were tested to study the effect of gas compositions have on burner performance. Results indicated that the emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. The maximum radiant efficiency of the burner was obtained close to air/fuel ratio of 1.

  11. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms" (Barbara King-Shaver); "Whole…

  12. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student Teaching" (Jerome T.…

  13. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1989. Articles in number 1 deal with professional development, and include: "Sharing Expertise within a Department" (Martha R. Dolly); "Empowerment Develops a Computer Writing Center" (Norman L. Frey); "Videotapes…

  14. 4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto Quarter R (commanding officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  16. Low cost hydrogen/novel membranes technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    During this quarter, work continued on the development of high-flux palladium-silver membranes for the separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide. Palladium-silver/poly(etherimide) composite membranes were prepared by a vacuum sputtering technique. The influence of different poly(etherimide) support membranes on the performance of palladium-silver membranes was investigated. All membranes tested showed a hydrogen/carbon dioxide selectivity lower than that of the uncoated poly(etherimide)/poly(dimethylsiloxane) membranes. This is probably due to damage of the skin layer of the asymmetric poly(etherimide) support membranes during the palladium-silver electron bombardment. Polysulfone/poly(dimethylsiloxane) / poly(ether-ester-amide) composite membranes were also prepared. Membrane samples consistently showed a carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity of 9 to 10 and a normalized carbon dioxide flux of 2 to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 3} (STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec{center_dot}cmHg. These are extremely good values, superior to any commercially available membranes for this separation. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PIR) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances in containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. During this period, experimental setup with optical and electronic instrumentation that is necessary for measuring the radiant heat output and the emission gas output of the burner has been established. The radiation measurement instrument, an FTIR, has been purchased and installed in the porous burner experimental system. The radiation measurement capability of the FTIR was tested and found to be satisfactory. A standard blackbody source, made by Graseby Infrared, was employed to calibrate the FTIR. A collection duct for emission gas measurement was fabricated and connected to the existing Horiba gas analyzer. Test runs are being conducted for flue gas analysis. A number of published research papers on modeling of porous burners were reviewed. The physical mechanism and theoretical analysis of the combustion process of the PIR burner was formulated. The numerical modeling, and implementation of a PIR burner code at CAU`s computing facility is in progress.

  18. Near and long term efficiency improvements to natural gas heavy duty engines. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-10

    Trucking Research Institute (TRI) in cooperation with the Department of Energy Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (DOE), South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and Gas Research Institute (GRI), requests proposals designed to support the Natural Gas Engine Enhanced Efficiency Program. This effort, which contains Programs A & B, is designed to fund projects that advance both the part and full load fuel efficiency of heavy-duty (250 hp plus) natural gas engines. Approximately $1.2 million will be available in Program A to fund up to three projects. These projects may target either or both near-term, and longer-term engine efficiency goals in addition, it is possible that one of the projects funded under Program A will be selected for additional funding for up to 42 months under Program B funding amounts are to be determined.

  19. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling & production of oil & gas in wetland areas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, incorporating milestone schedule/status, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a progress report on a planned program falling under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During this period, task 5, subscale tests, and task 7, environmental impacts, were completed. Work was continued on task 10, technology transfer, and the preparation of the final report as part of task 11.

  20. Two-stage process for conversion of synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels. Quarterly report, 8 June-30 September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, J.C.W.

    1983-11-01

    The design of two large hot-flow models, to be used for slurry bubble-column hydrodynamic studies, is described. Scoping experiments were performed in smaller models to study the effects of feed-gas distributor type, column diameter, and liquid medium on gas holdup and bubble sizes. In addition, a literature review of bubble-column hydrodynamics is presented. Modifications to improve the operation and flexibility of the existing two stage pilot plant have been designed and construction initiated. Also, a sample of reactor-wax was fractionated under vacuum in a laboratory still. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  1. High Volume - High Value Usage of Flue Dry Gas Desulfurization (FGD) By-Products in Underground Mines: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Activities during the quarter focused on two areas: monitoring of grout strength from the field demonstration (Subtask 1.4) and construction of laboratory lysimeters to examine the leaching characteristics of the waste materials used in that demonstration (Subtask 2.4). Two of the auger holes filled in October 1996 at the demonstration site were sampled and returned to the laboratory for compressive strength, mineralogic, and chemical testing. Construction and packing of eight laboratory leaching columns (lysimeters) was also initiated. Four columns were packed with samples of grout taken from cement-mixer trucks during the emplacement (October, 1996). A fifth column was loaded with crushed material cored from borehole {number_sign}10 two months after emplacement. Samples of dry FGD material were used to prepare water/FGD waste blends that were loaded to the final three columns. Two of these latter columns were loaded with a slurry produced by blending water with the FOD waste at levels similar to those used during emplacement (approx. 38 wt%). Differing amounts of slurry was loaded to each these columns and permitted to harden prior to initiating water additions. The final column was loaded with a blend of the dry FGD waste and a lesser amount of water (27.5 wt%) to both facilitate the percolation of water through the lysimeter and to permit subsequent comparisons to previous studies of the leaching behavior of dry FOD materials.1 Weekly additions of 100 mL of distilled water have been initiated. However, due to a significant lag time between the initiation of water feed and leachate-water breakthrough, leaching data are not available for presentation at this time.

  2. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2 -- Field investigations. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The factors that control the strength of FBC ash grout were the focus of work during this quarter. Samples were prepared at different water contents and placed into cylindrical PVC molds. At specified curing intervals, the grout cylinders were subjected to unconfined compressive strength testing as per procedures described in previous reports. Chemical, mineralogical, and microscopical analyses were also conducted on the samples. It was found that higher curing temperatures significantly increase the strength gain rate of the FBC ash grout, in agreement with earlier results. As expected, water content also exerts a strong influence on the strength of the grout. The compressive strength data obtained for the laboratory-prepared samples are in excellent agreement with strength data obtained on grout placed in auger holes during the field demonstrations. The data also indicate that the field samples suffered negligible deterioration over the course of the curing period in the auger holes. Analysis of the laboratory prepared grout samples using XRD revealed a mineralogy similar to the field samples. A correspondence between ettringite abundance and compressive strength was observed only during grout curing. The formation of minerals such as ettringite is apparently a good indication that curing reactions are progressing and that the grout strength is increasing, but mineral distribution by itself does not explain or predict final strength. The microscopy data, in combination with geotechnical and XRD data, suggest that the strength of the grout is largely a function of the density of an amorphous (or finely crystalline) material that comprises the majority of the cured grout. Therefore, an increase in density of this material results in an increase in grout strength.

  3. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in Wetland Areas. Fourth quarterly report, [October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During the.reporting period, a report that contained the results of each of the five subtasks that comprise Task 1, Environmental Considerations, was prepared and submitted to DOE. The subtasks were an overview of oil and gas activities in wetlands; a review of present wetland access practices; identification of past environmental impacts experienced; definition of marsh habitat considerations and discussion of forested wetland considerations. In Task 2, Transport Requirements, a report on the acquisition of data on the transport requirements to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in Wetland Areas was prepared and submitted to DOE. Task 3, Parametric Analysis, was completed during the reporting period. The analysis showed that a cyclocraft, having a payload capacity of 45 tons, was the most economic and would be able to transport all of the required equipment and materials. The final report on the parametric analysis was to be submitted in January, 1993.

  4. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Several batch experiments have been performed in developing the ethanol-producing isolates ER12 and ER18 for ethanol production from synthesis gas. In addition, Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, has been used in a two-stage continuous stirred tank reactor system. Ethanol concentrations from the CSTR system have reached 12 g/L.

  5. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety studies for the Division of Accident Evaluation quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Weber, C.F.; Wilson, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Modeling, code development, and analyses of the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) continued with work on the side-by-side design. Fission-product release and transport experiments were completed. A description and assessment report on Oak Ridge National Laboratory HTGR safety codes was issued.

  6. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety studies for the Division of Accident Evaluation. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Wilson, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    Modeling, code development, and analyses of the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) continued with work on the side-by-side design. Fission-product release and transport experiments were completed. Sections of an HTGR safety handbook were written.

  7. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  8. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  9. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

  10. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  11. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  12. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  13. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  14. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  15. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  16. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Tiejun; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared burner is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. Applications of radiant burners includes boilers, air heaters, deep fat fryers, process heaters, and immersion heaters. On reason for the present interest in this type of burner is its low NO{sub x} emissions, which is attributed to the fact that a large proportion of the combustion heat is given out as radiation from the burner surface, which results in relatively low gas temperature in the combustion zone compared to that of a conventional free-flame burner. As a consequence, such burners produce less NO{sub x}, mainly by the so-called prompt-NO mechanism. A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of spectral radiance as well as flue gas composition measurements. Measurement capabilities were tested using methane; results were consistent with literature.

  17. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Second quarterly progress report, [October 1, 1994-- December 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.H.

    1994-12-01

    Emphasis of this project focuses on LNG research issues in use of liquefied natural as a transportation fuel in heavy trucking industry. These issues maybe categorized as: task 1--direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel; and task 2--short and long term storage. Accomplishments for these tasks are discussed. Task 1 consists of atomization, fundamentals of direct replacement, and distribution of emissions. Task 2 includes modified adsorbents, vent gas, and LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  18. Evaluation of distributed gas cooling of pressurized PAFC for utility power generation. Technical progress report No. 4, August-November 1980 (quarterly)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Farooque, M.; Hooper, M.; Maru, H.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to provide a proof-of-concept test of a gas-cooled pressurized phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). After initial feasibility tests in shorter stacks, two 10 kW stacks will be tested. Significant progress includes: design of subsystem components for the recirculation loop; fluid dynamic analyses of DIGAS cooling; and seal effectiveness testing of the baseline stack.

  19. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 13, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    At WVU, Mo{sub 2}S{sub 3} was produced from gas-phase reactions at 1,100 C. The gas-phase reactor was modified to increase product yields and to decrease particle size. Four Chevrel phases were synthesized for catalytic evaluation. In addition, four supported alkali-modified MoS{sub 2} materials were prepared from a single-source precursor, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}S{sub 13}. Screening runs have been carried out on some of these materials and others prepared earlier. At UCC and P, test runs on the reactor system have commenced. Higher alcohols up to butanol were observed and identified at high temperatures. Significant progress has been made on the Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. Frequency distributions have been determined for all of the equipment blocks for the Texaco gasifier cases. For these cases, there is a 10% chance that the actual installed capital cost could exceed the estimated installed capital cost by $40 million dollars. This work will continue with inclusion of variable costs and prediction of the uncertainties in the return on investment. Modifications to the simulated annealing optimization program have been underway in order to increase the level of certainty that the final result is near the global optimum. Alternative design cases have been examined in efforts to enhance the economics of the production of high alcohols. One such process may be the generation of electric power using combustion turbines fueled by synthesis gas.

  20. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  1. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  2. Clean Coal Technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Technical progress report, fourth quarter, FY 1991 (10/01/91--12/31/91)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In response to the third Clean Coal Technology Program solicitation, AirPol Inc. submitted a proposal for the design, installation and testing of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) system at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Test Facility (STF). This low-cost retrofit project will demonstrate the GSA system which is expected to remove more than 90% of the SO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a high utilization of reagent lime. The host site facility will be the STF located at the Shawnee Fossil Plant in West Paducah, Kentucky. Over the past 15 years, the STF has served as a testground for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. At the present time a semi-dry process employing 10 MW capacity spray dryer is being tested at the facility. Upon completion of the current spray dryer test, the GSA system will be tested for a period of eleven months. The GSA system brings coal combustion gases into contact with a suspended mixture of solids, including sulfur-absorbing lime. After the lime absorbs the sulfur pollutants, the solids are separated from the gases in a cyclone device and recirculated back into the system where they capture additional sulfur pollutant. The cleaned flue gases are sent through a dust collector before being released into the atmosphere. The key to the system`s superior economic performance with high sulfur coals is the recirculation of solids. Typically, a solid particle will pass through the system about one hundred times before leaving the system. Another advantage of the GSA system is that a single spray nozzle is used to inject fresh lime slurry.

  3. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li, Zhijiang

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet >750{degree}C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The effect of pre-reduction with H{sub 2}, in the presence of H{sub 2}O on the performance of the sorbents in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration, was studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a fixed-bed reactor at 750{degree}C. The results of the TGA tests indicate that pre-reduction of the sorbents is very fast in either 10% or 30% H{sub 2}. Without sorbent pre-reduction, sulfidation consists of two-stages, a reduction-dominating and a sulfidation-dominating stage. Sulfidation apparently takes place before reduction is complete. During regeneration some copper/cerium sulfates may have formed and Cu{sub 2}O may have formed in addition to CuO. The fixed-bed reactor tests show that at 750{degree}C: (1) prereducing the CuO-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} with H{sub 2} does not effect the reactivity of the sorbent towards H{sub 2}S at either the high or low H{sub 2} feed gas concentrations and (2) when 30% H{sub 2} was used during sulfidation of either sorbent, the first H{sub 2}S breakthrough occurs earlier than when 10% H{sub 2} was used.

  4. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas. Quarterly progress report {number_sign}9: September 1--December 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1993-12-01

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions.

  5. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor safety studies for the Division of Accident Evaluation. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1984. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Siman-Tov, I.; Wilson, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Modeling and code development work for predicting source terms for the Fort St. Vrain and 2240-MW(t) reactors continued and investigations and modeling work for small modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor designs were begun. Fission-product transport experiments to determine coefficients for diffusion through graphite have included studies with Ag, Rh, and Pd. The review of an FSV technical specification on limiting maximum core temperature involved code development and FSV data analysis, leading to new proposed limiting conditions and validation tests.

  6. Determination of volatile and non-volatile products of milk fermentation processes using capillary zone electrophoresis and solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ligor, Magdalena; Jarmalaviciene, Reda; Szumski, Michal; Maruska, Audrius; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the investigations was to develop analytical methods for the determination of selected volatile and non-volatile organic compounds numbering among the final products of milk fermentation. The analyzed compounds were as follows: biacetyl and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, citric, and lactic). The model yogurt was prepared under controlled conditions in our laboratory by addition of the selected bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) to the milk sample. The temperature, time, and stirring were controlled during the fermentation process. Factors considered in SPMPE-GC-FID method development included fiber exposure time, salt addition, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers, for example with PDMS, CAR/PDMS, PA, and PDMS/DVB coatings, were tested to obtain the highest recovery of the investigated compounds extracted from yogurt samples. Based on these preliminary experiments, qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of biacetyl were performed by SPME-GC-FID. Moreover, a capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of carboxylic acids in the yogurt samples. The buffer composition as well as deproteinization by acetonitrile were found to have a crucial effect on the analysis.

  7. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data presented in this constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and merged into the database during the first quarter of 1999. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during first quarter 1999 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  8. An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    NO{sub x} recycle is one part of the NOXSO process. In this process, 90% of the acid pollutants (NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}) can be removed simultaneously by adsorption on the surface of a sorbent material. The sorbent is subsequently regenerated by heating and contacting the hot sorbent with a reducing gas followed by steam. The NO{sub x} is removed in the heating process, and the SO{sub 2} is removed by the chemical reaction of the reducing gas and steam. The NO{sub x} stream produced is returned to the combustion process with combustion air, which is called the NO{sub x} recycle. The NO{sub x} is reduced in the flame to N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2}. The tests of NO injection with combustion have demonstrated very promising results. The test data showed quite consistent NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies, which is similar to the previous test results on the pulverized coal combustor at DOE-PETC. An average of about 70 % NO. destruction efficiency was achieved for the NO injection into the primary air duct independent of injected NO flow rates and exit 02 concentrations. About 58%, 50%, and 46% average destruction efficiencies were obtained for the NO injection into the secondary air duct corresponding to the exit O{sub 2}concentrations of 2%, 3%, and 4% respectively.

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  10. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1995--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  11. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human Resources: Trained…

  12. English Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…

  13. Trustee Quarterly, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sally, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" focus on current topics affecting community college trustees. Issue 1 focuses on the learning revolution and serves as a guide for community college trustees. It offers the following feature articles by Terry O'Banion: "Education Reform: Two Waves,""The Second Wave and the Community College,""The House that…

  14. Gifted Education Quarterly, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These four issues of "Gifted Education Quarterly" include the following articles: (1) "Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment" (Linda Kreger Silverman), which discusses some of the difficulties in obtaining accurate indications of a child's level of giftedness and the importance of using professional judgment in determining whether tests…

  15. English Leadership Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1992. Articles in number 1 deal with testing assessing, and measuring student performance, and include: "Real Evaluation: Portfolios as an Effective Alternative to Standardized Testing" (Kate Kiefer); "No More Objective Tests, Ever" (Carol Jago); "Process-Based…

  16. Clean Coal Technology III (CCT III) 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    The Gas Suspension Absorber (GSA) system brings coal combustion gases into contact with a suspended mixture of solids, including sulfur-absorbing lime. After the lime absorbs the sulfur pollutants, the solids are separated from the gases in a cyclone device and recirculated back into the system where they capture additional sulfur pollutant. The cleaned flue gases are sent through a dust collector before being released into the atmosphere. The key to the system`s superior economic performance with high sulfur coals is the recirculation of solids. Typically, a solid particle will pass through the system about one hundred times before leaving the system. Another advantage of the GSA system is that a single spray nozzle is used to inject fresh lime slurry. The GSA system is expected to be the answer to the need of the US industry for an effective, economic and space efficient solution to the SO{sub 2} pollution problem.

  17. An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    All the tests planed were completed. NO{sub 2} injection tests showed higher NO{sub x} reduction than that of NO injection at similar testing conditions. The NO{sub x} reduction efficiency for the NO/NO{sub 2} mixture injection is higher than that for NO injection and lower than that for NO{sub 2} injection separately. The NO{sub x} reduction efficiency is independent on the amount of injected gas (NO, NO{sub 2}, or NO/NO{sub 2}), but affected by the exit O{sub 2}. The optimum injection location which gives higher NO{sub x} reduction efficiency is the primary air duct. The NO{sub x} reduction efficiency increases with the percentage of total NO injected into the primary air duct when injecting NO into both primary air duct and secondary air duct simultaneous.

  18. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1989-12-31

    The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240{degrees}C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R{sub H{sub 2+Co}} = (a P{sub CO}P{sub H{sub 2}})/(1 + b P{sub CO}){sup 2}. The apparent activation energy was 93 to 95 kJ/mol. Data from previous studies on cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are also well correlated with this rate expression.

  19. Combined removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from flue gas using non-thermal plasma. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dhali, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was studied for concentration in the range of 333--3000 ppM (parts per million). Since the sulfur content of Illinois coal is high, the SO{sub 2} concentration in typical flue gas is in the high end of the range shown above. With high concentration of SO{sub 2} the removal efficiency decreases. However, the removal scales well with applied voltage, electrode length, and supply frequency. In this period the modeling of the process was also accomplished. The results show that a Townsend-type discharge is more efficient than a streamer type discharge in producing OH and 0 radicals. This explains why UV-irradiation helps the removal efficiency. The details are discussed in the report.

  20. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety studies for the Division of Accident Evaluation. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1983. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Siman-Tov, I.; Wilson, J.H.

    1984-07-01

    Development work continued on models and codes for predicting source terms in both the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) and 2240-MW(t) lead plant reactors. Experimental work on fission-product vapor pressures and diffusion rates through graphite continued at temperatures up to 2775 K, and a mathematical model of the experimental system was developed to aid analysis of the results and to guide improvements in the system and experiment design. Benchmarking of the BLAST steam generator code continued using FSV data, and more support work was done for proposed FSV core bypass flow model verification. Progress was made in setting up cooperative high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety research with the Federal Republic of Germany. A review of an FSV technical specification on limiting maximum core temperature was begun.

  1. Novel approaches to the production of higher alcohols from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, October 1, 1994-- December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-05

    A series of experiments in which the stirrer speed was varied during a methanol synthesis run with BASF S3-86 catalyst showed that mass transfer limitations were present at 750 psig reactor pressure and at space velocities of 5000 and 10000 sl/kg(cat.)-hr.. There was no effect of stirrer speed on reaction rate at 2500 psig reactor pressure and 16500 sl/kg(cat.)-hr. space velocity. However, this was probably due to a close approach to equilibrium rather than to the lack of a mass transfer effect. The most plausible explanation for the presence of a mass transfer influence is the position of the gas feed dip tube relative to the agitator impeller. A second set of stirrer speed experiments using the same catalyst showed that feeding into the reactor headspace produced much lower reaction rates, compared with gas feed through a dip tube. The headspace feed also showed a strong dependence on stirrer speed, consistent with the dip tube feed results. In a ``blank` run at 375{degree}C with decahydronaphthalene, about 110 mL of the initial charge of 150 mL remained in the reactor after 73 hours of operation at 375{degree}C and 850 psig of hydrogen. The rate of hydrocarbon evolution was low throughout the run. Decalin is the most stable liquid identified to date. Three stirred autoclave runs with a commercial, high-pressure methanol synthesis catalyst (zinc chromite) slurried in decahydronaphthalene ended son after the initial catalyst reduction due to failures of the liquid return pump in the overhead system. However, the catalyst appeared to be reduced and the liquid appeared to be stable. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

  3. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico region oil and gas operations. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1993-07-26

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. (CSA) was contracted to conduct a three-year study of the environmental and health related impacts of produced water and sand discharges from oil and gas operations. Data on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), heavy metals, and hydrocarbons in water, sediment, and biota will be collected and evaluated. Health related impacts will be studied through field collections and analyses of commercially- and recreationally-important fish and shellfish tissues. Additionally, information on seafood catch, consumption, and use patterns for the Gulf of Mexico will be gathered and analyzed. The facilities to be studied will include both offshore and coastal facilities in the Gulf of Mexico. Coastal sites will be additionally studied to determine ecological recovery of impacted wetland and open bay areas. The economic impact of existing and proposed effluent federal and state regulations will also be evaluated. The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of four terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana and Texas; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  4. A low energy continuous reactor separator for the production of ethanol from corn grits/starch and biomass streams. 2nd Quarterly report, August 1--October 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This project is an attempt to develop and demonstrate an improved reactor for the production of ethanol from starch and ligno-cellulosic streams. Bio-Process Innovations holds a patent on this reactor technology, and is directing the project. A Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) is being built on a pilot plant scale for testing at a small Iowa ethanol plant (Permeate Refining) while bench scale tests on the reactor system are being performed at Purdue University. The CSRS unit combines several operations within the confines of the reactor vessel: (1) complex carbohydrates are reduced to simple sugars by enzymatic breakdown; (2) sugars are converted to ethanol by yeast or bacteria; and (3) the ethanol is separated by a stripping gas stream. The ethanol is removed from the stripping gas in an absorber, and then taken to an extractive distillation column. This unit should allow concentrated feeds to be converted to ethanol, and the use of bottoms recycle will be extensively tested to establish the limits of minimizing net bottoms water production leaving the plant. During the first quarter, a flocculant yeast was selected, a xylose fermenting yeast strain selected, and some experiments on no-cook starch conversion to ethanol completed. During the last (second) quarter, the authors have tested the effect of bottoms water recirculation on the reactor performance, the performance of the lab scale unit on molasses, and done some work on biomass conversion to ethanol.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Kinetics of mn-based sorbents for hot gas desulfurization: Task 2 - exploratory experimental studies. Quarterly report, March 15, 1996--June 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Berns, J.

    1996-06-12

    The objective of this project is to develop a pellet formulation which is capable of achieving low sulfur partial pressures and a high capacity for sulfur, loaded from a hot fuel gas and which is readily regenerable. Furthermore the pellet must be strong for potential use in a fluidized bed and regenerable over many cycles of loading and regeneration. Regeneration should be in air or oxygen-depleted air to produce a high-concentration sulfur dioxide. Fixed-bed tests were conducted with several formulations of manganese sesquioxide and titania, and alumina They were subject to a simplified fuel gas of the oxygen-blown Shell type spiked with a 30,000ppmv concentration of H{sub 2}S. Pellet crush strengths for 4 and 2mm diameter pellets was typically 12 lbs per pellet and 4 lbs per pellet, respectively. For the most favorable of the formulations tested and under the criteria of break-through at less than 100ppmv H2S and loading temperatures of 500{degrees}C and an empty-bed space velocity of 4,000 per hour, breakthrough occurred an effective loading of sulfur of 27 to 29% over 5 loading and regeneration cycles. At 90% of this saturation condition, the observed level of H{sub 2}S was below 10ppmv. For regeneration, a temperature of 900{degrees}C is required to dissociate the sulfide into sulfur dioxide using air at atmospheric pressure. The mean sulfur dioxide concentration which is achieved during regeneration is 8% with empty-bed space velocities of 700/hr. TGA tests on individual pellets indicate that bentonite is not desirable as a bonding material and that Mn/Ti ratios higher than 7:1 produce relatively non-porous pellets. Whereas the reactivity is rapid below 12% conversion, the kinetics of conversion decreases significantly above this level. This observation may be the result of plugging of the pellet pores with sulfided product creating inaccessible pore volumes or alternately an increase m diffusional resistance by formation of MnS.

  7. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

  8. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared(PIR) burner at various barometric pressures (operating altitude) and gas compositions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. In this program, the theoretical basis for the behavior of PIR burners will be established through analysis of the combustion, heat and mass transfer, and other related processes which determine the performance of PIR burners. Based on the results of this study, a first order model of the performance of the burner, including radiant output will be developed. The model will be applied to predict the performance of the selected burner and modified through comparison with test results. Concurrently, an experimental setup will be devised and built. This experimental rig will be a modified appliance, capable of measuring the heat and combustion product output, as well as providing a means by which the radiant heat output can be measured. The burner will be selected from an existing commercial appliance, a commercial deep fat fryer, and will be of a scale that will be compatible with the laboratory facilities in the Combustion Laboratory at Clark Atlanta University. Theoretical analysis and formulation of the PIR burner performance model has been started and the development of the test facilities and experimental setup has also been initiated. These are described.

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS). Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics (UCC&P) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. Accomplishments to date are discussed in this report. In Task 2, during the past three months, much has been accomplished in fuel testing. Several tests have been run on pure indolene, and the data have been analyzed from these tests. The two limiting alcohol blends have been made, sent out for analysis and the results obtained. The emissions sampling system is undergoing changes necessary for running alcohol fuels. A cylinder pressure measurement system has been installed.

  10. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Tiejun

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared (PIR) burner at various barometric pressures (operating altitude) and gas compositions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. In this program, the theoretical basis for the behavior of PIR burners will be established through analysis of the combustion, heat and mass transfer, and other related processes that determine the performance of PIR burners. Based on the results of this study, a burner performance model for radiant output will be developed. The model will be applied to predict the performance of the selected burner and will also be modified and improved through comparison with experimental results. During this period, laboratory facilities that are necessary for conducting this research are completed. The student research assistants have started working in the laboratory. The selection of the test burner has completed. The preparation and instrumentation of this test burner is underway. The theoretical analysis and modeling of the fundamental combustion process of the PIR burner is progressing well. A study of the existing models are being conducted, which will yield specific direction and recommendations for the new model to be developed.

  11. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico region oil and gas operations. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1995-07-31

    Progress is described on the determination of environmental impacts from waste discharges to the aquatic ecosystems from oil and gas operations. Task 2 (Preparation of the Sampling and Analysis Plan) activities involved revisions and additions to the Sampling and Analysis Plan. Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) work included analyses of water, sediment, and tissue samples as well as data management. Task 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved the continued analyses of samples and conducting field sampling at Bay de Chene. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) activities included preparing a draft final report and review by the Scientific Review Committee (SRC). Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) work involved the preparation of the draft final report and review by the SRC. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities involved the presentation of four papers. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management.

  12. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, September 15--December 15, 1994. Task 1: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-01-06

    Manganese ore as well as manganese carbonate, precipitated from aqueous solutions, combined with alumina to form indurated pellets hold promise of being a high-effective, inexpensive, regenerable sorbent for hot fuel gases. Although the thermodynamics for sulfur removal by manganese predicts somewhat higher hydrogen sulfide over-pressures (i.e. poorer degree of desulfurization) than can be accomplished with zinc-based sorbents, zinc tends to be reduced to the metallic state under coal gasification conditions resulting in loss of capacity and reactivity by volatilization of reactive surfaces. This volatilization phenomenon limits the temperatures for which desulfurization can be effectively accomplished to less than 550 C for zinc ferrite and 700 C for zinc titanate; whereas, manganese-based sorbents can be utilized at temperatures well in temperatures exceeding 700 C. Also the regeneration of manganese-based pellets under oxidizing conditions may be superior to that of zinc titanate since they can be loaded from a simulated reducing coal-derived gas and then be regenerated at higher temperatures (up to 1,300 C). The topics that will be addressed by this study include: preparation of an effective manganese-based sorbent; thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by this sorbent; analysis of kinetics and mechanisms by which sulfur is absorbed by the sorbent (i.e., whether by gaseous diffusion, surface-controlled reaction, or pore diffusion); and cyclic sulfidation and regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the sulfur. 38 refs.

  13. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. First quarterly technical progress report, 1 September, 1993--30 November, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Shoop, K.

    1993-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. The vast majority of the sludge is simply landfilled, but with increasing landfilling costs this can cost the plant millions of dollars per year. Producing marketable materials from the sludge is a far more promising avenue, provided that the products can meet the necessary specifications at a reasonable cost. This project is investigating the surface properties of scrubber sludge, particularly of the calcium sulfite, since the surface chemistry of this material has never been studied in detail. Knowledge of these properties is critical for the development of a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather than being landfilled.

  14. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  15. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  16. GC-TOF-MS- and CE-TOF-MS-based metabolic profiling of cheonggukjang (fast-fermented bean paste) during fermentation and its correlation with metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; John, K M Maria; Kusano, Miyako; Oikawa, Akira; Saito, Kazuki; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-09-26

    Metabolic changes in fast-fermented bean paste (cheonggukjang) as a function of fermentation time were observed in inoculated Bacillus strains using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)- and capillary electrophoresis TOF-MS (CE-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics techniques. From the combined GC-MS and CE-MS analysis of fermented cheonggukjang samples, 123 metabolites were recovered (55% by GC-MS and 45% by CE-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis of fermented cheonggukjang samples showed that the separation of metabolites was influenced by the fermentation period (range, 0-72 h) and not by strain. When comparing the metabolites of fermented cheonggukjang with the metabolic pathways, uracil and thymine contents showed a rapid 20-fold increase after 24 h fermentation up to the end of fermentation. Xanthine and adenine levels increased slightly from 24 to 48 h fermentation and then decreased slightly at the end of fermentation. Hypoxanthine and guanine levels also increased remarkably during fermentation. Purine metabolism differed according to the microorganism used for cheonggukjang fermentation. Most intermediates in nucleoside biosynthesis were detected by CE-TOF-MS and were related to amino acid metabolism. PMID:22913417

  17. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are described for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and microbial technology.

  18. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  20. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  1. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  2. Heat and mass transfer effects in static solid-substrate fermentations: Design of fermentation chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, B.L.; Shuler, M.L.

    1983-04-01

    An experimental device was constructed to allow nearly simultaneous measurements to be made on temperature and gas composition at different depths in a solid-substrate fermentation bed. The time-dependent values of temperature, mol % O/sub 2/ and mol % CO/sub 2/ were measured at five positions in beds 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) deep. With a tempeh fermentation (Rhiopus oligosporus growing on soybeans) the temperature gradient could be as steep as 3/sup 0/C/cm during active mold growth and concentration of CO/sub 2/ could reach 21 vol. % in the bottom layer.

  3. Generalised modelling approach for anaerobic co-digestion of fermentable substrates.

    PubMed

    García-Gen, Santiago; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    A general methodology to implement fermentable soluble substrates in the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) that extends its application to anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates is presented. The approach considers the fermentation of new soluble substrates, not originally described in ADM1, as channelled through mass- and electron-balanced sugar fermentation equivalent reactions, and that fermentable substrates are degraded by a generic group of fermenters instead of the original ADM1 sugar fermenters. Therefore, no additional microbial group state is required. An additional term that modifies the ADM1 sugar fermentation kinetics equation was included to account for the competition among multiple substrates to be degraded by a particular biomass group. The model was validated at pilot scale treating a blend of pig manure (soluble fraction), wine and gelatine at mesophilic conditions. Only the ADM1 acetoclastic ammonia inhibition parameter was calibrated to obtain consistent model prediction of gas and liquid composition.

  4. An in situ derivatization - dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas-chromatography - mass spectrometry for determining biogenic amines in home-made fermented alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 13 biogenic amines in home-made wine samples. The method allows to simultaneous extraction and derivatization of the amines providing a simple and fast mode of extract enrichment. During the study, two different procedures were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to choose better procedure, as well as the conditions of derivatization reaction. At least, a mixture of methanol (dispersive solvent; 215μL), chloroform (extractive solvent; 400μL), and isobutyl choloroformate (derivatizing reagent; 90μL) was used as extractive/derivatizing reagent, added to 5mL of sample. The addition of mixture of pyridine and HCl was necessary to eliminate the by-products. The proposed method showed good linearity (correlation coefficients >0.9961), good recoveries (from 77 to 105%), and good intra-day precision (below 13%) and inter-day precision (below 10%). Moreover, detection limits were never over 4.1μg/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of 17 home-made wine samples not regulated by law. All of the biogenic amines analyzed were found in most of the wines.

  5. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  7. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  8. In vitro bacterial fermentation of tropical fruit fibres.

    PubMed

    Vong, M H; Stewart, M L

    2013-09-01

    Tropical fruits such as mango, papaya, pineapple and banana are rich sources of dietary fibre. However, few studies have examined the potential physiological effects of fibre from these tropical fruits. The aim of this study was to characterise the fermentability of dietary fibre found in banana, papaya, pineapple and mango as an estimate of the physiological effects of consuming these fruits. Freeze-dried fruit was subjected to in vitro digestion to remove digestible carbohydrates. Digestion residues were freeze-dried prior to fermentation. In vitro fermentation was carried for 24 h under anaerobic conditions to simulate conditions in the large intestine. Gas volume, pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. SCFAs were analysed by gas chromatography. There was no gas production from 0 to 8 h time points for all samples. Mango fibre resulted in more gas at 12 and 24 h than pineapple, papaya and banana fibres. The slurry pH was significantly lower for mango fibre at 12 and 24 h compared to other samples. Mango fibre resulted in significantly more propionate at 8 h compared to papaya and pineapple fibres. Butyrate concentrations were only significantly different at 4 h. At 24 h total and individual SCFA production did not differ among samples. All fruit fibres were fermentable, with mango fibre being the most rapidly fermented. Additional work is necessary to confirm a benefit on digestive health.

  9. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  10. Prebiotic digestion and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Macfarlane, G T; Englyst, H N

    2001-02-01

    Prebiotics, as currently conceived of, are all carbohydrates of relatively short chain length. To be effective they must reach the cecum. Present evidence concerning the 2 most studied prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides and inulin, is consistent with their resisting digestion by gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes in vivo. However, the wide variety of new candidate prebiotics becoming available for human use requires that a manageable set of in vitro tests be agreed on so that their nondigestibility and fermentability can be established without recourse to human studies in every case. In the large intestine, prebiotics, in addition to their selective effects on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, influence many aspects of bowel function through fermentation. Short-chain fatty acids are a major product of prebiotic breakdown, but as yet, no characteristic pattern of fermentation acids has been identified. Through stimulation of bacterial growth and fermentation, prebiotics affect bowel habit and are mildly laxative. Perhaps more importantly, some are a potent source of hydrogen in the gut. Mild flatulence is frequently observed by subjects being fed prebiotics; in a significant number of subjects it is severe enough to be unacceptable and to discourage consumption. Prebiotics are like other carbohydrates that reach the cecum, such as nonstarch polysaccharides, sugar alcohols, and resistant starch, in being substrates for fermentation. They are, however, distinctive in their selective effect on the microflora and their propensity to produce flatulence.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  12. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved. PMID:26635746

  13. Quarterly environmental data summary for first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the first quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the first quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base, and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES&H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that {open_quotes}above normal{close_quotes} data occur. All data received and verified during the first quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those detailed below. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were none for springs or surface water. The following discussion offers a brief summary of the data merged during the first quarter that exceeded the above normal criteria and updates on past reported above normal data. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the data base during the first quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs. Graphs showing concentrations of selected contaminants of concern at some of the critical locations have also been included in this QEDS. The graphs are discussed in the separate sections.

  14. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, James L.; Arora, Dinesh K.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, John Randall; Basu, Rahul; Wikstrom, Carl V.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  15. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the seven older KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. New wells FAC 8 and 9 received the first of four quarters of comprehensive analyses and GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  16. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  17. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 5, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included this quarter include: the role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of Inertial Confinement Fusion, laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums, evolution of solid-state induction modulators for a heavy-ion recirculator, the National Ignition Facility project, and terminal-level relaxation in Nd-doped laser material.

  19. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fayers, F.J.; Aziz, K.; Hewett, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    During the last three months we have studied coning and cresting behavior in horizontal and vertical wells using the commercial simulator, Eclipse. In our second quarterly report we compared the predications of five analytical methods for critical rates and presented the results in a table for a gas-cresting example problem. In this quarterly report, wee present simulation results for the coning and cresting critical rates for vertical and horizontal wells.

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  1. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1992. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are described for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and microbial technology.

  2. Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

  3. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  4. DOE/FETC GASIS project. Quarterly report, September 1--November 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the GASIS [Gas AtlaS Information System] project during the quarter. During this period, work was performed on Task 3: Natural gas reservoir data system development, Task 4: Technology transfer, Task 8: Reservoir data system updates, and Task 9: Supplemental reservoir studies.

  5. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-11-02

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing.

  8. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  9. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2002-07-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  10. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2001-07-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  11. Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is the 28th Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period of January 1, 1994 to March 31, 1994. Major activities during this period include: (1) The unit operated for 850 hours on coal, bringing the grand total for coal fire through the end of the quarter to 6318 hours. (2) The unit availability for the first quarter was 40.1%. (3) There were twelve gas turbine starts, eight bed preheater starts, and six operating periods on coal. (4) During this quarter, total gross generation was 40,721 MWH, the peak unit output for one hour was 62 MWH, and the coal consumption was 19,370 tons. (5) Three performance tests were conducted during this quarter; and (6) the plant was able to remain in service during the sub-zero weather in January, providing power to the critically short grid.

  12. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  14. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  15. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  17. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  18. On-line fermentation monitoring by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Diewok, Josef; Baena, Josefa R; Rosenberg, Erwin; Lendl, Bernhard

    2004-07-01

    A new method for on-line monitoring of fermentations using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has been developed. The method has been used to predict the concentrations of glucose and ethanol during a baker's yeast fermentations. A completely automated flow system was employed as an interface between the bioprocess under study and the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, which was equipped with a flow cell housing a diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) element. By using the automated flow system, experimental problems related to adherence of CO(2) bubbles to the ATR surface, as well as formation of biofilms on the ATR surface, could be efficiently eliminated. Gas bubbles were removed during sampling, and by using rinsing steps any biofilm could be removed from the ATR surface. In this way, constant measuring conditions could be guaranteed throughout prolonged fermentation times (approximately 8 h). As a reference method, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with refractive index detection was used. The recorded data from different fermentations were modeled by partial least-squares (PLS) regression comparing two different strategies for the calibration. On the one hand, calibration sets were constructed from spectra recorded from either synthetic standards or from samples drawn during fermentation. On the other hand, spectra from fermentation samples and synthetic standards were combined to form a calibration set. Differences in the kinetics of the studied fermentation processes used for calibration and prediction, as well as the precision of the HPLC reference method, were identified as the main chemometric sources of error. The optimal PLS regression method was obtained using the mixed calibration set of samples from fermentations and synthetic standards. The root mean square errors of prediction in this case were 0.267 and 0.336 g/L for glucose and ethanol concentration, respectively.

  19. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  20. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  1. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P < 0.05). Therefore, for in vitro studies, fecal microbiota can be used as an inoculum source but may slightly overestimate in vivo fermentation. Experiment 2 evaluated the gas production, fermentation kinetics, and end product profiles at 8 and 72 h of incubation for citrus pectin, 3 fructans, gum arabic, 3 guar gums, pea fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate

  2. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  3. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These four issues of this quarterly publication on the education of gifted students contain the following featured articles: (1) "Reflections on China: Implications for Gifted Education" (Andrea I. Prejean and Lynn H. Fox); (2) "Differentiating Instruction for Gifted Middle School Students in Heterogeneous Science Classes" (Brendan D. Miller and…

  4. Apprentices & Trainees: September Quarter, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2012. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.74 (December 2012 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the March…

  5. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four issues of this quarterly publications on gifted education include the following articles: "Unrecognized Giftedness: The Frustrating Case of the Gifted Adult" (Marylou Kelly Streznewski); "Shakespeare in the Classroom: The Bard is Back!" (Rosanna DiMillo Sandell); "What Teachers, Parents, and Administrators Need To Know about Gifted Students"…

  6. Trustee Quarterly, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This document contains 4 issues of the Trustee Quarterly: fall 2000, spring 2001, summer 2001, and fall 2001. The fall 2000 issue contains seven features and six departments. Among the features are: "The New Economy: Who Will Lead the Education Movement," by Rucker; "Community Colleges Tackle IT Staffing Challenges," by Matina; and "Looking at…

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  8. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the four 1999 issues of a quarterly newsletter publication on gifted education. Issues regularly include major articles, book reviews, announcements, and letters. The major articles in these issues are: "The Mathematically Gifted: Bridging the Gender Gap" (Lynn H. Fox and Janet F. Soller); "Parenting for Education:…

  9. Space Station Quarterly, May 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly report discusses the First International Microgravity Laboratory, the building of space station truss structures at the Johnson Space Center, the building of the living and laboratory modules at the Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Lewis Research Center's work on power for the space station. The video includes a segment on the Japanese Experiment Module.

  10. Education Statistics Quarterly, Spring 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Statistics Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications, data products and funding opportunities developed over a 3-month period. Each issue also…

  11. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the newsletter "Gifted Education Press Quarterly" published during 1995. This newsletter addresses issues in the education of gifted children and youth. The major articles are: (1) "Using Today's Technology: Parents Can Help Challenge Gifted Children" (Adrienne O'Neill); (2) "Outcomes-Based Education…

  12. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These four issues of a quarterly publication for gifted educators and parents of gifted children span winter 2002 through fall 2002. Featured articles include: (1) "Cultivating Courage, Creativity, and Caring" (James T. Webb), which discusses the need to encourage the development of courage and caring, as well as creativity in gifted students; (2)…

  13. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released during a 3-month period. Each message also contains a message from…

  14. JLTN Quarterly, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JLTN Quarterly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "JLTN Quarterly" issued from December 1995 to October 1996. This journal for high school Japanese language teachers contain articles on class activities and classroom teaching techniques. These include: exercises in interpretation of a Toys "R" Us store map and advertising; a weather discussion…

  15. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  16. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  17. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  18. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  19. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  20. Hindgut fermentations in nonavian species.

    PubMed

    McBee, R H

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative discussion of the hindgut of insects, mammals, fishes, and reptiles includes morphology of the hindgut, general appearance, content, materials fermented, fermentation products, microorganisms involved, and value of the hindgut to the host animal. The problems faced by small animals in securing adequate energy from a hindgut fermentation to be of value to the animal are presented. It is suggested that our present analytical methods are not adequate and that new approaches to analyzing the hindgut fermentation value should be investigated, such as using fecal bacterial mass as an index. It is also suggested that experimental and commercial feeding should be designed so that herbivores are not converted to omnivores.

  1. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  2. Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  3. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report: Third Quarter, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This is the sixteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility (HGCU). This report covers the period of work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1993. During this quarter, the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) was operated for a total of 1295 hours. This represents 58% availability during July, August, September, and including June 30 of the previous quarter. The operating dates and times since initial operation are summarized. The APF operating temperatures and differential pressures are provided. Details of the APF runs during this quarter are included in this report.

  4. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  5. Metabolomic Profiles of Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens During Rice Koji Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Eun; Lee, Sunmin; Jang, Eun Seok; Shin, Hye Won; Moon, Byoung Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO) or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA) for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including α-amylase, protease, and β-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji. PMID:27314317

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  7. Program status 3. quarter -- FY 1990: Confinement systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-24

    Highlights of the DIII-D Research Operations task are: completed five weeks tokamak operations; initiated summer vent; achievement of 10.7% beta; carried out first dimensionless transport scaling experiment; completed IBW program; demonstrated divertor heat reduction with gas puffing; field task proposals presented to OFE; presentation of DIII-D program to FPAC; made presentation to Admiral Watkins; and SAN safety review. Summaries are given on research programs, operations, program development, hardware development, operations support and collaborative efforts. Brief summaries of progress on the International Cooperation task include: TORE SUPRA, ASDEX, JFT-2M, and JET. Funding for work on CIT physics was received this quarter. Several physics R and D planning tasks were initiated. Earlier in FY90, a poloidal field coil shaping system (PFC) was found for DIGNITOR. This quarter more detailed analysis has been done to optimize the design of the PFC system.

  8. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  9. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  10. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  11. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. PMID:27457698

  12. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

  14. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 6, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  15. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report 8, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  16. [Computational fluid dynamics simulation of different impeller combinations in high viscosity fermentation and its application].

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuhao; Zhu, Ping; Xu, Xiaoying; Li, Sha; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Agitator is one of the essential factors to realize high efficient fermentation for high aerobic and viscous microorganisms, and the influence of different impeller combination on the fermentation process is very important. Welan gum is a microbial exopolysaccharide produced by Alcaligenes sp. under high aerobic and high viscos conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation was used for analyzing the distribution of velocity, shear rate and gas holdup in the welan fermentation reactor under six different impeller combinations. The best three combinations of impellers were applied to the fermentation of welan. By analyzing the fermentation performance, the MB-4-6 combination had better effect on dissolved oxygen and velocity. The content of welan was increased by 13%. Furthermore, the viscosity of production were also increased.

  17. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  18. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  20. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  1. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  2. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  3. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  4. Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the third quarter of a project entitled Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phase expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  5. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  7. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  8. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE QUARTERS No. 2 (right). Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE QUARTERS No. 2 (right). Located north of main house. The building at left is Slave Quarters No. 1 (HABS No. VA-1233 C) - Westend, Slave Quarters No. 2, Route 638 vicinity, Trevilians, Louisa County, VA

  10. 1. CARRIAGE HOUSE (left) AND SLAVE QUARTERS, SOUTH FRONT. A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CARRIAGE HOUSE (left) AND SLAVE QUARTERS, SOUTH FRONT. A kitchen was included in the quarters. - Charles Fraser House, Carriage House & Slave Quarters, 55 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  11. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 5, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. (1) Total station efficiency of at least 47 percent. (2) No more than: 0.15 lb NO{sub x} or 0.15 lb SO{sub x} or 0.0075 lb of particulates/10{sup 6} Btu fuel heat input. (3) All solid wastes must be benign. (4) Over 95 percent of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65 percent of the heat input. (5) Efficient and economic baseload power generation: Operation with a range of US coals, annual capacity factor of 65 percent, and load following with minimal degradation in efficiency. (6) 10-percent lower cost of electricity relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS. (7) Safety, reliability, and maintainability to meet or exceed conventional coal-fired power plants. (8) Amenable to construction using factory-assembled modular components based upon standard design. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  12. Comparison of different mixed cultures for bio-hydrogen production from ground wheat starch by combined dark and light fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ozmihci, Serpil; Kargi, Fikret

    2010-04-01

    Composition of the mixed culture was varied in combined dark-light fermentation of wheat powder starch in order to improve hydrogen gas formation rate and yield. Heat-treated anaerobic sludge and pure culture of Clostridium beijerinckii (DSMZ 791T) were combined with two different light fermentation bacteria of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS-NRRL and RS-RV) in order to select a more suitable mixture resulting in high hydrogen yield and formation rate. A combination of the anaerobic sludge and RS-NRRL yielded the highest cumulative hydrogen (CHF = 140 ml), the highest yield (0.36 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose) and specific hydrogen formation rate (2.5 ml H2 g(-1) biomass h(-1)). During dark fermentation (70 h) hydrogen was produced simultaneously by the dark and light fermentation bacteria using glucose from hydrolyzed starch. However, only light fermentation bacteria produced hydrogen from VFA's derived from dark fermentation after a long adaptation period.

  13. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  14. Fischer Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

    1996-05-01

    Our objectives for this quarter were: (1) to install and test the temperature probe and the flammable gas detector: (2) to conduct Fischer-Tropsch synthesis experiments at baseline conditions and at a high pressure in order to test the newly constructed fixed bed reactor assembly.

  15. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, October-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying, and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1987 is discussed. Topics include melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling.

  16. TIDD PFBC Demonstration Project. Second quarterly report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Major activities during this period include: (1) The unit operated for 1529 hours on coal, bringing the grand total for coal fire through the end of the quarter to 7847 hours. (2) During the quarter, the Tidd Plant set a new record for its longest continuous run on coal; 1079 hours, surpassing its previous record of 740 hours set in June-July of 1992. (3) The unit availability for the first half of 1994 was 54.7%. (4) There were four gas turbine starts, eight bed preheater starts, and six operating periods on coal. (5) During this quarter, total gross generation was 71,115 MWH, the peak unit output for one hour was 59 MWH, and the coal consumption was 35,696 tons. (6) Fifteen performance tests have been conducted since the start of the fourth year of operation. Eleven of the tests were conducted during the record run during May and June. (7) Agreements were finalized with the DOE, Ohio Coal Development Office, and technology vendors for funding of the fourth year of operation of the plant.

  17. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity.

  18. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  19. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) improved after fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  20. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) improved after fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties. PMID:26308368

  1. Biochemical changes during the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for ogiri-okpei production.

    PubMed

    Odibo, F J C; Ezeaku, E O; Ogbo, F C

    2008-09-01

    Biochemical changes during fermentation of seeds of Prosopis africana for production of ogiri-okpei, a food condiment popular among people of West Africa were studied. Fermentation resulted in a net increase in concentrations of total soluble sugars and free amino acids, both reaching a peak after 72 h of fermentation but declining thereafter. Corresponding increases were observed in amylase and protease activities, respectively. Lipase activity was observed to be very strong, increasing throughout the duration of fermentation. Analyses of amino and fatty acid composition using an amino acid analyzer and gas liquid chromatography, respectively, revealed a wide variety of amino acids including glutamine > cystine > arginine and the fatty acids stearic > Arachidic > linolenic > linoleic in the unfermented seed in the highest concentrations. Fluctuations in the concentrations of these compounds were observed during the fermentation. At the end of 96 h fermentation, glutamine > cystine > lysine and an unidentified fatty acid > arachidic > linolenic acids were found in the highest concentrations. Marked increases in composition with increasing period of fermentation were observed for Ca, P, K, Mn, and Z. Transformations of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals during the fermentation of this seed revealed during this study will contribute towards the development of an industrial process for ogiri-okpei as well as an understanding of its contribution to the nutrition of its consumers.

  2. High pressure synthesis gas conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    A high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been constructed for the biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. The reactors in the system consist of a 650 mL continuous stirred tank reactor and a 1 L continuous column reactor. The reactors are designed for individual or dual operation in series or parallel, with continuous gas and liquid feed. The system is housed in a constant temperature, explosion-proof room, equipped with gas leak detectors.

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  4. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  5. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  6. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  7. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} is estimated at $247/kW.

  8. 14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Bachelor Airmen Quarters, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by- product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. The objective of the NOXSO Clean Coal Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} from the flue gas from the 150-MW equivalent, unit 2 boiler. The by-product to be generated by the project is liquid SO{sub 2}. Sufficient construction cost and operating data will be obtained during the project to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is in the Front End Engineering/Environmental Evaluation Phase. Engineering activities are approximately 20% complete and activities to update the project estimate based on completed engineering and equipment bids have been initiated. Process study activities include laboratory fluid-bed adsorber studies, regenerator computer model development and studies, fluid-flow modelling in fluid-bed vessels, and evaluations of SO{sub 2} production processes. The laboratory- scale, fluid-bed adsorber studies are being conducted to improve the accuracy of the removal efficiency predictions and study the impact of adding a third adsorber stage. The construction of the steel, multi-stage reactor is currently underway. The regenerator computer model was revised and is being used to study design options for improving the regenerator performance. Fluid-flow modelling has been conducted to study the effect of grid supports on the gas flow inside the fluid bed vessels.

  10. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  11. 46 CFR 131.570 - Quarterly inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quarterly inspections. 131.570 Section 131.570 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.570 Quarterly inspections. (a) Each apparatus that controls a lifeboat winch, including motor controllers,...

  12. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a...

  13. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a...

  14. RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A quarterly listing of RTO technical publications is presented. The topics include: Handbook on the Analysis of Smaller-Scale Contingency Operations in Long Term Defence Planning; 2) Radar Polarimetry and Interferometry; 3) Combat Casualty Care in Ground-Based Tactical Situations: Trauma Technology and Emergency Medical Procedures; and 4) RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

  15. 49 CFR 573.7 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quarterly reports. 573.7 Section 573.7... § 573.7 Quarterly reports. (a) Each manufacturer who is conducting a defect or noncompliance... accordance with the manufacturer's plan provided to NHTSA pursuant to § 573.6(c)(9); (ii) The...

  16. 49 CFR 573.7 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quarterly reports. 573.7 Section 573.7... § 573.7 Quarterly reports. (a) Each manufacturer who is conducting a defect or noncompliance... accordance with the manufacturer's plan provided to NHTSA pursuant to § 573.6(c)(9); (ii) The...

  17. Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a fimction of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and hot gas cleanup units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is nearing completion. Nearly all equipment are set in its place and the FW equipment and the PCDs are being set in the structure.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  19. Commercial LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.

    1985-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of quarterly reports compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program Office at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on commercial liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1985 is discussed: pretreatment systems, melting process chemistry, glass development and characterization, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies. 33 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  2. Fermentations with new recombinant organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nichols, N.N.; Dien, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    US fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. The authors have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21--34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different industrially hardened strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1969 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1966 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1963 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1970 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1971 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1965 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1972 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1967 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1973 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1961 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1968 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1964 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1962 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Tidd PFBC demonstration project. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This is the 27th Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period from October 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. Major activities during this period involve: (1) The unit operated for 720 hours on coal. (2) There were five gas turbine starts, five bed preheater starts, and three operating periods on coal fire. (3) During the quarter, total gross generation was 36,672 MWH, the peak unit output for one hour was 64 MWH, and the coal consumption was 17,251 tons. (4) Six performance tests were run during this quarter. (5) The unit was tested with four sorbent feed points. (6) The gas turbine low pressure compressor was disassembled to repair cracks in the stationary guide vanes; and (7) a request was sent to the DOE requesting funding for an additional year of operation. Major items planned for the next period include: (a) Continuation of sorbent utilization tests at various bed levels and sulfur retention values and with different coals and adsorbents; and (b) operation at full load.

  1. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses and turbidity measurements. The herbicide/pesticide suite for all four wells and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric volatile organic analyses requested for well HAC 3 were not performed due to clerical error at the laboratory. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during second quarter 1993. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  2. Fermentative butanol production by Clostridia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Jin Hwan; Jang, Seh Hee; Nielsen, Lars K; Kim, Jaehyun; Jung, Kwang S

    2008-10-01

    Butanol is an aliphatic saturated alcohol having the molecular formula of C(4)H(9)OH. Butanol can be used as an intermediate in chemical synthesis and as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical and textile industry applications. Moreover, butanol has been considered as a potential fuel or fuel additive. Biological production of butanol (with acetone and ethanol) was one of the largest industrial fermentation processes early in the 20th century. However, fermentative production of butanol had lost its competitiveness by 1960s due to increasing substrate costs and the advent of more efficient petrochemical processes. Recently, increasing demand for the use of renewable resources as feedstock for the production of chemicals combined with advances in biotechnology through omics, systems biology, metabolic engineering and innovative process developments is generating a renewed interest in fermentative butanol production. This article reviews biotechnological production of butanol by clostridia and some relevant fermentation and downstream processes. The strategies for strain improvement by metabolic engineering and further requirements to make fermentative butanol production a successful industrial process are also discussed. PMID:18727018

  3. 2. View to northeast showing quarters and outbuildings, L to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View to northeast showing quarters and outbuildings, L to R: Service Building (HABS No. VA-1287-D), Medical Officer's Quarters C (in background), Garage (HABS No. VA-1287-F), and Medical Officer's Quarters B - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Officer's Quarters C, West side Williamson Drive, 400 feet South of Rixey Drive, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  4. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  5. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  6. Evolution of Volatile Sulfur Compounds during Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kinzurik, Matias I; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Gardner, Richard C; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2015-09-16

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) play a significant role in the aroma of foods and beverages. With very low sensory thresholds and strong unpleasant aromas, most VSCs are considered to have a negative impact on wine quality. In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to analyze the time course of the biosynthesis of 12 VSCs formed during wine fermentation. Two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the laboratory strain BY4743 and a commercial strain, F15, were assessed using two media: synthetic grape media and Sauvignon Blanc juice. Seven VSCs were detected above background, with three rising above their sensory thresholds. The data revealed remarkable differences in the timing and evolution of production during fermentation, with a transient spike in methanethiol production early during anaerobic growth. Heavier VSCs such as benzothiazole and S-ethyl thioacetate were produced at a steady rate throughout grape juice fermentation, whereas others, such as diethyl sulfide, appear toward the very end of the winemaking process. The results also demonstrate significant differences between yeast strains and fermentation media.

  7. Quarter-wave pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.; Gardner, D. L.; Backhaus, S. N.

    2011-10-01

    In high-power pulse-tube refrigerators, the pulse tube itself can be very long without too much dissipation of acoustic power on its walls. The pressure amplitude, the volume-flow-rate amplitude, and the time phase between them evolve significantly along a pulse tube that is about a quarter-wavelength long. Proper choice of length and area makes the oscillations at the ambient end of the long pulse tube optimal for driving a second, smaller pulse-tube refrigerator, thereby utilizing the acoustic power that would typically have been dissipated in the first pulse-tube refrigerator's orifice. Experiments show that little heat is carried from the ambient heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger in such a long pulse tube, even though the oscillations are turbulent and even when the tube is compactly coiled.

  8. Writing: the Quarterly as text.

    PubMed

    Locke, Lawrence F

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how writing has shaped the nature of the Quarterly over 75 years. Here I explore how stylistic elements have changed over time, how form has interacted with function and content, and how well the resulting text has served the several communities within physical education. I make the following assertions. First, the writing style that has become the model for research reports is needlessly dense and daunting for readers. Second, the desire to maintain a journal that serves both as an interdisciplinary resource for a broad audience of physical educators and as an outlet for reports directed to limited audiences of technical specialists has prevented full performance of either function. Those concerns notwithstanding, I find good cause for celebration--as well as for guarded optimism about the future.

  9. Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 8, Number 2, February 1991. Rept. for Apr-Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology is published by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, and printed at the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. Research in the area of methane from coal seams is directed toward adapting and improving techniques for producing natural gas from coal and associated strata. Verification field experiments are being conducted at various sites to validate concepts for geology, geophysical diagnostics, completion techniques, fracturing, operations, and reservoir modeling. (Copyright (c) 1991 by Gas Research Institute.)

  10. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the last quarter of the Second Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1994, entitled {open_quotes}Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.{close_quotes} The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particulate control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

  11. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K.

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  12. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  13. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  14. Pullulan from peat hydrolyzate fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Boa, J M; Leduy, A

    1987-09-01

    The Luedeking-Piret equation was used to fit the kinetic data of pullulan fermentations from peat hydrolyzate substrate. In batch mode, the kinetic parameters m, n, alpha, and beta varied as a function of fermentation conditions: aeration rate, agitation speed, and temperature. In constant-feed fed-batch mode, the parameters Varied according to the feed rates. In peat hydrolyzate medium, the polysaccharide synthesis was strongly growth associated in batch and continuous fermentations but entirely growth associated in fedbatch fermentations. The fed-batch mode of fermentation with an appropriate feed rate is more advantageous with respect to batch and continuous fermentations. Therefore, if the fermentation is started batchwise and then followed by fed-batch mode at a constant feed rate, the overall polysaccharide productivity (g pullulan/L h) is significantly higher than those obtained with batch or continuous fermentations using the same total medium volume.

  15. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  17. Effects of volatile fatty acids on a thermophilic anaerobic hydrogen fermentation process degrading peptone.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S S; Chang, S M; Chen, S T

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen fermentation using glucose as a single substrate caused abrupt pH drops and the gradual losses of hydrogen producers, which in turn led to system failure. In this study the use of a proteinaceous substrate, peptone, avoided the abrupt pH drops in the reactive system and allowed for further exploration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and pH effects on the hydrogen fermentation process. Our results showed that: (1) during the hydrogen fermentation tests, the abrupt pH drops were avoided thus system stability increased due to the production of ammonia from the peptone fermented, (2) pH control was not necessary and the addition of acetate to the process had little effect on the hydrogen fermentation process, (3) at the extreme pHs the addition of acetate either lengthened the lag phase (pH < or = 6) or slowed the hydrogen production rate (pH > or = 8), and both situations were not desired, and (4) high VFA content in the system sped up the consumption of hydrogen gas. Results of this study suggested that the hydrogen fermentation using the protein-containing substances as substrate was beneficial in maintaining the system pH. As long as the pH was maintained around 6-8, system inhibition due to VFAs accumulation was minimized. Thus, the optimal operation of a hydrogen fermentation process would be achievable via the control of substrate composition at a certain carbohydrate-to-protein ratio.

  18. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Experiments were continued this quarter with the objective of improving the carbon deposition efficiency using a Paraho retort off-gas mixture. Analysis has shown that the use of the Paraho off-gas to make hydrogen would be attractive if the ratio of the heat content of the feedgas to the heat content of the hydrogen produced is less than 3. Experimental conditions to achieve this ratio have been established. Recent work had shown that the volume of a BEACON supported catalyst bed increased with an increase in carbon loading level. Four series of experiments were performed where sieve analyses were made after one or more BEACON process cycles. These tests showed that the volume expansion is due to an increase in the number and size of the larger catalyst particles. The bench-scale testing of unsupported catalysts concentrated in two areas: (a) the completion of batch testing in the 4-inch reactor, and (b) the construction of the Tandem Reactor Unit which will permit the transfer of solids between the carbon deposition and steam gasification reactors during testing. It was found that a second stage of steaming enhanced the methane yield. Approximately 80% of the construction and instrumentation of the Tandem Reactor Unit was completed during the quarter. A conceptual design was completed for an Integrated Test Facility (ITF) which would permit research on the BEACON process at a scale sufficient for scale-up. 17 figures, 14 tables.

  19. Diesel fuel by fermentation of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, S.M.; Wayman, M.

    1983-01-11

    An improved diesel fuel which is entirely capable of preparation from renewable resources. The fuel comprises a blend of fermentation produced butanol and fermentation produced glycerides. The substrates useful for the butanol fermentation are conventional industrial waste products, such as cheese whey and low value carbohydrate containing waste materials such as corn cobs, wood chips, etc. Similar substrate materials are used in the fermentation or growth culture of glyceride producing microbes.

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using a Chemocapacitor Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-01-01

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument. PMID:25184490

  1. Monitoring and evaluation of alcoholic fermentation processes using a chemocapacitor sensor array.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-09-02

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument.

  2. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Task 2 -- Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; rate mechanism analysis. Quarterly report, December 15, 1995--March 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Berns, J.

    1996-03-15

    Currently, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is actively investigating alternative hot fuel gas desulfurization sorbents for application to the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). A sorbent must be highly active towards sulfur at high temperatures and pressure`s, and under varying degrees of reducing atmospheres. Thus, high conversion of the metal oxide and low hydrogen sulfide exit partial pressures. Also, it must regenerate nearly ideally to maintain activity over numerous cycles. Furthermore, regeneration must yield a sulfur product which is economically recoverable directly or indirectly. This cyclic process requires a holistic approach as any one criteria may eliminate a candidate sorbent from further consideration. Over fifty induration campaigns have been conducted among the fifteens Mn-based sorbent formulations. All indurated sorbents has been tested for crush strength and chemical analysis. Also, fifteen sorbent formulations have been tested in a TGA for at least on e induration condition. Subsequently described are the three main groups of formulations tested. They are the MnCO{sub 3} supported with TiO{sub 2} (with or without bentonite), MnCO{sub 3} supported with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (with or without porosity enhancers), and MnO{sub 2} ore supported with alundum (with and without bentonite).

  3. Cost leveling continues; planned activity drops sharply in US gas pipeline cnstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    Natural gas pipeline construction costs, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline cost index for US gas-pipeline construction, barely crept up in the second quarter 1985. Construction activity for lines and compressor stations was down.

  4. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  5. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  6. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  7. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  8. Bioproduction of volatile fatty acid from the fermentation of waste activated sludge for in situ denitritation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation integrated with denitritation (the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen gas) at different pHs was investigated in batch-mode reactors over a 24-day period. The results showed that in comparison with controlled pHs, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) bioproduction for in situ denitritation was significantly improved at uncontrolled pH. VFA fermented from WAS was quickly consumed by denitritation at uncontrolled pH, which accelerated sludge degradation. On the other hand, sludge digestion was benefited from the alkalinity produced from denitritation, while methanogenesis was prohibited by alkalinity and nitrite. The integrated sludge fermentation and denitritation can be cost-effectively applied to wastewater treatment plants, so that organic substrates (e.g., VFAs) are produced for denitritation via simultaneous sludge fermentation, which enables WAS reutilization and enhances nitrogen removal efficiency without the need of external carbon sources.

  9. ROLE OF LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES IN LEAVENING THE BATTER OF IDLI, A FERMENTED FOOD OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    MUKHERJEE, S K; ALBURY, M N; PEDERSON, C S; VANVEEN, A G; STEINKRAUS, K H

    1965-03-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium.

  10. ROLE OF LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES IN LEAVENING THE BATTER OF IDLI, A FERMENTED FOOD OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    MUKHERJEE, S K; ALBURY, M N; PEDERSON, C S; VANVEEN, A G; STEINKRAUS, K H

    1965-03-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium. PMID:14325884

  11. Role of Leuconostoc mesenteroides in Leavening the Batter of Idli, a Fermented Food of India1

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, S. K.; Albury, M. N.; Pederson, C. S.; Van Veen, A. G.; Steinkraus, K. H.

    1965-01-01

    The fermentation of the batter of idli, a fermented food of India, was studied. The microorganisms responsible for the characteristic changes in the batter were isolated and identified. Although there is a sequential change in the bacterial flora, the predominant microorganism responsible for souring, as well as for gas production, was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In the later stages of fermentation, growth of Streptococcus faecalis and, still later, of Pediococcus cerevisiae becomes significant. The fermentation of idli demonstrates a leavening action caused by the activity of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, L. mesenteroides. As far as is known, this is the first record of a leavening action produced exclusively by the activity of a lactic acid bacterium. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14325884

  12. In vitro fermentation of chewed mango and banana: particle size, starch and vascular fibre effects.

    PubMed

    Low, Dorrain Y; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Fruits (and vegetables) contain cellular structures that are not degraded by human digestive enzymes. Therefore, the structure of the insoluble fraction of swallowed fruits is mostly retained until intestinal microbial fermentation. In vitro fermentation of mango and banana cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were incubated with porcine faecal inoculum and showed intensive metabolic activity. This included degradation of cell walls, leading to the release of encapsulated cell contents for further microbial metabolism. Production of cumulative gas, short chain fatty acids and ammonia were greater for mango than for banana. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed this was due to a major fermentation-resistant starch fraction present in banana, that was absent in mango. This study demonstrated distinctive differences in the fermentability of banana and mango, reflecting a preferential degradation of (parenchyma) fleshy cell walls over resistant starch in banana, and the thick cellulosic vascular fibres in mango.

  13. Bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of non-ruminants: influence of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Niba, A T; Beal, J D; Kudi, A C; Brooks, P H

    2009-10-01

    The search for alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in animal nutrition has highlighted the role dietary modulation can play in improving gut health. Current antibiotic replacement strategies have involved the use of microbes beneficial to health (probiotics) or fermentable carbohydrates (prebiotics) or both (synbiotics). The present review recognises the contribution of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates in improving the gut environment in non-ruminants. It proposes the screening of probiotic bacteria for the production of fermented feeds and supplementation of these feeds with fermentable carbohydrates prior to feeding animals. It is suggested that the term 'fermbiotics' should be used to describe this intervention strategy. PMID:19283504

  14. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization: Quarterly progress report, December 15, 1994--March 15, 1995. Task 2 -- Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; Rate mechanism analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-03-15

    In earlier studies, zinc ferrite and zinc titanate were developed as regenerable sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from hot fuel gases originating from coal gasification. Manganese ore as well as manganese carbonate, precipitated from aqueous solutions, combined with alumina to form indurated pellets hold promise of being a highly-effective, inexpensive, regenerable sorbent for hot fuel gases. Although the thermodynamics for sulfur removal by manganese predicts somewhat higher hydrogen sulfide over-pressures (i.e. poorer degree of desulfurization) than can be accomplished with zinc-based sorbents, zinc tends to be reduced to the metallic state under coal gasification conditions resulting in loss of capacity and reactivity by volatilization of reactive surfaces. This volatilization phenomenon limits the temperatures for which desulfurization can be effectively accomplished to less than 500 C for zinc ferrite and 700 C for zinc titanate; whereas, manganese-based sorbents can be utilized at temperatures well in temperatures exceeding 700 C. Also the regeneration of manganese-based pellets under oxidizing conditions may be superior to that of zinc titanate since they can be loaded from a simulated reducing coal-derived gas and then be regenerated at higher temperatures (up to 1,300 C). The topics that will be addressed by this study include: preparation of an effective manganese-based sorbent, thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by this sorbent, analysis of kinetics and mechanisms by which sulfur is absorbed by the sorbent (i.e., whether by gaseous diffusion, surface-controlled reaction, ore pore diffusion), and cyclic sulfidation and regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the sulfur.

  15. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization: Task 2, Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; Rate mechanism analysis. Quarterly report, June 15, 1996--September 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1996-09-11

    Currently, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Department of Energy (DOE/METC) is actively investigating alternative hot fuel gas desulfurization sorbents for application to the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). A sorbent must be highly active towards sulfur at high temperatures and pressures, and under varying degrees of reducing atmospheres. Also, it must regenerate nearly ideally to maintain activity over numerous cycles. Furthermore, regeneration must yield a sulfur product which is economically recoverable directly or indirectly. Several metal oxides have been investigated as regenerable sorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot fuel gases. MnO was shown to have an intrinsic reaction rate approximately one order of magnitude greater than the rate or reaction with either CaO or ZnO and two orders of magnitude greater than the reaction rate with V{sub 2}0{sub 3}. Manganese also shows desulfurization potential in the temperature range of 600-700{degrees}C where metal oxides currently known to be reactive with H{sub 2}S are unsatisfactorily. In response to stability difficulties of single and binary metal oxide sorbents, increasing effort is being directed towards incorporation of an inert component into sorbent formulation as witnessed by the various Zn-titanates. Primarily, the inert component increases pore structure integrity while stabilizing the active metal oxide against reduction. This report will address testing of Mn-based sorbents in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor. Steady-state H{sub 2}S concentrations and breakthrough times will be presented.

  16. A Historical Review of "Business Communication Quarterly."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Stephen D.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a brief history of the "Business Communication Quarterly" and its predecessors from 1936-2000. Investigates trends in topic coverage, and lists the journal's editors and most prolific authors. (SR)

  17. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  18. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  19. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  20. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.