Gas flow modelling through clay and claystones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso, E.
2012-12-01
Large scale gas flow experiments conducted in connection with nuclear waste disposal research have shown the dominant effect of "minor" details such as interfaces, contacts and layer boundaries. Even if the scale of the analysis is highly reduced, in search of homogeneous point-like conditions, a systematic development of preferential paths is very often reported. Small size samples become boundary value problems. Preferential paths, when their thickness is modified by the stress-strain response of the media, under the combined action of stress and fluid pressure changes, become highly conductive features for gas flow. The development of preferential paths for fluid flow has been approached in a simple manner by embedding a discontinuity feature into an otherwise continuous element which models clay or claystone matrix behavior. The joint is activated when tensile strains develop in the continuous element. Then, hydraulic properties (permeability, retention behavior) are modified by means of laws derived from the physics of flow in discontinuities. The outlined idea was incorporated into a full Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical finite element code (CODE_BRIGHT) which has a wide range of capabilities for the modeling of two-phase flow in elasto-viscoplastic porous materials. A particular aspect which required attention is the modeling of expansive and shrinkage behavior induced by suction changes. In this way, healing effects during re-saturation may be simulated. Two experimental programs on clay shale samples, performed under triaxial stress conditions will be discussed. In the first case samples of Opalinus shale were subjected to a series of gas pulse decay tests during the application of stress paths involving a particular sequence of confining stress and shearing up to failure. In the second experimental program, performed on a tertiary mudstone from the Norwegian shelf, attention was paid to the effect of bedding-induced anisotropy. Experimental results will be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geistlinger, H. W.; Samani, S.
2010-12-01
The injection of gases into the subsurface has become an important research topic in groundwater remediation technology, e.g. air sparging, and in CCS-technology, e.g. CO2-sequestration into saline aquifers. In both cases risk assessment is based on 2-phase flow modeling assuming that the stochastic gas flow patterns can be described by the continuum approach. As Cinar et al. (2009) have stated: “The fundamental understanding of drainage, as it applies to CO2 sequestration process, is limited primarily by the lack of well characterized experiments that allow a detailed classification of the microscopic flow regimes”. In case of air sparging the two important flow regimes are capillary fingering and viscous fingering. Using pore scale network modeling Ewing and Berkowitz (1998) were able to describe the transition from capillary fingering (= incoherent channelized flow) to viscous fingering (= coherent channelized flow). In order to investigate the stability of buoyancy-driven gas flow and the transition between coherent channelized flow and incoherent channelized flow we conducted high-resolution optical bench scale experiments. Our main results, which are in strong contradiction to the commonly used continuum models (CM) are: (1) Capillary trapping can already occur during injection and at the front of the plume (Lazik and Geistlinger, 2008) (2) Gas clusters or bubbles can be mobile (incoherent gas flow) and immobile (capillary trapping), and (3) Incoherent gas flow can not be described by a generalized Darcy law (Geistlinger et al., 2006, 2009). Glass et al. (2000) conducted CO2-gas injection experiments. Based on their experimental results they also questioned the validity of CM to describe coherent and incoherent gas flow and the validity of homogeneous stability analysis to predict channel width, channel number and channel velocity in heterogeneous porous media. Despite these findings there is an ongoing controversial discussion in the literature about
Modeling of heavy-gas effects on airfoil flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drela, Mark
1992-01-01
Thermodynamic models were constructed for a calorically imperfect gas and for a non-ideal gas. These were incorporated into a quasi one dimensional flow solver to develop an understanding of the differences in flow behavior between the new models and the perfect gas model. The models were also incorporated into a two dimensional flow solver to investigate their effects on transonic airfoil flows. Specifically, the calculations simulated airfoil testing in a proposed high Reynolds number heavy gas test facility. The results indicate that the non-idealities caused significant differences in the flow field, but that matching of an appropriate non-dimensional parameter led to flows similar to those in air.
PC Windows finite element modeling of landfill gas flow
Mull, S.R.; Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Cota, H.
1996-09-01
A two dimensional demonstration program, GAS, has been developed for the solution of landfill gas (LFG) flow problems on a personal computer (PC). The program combines a Windows{trademark} graphical user interface, object oriented programming (OOP) techniques, and finite element modeling (FEM) to demonstrate the practicality of performing LFG flow modeling on the PC. GAS is demonstrated on a sample LFG problem consisting of a landfill, one gas extraction well, the landfill liner, cap, and surrounding soil. Analyses of the program results are performed for successively finer grid resolutions. Element flux imbalance, execution time, and required memory are characterized as a function of grid resolution.
Computational technology of multiscale modeling the gas flows in microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podryga, V. O.
2016-11-01
The work is devoted to modeling the gas mixture flows in engineering microchannels under conditions of many scales of computational domain. The computational technology of using the multiscale approach combining macro - and microscopic models is presented. At macrolevel the nature of the flow and the external influence on it are considered. As a model the system of quasigasdynamic equations is selected. At microlevel the correction of gasdynamic parameters and the determination of boundary conditions are made. As a numerical model the Newton's equations and the molecular dynamics method are selected. Different algorithm types used for implementation of multiscale modeling are considered. The results of the model problems for separate stages are given.
Filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann model for microchannel gas flows.
Zhuo, Congshan; Zhong, Chengwen
2013-11-01
The lattice Boltzmann method has been shown to be successful for microscale gas flows, and it has attracted significant research interest. In this paper, the recently proposed filter-matrix lattice Boltzmann (FMLB) model is first applied to study the microchannel gas flows, in which a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is used to capture the flow behaviors in the transition regime. A kinetic boundary condition, the combined bounce-back and specular-reflection scheme with the second-order slip scheme, is also designed for the FMLB model. By analyzing a unidirectional flow, the slip velocity and the discrete effects related to the boundary condition are derived within the FMLB model, and a revised scheme is presented to overcome such effects, which have also been validated through numerical simulations. To gain an accurate simulation in a wide range of Knudsen numbers, covering the slip and the entire transition flow regimes, a set of slip coefficients with an introduced fitting function is adopted in the revised second-order slip boundary condition. The periodic and pressure-driven microchannel flows have been investigated by the present model in this study. The numerical results, including the velocity profile and the mass flow rate, as well as the nonlinear pressure distribution along the channel, agree fairly well with the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation, the direct simulation Monte Carlo results, the experimental data, and the previous results of the multiple effective relaxation lattice Boltzmann model. Also, the present results of the velocity profile and the mass flow rate show that the present model with the fitting function can yield improved predictions for the microchannel gas flow with higher Knudsen numbers in the transition flow regime.
Empirical slip and viscosity model performance for microscale gas flows.
Gallis, Michail A.; Boyd, Iain D.; McNenly, Matthew J.
2004-07-01
For the simple geometries of Couette and Poiseuille flows, the velocity profile maintains a similar shape from continuum to free molecular flow. Therefore, modifications to the fluid viscosity and slip boundary conditions can improve the continuum based Navier-Stokes solution in the non-continuum non-equilibrium regime. In this investigation, the optimal modifications are found by a linear least-squares fit of the Navier-Stokes solution to the non-equilibrium solution obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Models are then constructed for the Knudsen number dependence of the viscosity correction and the slip model from a database of DSMC solutions for Couette and Poiseuille flows of argon and nitrogen gas, with Knudsen numbers ranging from 0.01 to 10. Finally, the accuracy of the models is measured for non-equilibrium cases both in and outside the DSMC database. Flows outside the database include: combined Couette and Poiseuille flow, partial wall accommodation, helium gas, and non-zero convective acceleration. The models reproduce the velocity profiles in the DSMC database within an L{sub 2} error norm of 3% for Couette flows and 7% for Poiseuille flows. However, the errors in the model predictions outside the database are up to five times larger.
Turbulence modeling of gas-solid suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1988-01-01
The purpose here is to discuss and review advances in two-phase turbulent modeling techniques and their applications in various gas-solid suspension flow situations. In addition to the turbulence closures, heat transfer effect, particle dispersion and wall effects are partially covered.
DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS
X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao
2011-09-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in
Multi-Scale Modeling of Hypersonic Gas Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, Iain D.
On March 27, 2004, NASA successfully flew the X-43A hypersonic test flight vehicle at a velocity of 5000 mph to break the aeronautics speed record that had stood for over 35 years. The final flight of the X-43A on November 16, 2004 further increased the speed record to 6,600 mph which is almost ten times the speed of sound. The very high speed attainable by hypersonic airplanes could revolutionize air travel by dramatically reducing inter-continental flight times. For example, a hypersonic flight from New York to Sydney, Australia, a distance of 10,000 miles, would take less than 2 h. Reusable hypersonic vehicles are also being researched to significantly reduce the cost of access to space. Computer modeling of the gas flows around hypersonic vehicles will play a critical part in their development. This article discusses the conditions that can prevail in certain hypersonic gas flows that require a multi-scale modeling approach.
Breakdown parameter for kinetic modeling of multiscale gas flows.
Meng, Jianping; Dongari, Nishanth; Reese, Jason M; Zhang, Yonghao
2014-06-01
Multiscale methods built purely on the kinetic theory of gases provide information about the molecular velocity distribution function. It is therefore both important and feasible to establish new breakdown parameters for assessing the appropriateness of a fluid description at the continuum level by utilizing kinetic information rather than macroscopic flow quantities alone. We propose a new kinetic criterion to indirectly assess the errors introduced by a continuum-level description of the gas flow. The analysis, which includes numerical demonstrations, focuses on the validity of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations and corresponding kinetic models and reveals that the new criterion can consistently indicate the validity of continuum-level modeling in both low-speed and high-speed flows at different Knudsen numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui
2011-06-01
This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.
Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui
2011-06-01
This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.
Modeling Nonequilibrium Gas Flow Based on Moment Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrilhon, Manuel
2016-01-01
This article discusses the development of continuum models to describe processes in gases in which the particle collisions cannot maintain thermal equilibrium. Such a situation typically is present in rarefied or diluted gases, for flows in microscopic settings, or in general whenever the Knudsen number—the ratio between the mean free path of the particles and a macroscopic length scale—becomes significant. The continuum models are based on the stochastic description of the gas by Boltzmann's equation in kinetic gas theory. With moment approximations, extended fluid dynamic equations can be derived, such as the regularized 13-moment equations. Moment equations are introduced in detail, and typical results are reviewed for channel flow, cavity flow, and flow past a sphere in the low-Mach number setting for which both evolution equations and boundary conditions are well established. Conversely, nonlinear, high-speed processes require special closures that are still under development. Current approaches are examined, along with the challenge of computing shock wave profiles based on continuum equations.
Modeling of information flows in natural gas storage facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjbari, Leyla; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul
2013-09-01
The paper considers the natural-gas storage valuation based on the information-based pricing framework of Brody-Hughston-Macrina (BHM). As opposed to many studies which the associated filtration is considered pre-specified, this work tries to construct the filtration in terms of the information provided to the market. The value of the storage is given by the sum of the discounted expectations of the cash flows under risk-neutral measure, conditional to the constructed filtration with the Brownian bridge noise term. In order to model the flow of information about the cash flows, we assume the existence of a fixed pricing kernel with liquid, homogenous and incomplete market without arbitrage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Min; Xu, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Wen-Jiao; Shen, Zi-Wen
2016-01-01
Most of the ultrasonic gas flow-meters measure the gas flow rate by calculating the ultrasonic transmission time difference between the downstream and upstream. Ultrasonic energy attenuation occurs in the processes of the ultrasonic generation, conversion, transmission, and reception. Additionally, at the same time, the gas flow will also affect the ultrasonic propagation during the measurement, which results in the ultrasonic energy attenuation and the offset of ultrasonic propagation path. Thus, the ultrasonic energy received by the transducer is weaker. When the gas flow rate increases, this effect becomes more apparent. It leads to the measurement accuracy reduced, and the measurement range narrowed. An energy transfer model, where the ultrasonic gas flow-meter under without/with the gas flow, is established by adopting the statistical analysis and curve fitting based on a large amount of experimental data. The static sub model without the gas flow expresses the energy conversion efficiency of ultrasonic gas transducers, and the dynamic sub model with the gas flow reflects the energy attenuation pattern following the flow rate variations. The mathematical model can be used to determine the minimum energy of the excitation signal for meeting the requirement of specific measurement range, and predict the maximum measurable flow rate in the case of fixed energy of excitation signal. Based on the above studies, a method to enhance the excitation signal energy is proposed under the output power of the transmitting circuit being a finite value so as to extend the measurement rage of ultrasonic gas flow-meter.
Hybrid continuum-molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.
2013-12-01
We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic-continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging-diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case.
Steady state cooling flow models with gas loss for normal elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarazin, Craig L.; Ashe, Gregory A.
1989-01-01
A grid of cooling flow models for the hot gas in normal elliptical galaxies is calculated, including the loss of gas due to inhomogeneous cooling. The loss process is modeled as a distributed sink for the gas with the rate of loss being proportional to the local cooling rate. The cooling flow models with gas loss have smaller sonic radii, smaller inflow rates in their central regions, lower densities, and higher temperatures than homogeneous models. The reduction in the amount of hot gas flowing into the center of the models brings the models into much better agreement with the observed X-ray surface brightness profiles of elliptical galaxies. However, there is a large dispersion in the observed X-ray luminosities of ellipticals, and this cannot be explained by variations in the efficiency of gas loss. The gas-loss models have X-ray surface brightness profiles which are much less centrally peaked than the no-gas-loss models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.
1992-01-01
A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.
1992-01-01
A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.
A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact.
Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.
2014-04-01
This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.
A Simple Model of Gas Flow in a Porous Powder Compact
Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David
2012-07-01
This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.
Methane production rate studies and gas flow modeling for the fresh kills landfill. Interim report
Kunz, C.O.; Lu, A.H.
1980-11-01
Methane is produced in landfills by anaerobic bacteria in the digestion of various organic materials found in the wastes. With the increasing cost of fuels the recovery of methane can be economic from some landfills. The rate of methane production can vary widely depending on factors such as the moisture content of the wastes, the pH, toxicity, temperature and amount of organic material available. Information regarding the rate of gas production and gas flow during pumping is needed to determine the potential of a site for methane recovery and in the design of a recovery system. The primary objective of this study was to develop gas flow models based on measurements of the pressure differential between landfill gas and atmospheric pressure that would enable the rate of gas production to be estimated. In the course of this investigation two landfill gas flow models were developed; a static model and a dynamic model.
Methane-production-rate studies and gas-flow modeling for the Fresh Kills landfill
Kunz, C.O.; Lu, A.H.
1980-11-01
Methane is produced in landfills by anaerobic bacteria in the digestion of various organic materials found in the wastes. With the increasing cost of fuels the recovery of methane can be economic for some landfills. The rate of methane production can vary widely depending on factors such as the moisture content of the wastes, the pH, toxicity, temperature and the amount of organic material available. Information regarding the rate of gas production and gas flow during pumping is needed to determine the potential of a site for methane recovery and in the design of a recovery system. The primary objective of this study was to develop gas flow models based on measurements of the pressure differential between landfill gas and atmospheric pressure that would enable the rate of gas production to be estimated. In the course of this investigation two landfill gas flow models were developed; a static model and a dynamic model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kun; He, Xin; Cai, Chunpei
2008-07-01
It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flowfields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations lose accuracy. For the high speed diatomic molecular flow in the transitional regime, the inaccuracies are partially attributed to the single temperature approximations in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, we propose a continuum multiple temperature model based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the non-equilibrium flow computation. In the current model, the Landau-Teller-Jeans relaxation model for the rotational energy is used to evaluate the energy exchange between the translational and rotational modes. Due to the multiple temperature approximation, the second viscosity coefficient in the Navier-Stokes equations is replaced by the temperature relaxation term. In order to solve the multiple temperature kinetic model, a multiscale gas-kinetic finite volume scheme is proposed, where the gas-kinetic equation is numerically solved for the fluxes to update the macroscopic flow variables inside each control volume. Since the gas-kinetic scheme uses a continuous gas distribution function at a cell interface for the fluxes evaluation, the moments of a gas distribution function can be explicitly obtained for the multiple temperature model. Therefore, the kinetic scheme is much more efficient than the DSMC method, especially in the near continuum flow regime. For the non-equilibrium flow computations, i.e., the nozzle flow and hypersonic rarefied flow over flat plate, the computational results are validated in comparison with experimental measurements and DSMC solutions.
Barmashenko, B D; Rosenwaks, S
2012-09-01
A simple, semi-analytical model of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is presented. The model takes into account the rise of temperature in the lasing medium with increasing pump power, resulting in decreasing pump absorption and slope efficiency. The model predicts the dependence of power on the flow velocity in flowing gas DPALs and checks the effect of using a buffer gas with high molar heat capacity and large relaxation rate constant between the 2P3/2 and 2P1/2 fine-structure levels of the alkali atom. It is found that the power strongly increases with flow velocity and that by replacing, e.g., ethane by propane as a buffer gas the power may be further increased by up to 30%. Eight kilowatt is achievable for 20 kW pump at flow velocity of 20 m/s.
Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen
2016-09-01
To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results.
Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model
Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen
2016-01-01
To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results. PMID:27587293
The 3-D CFD modeling of gas turbine combustor-integral bleed flow interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, D. Y.; Reynolds, R. S.
1993-01-01
An advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the flow interaction between a gas turbine combustor and an integral bleed plenum. In this model, the elliptic governing equations of continuity, momentum and the k-e turbulence model were solved on a boundary-fitted, curvilinear, orthogonal grid system. The model was first validated against test data from public literature and then applied to a gas turbine combustor with integral bleed. The model predictions agreed well with data from combustor rig testing. The model predictions also indicated strong flow interaction between the combustor and the integral bleed. Integral bleed flow distribution was found to have a great effect on the pressure distribution around the gas turbine combustor.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIFIELD MODEL OF CHURN-TURBULENT GAS/LIQUID FLOWS
Elena A. Tselishcheva; Steven P. Antal; Michael Z. Podowski; Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
The accuracy of numerical predictions for gas/liquid two-phase flows using Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) methods strongly depends on the formulation of models governing the interaction between the continuous liquid field and bubbles of different sizes. The purpose of this paper is to develop, test and validate a multifield model of adiabatic gas/liquid flows at intermediate gas concentrations (e.g., churn-turbulent flow regime), in which multiple-size bubbles are divided into a specified number of groups, each representing a prescribed range of sizes. The proposed modeling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for each bubble field. The overall model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code. The results of NPHASE-CMFD simulations have been validated against the experimental data from the TOPFLOW test facility. Also, a parametric analysis on the effect of various modeling assumptions has been performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Hui; Peng, Ao-Ping; Zhang, Han-Xin; Yang, Jaw-Yen
2015-04-01
This article reviews rarefied gas flow computations based on nonlinear model Boltzmann equations using deterministic high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms (GKUA) in phase space. The nonlinear Boltzmann model equations considered include the BGK model, the Shakhov model, the Ellipsoidal Statistical model and the Morse model. Several high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms, which combine the discrete velocity ordinate method in velocity space and the compact high-order finite-difference schemes in physical space, are developed. The parallel strategies implemented with the accompanying algorithms are of equal importance. Accurate computations of rarefied gas flow problems using various kinetic models over wide ranges of Mach numbers 1.2-20 and Knudsen numbers 0.0001-5 are reported. The effects of different high resolution schemes on the flow resolution under the same discrete velocity ordinate method are studied. A conservative discrete velocity ordinate method to ensure the kinetic compatibility condition is also implemented. The present algorithms are tested for the one-dimensional unsteady shock-tube problems with various Knudsen numbers, the steady normal shock wave structures for different Mach numbers, the two-dimensional flows past a circular cylinder and a NACA 0012 airfoil to verify the present methodology and to simulate gas transport phenomena covering various flow regimes. Illustrations of large scale parallel computations of three-dimensional hypersonic rarefied flows over the reusable sphere-cone satellite and the re-entry spacecraft using almost the largest computer systems available in China are also reported. The present computed results are compared with the theoretical prediction from gas dynamics, related DSMC results, slip N-S solutions and experimental data, and good agreement can be found. The numerical experience indicates that although the direct model Boltzmann equation solver in phase space can be computationally expensive
General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong
2016-07-01
A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.
Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-12-09
Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body.
A macroscopic model for slightly compressible gas slip-flow in homogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasseux, D.; Parada, F. J. Valdes; Tapia, J. A. Ochoa; Goyeau, B.
2014-05-01
The study of gas slip-flow in porous media is relevant in many applications ranging from nanotechnology to enhanced oil recovery and in any situation involving low-pressure gas-transport through structures having sufficiently small pores. In this paper, we use the method of volume averaging for deriving effective-medium equations in the framework of a slightly compressible gas flow. The result of the upscaling process is an effective-medium model subjected to time- and length-scale constraints, which are clearly identified in our derivation. At the first order in the Knudsen number, the macroscopic momentum transport equation corresponds to a Darcy-like model involving the classical intrinsic permeability tensor and a slip-flow correction tensor that is also intrinsic. It generalizes the Darcy-Klinkenberg equation for ideal gas flow, and exhibits a more complex form for dense gas. The component values of the two intrinsic tensors were computed by solving the associated closure problems on two- and three-dimensional periodic unit cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the slip-flow correction with the porosity was also verified to agree with approximate analytical results. Our predictions show a power-law relationship between the permeability and the slip-flow correction that is consistent with other works. Nevertheless, the generalization of such a relationship to any configuration requires more analysis.
Computer Modeling of Flow, Thermal Condition and Ash Deposition in a Hot-Gas Filtration Device
Ahmadi, G.; Mazaheri, A.; Liu, C.; Gamwo, I.K.
2002-09-19
The objective of the present study is to develop a computational model for simulating the gas flow, thermal condition and ash transport and deposition pattern in the hot-gas filtration systems. The computational model is to provide a virtual tool for design and operation modifications. Particular attention is given to the Particle Control Device (PCD) at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama. For evaluation of gas velocity and temperature field in the vessel, the FLUENT commercial CFD computer code is used. Ash particle transport and deposition pattern was analyzed with the Lagrangian particle tracking approach.
Using the majorant frequency scheme in the statistical modeling of rarefied gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titov, E. V.; Gimel'Shein, S. F.
1990-12-01
The practical possibilities of the majorant frequency scheme are investigated using one-dimensional and plane problems in rarefied gas dynamics. Two versions of the majorant frequency scheme, cellular and noncellular, are shown to provide good results in the statistical modeling of rarefied gas flows. The cellular scheme is preferred for one- and two-dimensional problems with simple geometry, while the noncellular scheme is preferable in the case of two-dimensional problems with complex geometry.
2D models of gas flow and ice grain acceleration in Enceladus' vents using DSMC methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, Orenthal J.; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy M.
2015-09-01
The gas distribution of the Enceladus water vapor plume and the terminal speeds of ejected ice grains are physically linked to its subsurface fissures and vents. It is estimated that the gas exits the fissures with speeds of ∼300-1000 m/s, while the micron-sized grains are ejected with speeds comparable to the escape speed (Schmidt, J. et al. [2008]. Nature 451, 685-688). We investigated the effects of isolated axisymmetric vent geometries on subsurface gas distributions, and in turn, the effects of gas drag on grain acceleration. Subsurface gas flows were modeled using a collision-limiter Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique in order to consider a broad range of flow regimes (Bird, G. [1994]. Molecular Gas Dynamics and the Direct Simulation of Gas Flows. Oxford University Press, Oxford; Titov, E.V. et al. [2008]. J. Propul. Power 24(2), 311-321). The resulting DSMC gas distributions were used to determine the drag force for the integration of ice grain trajectories in a test particle model. Simulations were performed for diffuse flows in wide channels (Reynolds number ∼10-250) and dense flows in narrow tubular channels (Reynolds number ∼106). We compared gas properties like bulk speed and temperature, and the terminal grain speeds obtained at the vent exit with inferred values for the plume from Cassini data. In the simulations of wide fissures with dimensions similar to that of the Tiger Stripes the resulting subsurface gas densities of ∼1014-1020 m-3 were not sufficient to accelerate even micron-sized ice grains to the Enceladus escape speed. In the simulations of narrow tubular vents with radii of ∼10 m, the much denser flows with number densities of 1021-1023 m-3 accelerated micron-sized grains to bulk gas speed of ∼600 m/s. Further investigations are required to understand the complex relationship between the vent geometry, gas source rate and the sizes and speeds of ejected grains.
Comparison of gas dynamic model with steady solar wind flow around Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mihalov, J. D.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.
1982-01-01
A gas dynamic model for solar wind flow around Venus has been compared with Pioneer Venus orbiter plasma analyzer measurements from times when the solar wind flow seemed steadiest. The comparisons were made near the terminator. When the observed and model bow shock locations are matched, the model agrees fairly well with the observed parameters: the components of the flow velocity and magnetic field, and the proton number density and isotropic temperature. However, the Mach numbers required to fit the observed bow shock locations are less than 2/3 those estimated from the measured parameters of the free-stream flow, because the bow shock locations (near the terminator) are farther from Venus than expected. Sometimes the measured flow speeds appear to be retarded near the ionopause.
Numerical calculations of gaseous reacting flows in a model of gas turbine combustors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Chuanjun; Tang, Ming; Zhu, Huiling; Sun, Huixian
1991-02-01
The numerical calculations of gaseous reaction flows in a model of gas-turbine combustors are described. The profiles of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic patterns in a 3D combustor model are obtained by solving the governing differential transport equations. The well-established numerical prediction algorithm SIMPLE; a modified turbulence model, and a turbulent diffusion flame model are adopted in the computations. The beta-function is selected as the probability density function. The effect of the combustion process on flow patterns is investigated. The calculated results are verified by experiments, and are in good agreement.
Methodology Development of a Gas-Liquid Dynamic Flow Regime Transition Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doup, Benjamin Casey
Current reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, TRACE, and CATHARE, use flow regime maps or flow regime transition criteria that were developed for static fully-developed two-phase flows to choose interfacial transfer models that are necessary to solve the two-fluid model. The flow regime is therefore difficult to identify near the flow regime transitions, in developing two-phase flows, and in transient two-phase flows. Interfacial area transport equations were developed to more accurately predict the dynamic nature of two-phase flows. However, other model coefficients are still flow regime dependent. Therefore, an accurate prediction of the flow regime is still important. In the current work, the methodology for the development of a dynamic flow regime transition model that uses the void fraction and interfacial area concentration obtained by solving three-field the two-fluid model and two-group interfacial area transport equation is investigated. To develop this model, detailed local experimental data are obtained, the two-group interfacial area transport equations are revised, and a dynamic flow regime transition model is evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics model. Local experimental data is acquired for 63 different flow conditions in bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, and churn-turbulent flow regimes. The measured parameters are the group-1 and group-2 bubble number frequency, void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and interfacial bubble velocities. The measurements are benchmarked by comparing the prediction of the superficial gas velocities, determined using the local measurements with those determined from volumetric flow rate measurements and the agreement is generally within +/-20%. The repeatability four-sensor probe construction process is within +/-10%. The repeatability of the measurement process is within +/-7%. The symmetry of the test section is examined and the average agreement is within +/-5.3% at z/D = 10 and +/-3.4% at z/D = 32
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pivovarova, E. A.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schmidt, A. A.
2013-11-01
Mathematical modeling of flow in the differential chamber of the gas-dynamic interface of a portable mass-spectrometer was carried out to comprehensively study the flow structure and make recommendations for the optimization of the gas-dynamic interface. Modeling was performed using an OpenFOAM open computational platform. Conditions for an optimal operating mode of the differential chamber were determined.
Modeling the flow regime near the source in underwater gas releases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premathilake, Lakshitha T.; Yapa, Poojitha D.; Nissanka, Indrajith D.; Kumarage, Pubudu
2016-12-01
Recent progress in calculating gas bubble sizes in a plume, based on phenomenological approaches using the release conditions is a significant improvement to make the gas plume models self-reliant. Such calculations require details of conditions Near the Source of Plume (NSP); (i.e. the plume/jet velocity and radius near the source), which inspired the present work. Determining NSP conditions for gas plumes are far more complex than that for oil plumes due to the substantial density difference between gas and water. To calculate NSP conditions, modeling the early stage of the plume is important. A novel method of modeling the early stage of an underwater gas release is presented here. Major impact of the present work is to define the correct NSP conditions for underwater gas releases, which is not possible with available methods as those techniques are not based on the physics of flow region near the source of the plume/jet. We introduce super Gaussian profiles to model the density and velocity variations of the early stages of plume, coupled with the laws of fluid mechanics to define profile parameters. This new approach, models the velocity profile variation from near uniform, across the section at the release point to Gaussian some distance away. The comparisons show that experimental data agrees well with the computations.
Assessment of gas-surface interaction models for computation of rarefied hypersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla, Jose Fernando
Over the next few decades, spaceflight is expected to become more common through the resurgence of manned space exploration and the rise of commercial manned spaceflight. An essential role for the efficient research and development of suborbital spaceflight is played by computational simulation of rarefied hypersonic flows. Among the few classes of computational approaches for examining rarefied gas dynamics, the most widely used approach, for spatial scales relevant to suborbital spaceflight, is the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Although the DSMC method has been under development for over forty years, there are still many areas where improvements can be made. One particular area is the associated numerical modeling of interactions between gas molecules and solid surfaces. Gas-surface interactions are not well understood for rarefied hypersonic conditions, although various models have been developed. This thesis ultimately focuses on assessing two common gas-surface interaction models in use with the DSMC method, the Maxwell model and the Cercignani, Lampis and Lord (CLL) model. In the search for a definitive thesis goal and as a consequence of the analysis tools developed for achieving the definitive thesis goal, several aspects of DSMC analysis are examined. Initially, procedures to determine aerodynamic coefficients from DSMC simulations are validated against certain windtunnel test data and an independent DSMC code. Then, sensitivity studies are performed involving aerothermodynamics predictions for the Apollo 6, at the 110 km altitude return trajectory point. This reveals the significance of gas-surface surface interaction models in rarefied hypersonic flows. A review of existing gas-surface interaction models motivates the assessment of the Maxwell and CLL models. The two models are scrutinized with the help of relatively recent windtunnel test measurements and procedures to extract surface scattering distributions. Both models yield similar
Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien; Li, Tao; Yuan, Chris
2014-01-15
This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.
CFD modelling of gas flow through a fixed bed of Raschig rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marek, M.
2014-08-01
In this work, direct numerical simulation of incompressible gas flow through a complex geometrical structure of Raschig rings is performed. The bed structure is obtained in a separate simulation in which Raschig rings are added one by one and fall freely into a cylindrical container until mechanical equilibrium is reached. The gas is injected at the top of the container, flows through a packed layer of randomly oriented rings, then leaves the container at the bottom. The flow equations are solved with the use of classical second order solver and projection method for structured regular grid and the complexity of domain geometry is handled by a variant of immersed boundary technique. The model allows to study the characteristics of the flow within the bed, pressure distribution in particular, and can be applied to development and validation of simplified approaches. The simulations are performed for various grid resolutions and the results show good convergence to grid independent solution, especially for lower gas velocities. The obtained dependence of total pressure drop on the inlet velocity is in reasonable agreement with the literature data but the demand for grid resolution significantly increases with the gas velocity.
A compressible two-layer model for transient gas-liquid flows in pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demay, Charles; Hérard, Jean-Marc
2017-03-01
This work is dedicated to the modeling of gas-liquid flows in pipes. As a first step, a new two-layer model is proposed to deal with the stratified regime. The starting point is the isentropic Euler set of equations for each phase where the classical hydrostatic assumption is made for the liquid. The main difference with the models issued from the classical literature is that the liquid as well as the gas is assumed compressible. In that framework, an averaging process results in a five-equation system where the hydrostatic constraint has been used to define the interfacial pressure. Closure laws for the interfacial velocity and source terms such as mass and momentum transfer are provided following an entropy inequality. The resulting model is hyperbolic with non-conservative terms. Therefore, regarding the homogeneous part of the system, the definition and uniqueness of jump conditions is studied carefully and acquired. The nature of characteristic fields and the corresponding Riemann invariants are also detailed. Thus, one may build analytical solutions for the Riemann problem. In addition, positivity is obtained for heights and densities. The overall derivation deals with gas-liquid flows through rectangular channels, circular pipes with variable cross section and includes vapor-liquid flows.
Lattice-gas models of phase separation: interfaces, phase transitions, and multiphase flow
Rothman, D.H. ); Zaleski, S. )
1994-10-01
Momentum-conserving lattice gases are simple, discrete, microscopic models of fluids. This review describes their hydrodynamics, with particular attention given to the derivation of macroscopic constitutive equations from microscopic dynamics. Lattice-gas models of phase separation receive special emphasis. The current understanding of phase transitions in these momentum-conserving models is reviewed; included in this discussion is a summary of the dynamical properties of interfaces. Because the phase-separation models are microscopically time irreversible, interesting questions are raised about their relationship to real fluid mixtures. Simulation of certain complex-fluid problems, such as multiphase flow through porous media and the interaction of phase transitions with hydrodynamics, is illustrated.
Numerical modeling of non-isothermal gas flow and NAPL vapor transport in soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pártl, Ondřej; Beneš, Michal; Frolkovič, Peter; Illangasekare, Tissa; Smits, Kathleen
2016-05-01
We introduce a mathematical model for the description of non-isothermal compressible flow of gas mixtures in heterogeneous porous media and we derive an efficient semi-implicit time-stepping numerical scheme for the solution of the governing equations. We experimentally estimate the order of convergence of the scheme in spatial variables and we present several computational studies that demonstrate the ability of the numerical scheme.
Numerical Prediction of Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow in a Model Gas Turbine Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Liu, Nan-Suey
2005-01-01
The three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, reacting and non-reacting flow characteristics of a model gas turbine combustor operating on air/methane are simulated via an unstructured and massively parallel Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. This serves to demonstrate the capabilities of the code for design and analysis of real combustor engines. The effects of some design features of combustors are examined. In addition, the computed results are validated against experimental data.
Paraelectric gas flow accelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.
Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, Steven L.
1988-01-01
Hydrogen cooled, turbine powered space weapon systems require a relatively simple, but reasonably accurate hydrogen gas expansion turbine model. Such a simplified turbine model would require little computational time and allow incorporation into system level computer programs while providing reasonably accurate volume/mass estimates. This model would then allow optimization studies to be performed on multiparameter space power systems and provide improved turbine mass and size estimates for the various operating conditions (when compared to empirical and power law approaches). An axial flow gas expansion turbine model was developed for these reasons and is in use as a comparative bench mark in space power system studies at Sandia. The turbine model is based on fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and material strength considerations, but is considered simplified because it does not account for design details such as boundary layer effects, shock waves, turbulence, stress concentrations, and seal leakage. Although the basic principles presented here apply to any gas or vapor axial flow turbine, hydrogen turbines are discussed because of their immense importance on space burst power platforms.
Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, Steven L.
1988-01-01
Hydrogen cooled, turbine powered space weapon systems require a relatively simple, but reasonably accurate hydrogen gas expansion turbine model. Such a simplified turbine model would require little computational time and allow incorporation into system level computer programs while providing reasonably accurate volume/mass estimates. This model would then allow optimization studies to be performed on multiparameter space power systems and provide improved turbine mass and size estimates for the various operating conditions (when compared to empirical and power law approaches). An axial flow gas expansion turbine model was developed for these reasons and is in use as a comparative bench mark in space power system studies at Sandia. The turbine model is based on fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and material strength considerations, but is considered simplified because it does not account for design details such as boundary layer effects, shock waves, turbulence, stress concentrations, and seal leakage. Although the basic principles presented here apply to any gas or vapor axial flow turbine, hydrogen turbines are discussed because of their immense importance on space burst power platforms.
Modeling of gas flow in the cylindrical channels of high-voltage plasma torches with rod electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovskoy, A. M.; Popov, S. D.; Surov, A. V.
2013-08-01
The article is devoted to the calculation of gas dynamic parameters of gas flow in various areas of low-temperature plasma generator, therefore, target area's grid was built for the simulation of plasma gas flow in channels of studied high-voltage AC plasma torches and calculations of three-dimensional gas flow was made using GAMBIT and FLUENT soft-ware and Spalart-Allmares turbulence model, air flow was simulated in the tangential feed's areas, in the cylindrical channel, in the tapering nozzle chamber and in the mixing chamber of plasma torches and outside (in the environment); thus, 3D-modelling of the cold plasma-forming gas flow was performed in cylindrical channels of studied high-voltage AC plasma torches with rod electrodes for the first time.
Asymptotic modelling of the flow of a thermal binary gas mixture in a microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatignol, R.; Croizet, C.
2014-12-01
The paper purpose is to investigate asymptotic models to describe the basic physical phenomena of flows of a thermal binary gas mixture in coplanar microchannels. The steady flows of gases are described by the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, with first order slip boundary conditions for the velocities and jump boundary conditions for the temperatures on the microchannel walls. Taking into account the small parameter equal to the ratio of the two longitudinal and transversal lengths, an asymptotic model is proposed, corresponding to low Mach numbers and to low or moderate Knudsen numbers. Several aspects of the solutions are discussed. We pay attention to the influence of the temperature gradient which is present along the walls. In particular, it is shown that a change in the temperature gradient can induce a change in the longitudinal flow direction. Finally, a result of DSMC similation and the corresponding asymptotic solution are compared.
Modeling of a supersonic flow around a cylinder with a gas-permeable porous insert
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, S. G.; Maslov, A. A.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.
2015-07-01
Results of an experimental and numerical study of a supersonic (M∞ = 4.85) flow around a streamwise-aligned cylinder with a gas-permeable porous insert on the frontal face in the range of Reynolds numbers Re D = (0.1-2.0) · 105 are presented. The numerical study is performed by using the Ansys Fluent software system and a porous medium model based on a quadratic law of filtration. The parameters of the quadratic dependence are calculated on the basis of experimental data for an air flow in a porous material. Flow fields are obtained, and the wave drag of the model is calculated as a function of the porous insert length and the Reynolds number. Results of numerical simulations are compared with wind tunnel measurements.
Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor
Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2008-05-01
Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. This paper reviews the experimental apparatus and procedures, presents a sample of the data set, and reviews the INL Standard Problem. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12
Eck, H. J. N. van; Koppers, W. R.; Rooij, G. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes; Kleyn, A. W.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.
2009-03-15
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial magnetic field. In this way, the neutrals are prevented to reach the target region. The neutral flux to the target must be lower than the plasma flux to enable ITER relevant plasma-surface interaction (PSI) studies. It is therefore essential to control the neutral gas dynamics. The DSMC method was used to model the expansion of a hot gas in a low pressure vessel where a small discrepancy in shock position was found between the simulations and a well-established empirical formula. Two stage differential pumping was modeled and applied in the linear plasma devices Pilot-PSI and PLEXIS. In Pilot-PSI a factor of 4.5 pressure reduction for H{sub 2} has been demonstrated. Both simulations and experiments showed that the optimum skimmer position depends on the position of the shock and therefore shifts for different gas parameters. The shape of the skimmer has to be designed such that it has a minimum impact on the shock structure. A too large angle between the skimmer and the forward direction of the gas flow leads to an influence on the expansion structure. A pressure increase in front of the skimmer is formed and the flow of the plasma beam becomes obstructed. It has been shown that a skimmer with an angle around 53 deg. gives the best performance. The use of skimmers is implemented in the design of the large linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI. Here, a three stage differentially pumped vacuum system is used to reach low enough neutral pressures near the target, opening a door to PSI research in the ITER relevant regime.
Numerical Model of Hydrate Formation and Dissociation With Free Gas Flow for a Global Inventory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scandella, B.; Juanes, R.
2009-12-01
Methane hydrates hold great potential as an energy resource but also pose the threat, if they dissociate, of contributing to the greenhouse effect. In order to evaluate the risks and opportunities they present, we have developed a numerical model of hydrate formation and dissociation. This one-dimensional, continuum model is simple enough to be applied globally to estimate the total inventory of hydrate and trapped gas, yet captures multiphase flow effects not accounted for in previous inventory estimates. Preliminary results compare behavior regimes in typical active and passive continental margins, including fracture-dominated gas invasion, slow capillary invasion, and dynamic steady states. These results identify the key parameters that need to be estimated at a global scale in order to model the formation of current hydrate accumulations and their response to production and climate change.
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media
Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-01-01
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy () or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between and . Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model. PMID:23188803
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media.
Monteiro, Paulo J M; Rycroft, Chris H; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-12-11
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy (~109-²¹ m² ) or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between -1/2 and -1. Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model.
Yoon, Dhongik S; Jo, HangJin; Corradini, Michael L
2017-04-01
Condensation of steam vapor is an important mode of energy removal from the reactor containment. The presence of noncondensable gas complicates the process and makes it difficult to model. MELCOR, one of the more widely used system codes for containment analyses, uses the heat and mass transfer analogy to model condensation heat transfer. To investigate previously reported nodalization-dependence in natural convection flow regime, MELCOR condensation model as well as other models are studied. The nodalization-dependence issue is resolved by using physical length from the actual geometry rather than node size of each control volume as the characteristic length scale formore » MELCOR containment analyses. At the transition to turbulent natural convection regime, the McAdams correlation for convective heat transfer produces a better prediction compared to the original MELCOR model. The McAdams correlation is implemented in MELCOR and the prediction is validated against a set of experiments on a scaled AP600 containment. The MELCOR with our implemented model produces improved predictions. For steam molar fractions in the gas mixture greater than about 0.58, the predictions are within the uncertainty margin of the measurements. The simulation results still underestimate the heat transfer from the gas-steam mixture, implying that conservative predictions are provided.« less
Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor
Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Doanld M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2010-02-01
Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate geometry scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean bulk velocity) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analyses and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the
Poly-Gaussian model of randomly rough surface in rarefied gas flow
Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.
2014-12-09
Surface roughness is simulated by the model of non-Gaussian random process. Our results for the scattering of rarefied gas atoms from a rough surface using modified approach to the DSMC calculation of rarefied gas flow near a rough surface are developed and generalized applying the poly-Gaussian model representing probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities. The transformation of the scattering function due to the roughness is characterized by the roughness operator. Simulating rough surface of the walls by the poly-Gaussian random field expressed as integrated Wiener process, we derive a representation of the roughness operator that can be applied in numerical DSMC methods as well as in analytical investigations.
Gas-dynamic modeling of gas flow in semi-closed space including channel surface fluctuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrova, E. N.; Salnikov, A. F.
2016-10-01
In this article frequency interaction conditions, that affect on acoustic stability of solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE) action, and its influence on level change of pressure fluctuations with longitudinal gas oscillations in the combustion chamber (CC) are considered. Studies of CC in the assessment of the operating rocket engine stability are reported.
Modeling of gas ionization and plasma flow in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Tiankun; Wu, Zhiwen; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei; Cheng, Yue
2016-12-01
A one-dimensional model to study the gas ionization and plasma flow in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters(APPTs) is established in this paper. The discharge process of the APPT used in the LES-6 satellite is simulated to validate the model. The simulation results for the impulse bit and propellant utilization give values of 29.05 μN s and 9.56%, respectively, which are in good agreement with experimental results. To test the new ionization sub-model, the discharge process of a particular APPT, XPPT-1, is simulated, and a numerical result for the propellant utilization of 62.8% is obtained, which also agrees well with experiment. The gas ionization simulation results indicate that an APPT with a lower average propellant ablation rate and higher average electric field intensity between electrodes should have higher propellant utilization. The plasma density distribution between the electrodes of APPTs can also be obtained using the new model, and the numerical results show that the plasma generation and flow are discontinuous, which is in good agreement with past experimental results of high-speed photography. This model provides a new tool with which to study the physical mechanisms of APPTs and a reference for the design of high-performance APPTs.
Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao
2016-04-01
For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s.
Sub-grid drag models for horizontal cylinder arrays immersed in gas-particle multiphase flows
Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2013-09-08
Immersed cylindrical tube arrays often are used as heat exchangers in gas-particle fluidized beds. In multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of large fluidized beds, explicit resolution of small cylinders is computationally infeasible. Instead, the cylinder array may be viewed as an effective porous medium in coarse-grid simulations. The cylinders' influence on the suspension as a whole, manifested as an effective drag force, and on the relative motion between gas and particles, manifested as a correction to the gas-particle drag, must be modeled via suitable sub-grid constitutive relationships. In this work, highly resolved unit-cell simulations of flow around an array of horizontal cylinders, arranged in a staggered configuration, are filtered to construct sub-grid, or `filtered', drag models, which can be implemented in coarse-grid simulations. The force on the suspension exerted by the cylinders is comprised of, as expected, a buoyancy contribution, and a kinetic component analogous to fluid drag on a single cylinder. Furthermore, the introduction of tubes also is found to enhance segregation at the scale of the cylinder size, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the filtered gas-particle drag.
Model simulation and experiments of flow and mass transport through a nano-material gas filter
Yang, Xiaofan; Zheng, Zhongquan C.; Winecki, Slawomir; Eckels, Steve
2013-11-01
A computational model for evaluating the performance of nano-material packed-bed filters was developed. The porous effects of the momentum and mass transport within the filter bed were simulated. For the momentum transport, an extended Ergun-type model was employed and the energy loss (pressure drop) along the packed-bed was simulated and compared with measurement. For the mass transport, a bulk dsorption model was developed to study the adsorption process (breakthrough behavior). Various types of porous materials and gas flows were tested in the filter system where the mathematical models used in the porous substrate were implemented and validated by comparing with experimental data and analytical solutions under similar conditions. Good agreements were obtained between experiments and model predictions.
Surface velocity divergence model of air/water interfacial gas transfer in open-channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanjou, M.; Nezu, I.; Okamoto, T.
2017-04-01
Air/water interfacial gas transfer through a free surface plays a significant role in preserving and restoring water quality in creeks and rivers. However, direct measurements of the gas transfer velocity and reaeration coefficient are still difficult, and therefore a reliable prediction model needs to be developed. Varying systematically the bulk-mean velocity and water depth, laboratory flume experiments were conducted and we measured surface velocities and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in open-channel flows to reveal the relationship between DO transfer velocity and surface divergence (SD). Horizontal particle image velocimetry measurements provide the time-variations of surface velocity divergence. Positive and negative regions of surface velocity divergence are transferred downstream in time, as occurs in boil phenomenon on natural river free-surfaces. The result implies that interfacial gas transfer is related to bottom-situated turbulence motion and vertical mass transfer. The original SD model focuses mainly on small-scale viscous motion, and this model strongly depends on the water depth. Therefore, we modify the SD model theoretically to accommodate the effects of the water depth on gas transfer, introducing a non-dimensional parameter that includes contributions of depth-scale large-vortex motion, such as secondary currents, to surface renewal events related to DO transport. The modified SD model proved effective and reasonable without any dependence on the bulk mean velocity and water depth, and has a larger coefficient of determination than the original SD model. Furthermore, modeling of friction velocity with the Reynolds number improves the practicality of a new formula that is expected to be used in studies of natural rivers.
Decay of the 3D viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model with damping
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-08-15
We establish the optimal L{sup p} − L{sup 2}(1 ≤ p < 6/5) time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model with damping and analyse the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. It is observed that the fraction effect of the damping affects the dispersion of fluids and enhances the time decay rate of solution. Our method of proof consists of Hodge decomposition technique, L{sup p} − L{sup 2} estimates for the linearized equations, and delicate energy estimates.
Parallel implementation of a particle simulation for modeling rarefied gas dynamic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fallavollita, M. A.; Mcdonald, J. D.; Baganoff, D.
1992-01-01
When the conditions of flow are rarefied and hypersonic, a more suitable alternative to the use of the Navier-Stokes equations for developing a numerical solution is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC), a method of simulation which employs a large number of particles in modeling a rarefied gas. The performance of a parallel DSMC code developed for the Intel iPSC/860 Touchstone Gamma prototype computer is studied and the scaleup is found to be very nearly over the range of 16-128 processors.
Numerical modeling of condensation from vapor-gas mixtures for forced down flow inside a tube
Yuann, R Y; Schrock, V E; Chen, Xiang
1995-09-01
Laminar film condensation is the dominant heat transfer mode inside tubes. In the present paper direct numerical simulation of the detailed transport process within the steam-gas core flow and in the condensate film is carried out. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric two dimensional (r, z) gas phase inside an annular condensate film flow with an assumed smooth interface. The fundamental conservation equations were written for mass, momentum, species concentration and energy in the gaseous phase with effective diffusion parameters characterizing the turbulent region. The low Reynolds number two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} model was employed to determine the eddy diffusion coefficients. The liquid film was described by similar formulation without the gas species equation. An empirical correlation was employed to correct for the effect of film waviness on the interfacial shear. A computer code named COAPIT (Condensation Analysis Program Inside Tube) was developed to implement numerical solution of the fundamental equations. The equations were solved by a marching technique working downstream from the entrance of the condensing section. COAPIT was benchmarked against experimental data and overall reasonable agreement was found for the key parameters such as heat transfer coefficient and tube inner wall temperature. The predicted axial development of radial profiles of velocity, composition and temperature and occurrence of metastable vapor add insight to the physical phenomena.
Modeling of static and flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barmashenko, Boris D.; Auslender, Ilya; Yacoby, Eyal; Waichman, Karol; Sadot, Oren; Rosenwaks, Salman
2016-03-01
Modeling of static and flowing-gas subsonic, transonic and supersonic Cs and K Ti:Sapphire and diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is reported. A simple optical model applied to the static K and Cs lasers shows good agreement between the calculated and measured dependence of the laser power on the incident pump power. The model reproduces the observed threshold pump power in K DPAL which is much higher than that predicted by standard models of the DPAL. Scaling up flowing-gas DPALs to megawatt class power is studied using accurate three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, taking into account the effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. Both the maximum achievable power and laser beam quality are estimated for Cs and K lasers. The performance of subsonic and, in particular, supersonic DPALs is compared with that of transonic, where supersonic nozzle and diffuser are spared and high power mechanical pump (needed for recovery of the gas total pressure which strongly drops in the diffuser), is not required for continuous closed cycle operation. For pumping by beams of the same rectangular cross section, comparison between end-pumping and transverse-pumping shows that the output power is not affected by the pump geometry, however, the intensity of the output laser beam in the case of transverse-pumped DPALs is strongly non-uniform in the laser beam cross section resulting in higher brightness and better beam quality in the far field for the end-pumping geometry where the intensity of the output beam is uniform.
Miller, Aubrey L.
2005-07-01
This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.
Taitel, Y.; Bornea, D.; Dukler, A.E.
1980-05-01
Models for predicting flow patterns in steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes (such as production-well tubing) delineate the transition boundaries between each of the four basic flow patterns for gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes: bubble, slug, churn, and dispersed-annular. Model results suggest that churn flow is the development region for the slug pattern and that bubble flow can exist in small pipes only at high liquid rates, where turbulent dispersion forces are high. Each transition depends on the flow-rate pair, fluid properties, and pipe size, but the nature of the dependence is different for each transition because of differing control mechanisms. The theoretical predictions are in reasonably good agreement with a variety of published flow maps based on experimental data.
A gas flow model for layered landfills with vertical extraction wells.
Feng, Shi-Jin; Zheng, Qi-Teng; Xie, Hai-Jian
2017-08-01
This paper developed a two-dimensional axisymmetric analytical model for layered landfills with vertical wells. The model uses a horizontal layered structure to describe the waste non-homogeneity with depth in gas generation, permeability and temperature. The governing equations in the cylindrical coordinate system were transformed to dimensionless forms and solved using a method of eigenfunction expansion. After verification, the effects of different well boundary conditions and gas extraction systems on recovery efficiency were investigated. A dimensionless double-layer system, consisting of a cover and a waste layer, was also explored. The results show that a constant vacuum pressure boundary condition can be enough to describe a perforated pipe surrounded by drainage gravel with a reasonable value of well radius, such as half the radius of gravel fill. Also, the 7 independent variables (one marked with an asterisk is dimensionless) of a double-layer system can be integrated into 3 dimensionless ones: Cover permeability Kv1(∗)/(Vertical gas permeability of waste Kv2(∗)×Cover thickness h1(∗)),-Vacuum pressure pw×PatmKv2(∗)/(μRgT2×Gas generation rate of waste s2) and ln(Well radius rw(∗))/(Anisotropy degree of waste k2(∗)). The integration is based on the inherent mechanism of this flow system with certain simplification. The effects of these variables are then quantitatively characterized for a better understanding of gas recovery efficiency. Same recovery efficiency can be achieved with different variable combinations. For example, increasing h1(∗) (such as doubling it) has the same effect with decreasing Kv1(∗) (such as halving it). Along with the reduction of variables by half, the integration can facilitate the preliminary design, and is a small but important advance in the consideration of MSW non-homogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Study of gas-liquid flow in model porous media for heterogeneous catalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francois, Marie; Bodiguel, Hugues; Guillot, Pierre; Laboratory of the Future Team
2015-11-01
Heterogeneous catalysis of chemical reactions involving a gas and a liquid phase is usually achieved in fixed bed reactors. Four hydrodynamic regimes have been observed. They depend on the total flow rate and the ratio between liquid and gas flow rate. Flow properties in these regimes influence transfer rates. Rather few attempts to access local characterization have been proposed yet, though these seem to be necessary to better describe the physical mechanisms involved. In this work, we propose to mimic slices of reactor by using two-dimensional porous media. We have developed a two-dimensional system that is transparent to allow the direct observation of the flow and the phase distribution. While varying the total flow rate and the gas/liquid flow rate ratio, we observe two hydrodynamic regimes: at low flow rate, the gaseous phase is continuous (trickle flow), while it is discontinuous at higher flow rate (pulsed flow). Thanks to some image analysis techniques, we are able to quantify the local apparent liquid saturation in the system. Its fluctuations in time are characteristic of the transition between the two regimes: at low liquid flow rates, they are negligible since the liquid/gas interface is fixed, whereas at higher flow rates we observe an alternation between liquid and gas. This transition between trickle to pulsed flow is in relative good agreement with the existing state of art. However, we report in the pulsed regime important flow heterogeneities at the scale of a few pores. These heterogeneities are likely to have a strong influence on mass transfers. We acknowledge the support of Solvay.
Kinetic model for the vibrational energy exchange in flowing molecular gas mixtures. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Offenhaeuser, F.
1987-01-01
The present study is concerned with the development of a computational model for the description of the vibrational energy exchange in flowing gas mixtures, taking into account a given number of energy levels for each vibrational degree of freedom. It is possible to select an arbitrary number of energy levels. The presented model uses values in the range from 10 to approximately 40. The distribution of energy with respect to these levels can differ from the equilibrium distribution. The kinetic model developed can be employed for arbitrary gaseous mixtures with an arbitrary number of vibrational degrees of freedom for each type of gas. The application of the model to CO2-H2ON2-O2-He mixtures is discussed. The obtained relations can be utilized in a study of the suitability of radiation-related transitional processes, involving the CO2 molecule, for laser applications. It is found that the computational results provided by the model agree very well with experimental data obtained for a CO2 laser. Possibilities for the activation of a 16-micron and 14-micron laser are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Du, C.
2009-12-01
The Moxa Arch Anticline is a regional-scale northwest-trending uplift in western Wyoming where geological storage of acid gases (CO2, CH4, N2, H2S, He) from ExxonMobile's Shute Creek Gas Plant is under consideration. The Nugget Sandstone, a deep saline aquifer at depths exceeding 17,170 ft, is a candidate formation for acid gas storage. As part of a larger goal of determining site suitability, this study builds three-dimensional local to regional scale geological and fluid flow models for the Nugget Sandstone, its caprock (Twin Creek Limestone), and an underlying aquifer (Ankareh Sandstone), or together, the ``Nugget Suite''. For an area of 3000 square miles, geological and engineering data were assembled, screened for accuracy, and digitized, covering an average formation thickness of ~1700 feet. The data include 900 public-domain well logs (SP, Gamma Ray, Neutron Porosity, Density, Sonic, shallow and deep Resistivity, Lithology, Deviated well logs), 784 feet of core measurements (porosity and permeability), 4 regional geological cross sections, and 3 isopach maps. Data were interpreted and correlated for geological formations and facies, the later categorized using both Neural Network and Gaussian Hierarchical Clustering algorithms. Well log porosities were calibrated with core measurements, those of permeability estimated using formation-specific porosity-permeability transforms. Using conditional geostatistical simulations (first indicator simulation of facies, then sequential Gaussian simulation of facies-specific porosity), data were integrated at the regional-scale to create a geological model from which a local-scale simulation model surrounding the Shute Creek injection site was extracted. Based on this model, full compositional multiphase flow simulations were conducted with which we explore (1) an appropriate grid resolution for accurate acid gas predictions (pressure, saturation, and mass balance); (2) sensitivity of key geological and engineering
3D CFD modeling of flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries and various flow velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Waichman, Karol; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2017-01-01
Scaling-up flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) to megawatt class power is studied using accurate three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, taking into account the effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. Both the maximum achievable power and laser beam quality are estimated for Cs and K lasers. We examined the influence of the flow velocity and Mach number M on the maximum achievable power of subsonic and supersonic lasers. For Cs DPAL devices with M = 0.2 - 3 the output power increases with increasing M by only 20%, implying that supersonic operation mode has only small advantage over subsonic. In contrast, the power achievable in K DPALs strongly depends on M. The output power increases by 100% when M increases from 0.2 to 4, showing a considerable advantage of supersonic device over subsonic. The reason for the increase of the power with M in both Cs and K DPALs is the decrease of the temperature due to the gas expansion in the flow system. However, the power increase for K lasers is much larger than for the Cs devices mainly due to the much smaller fine-structure splitting of the 2P states ( 58 cm-1 for K and 554 cm-1 for Cs), which results in a much stronger effect of the temperature decrease in K DPALs. For pumping by beams of the same rectangular cross section, comparison between end-pumping and transverse-pumping shows that the output power is not affected by the pump geometry. However, the intensity of the output laser beam in the case of transverse-pumped DPALs is strongly non-uniform in the laser beam cross section resulting in higher brightness and better beam quality in the far field for the end-pumping geometry where the intensity of the output beam is uniform.
Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate
Robertson, Eric P.
2006-08-01
A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry
2010-01-01
This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at
Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115
Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.
2014-02-20
Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with χ{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ≲ 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find a shallow density profile n∝r {sup –β} with β ≈ 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ≲ 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ≳ 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.
Meshless methods for ‘gas – evaporating droplet’ flow modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybdylova, Oyuna; Sazhin, Sergei S.
2017-02-01
The main ideas of simulation of two-phase flows, based on a combination of the conventional Lagrangian or fully Lagrangian (Osiptsov) approaches for the dispersed phase and the mesh-free vortex and thermal-blob methods for the carrier phase, are summarised. In the approach based on a combination of the fully Lagrangian approach for the dispersed phase and the vortex blob methods for the carrier phase the problem of calculation of all parameters in both phases (including particle concentration) is reduced to the solution of a high-order system of ordinary differential equations, describing transient processes in both carrier and dispersed phases. It contrast to this approach, in the approach based on a combination of the conventional Lagrangian approaches for the dispersed phase and the vortex and thermal-blob methods for the carrier phase the non-isothermal effects in the two-phase flow were taken into account. The one-way coupled, two-fluid approach was used in the analysis. The gas velocity field was restored using the Biot-Savart integral. Both these approaches were applied to modelling of two processes: the time evolution of a two-phase Lamb vortex and the development of an impulse two-phase jet. Various flow patterns were obtained in the calculations, depending on the initial droplet size.
Treating network junctions in finite volume solution of transient gas flow models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermúdez, Alfredo; López, Xián; Vázquez-Cendón, M. Elena
2017-09-01
A finite volume scheme for the numerical solution of a non-isothermal non-adiabatic compressible flow model for gas transportation networks on non-flat topography is introduced. Unlike standard Euler equations, the model takes into account wall friction, variable height and heat transfer between the pipe and the environment which are source terms. The case of one single pipe was considered in a previous reference by the authors, [8], where a finite volume method with upwind discretization of the flux and source terms has been proposed in order to get a well-balanced scheme. The main goal of the present paper is to go a step further by considering a network of pipes. The main issue is the treatment of junctions for which container-like 2D finite volumes are introduced. The couplings between pipes (1D) and containers (2D) are carefully described and the conservation properties are analyzed. Numerical tests including real gas networks are solved showing the performance of the proposed methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yi; Sun, Hao; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tomita, Kentaro; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Fei; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Wang, Xiaohua; Feng, Ying
2016-10-01
The influence of the gas flow rate on the N2 arc behavior was investigated based on a previously established nonchemical equilibrium (non-CE) model. This numerical non-CE model was adopted in the N2 nozzle arc in a model circuit breaker. The arc behaviors of both the arc burning and arc decay phases were obtained at different gas flow rates in both the non-CE and local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model. To better understand the influence of the gas flow rate, in this work we devised the concept of the nonequilibrium parameter. Additionally, the influences of convection, diffusion, and chemical reactions were examined separately to determine which one contributed most to the non-CE behavior. Finally, laser Thomson scattering (LTS) measurements at different gas flow rates were adopted to further demonstrate the validity of the non-CE model. The results of the macroscopic behaviors indicate that the deviations between the non-CE and LTE models during the arc burning phase are much fewer than those during the arc decay phase. By the nonequilibrium parameters, it clearly indicates that with an increase in the gas flow rate, the non-CE effect will be greatly enhanced. During the arc burning phase, this non-CE effect is mainly caused by radial diffusion of the particles. During the arc decay phase, for the charged particles, the chemical reactions had the greatest effect on the time variations of the particle number densities; however, for the neutral particles the time variations of the number densities were mutually influenced by convections, diffusions, and chemical reactions. Finally, the LTS results further demonstrate the validity of the non-CE model at different gas flow rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qunzhen; Mathias, Edward C.; Heman, Joe R.; Smith, Cory W.
2000-01-01
A new, thermal-flow simulation code, called SFLOW. has been developed to model the gas dynamics, heat transfer, as well as O-ring and flow path erosion inside the space shuttle solid rocket motor joints by combining SINDA/Glo, a commercial thermal analyzer. and SHARPO, a general-purpose CFD code developed at Thiokol Propulsion. SHARP was modified so that friction, heat transfer, mass addition, as well as minor losses in one-dimensional flow can be taken into account. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the combustion gas in the leak paths are calculated in SHARP by solving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while the heat conduction in the solid is modeled by SINDA/G. The two codes are coupled by the heat flux at the solid-gas interface. A few test cases are presented and the results from SFLOW agree very well with the exact solutions or experimental data. These cases include Fanno flow where friction is important, Rayleigh flow where heat transfer between gas and solid is important, flow with mass addition due to the erosion of the solid wall, a transient volume venting process, as well as some transient one-dimensional flows with analytical solutions. In addition, SFLOW is applied to model the RSRM nozzle joint 4 subscale hot-flow tests and the predicted pressures, temperatures (both gas and solid), and O-ring erosions agree well with the experimental data. It was also found that the heat transfer between gas and solid has a major effect on the pressures and temperatures of the fill bottles in the RSRM nozzle joint 4 configuration No. 8 test.
One-dimensional model and solutions for creeping gas flows in the approximation of uniform pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vedernikov, A.; Balapanov, D.
2016-11-01
A model, along with analytical and numerical solutions, is presented to describe a wide variety of one-dimensional slow flows of compressible heat-conductive fluids. The model is based on the approximation of uniform pressure valid for the flows, in which the sound propagation time is much shorter than the duration of any meaningful density variation in the system. The energy balance is described by the heat equation that is solved independently. This approach enables the explicit solution for the fluid velocity to be obtained. Interfacial and volumetric heat and mass sources as well as boundary motion are considered as possible sources of density variation in the fluid. A set of particular tasks is analyzed for different motion sources in planar, axial, and central symmetries in the quasistationary limit of heat conduction (i.e., for large Fourier number). The analytical solutions are in excellent agreement with corresponding numerical solutions of the whole system of the Navier-Stokes equations. This work deals with the ideal gas. The approach is also valid for other equations of state.
Swirling flow of a dissociated gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfram, W. R., Jr.; Walker, W. F.
1975-01-01
Most physical applications of the swirling flow, defined as a vortex superimposed on an axial flow in the nozzle, involve high temperatures and the possibility of real gas effects. The generalized one-dimensional swirling flow in a converging-diverging nozzle is analyzed for equilibrium and frozen dissociation using the ideal dissociating gas model. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the major effects and to compare with results obtained for a perfect gas with constant ratio of specific heats. It is found that, even in the case of real gases, perfect gas calculations can give a good estimate of the reduction in mass flow due to swirl.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Baokuan
2017-06-01
Euler-Euler simulations of transient horizontal gas-liquid flow in a continuous-casting mold are presented. The predictions were compared with previous experimental measurements by two-channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity to different turbulence closure models [ k- ɛ, shear stress transport (SST), Reynolds stress model (RSM), and large-eddy simulation (LES)] and different interfacial forces (drag, lift, virtual mass, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion). It was found that the LES model showed better agreement than the other turbulence models in predicting the velocity components of the liquid phase. Furthermore, an appropriate drag force coefficient model, lift force coefficient model, and virtual mass force coefficient were chosen. Meanwhile, the wall lubrication force and turbulent dispersion force did not have much effect on the current gas-liquid two-phase system. This work highlights the importance of choosing an appropriate bubble size in accordance with experiment. Finally, coupled with the optimized interfacial force models and bubble size, LES with a dynamic subgrid model was used to calculate the transient two-phase turbulent flow inside the mold. More instantaneous details of the two-phase flow characteristics in the mold were captured by LES, including multiscale vortex structures, fluctuation characteristics, and the vorticity distribution. The LES model can also be used to describe the time-averaged gas-liquid flow field, giving reasonably good agreement with mean experimental data. Thus, LES can be used effectively to study transient two-phase flow inside molds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Baokuan
2017-03-01
Euler-Euler simulations of transient horizontal gas-liquid flow in a continuous-casting mold are presented. The predictions were compared with previous experimental measurements by two-channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity to different turbulence closure models [k-ɛ, shear stress transport (SST), Reynolds stress model (RSM), and large-eddy simulation (LES)] and different interfacial forces (drag, lift, virtual mass, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion). It was found that the LES model showed better agreement than the other turbulence models in predicting the velocity components of the liquid phase. Furthermore, an appropriate drag force coefficient model, lift force coefficient model, and virtual mass force coefficient were chosen. Meanwhile, the wall lubrication force and turbulent dispersion force did not have much effect on the current gas-liquid two-phase system. This work highlights the importance of choosing an appropriate bubble size in accordance with experiment. Finally, coupled with the optimized interfacial force models and bubble size, LES with a dynamic subgrid model was used to calculate the transient two-phase turbulent flow inside the mold. More instantaneous details of the two-phase flow characteristics in the mold were captured by LES, including multiscale vortex structures, fluctuation characteristics, and the vorticity distribution. The LES model can also be used to describe the time-averaged gas-liquid flow field, giving reasonably good agreement with mean experimental data. Thus, LES can be used effectively to study transient two-phase flow inside molds.
Doyle, Jessica M.; Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Mayer, K. Ulrich
2015-01-01
Environmental tracers provide information on groundwater age, recharge conditions, and flow processes which can be helpful for evaluating groundwater sustainability and vulnerability. Dissolved noble gas data have proven particularly useful in mountainous terrain because they can be used to determine recharge elevation. However, tracer-derived recharge elevations have not been utilized as calibration targets for numerical groundwater flow models. Herein, we constrain and calibrate a regional groundwater flow model with noble-gas-derived recharge elevations for the first time. Tritium and noble gas tracer results improved the site conceptual model by identifying a previously uncertain contribution of mountain block recharge from the Coast Mountains to an alluvial coastal aquifer in humid southwestern British Columbia. The revised conceptual model was integrated into a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model and calibrated to hydraulic head data in addition to recharge elevations estimated from noble gas recharge temperatures. Recharge elevations proved to be imperative for constraining hydraulic conductivity, recharge location, and bedrock geometry, and thus minimizing model nonuniqueness. Results indicate that 45% of recharge to the aquifer is mountain block recharge. A similar match between measured and modeled heads was achieved in a second numerical model that excludes the mountain block (no mountain block recharge), demonstrating that hydraulic head data alone are incapable of quantifying mountain block recharge. This result has significant implications for understanding and managing source water protection in recharge areas, potential effects of climate change, the overall water budget, and ultimately ensuring groundwater sustainability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, Jessica M.; Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Mayer, K. Ulrich
2015-10-01
Environmental tracers provide information on groundwater age, recharge conditions, and flow processes which can be helpful for evaluating groundwater sustainability and vulnerability. Dissolved noble gas data have proven particularly useful in mountainous terrain because they can be used to determine recharge elevation. However, tracer-derived recharge elevations have not been utilized as calibration targets for numerical groundwater flow models. Herein, we constrain and calibrate a regional groundwater flow model with noble-gas-derived recharge elevations for the first time. Tritium and noble gas tracer results improved the site conceptual model by identifying a previously uncertain contribution of mountain block recharge from the Coast Mountains to an alluvial coastal aquifer in humid southwestern British Columbia. The revised conceptual model was integrated into a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model and calibrated to hydraulic head data in addition to recharge elevations estimated from noble gas recharge temperatures. Recharge elevations proved to be imperative for constraining hydraulic conductivity, recharge location, and bedrock geometry, and thus minimizing model nonuniqueness. Results indicate that 45% of recharge to the aquifer is mountain block recharge. A similar match between measured and modeled heads was achieved in a second numerical model that excludes the mountain block (no mountain block recharge), demonstrating that hydraulic head data alone are incapable of quantifying mountain block recharge. This result has significant implications for understanding and managing source water protection in recharge areas, potential effects of climate change, the overall water budget, and ultimately ensuring groundwater sustainability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poplavskaya, T. V.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Mironov, S. G.
2016-10-01
Experimental data and results of numerical simulation of a supersonic flow around a streamwise aligned cylinder with a frontal gas-permeable insert made of a high-porosity cellular material are presented. The porous material structure is modeled by a system of staggered rings of different diameters (discrete model of a porous medium). The model skeleton of the material corresponds to the pore size (diameter 1mm) and porosity (0.95) of a real cellular porous material. The computed results are compared with the data of wind tunnel experiments performed in a T-327B supersonic continuous-flow wind tunnel at the flow Mach number M∞ = 4.85.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawar, R.; Dash, Z.; Sakaki, T.; Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Zyvoloski, G.
2011-12-01
One of the concerns related to geologic CO2 sequestration is potential leakage of CO2 and its subsequent migration to shallow groundwater resources leading to geochemical impacts. Developing approaches to monitor CO2 migration in shallow aquifer and mitigate leakage impacts will require improving our understanding of gas phase formation and multi-phase flow subsequent to CO2 leakage in shallow aquifers. We are utilizing an integrated approach combining laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to characterize the multi-phase flow of CO2 in shallow aquifers. The laboratory experiments involve a series of highly controlled experiments in which CO2 dissolved water is injected in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil columns and tanks. The experimental results are used to study the effects of soil properties, temperature, pressure gradients and heterogeneities on gas formation and migration. We utilize the Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) simulator (Zyvoloski et al, 2010) to numerically model the experimental results. The numerical models capture the physics of CO2 exsolution, multi-phase fluid flow as well as sand heterogeneity. Experimental observations of pressure, temperature and gas saturations are used to develop and constrain conceptual models for CO2 gas-phase formation and multi-phase CO2 flow in porous media. This talk will provide details of development of conceptual models based on experimental observation, development of numerical models for laboratory experiments and modelling results.
2008-05-31
code for mitigating inert gas flow separation using rf-driven dielectric barrier discharge. In this effort we: (l) develop multi-dimensional first...such detailed plasma kinetics based effort has not been reported before. During the development of this project we have worked in close collaboration... develop multi-dimensional first principles based N2/GŖair chemistry models for the non-equilibrium real gas discharge, and (2) implement it in a finite
3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2015-10-01
Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not
Final report for the ASC gas-powder two-phase flow modeling project AD2006-09.
Evans, Gregory Herbert; Winters, William S.
2007-01-01
This report documents activities performed in FY2006 under the ''Gas-Powder Two-Phase Flow Modeling Project'', ASC project AD2006-09. Sandia has a need to understand phenomena related to the transport of powders in systems. This report documents a modeling strategy inspired by powder transport experiments conducted at Sandia in 2002. A baseline gas-powder two-phase flow model, developed under a companion PEM project and implemented into the Sierra code FUEGO, is presented and discussed here. This report also documents a number of computational tests that were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the new model. Although considerable progress was made in implementing the complex two-phase flow model, this project has identified two important areas that need further attention. These include the need to compute robust compressible flow solutions for Mach numbers exceeding 0.35 and the need to improve conservation of mass for the powder phase. Recommendations for future work in the area of gas-powder two-phase flow are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, J.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.
2001-07-01
A mathematical model is developed to calculate the distribution of the gas flow field at the entrance, inside and exit of a laser cut kerf for inlet stagnation pressures ≥5 bar for an inert assist gas jet exiting from a supersonic nozzle. A two-dimensional analytical method is adopted to locate approximately the position and shape of the detached shock above the cutting front surface according to the geometrical shape of the cutting front. A method of two-dimensional characteristics is applied to calculate the gas flow field distribution along the cutting front. The calculated results of the flow field distribution are simulated by the computer and can be used to estimate and analyse the cut-edge quality under different cutting conditions.
Modeling of fission gas effects observed in TREAT loss-of-flow test R8 using SAS3D. [LMFBR
Dunn, F.E.; Morris, E.E.
1985-01-01
The TREAT loss-of-flow test R8 has been analyzed using a modified version of the SAS3D accident analysis code in order to establish experimental verification of SAS3D modeling changes introduced to assess the effects of fission gas release from the upper gas plenum on coolant voiding dynamics and clad motion prior to the onset of fuel motion in whole core accident studies. The specific motivation for the analysis was the necessity of investigating the potential for fuel compaction by the fission gas stored in the gas plena at the upper end of the fuel pins in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP). These investigations were required to support licensing activities underway just prior to the demise of the project. In test R8, an unirradiated, seven-pin fuel bundle was subjected to a simulated Fast Flux Test Facility flow coastdown. The power was held constant at its nominal value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Y.; Nitao, J. J.; Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Lee, K. H.
2004-12-01
Combined free and porous flows occur in a wide range of natural and engineered systems such as coupled transport processes driven by underground-engineered systems. One potential application for modeling these coupled flow processes is related to the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste package in tunnels lying above the water table. This example involves the flow of gas and moisture in large open tunnel and gas- and liquid-phase flow in the surrounding fractured, porous rocks. This study aims to develop a method of coupling the Navier-Stokes equations and the Darcy's law to achieve a more rigorous representation of all major flow and transport processes in underground tunnels and surrounding fractured host-rocks. While the thermohydrologic (TH) processes in host-rocks are treated based on porous-medium Darcy-flow approximations, the Navier-Stokes modeling is applied to describe in-tunnel flow behaviors (natural convection, realistic gas/moisture movement, turbulent flow conditions, etc.). The governing equations are numerically solved by a finite-element scheme in the NUFT code. Some numerical simulation results shown in this presentation provide environmental conditions that engineered systems would experience, which, therefore, may be useful for engineered system design analysis and performance assessment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starodubtsev, Y. V.; Gogolev, I. G.; Solodov, V. G.
2005-06-01
The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account. This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cédric, Croizet; Gatignol, Renée
2016-11-01
Sub-millimeter-sized channels are present in many medical and industrial tools such as micro-filters. In order to describe the gas flows in these micro-channels, the DSMC methods are frequently used but a large computation time is usually required to obtain the solutions [1, 2]. Consequently, it is of main interest to develop alternative methods to describe these flows. In this contribution, we are interested in flows at low Mach numbers and with low to moderate Knudsen numbers so that the flow is in the slip regime. We propose an asymptotic model for the axisymmetric flow of a mixture of two compressible gases in circular microchannels with a temperature gradient at the wall. The model is obtained from the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. The results of the model are compared to DSMC simulations and the influence of the temperature gradient which is present along the walls is investigated.
Development of the ARISTOTLE webware for cloud-based rarefied gas flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deschenes, Timothy R.; Grot, Jonathan; Cline, Jason A.
2016-11-01
Rarefied gas dynamics are important for a wide variety of applications. An improvement in the ability of general users to predict these gas flows will enable optimization of current, and discovery of future processes. Despite this potential, most rarefied simulation software is designed by and for experts in the community. This has resulted in low adoption of the methods outside of the immediate RGD community. This paper outlines an ongoing effort to create a rarefied gas dynamics simulation tool that can be used by a general audience. The tool leverages a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) library that is available to the entire community and a web-based simulation process that will enable all users to take advantage of high performance computing capabilities. First, the DSMC library and simulation architecture are described. Then the DSMC library is used to predict a number of representative transient gas flows that are applicable to the rarefied gas dynamics community. The paper closes with a summary and future direction.
Shen, Binglin; Pan, Bailiang; Jiao, Jian; Xia, Chunsheng
2015-07-27
Comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers is reported. Taking into account effects of the temperature, the amplified spontaneous emission, the saturation power, the excitation of the alkali atoms to high electronic levels and the ionization, a detailed physical model is established to simulate the output performance of flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers. Influences of the flow velocity and the pump power on the amplified power are calculated and analyzed. Comparisons between single and double amplifier, longitudinal and transverse flow are made. Results show that end-pumped cascaded amplifier can provide higher output power under the same total pump power and the cell length, while output powers achieved by single- and double-end pumped, double-side pumped amplifiers with longitudinal or transverse flow have a complicated but valuable relation. Thus the model is extremely helpful for designing high-power flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers.
Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A
2013-06-01
Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-∊ models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brushlinskii, K. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Konovalov, V. S.
2015-08-01
This paper continues the series of numerical investigations of self-ionizing gas flows in plasma accelerator channels with an azimuthal magnetic field. The mathematical model is based on the equations of dynamics of a three-component continuous medium consisting of atoms, ions, and electrons; the model is supplemented with the equation of ionization and recombination kinetics within the diffusion approximation with account for photoionization and photorecombination. It also takes into account heat exchange, which in this case is caused by radiative heat conductance. Upon a short history of the issue, the proposed model, numerical methods, and results for steady-state and pulsating flows are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Sozzetti, A.
2014-05-01
The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with `classical' (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the `classical' model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction processes. In particular, we find that in the Milky Way the maximum number of stars hosting habitable planets is at 8 kpc from the Galactic Centre, and the model with radial flows predicts a number which is 38 per cent larger than what was predicted by the classical model. For Andromeda we find that the maximum number of stars with habitable planets is at 16 kpc from the centre and that in the case of radial flows this number is larger by 10 per cent relative to the stars predicted by the classical model.
Testing of a Shrouded, Short Mixing Stack Gas Eductor Model Using High Temperature Primary Flow.
1982-10-01
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Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.
1996-05-07
An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.
Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.
1996-01-01
An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.
Scale effects in gas nano flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barisik, Murat; Beskok, Ali
2014-05-01
Most previous studies on gas transport in nano-scale confinements assume dynamic similarity with rarefied gas flows, and employ kinetic theory based models. This approach is incomplete, since it neglects the van der Waals forces imposed on gas molecules by the surfaces. Using three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of force driven gas flows, we show the significance of wall force field in nano-scale confinements by defining a new dimensionless parameter (B) as the ratio of the wall force-penetration length to the channel height. Investigation of gas transport in different nano-channels at various Knudsen numbers show the importance of wall force field for finite B values, where the dynamic similarity between the rarefied and nano-scale gas flows break down. Comparison of MD results employing molecularly structured three-dimensional walls versus reflection of gas molecules from a two-dimensional planar surface with Maxwell distribution show that the nano-confinement effects cannot be resolved by the latter approach, frequently used in kinetic theory calculations. Molecularly structured walls determine the bulk flow physics by setting a proper tangential momentum accommodation coefficient, and they also determine the transport in the near wall region. Gas nano-flows with finite B exhibit significant differences in the local density and velocity profiles, affecting the mass flow rate and the formation of Knudsen's minimum in nano-channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Peer, Václav; Friedel, Pavel
2016-06-01
The effect of initial concentration on the explosion behavior of a stoichiometric CH4/O2/N2 mixture under air-combustion conditions was studied. Two mathematical models were used with the aim at simulating the gas explosion in the middle scale explosion vessel, and the associated effects of the temperature for different gas/air concentrations. Peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and laminar burning velocity were measured from pressure time records of explosions occurring in a 1 m3 closed cylindrical vessel. The results of the models were validated considering a set of data (pressure time histories and root mean square velocity). The obtained results are relevant to the practice of gas explosion testing and the interpretation of test results and, they should be taken as the input data for CFD simulation to improve the conditions for standard tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The Mass Flowmeter is a device used to measure flow of oxygen in spacecraft's life support system. Tylan Corporation's Mass Flow Controller's major application is accurate control of reactive gases-- such as hydrogen, phosphine and silane as they are diffused at extremely high temperatures into silicon wafers. Wafers are ultimately cut up into integrated circuits or "chips" for electronic products. Precise process control afforded by the Mass Flow Controller makes it possible to produce circuit chips of greater performance at lower cost.
Coupling Kinetic and Hydrodynamic Models for Simulations of Gas Flows and Weakly Ionized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolobov, V. I.; Arslanbekov, R. R.
2011-10-01
This paper presents adaptive kinetic/fluid models for simulations of gases and weakly ionized plasmas. We first describe a Unified Flow Solver (UFS), which combines Adaptive Mesh Refinement with automatic selection of kinetic or hydrodynamic models for different parts of flows. This Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement (AMAR) technique limits expensive atomistic-scale solutions only to the regions where they are needed. We present examples of plasma simulations with fluid models and describe kinetic solvers for electrons which are currently being incorporated into AMAR techniques for plasma simulations.
Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Yue; Verginelli, Iason; Zeng, Tian; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Wen, Yuezhong; Ma, Jie
2015-10-06
At petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) sites at which there is significant methane generation, upward advective soil gas transport may be observed. To evaluate the health and explosion risks that may exist under such scenarios, a one-dimensional analytical model describing these processes is introduced in this study. This new model accounts for both advective and diffusive transport in soil gas and couples this with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, limited by oxygen availability. The predicted results from the new model are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results obtained from a three-dimensional numerical model. These results suggest that this analytical model is suitable for describing cases involving open ground surface beyond the foundation edge, serving as the primary oxygen source. This new analytical model indicates that the major contribution of upward advection to indoor air concentration could be limited to the increase of soil gas entry rate, since the oxygen in soil might already be depleted owing to the associated high methane source vapor concentration.
Xu, Ying
2004-01-01
Many particle-laden flows in engineering applications involve turbulent gas flows. Modeling multiphase turbulent flows is an important research topic with applications in fluidized beds and particle conveying. A predictive multiphase turbulence model can help CFD codes to be more useful for engineering applications, such as the scale-up in the design of circulating fluidized combustor and coal gasifications. In engineering applications, the particle volume fraction can vary from dilute (<10^{-4}) to dense (~ 50%). It is reasonable to expect that multiphase turbulence models should at least satisfy some basic modeling and performance criteria and give reasonable predictions for the canonical problems in dilute particle-laden turbulent flows. In this research, a comparative assessment of predictions from Simonin and Ahmadi's turbulence models is performed with direct numerical simulation (DNS) for two canonical problems in particle-laden turbulent flows. Based on the comparative assessment, some criteria and the areas for model improvement are identified: (1) model for interphase TKE transfer, especially the time scale of interphase TKE transfer, and (2) correct prediction of TKE evolution with variation of particle Stokes number. Some deficiencies that are identified in the Simonin and Ahmadi models, limit the applicability. A new multiphase turbulence model, the Equilibration of Energy Model (EEM), is proposed in this work. In EEM, a multiscale interaction time scale is proposed to account for the interaction of a particle with a range of eddy sizes. EEM shows good agreement with the DNS results for particle-laden isotropic turbulence. For particle-laden homogeneous shear flows, model predictions from EEM can be further improved if the dissipation rate in fluid phase is modeled with more accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, A. K.; Juanes, R.
2009-08-01
We present a discrete element model for simulating, at the grain scale, gas migration in brine-saturated deformable media. We rigorously account for the presence of two fluids in the pore space by incorporating forces on grains due to pore fluid pressures and surface tension between fluids. This model, which couples multiphase fluid flow with sediment mechanics, permits investigation of the upward migration of gas through a brine-filled sediment column. We elucidate the ways in which gas migration may take place: (1) by capillary invasion in a rigid-like medium and (2) by initiation and propagation of a fracture. We find that grain size is the main factor controlling the mode of gas transport in the sediment, and we show that coarse-grain sediments favor capillary invasion, whereas fracturing dominates in fine-grain media. The results have important implications for understanding vent sites and pockmarks in the ocean floor, deep subseabed storage of carbon dioxide, and gas hydrate accumulations in ocean sediments and permafrost regions. Our results predict that in fine sediments, hydrate will likely form in veins following a fracture network pattern, and the hydrate concentration will likely be quite low. In coarse sediments, the buoyant methane gas is likely to invade the pore space more uniformly, in a process akin to invasion percolation, and the overall pore occupancy is likely to be much higher than for a fracture-dominated regime. These implications are consistent with laboratory experiments and field observations of methane hydrates in natural systems.
Analytic model of the effect of poly-Gaussian roughness on rarefied gas flow near the surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.
2016-11-01
The dependence of the macro-parameters of the flow on surface roughness of the walls and on geometrical shape of the surface is investigated asymptotically and numerically in a rarefied gas molecular flow at high Knudsen numbers. Surface roughness is approximated in statistical simulation by the model of poly-Gaussian (with probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities [1]) random process. Substantial difference is detected for considered models of the roughness (Gaussian, poly-Gaussian and simple models applied by other researchers), as well in asymptotical expressions [3], as in numerical results. For instance, the influence of surface roughness on momentum and energy exchange coefficients increases noticeably for poly-Gaussian model compared to Gaussian one (although the main properties of poly-Gaussian random processes and fields are similar to corresponding properties of Gaussian processes and fields). Main advantage of the model is based on relative simple relations between the parameters of the model and the basic statistical characteristics of random field. Considered statistical approach permits to apply not only diffuse-specular model of the local scattering function V0 of reflected gas atoms, but also Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel or phenomenological models of scattering function. Thus, the comparison between poly-Gaussian and Gaussian models shows more significant effect of roughness in aerodynamic values for poly-Gaussian model.
Sarkar, Avik; Milioli, Fernando E.; Ozarkar, Shailesh; Li, Tingwen; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2016-10-01
The accuracy of fluidized-bed CFD predictions using the two-fluid model can be improved significantly, even when using coarse grids, by replacing the microscopic kinetic-theory-based closures with coarse-grained constitutive models. These coarse-grained constitutive relationships, called filtered models, account for the unresolved gas-particle structures (clusters and bubbles) via sub-grid corrections. Following the previous 2-D approaches of Igci et al. [AIChE J., 54(6), 1431-1448, 2008] and Milioli et al. [AIChE J., 59(9), 3265-3275, 2013], new filtered models are constructed from highly-resolved 3-D simulations of gas-particle flows. Although qualitatively similar to the older 2-D models, the new 3-D relationships exhibit noticeable quantitative and functional differences. In particular, the filtered stresses are strongly dependent on the gas-particle slip velocity. Closures for the filtered inter-phase drag, gas- and solids-phase pressures and viscosities are reported. A new model for solids stress anisotropy is also presented. These new filtered 3-D constitutive relationships are better suited to practical coarse-grid 3-D simulations of large, commercial-scale devices.
Subsurface Gas Flow and Ice Grain Acceleration within Enceladus and Europa Fissures: 2D DSMC Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, O. J.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.
2014-12-01
The ejection of material from geysers is a ubiquitous occurrence on outer solar system bodies. Water vapor plumes have been observed emanating from the southern hemispheres of Enceladus and Europa (Hansen et al. 2011, Roth et al. 2014), and N2plumes carrying ice and ark particles on Triton (Soderblom et al. 2009). The gas and ice grain distributions in the Enceladus plume depend on the subsurface gas properties and the geometry of the fissures e.g., (Schmidt et al. 2008, Ingersoll et al. 2010). Of course the fissures can have complex geometries due to tidal stresses, melting, freezing etc., but directly sampled and inferred gas and grain properties for the plume (source rate, bulk velocity, terminal grain velocity) can be used to provide a basis to constrain characteristic dimensions of vent width and depth. We used a 2-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to model venting from both axi-symmetric canyons with widths ~2 km and narrow jets with widths ~15-40 m. For all of our vent geometries, considered the water vapor source rates (1027 - 1028 s-1) and bulk gas velocities (~330 - 670 m/s) obtained at the surface were consistent with inferred values obtained by fits of the data for the plume densities (1026 - 1028 s-1, 250 - 1000 m/s) respectively. However, when using the resulting DSMC gas distribution for the canyon geometries to integrate the trajectories of ice grains we found it insufficient to accelerate submicron ice grains to Enceladus' escape speed. On the other hand, the gas distributions in the jet like vents accelerated grains > 10 μm significantly above Enceladus' escape speed. It has been suggested that micron-sized grains are ejected from the vents with speeds comparable to the Enceladus escape speed. Here we report on these results including comparisons to results obtained from 1D models as well as discuss the implications of our plume model results. We also show preliminary results for similar considerations applied to Europa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
Shiba, Naoki; Nagano, Osamu; Hirayama, Takahiro; Ichiba, Shingo; Ujike, Yoshihito
2012-01-01
In adult high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with an R100 artificial ventilator, exhaled gas from patient's lung may warm the temperature probe and thereby disturb the humidification of base flow (BF) gas. We measured the humidity of BF gas during HFOV with frequencies of 6, 8 and 10 Hz, maximum stroke volumes (SV) of 285, 205, and 160 ml at the respective frequencies, and, BFs of 20, 30, 40 l/min using an original lung model. The R100 device was equipped with a heated humidifier, Hummax Ⅱ, consisting of a porous hollow fiber in circuit. A 50-cm length of circuit was added between temperature probe (located at 50 cm proximal from Y-piece) and the hollow fiber. The lung model was made of a plastic container and a circuit equipped with another Hummax Ⅱ. The lung model temperature was controlled at 37℃. The Hummax Ⅱ of the R100 was inactivated in study-1 and was set at 35℃ or 37℃ in study-2. The humidity was measured at the distal end of the added circuit in study-1 and at the proximal end in study-2. In study-1, humidity was detected at 6 Hz (SV 285 ml) and BF 20 l/min, indicating the direct reach of the exhaled gas from the lung model to the temperature probe. In study-2 the absolute humidity of the BF gas decreased by increasing SV and by increasing BF and it was low with setting of 35℃. In this study setting, increasing the SV induced significant reduction of humidification of the BF gas during HFOV with R100.
Developing an Effective Model for Shale Gas Flow in Nano-scale Pore Clusters based on FIB-SEM Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, W. B.; Lin, M.; Yi, Z. X.; Li, H. S.
2016-12-01
Nano-scale pores existed in the form of clusters are the controlling void space in shale gas reservoir. Gas transport in nanopores which has a significant influence on shale gas' recoverability displays multiple transport regimes, including viscous, slippage flow and Knudsen diffusion. In addition, it is also influenced by pore space characteristics. For convenience and efficiency consideration, it is necessary to develop an upscaling model from nano pore to pore cluster scale. Existing models are more like framework functions that provide a format, because the parameters that represent pore space characteristics are underdetermined and may have multiple possibilities. Therefore, it is urgent to make them clear and obtained a model that is closer to reality. FIB-SEM imaging technology is able to acquire three dimensional images with nanometer resolution that nano pores can be visible. Based on the images of two shale samples, we used a high-precision pore network extraction algorithm to generate equivalent pore networks and simulate multiple regime (non-Darcy) flow in it. Several structural parameters can be obtained through pore network modelling. It is found that although the throat-radius distributions are very close, throat flux-radius distributions of different samples can be divided into two categories. The variation of tortuosity with pressure and the overall trend of throat-flux distribution changes with pressure are disclosed. A deeper understanding of shale gas flow in nano-scale pore clusters is obtained. After all, an upscaling model that connects absolute permeability, apparent permeability and other characteristic parameters is proposed, and the best parameter scheme considering throat number-radius distribution and flowing porosity for this model is selected out of three schemes based on pore scale results, and it can avoid multiple-solution problem and is useful in reservoir modelling and experiment result analysis, etc. This work is supported by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yongxiong; Liang, Xiubing; Wei, Shicheng; Chen, Xi; Xu, Binshi
2012-03-01
During the twin-wire arc spraying, a high velocity gas stream is used to accelerate the arc-melting materials and propel the droplets toward the substrate surface. This study is aimed at investigating the gas flow formation and droplets transport processes using numerical simulation method. Results from the 3-D gas flow field model show that the distribution of the gas flow velocity on the twin-wire intersection plane is quite different from that on the twin-wire vertical plane. Based on the 3-D model, the convergence amplitude of the high velocity zone in the jet center is improved by modifying the gun head design. It is also observed that a flat substrate existed downstream from the gas nozzle exit results in decreasing close to zero in velocity of the gas jet near the substrate. In addition, the predicted droplet trajectories and velocity distributions exhibited good agreement with experimentally observations.
A dynamical model for gas flows, star formation and nuclear winds in galactic centres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krumholz, Mark R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crocker, Roland M.
2017-04-01
We present a dynamical model for gas transport, star formation and winds in the nuclear regions of galaxies, focusing on the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). In our model angular momentum and mass are transported by a combination of gravitational and bar-driven acoustic instabilities. In gravitationally unstable regions the gas can form stars, and the resulting feedback drives both turbulence and a wind that ejects mass from the CMZ. We show that the CMZ is in a quasi-steady state where mass deposited at large radii by the bar is transported inwards to a star-forming, ring-shaped region at ∼100 pc from the Galactic Centre, where the shear reaches a minimum. This ring undergoes episodic starbursts, with bursts lasting ∼5-10 Myr occurring at ∼20-40 Myr intervals. During quiescence the gas in the ring is not fully cleared, but is driven out of a self-gravitating state by the momentum injected by expanding supernova remnants. Starbursts also drive a wind off the star-forming ring, with a time-averaged mass flux comparable to the star formation rate. We show that our model agrees well with the observed properties of the CMZ, and places it near a star formation minimum within the evolutionary cycle. We argue that such cycles of bursty star formation and winds should be ubiquitous in the nuclei of barred spiral galaxies, and show that the resulting distribution of galactic nuclei on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation is in good agreement with that observed in nearby galaxies.
Uniaxial model for gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe performance in the inertial flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delil, A. A. M.; Vandervooren, J.
1981-03-01
A model which accounts for diffusion at the vapor/gas interface as well as for inertial effects of the moving vapor is presented. Calculations show that the diffusion effects are of minor importance in comparison with the inertial effects, which can be considerable in a certain part of the VCHP operating range. For working fluids with relatively low vapor pressure (such as methanol, freons, liquid metals) this part of the operating range is the wide sonic regime; for other working fluids it is confined to temperatures near freeze out conditions. Results of calculations performed with an improved flat front model, derived from the uniaxial model by taking the limit or zero diffusivity, are given. These results predict VCHP performance and controllability figures significantly different from those obtained from the classical flat front theory, where inertial effects are neglected.
Kinetic theory model for the flow of a simple gas from a two-dimensional nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, B. R.; Scheller, K. W.
1989-01-01
A system of nonlinear integral equations equivalent to the Krook kinetic equation for the steady state is the mathematical basis used to develop a computer code to model the flowfields for low-thrust two-dimensional nozzles. The method of characteristics was used to solve numerically by an iteration process the approximated Boltzmann equation for the number density, temperature, and velocity profiles of a simple gas as it exhausts into a vacuum. Results predict backscatter and show the effect of the inside wall boundary layer on the flowfields external to the nozzle.
Solar wind flow about the outer planets - Gas dynamic modeling of the Jupiter and Saturn bow shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.
1985-01-01
It has been found that the solar wind is diverted about planets through the formation of bow shocks which heat and deflect the flow. These observations are based on missions concerned with Mercury, Venus, earth, and Mars during the 1960s and 1970s. The present study has the objective to extend to Jupiter and Saturn certain aspects of the analyses which have been carried out on the terrestrial planets. In particular, the Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 observations near Jupiter and Saturn are used to characterize the relevant upstream flow parameters at 5 and 9 AU. Attention is given to solar wind parameters, bow shock and magnetopause models, and the solar wind standoff distance, and aspects of gas-dynamic modeling.
A unified gas-kinetic scheme for continuum and rarefied flows IV: Full Boltzmann and model equations
Liu, Chang; Xu, Kun; Sun, Quanhua; Cai, Qingdong
2016-06-01
Fluid dynamic equations are valid in their respective modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier–Stokes (NS) equations. With a variation of the modeling scales, theoretically there should have a continuous spectrum of fluid dynamic equations. Even though the Boltzmann equation is claimed to be valid in all scales, many Boltzmann solvers, including direct simulation Monte Carlo method, require the cell resolution to the order of particle mean free path scale. Therefore, they are still single scale methods. In order to study multiscale flow evolution efficiently, the dynamics in the computational fluid has to be changed with the scales. A direct modeling of flow physics with a changeable scale may become an appropriate approach. The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method in the mesh size scale, and its underlying flow physics depends on the resolution of the cell size relative to the particle mean free path. The cell size of UGKS is not limited by the particle mean free path. With the variation of the ratio between the numerical cell size and local particle mean free path, the UGKS recovers the flow dynamics from the particle transport and collision in the kinetic scale to the wave propagation in the hydrodynamic scale. The previous UGKS is mostly constructed from the evolution solution of kinetic model equations. Even though the UGKS is very accurate and effective in the low transition and continuum flow regimes with the time step being much larger than the particle mean free time, it still has space to develop more accurate flow solver in the region, where the time step is comparable with the local particle mean free time. In such a scale, there is dynamic difference from the full Boltzmann collision term and the model equations. This work is about the further development of the UGKS with the implementation of the full Boltzmann collision term in the region
Characterization of Horizontal Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Using Markov Model-Based Complex Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Li-Dan; Jin, Ning-De; Gao, Zhong-Ke
2013-05-01
Horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow widely exists in many physical systems and chemical engineering processes. Compared with vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow, investigations on dynamic behavior underlying horizontal gas-liquid flows are quite limited. Complex network provides a powerful framework for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. We use a network generation method based on Markov transition probability to infer directed weighted complex networks from signals measured from horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow experiment and find that the networks corresponding to different flow patterns exhibit different network structure. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of horizontal gas-liquid flows, we construct a number of complex networks under different flow conditions, and explore the network indices for each constructed network. In addition, we investigate the sample entropy of different flow patterns. Our results suggest that the network statistic can well represent the complexity in the transition among different flow patterns and further allows characterizing the interface fluctuation behavior in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatignol, Renée; Croizet, Cédric
2017-04-01
Asymptotic models are constructed to investigate the basic physical phenomena of thermal flows of a mixture of two monatomic gases inside a two-dimensional microchannel. The steady flows are described by the Navier-Stokes-Fourier balance equations, with additional coupling terms in momentum and energy equations, and with first-order slip boundary conditions for the velocities and jump boundary conditions for the temperatures on the two walls. The small parameter equal to the ratio of the two longitudinal and transverse lengths is introduced, and then an asymptotic model is proposed. It corresponds to small Mach numbers and small or moderate Knudsen numbers. Attention is paid to the first-order asymptotic solutions. Results are given and discussed for different cases: the mass flow rates, the molecular weights of the gases, and the temperature gradients along the walls. Comparisons between the first-order asymptotic solutions and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations corresponding to the same physical data show rather good agreement. It should be noted that obtaining an asymptotic solution is very fast compared to obtaining a DSMC result.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, S. Y.; Cai, J. S.; Li, J.
2016-10-01
A simplified (7 species and 9 processes) plasma kinetic model is proposed to investigate the mechanism of the plasma aerodynamic actuation driven by nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD). The governing equations include conservation equations for each species, the Poisson equation for the electric potential, and Navier-Stokes equations for the gas dynamic flow. Numerical simulations of plasma discharge and flow actuation on NS-DBD plasma actuators have been carried out. Key discharge characteristics and the responses of the quiescent air were reproduced and compared to those obtained in experiments and numerical simulations. Results demonstrate that the reduced plasma kinetic model is able to capture the dominant species and reactions to predict the actuation in complicated hydrodynamics. For the one-dimensional planar and two-dimensional symmetric NS-DBD, the forming of the sheath collapse is mainly due to the charge accumulation and secondary emission from the grounded electrode. Rapid species number density rise and electric field drop occur at the edge of the plasma sheath, where the space charge density gradient peaks. For the aerodynamic actuation with typical asymmetry electrodes, discharge characteristics have a core area on the right edge of the upper electrode, where the value can be much higher. The formation and propagation of the compression waves generated through rapid heating have also been performed and compared to those measured in a recent experiment. Energy release leads to gas expansion and forms a cylindrical shock wave, centering at the upper electrode tip with low gas acceleration. For the present single pulsed 12 kV case, the mean temperature of gas heating reaches about 575 K at 1 μs and decreases to about 460 K at 10 μs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Huirang; Zheng, Dandan; Nie, Laixiao
2015-04-01
For gas ultrasonic flowmeters, the signals received by ultrasonic sensors are susceptible to noise interference. If signals are mingled with noise, a large error in flow measurement can be caused by triggering mistakenly using the traditional double-threshold method. To solve this problem, genetic-ant colony optimization (GACO) based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model is proposed. Furthermore, in consideration of the real-time performance of the flow measurement system, the improvement of processing only the first three cycles of the received signals rather than the whole signal is proposed. Simulation results show that the GACO algorithm has the best estimation accuracy and ant-noise ability compared with the genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, double-threshold and enveloped zero-crossing. Local convergence doesn’t appear with the GACO algorithm until -10 dB. For the GACO algorithm, the converging accuracy and converging speed and the amount of computation are further improved when using the first three cycles (called GACO-3cycles). Experimental results involving actual received signals show that the accuracy of single-gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement can reach 0.5% with GACO-3 cycles, which is better than with the double-threshold method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Liu, Lichao; Motoyama, Yuichi
2017-04-01
The present work develops a multi-region dynamic coupling model for fluid flow, heat transfer and arc-melt interaction in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding using the dynamic mesh technique. The arc-weld pool unified model is developed on basis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and the interface is tracked using the dynamic mesh method. The numerical model for arc is firstly validated by comparing the calculated temperature profiles and essential results with the former experimental data. For weld pool convection solution, the drag, Marangoni, buoyancy and electromagnetic forces are separately validated, and then taken into account. Moreover, the model considering interface deformation is adopted in a stationary TIG welding process with SUS304 stainless steel and the effect of interface deformation is investigated. The depression of weld pool center and the lifting of pool periphery are both predicted. The results show that the weld pool shape calculated with considering the interface deformation is more accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.
2015-06-01
In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.
Stability of swirling gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hultgren, Lennart S.
1988-01-01
The stability of inviscid swirling gas flows to small nonaxisymmetric perturbations is considered. For small Brunt-Vaisala frequencies, the problem reduces to the classical Sturm-Liouville form and the oscillation theorem can be applied. The resulting necessary and sufficient stability condition is compared to various criteria in the literature and a limited numerical study of isothermal rigidly rotating Poiseuille flow. For given azimuthal and axial wavenumbers, it is found numerically that the higher inertial modes become unstable for successively lower Rossby numbers and that this sequence of critical values approaches the theoretical value from above.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geistlinger, Helmut; Lazik, Detlef; Krauss, Gunnar; Vogel, Hans-JöRg
2009-04-01
High-resolution optical bench-scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate local gas flow pattern and integral flow properties caused by point-like gas injection into water-saturated glass beads. The main goal of this study was to test the validity of the continuum approach for two-fluid flow in macroscopic homogeneous media. Analyzing the steady state experimental gas flow pattern that satisfies the necessary coherence condition by image processing and calibrating the optical gas distribution by the gravimetrical gas saturation, it was found that a pulse-like function yields the best fit for the lateral gas saturation profile. This strange behavior of a relatively sharp saturation transition is in contradiction to the widely anticipated picture of a smooth Gaussian-like transition, which is obtained by the continuum approach. This transition is caused by the channelized flow structure, and it turns out that only a narrow range of capillary pressure is realized by the system, whereas the continuum approach assumes that within the representative elementary volume the whole spectrum of capillary pressures can be realized. It was found that the stochastical hypothesis proposed by Selker et al. (2007) that bridges pore scale and continuum scale is supported by the experiments. In order to study channelized gas flow on the pore scale, a variational treatment, which minimizes the free energy of an undulating capillary, was carried out. On the basis of thermodynamical arguments the geometric form of a microcapillary, macrochannel formation and a length-scale-dependent transition in gas flow pattern from coherent to incoherent flow are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The success of any solution methodology for studying gas-turbine combustor flows depends a great deal on how well it can model various complex, rate-controlling processes associated with turbulent transport, mixing, chemical kinetics, evaporation and spreading rates of the spray, convective and radiative heat transfer, and other phenomena. These phenomena often strongly interact with each other at disparate time and length scales. In particular, turbulence plays an important role in determining the rates of mass and heat transfer, chemical reactions, and evaporation in many practical combustion devices. Turbulence manifests its influence in a diffusion flame in several forms depending on how turbulence interacts with various flame scales. These forms range from the so-called wrinkled, or stretched, flamelets regime, to the distributed combustion regime. Conventional turbulence closure models have difficulty in treating highly nonlinear reaction rates. A solution procedure based on the joint composition probability density function (PDF) approach holds the promise of modeling various important combustion phenomena relevant to practical combustion devices such as extinction, blowoff limits, and emissions predictions because it can handle the nonlinear chemical reaction rates without any approximation. In this approach, mean and turbulence gas-phase velocity fields are determined from a standard turbulence model; the joint composition field of species and enthalpy are determined from the solution of a modeled PDF transport equation; and a Lagrangian-based dilute spray model is used for the liquid-phase representation with appropriate consideration of the exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy between the two phases. The PDF transport equation is solved by a Monte Carlo method, and existing state-of-the-art numerical representations are used to solve the mean gasphase velocity and turbulence fields together with the liquid-phase equations. The joint composition PDF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi
2007-05-01
Millimeter-sized, spherical silicate grains abundant in chondritic meteorites, which are called as chondrules, are considered to be a strong evidence of the melting event of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disk. One of the most plausible scenarios is that the chondrule precursor dust particles are heated and melt in the high-velocity gas flow (shock-wave heating model). We developed the non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code for analyzing the dynamics of molten droplets exposed to the gas flow. We confirmed that our simulation results showed a good agreement in a linear regime with the linear solution analytically derived by Sekyia et al. [Sekyia, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728]. We found that the non-linear terms in the hydrodynamical equations neglected by Sekiya et al. [Sekiya, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728] can cause the cavitation by producing negative pressure in the droplets. We discussed that the fragmentation through the cavitation is a new mechanism to determine the upper limit of chondrule sizes. We also succeeded to reproduce the fragmentation of droplets when the gas ram pressure is stronger than the effect of the surface tension. Finally, we compared the deformation of droplets in the shock-wave heating with the measured data of chondrules and suggested the importance of other effects to deform droplets, for example, the rotation of droplets. We believe that our new code is a very powerful tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of molten droplets in the framework of the shock-wave heating model and has many potentials to be applied to various problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunn, Dennis; Squires, Kyle
2015-11-01
Modeling dispersions of particles in multiphase flows is especially challenging in gas-solid suspensions. Lagrangian methods are suitable for dilute particle mediums, but are not cost effective at denser concentrations and impose additional modeling challenges. A moderately dense particle phase is neither sufficiently dense for a continuum limit assumption (collisional equilibrium) nor sufficiently dilute for a Lagrangian method, and resides in the intermediate regime under consideration in the current work. A quadrature-based moment method (QBMM) is chosen to simulate a particle-laden turbulent channel flow considering inter-particle collision effects. In quadrature-based approaches similarly behaving particles may be grouped together and treated in a stochastic manner within an Eulerian framework. Specifically, the Conditional Quadrature Method of Moments (CQMOM) is implemented to discretize a fully 3-D velocity space and capture particle trajectory crossing (PTC). This has the potential for large computational savings as compared to Lagrangian methods, especially when dense collisions are prominent. The probability density function is discretized with a two-point-quadrature in each dimension - the minimum requirement to capture PTC and enforce collisions. Predictions of the channel flow demonstrate that the collision treatment leads to the expected effects (e.g., redistribution of kinetic energy) and also offer improved accuracy relative to simpler approaches.
Gas transfer in a bubbly wake flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karn, A.; Gulliver, J. S.; Monson, G. M.; Ellis, C.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Hong, J.
2016-05-01
The present work reports simultaneous bubble size and gas transfer measurements in a bubbly wake flow of a hydrofoil, designed to be similar to a hydroturbine blade. Bubble size was measured by a shadow imaging technique and found to have a Sauter mean diameter of 0.9 mm for a reference case. A lower gas flow rate, greater liquid velocities, and a larger angle of attack all resulted in an increased number of small size bubbles and a reduced weighted mean bubble size. Bubble-water gas transfer is measured by the disturbed equilibrium technique. The gas transfer model of Azbel (1981) is utilized to characterize the liquid film coefficient for gas transfer, with one scaling coefficient to reflect the fact that characteristic turbulent velocity is replaced by cross-sectional mean velocity. The coefficient was found to stay constant at a particular hydrofoil configuration while it varied within a narrow range of 0.52-0.60 for different gas/water flow conditions.
Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways
Minard, Kevin R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.
2012-08-01
Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show (1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and that (2) remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements.
Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways
Minard, Kevin R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.
2012-01-01
Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show 1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and 2) that remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements. PMID:22771528
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nourazar, S. S.; Jahangiri, P.; Aboutalebi, A.; Ganjaei, A. A.; Nourazar, M.; Khadem, J.
2011-06-01
The effect of new terms in the improved algorithm, the modified direct simulation Monte-Carlo (MDSMC) method, is investigated by simulating a rarefied binary gas mixture flow inside a rotating cylinder. Dalton law for the partial pressures contributed by each species of the binary gas mixture is incorporated into our simulation using the MDSMC method and the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method. Moreover, the effect of the exponent of the cosine of deflection angle (α) in the inter-molecular collision models, the variable soft sphere (VSS) and the variable hard sphere (VHS), is investigated in our simulation. The improvement of the results of simulation is pronounced using the MDSMC method when compared with the results of the DSMC method. The results of simulation using the VSS model show some improvements on the result of simulation for the mixture temperature at radial distances close to the cylinder wall where the temperature reaches the maximum value when compared with the results using the VHS model.
Burel, Antoine; Vaccaro, Marie; Cartigny, Yohann; Tisse, Séverine; Coquerel, Gérard; Cardinael, Pascal
2017-02-17
This study aims at modelling and predicting solute retention in capillary Gas Chromatography (GC) and Flow Modulation comprehensive GC (FM-GCxGC). A new thermodynamic model, taking into account the effects of temperature and pressure, is proposed to describe the variation of the equilibrium partition constant of a solute during its elution. This retention model was challenged with the classical one, and both were applied to: (i) stationary phase film thickness indirect estimation; (ii) retention time (RT) prediction of a set of 11 model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the SLB-IL60 and DB-35MS columns, in temperature-programmed mode. Film thickness determination led to values about 2 times lower than those indicated by column nominal dimensions, whatever the employed model. Prediction of retention times in GC led to 0.84 and 0.26% mean errors using the classical and the extended models, respectively. Prediction in GCxGC gave 5.5 and 0.44% mean errors in 1st dimension RTs, and 7.3 and 2.2% mean errors in 2nd dimension RTs, using the classical and the extended models, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahorter, L.; Chik, J.; McDaniels, D.; Dill, C.
1990-01-01
Engine 0209, the certification engine for the new Phase 2+ Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), showed severe deterioration of the Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) liner during hot fire tests. One theory on the cause of the damage held that uneven local distribution of the fuel rich hot gas flow through the main injector assembly was producing regions of high oxidizer/fuel (O/F) ratio near the wall of the MCC liner. Airflow testing was proposed to measure the local hot gas flow rates through individual injector elements. The airflow tests were conducted using full scale, geometrically correct models of both the current Phase 2 and the new Phase 2+ HGMs. Different main injector flow shield configurations were tested for each HGM to ascertain their effect on the pressure levels and distribution of hot gas flow. Instrumentation located on the primary faceplate of the main injector measured hot gas flow through selected injector elements. These data were combined with information from the current space shuttle main engine (SSME) power balances to produce maps of pressure, hot gas flow rate, and O/F ratio near the main injector primary plate. The O/F distributions were compared for the different injector and HGM configurations.
Natural gas flow through critical nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. C.
1969-01-01
Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carcano, Susanna; Bonaventura, Luca
2014-05-01
During explosive volcanic eruptions a mixture of gases, magma fragments, crystals and eroded rocks is injected in the atmosphere at high velocity, pressure and temperature. In the proximity of the volcanic vent, the erupted underexpanded multiphase mixture can manifest the features of supersonic flows, while the subsequent column behaviour is controlled by the (subsonic) turbulent mixing and mass and thermal exchange between the gas-particle mixture and the atmosphere. One of the main difficulties of the numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions is therefore the need of modeling a multiphase process where different fluid dynamic regimes coexist and develop on on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. From a computational point of view, this requires robust numerical techniques able to resolve supersonic regimes and to capture flow discontinuities (shock waves), as well as to reduce, where needed, the so-called numerical diffusion (while increasing the numerical accuracy) in order to simulate gas-particle non-equilibrium phenomena. Several examples of numerical approximation of multiphase gas-particle equations based on finite volume approach have been proposed in the literature, able to simulate the multiphase mixture up to second-order accuracy in space and time. However, achieving higher order of accuracy in the finite volume framework implies an increasing computational cost related to the extension of the computational stencil, in particular when a parallel implementation has to be employed. In this work, a mixture of gas and solid particles is described with a set of coupled partial differential equations for the mass, momentum and energy of each phase. Solid particles and the gas phase are considered as non-equilibrium interpenetrating continua, following an Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Each phase is compressible and inviscid. The gas and particles dynamics are coupled through the drag term in the momentum equations and the heat exchange term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, W.; Kim, C.-H.; DebRoy, T.
2004-05-01
Gas metal arc (GMA) fillet welding is one of the most important processes for metal joining because of its high productivity and amiability to automation. This welding process is characterized by the complicated V-shaped joint geometry, a deformable weld pool surface, and the additions of hot metal droplets. In the present work, a three-dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to examine the temperature profiles, velocity fields, weld pool shape and size, and the nature of the solidified weld bead geometry during GMA fillet welding. The model solved the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy using a boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate system. Apart from the direct transport of heat from the welding arc, additional heat from the metal droplets was modeled considering a volumetric heat source. The deformation of the weld pool surface was calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. Part I of this article is focused on the details of the numerical model such as coordinate transformation and calculation of volumetric heat source and free surface profile. An application of the model to GMA fillet welding of mild steel is described in an accompanying article (W. Zhang, C.-H. Kim and T. DebRoy, J. Appl Phys. 95, 5220 (2004)).
A Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Reactive Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lian,Youg-Sheng; Xu, Kun
1998-01-01
In this paper, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible flow equations is extended to chemical reactive flow. The mass fraction of the unburnt gas is implemented into the gas kinetic equation by assigning a new internal degree of freedom to the particle distribution function. The new variable can be also used to describe fluid trajectory for the nonreactive flows. Due to the gas-kinetic BGK model, the current scheme basically solves the Navier-Stokes chemical reactive flow equations. Numerical tests validate the accuracy and robustness of the current kinetic method.
Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Rarefied Gas Flows Through Orifices and Short Tubes
2005-07-13
approach (solution of the Navier - Stokes equations , NS hereafter). 437 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Continuum approach. The Navier - Stokes computations were performed with commercial software, CFD- FASTRAN, which is a sophisticated compressible finite-volume...micro and nanotechnologies (such as lubrication problems that deal with transitional flows in long channels and tubes) and porous media (represented by a
Gas flow path for a gas turbine engine
Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Snyder, Gary D.; Pankey, William W.; Mayer, Clinton A.; Hettinger, Benjamin G.
2017-03-14
A duct arrangement in a can annular gas turbine engine. The gas turbine engine has a gas delivery structure for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors to an annular chamber that extends circumferentially and is oriented concentric to a gas turbine engine longitudinal axis for delivering the gas flow to a first row of blades A gas flow path is formed by the duct arrangement between a respective combustor and the annular chamber for conveying gases from each combustor to the first row of turbine blades The duct arrangement includes at least one straight section having a centerline that is misaligned with a centerline of the combustor.
Thomas E. Conder; Richard Skifton; Ralph Budwig
2012-11-01
Core bypass flow is one of the key issues with the prismatic Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor, and it refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial, non-cooling passages between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. To determine the bypass flow, a double scale representative model was manufactured and installed in the Matched Index-of-Refraction flow facility; after which, stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the flow field within. PIV images were analyzed to produce vector maps, and flow rates were calculated by numerically integrating over the velocity field. It was found that the bypass flow varied between 6.9-15.8% for channel Reynolds numbers of 1,746 and 4,618. The results were compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) pre-test simulations. When compared to these pretest calculations, the CFD analysis appeared to under predict the flow through the gap.
Steinberg, A.M.; Boxx, I.; Stoehr, M.; Meier, W.; Carter, C.D.
2010-12-15
A detailed analysis of the flow-flame interactions associated with acoustically coupled heat-release rate fluctuations was performed for a 10 kW, CH{sub 4}/air, swirl stabilized flame in a gas turbine model combustor exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations at 308 Hz. High-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, OH planar laser induced fluorescence, and OH* chemiluminescence measurements were performed at a sustained repetition rate of 5 kHz, which was sufficient to resolve the relevant combustor dynamics. Using spatio-temporal proper orthogonal decomposition, it was found that the flow-field contained several simultaneous periodic motions: the reactant flux into the combustion chamber periodically oscillated at the thermo-acoustic frequency (308 Hz), a helical precessing vortex core (PVC) circumscribed the burner nozzle at 515 Hz, and the PVC underwent axial contraction and extension at the thermo-acoustic frequency. The global heat release rate fluctuated at the thermo-acoustic frequency, while the heat release centroid circumscribed the combustor at the difference between the thermo-acoustic and PVC frequencies. Hence, the three-dimensional location of the heat release fluctuations depended on the interaction of the PVC with the flame surface. This motivated the compilation of doubly phase resolved statistics based on the phase of both the acoustic and PVC cycles, which showed highly repeatable periodic flow-flame configurations. These include flames stabilized between the inflow and inner recirculation zone, large-scale flame wrap-up by the PVC, radial deflection of the inflow by the PVC, and combustion in the outer recirculation zones. Large oscillations in the flame surface area were observed at the thermo-accoustic frequency that significantly affected the total heat-release oscillations. By filtering the instantaneous reaction layers at different scales, the importance of the various flow-flame interactions affecting the flame area was
Gas flow with straight transition line
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ovsiannikov, L V
1951-01-01
An investigation was conducted on the limiting case of a gas flow when the constant pressure in the surrounding medium is exactly equal to the critical pressure for the given initial state of the gas.
Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap.
Casassus, Simon; van der Plas, Gerrit; Sebastian Perez, M; Dent, William R F; Fomalont, Ed; Hagelberg, Janis; Hales, Antonio; Jordán, Andrés; Mawet, Dimitri; Ménard, Francois; Wootten, Al; Wilner, David; Hughes, A Meredith; Schreiber, Matthias R; Girard, Julien H; Ercolano, Barbara; Canovas, Hector; Román, Pablo E; Salinas, Vachail
2013-01-10
The formation of gaseous giant planets is thought to occur in the first few million years after stellar birth. Models predict that the process produces a deep gap in the dust component (shallower in the gas). Infrared observations of the disk around the young star HD 142527 (at a distance of about 140 parsecs from Earth) found an inner disk about 10 astronomical units (AU) in radius (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance), surrounded by a particularly large gap and a disrupted outer disk beyond 140 AU. This disruption is indicative of a perturbing planetary-mass body at about 90 AU. Radio observations indicate that the bulk mass is molecular and lies in the outer disk, whose continuum emission has a horseshoe morphology. The high stellar accretion rate would deplete the inner disk in less than one year, and to sustain the observed accretion matter must therefore flow from the outer disk and cross the gap. In dynamical models, the putative protoplanets channel outer-disk material into gap-crossing bridges that feed stellar accretion through the inner disk. Here we report observations of diffuse CO gas inside the gap, with denser HCO(+) gas along gap-crossing filaments. The estimated flow rate of the gas is in the range of 7 × 10(-9) to 2 × 10(-7) solar masses per year, which is sufficient to maintain accretion onto the star at the present rate.
Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casassus, Simon; van der Plas, Gerrit; M, Sebastian Perez; Dent, William R. F.; Fomalont, Ed; Hagelberg, Janis; Hales, Antonio; Jordán, Andrés; Mawet, Dimitri; Ménard, Francois; Wootten, Al; Wilner, David; Hughes, A. Meredith; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Girard, Julien H.; Ercolano, Barbara; Canovas, Hector; Román, Pablo E.; Salinas, Vachail
2013-01-01
The formation of gaseous giant planets is thought to occur in the first few million years after stellar birth. Models predict that the process produces a deep gap in the dust component (shallower in the gas). Infrared observations of the disk around the young star HD 142527 (at a distance of about 140 parsecs from Earth) found an inner disk about 10 astronomical units (AU) in radius (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance), surrounded by a particularly large gap and a disrupted outer disk beyond 140 AU. This disruption is indicative of a perturbing planetary-mass body at about 90 AU. Radio observations indicate that the bulk mass is molecular and lies in the outer disk, whose continuum emission has a horseshoe morphology. The high stellar accretion rate would deplete the inner disk in less than one year, and to sustain the observed accretion matter must therefore flow from the outer disk and cross the gap. In dynamical models, the putative protoplanets channel outer-disk material into gap-crossing bridges that feed stellar accretion through the inner disk. Here we report observations of diffuse CO gas inside the gap, with denser HCO+ gas along gap-crossing filaments. The estimated flow rate of the gas is in the range of 7 × 10-9 to 2 × 10-7 solar masses per year, which is sufficient to maintain accretion onto the star at the present rate.
Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow
Brucker, John P.
1989-01-01
A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam
2012-11-01
A computational fluid dynamic study is carried out to investigate gas transport in patient specific human lung models (based on CT scans) during high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Different pressure-controlled waveforms and various ventilator frequencies are studied to understand the effect of flow transport and gas mixing during these processes. Three different pressure waveforms are created by solving the equation of motion subjected to constant lung wall compliance and flow resistance. Sinusoidal, exponential and constant waveforms shapes are considered with three different frequencies 6, 10 and 15 Hz and constant tidal volume 50 ml. The velocities are calculated from the obtained flow rate and imposed as inlet flow conditions to represent the mechanical ventilation waveforms. An endotracheal tube ETT is joined to the model to account for the effect of the invasive management device with the peak Reynolds number (Re) for all the cases ranging from 6960 to 24694. All simulations are performed using high order LES turbulent model. The gas transport near the flow reversal will be discussed at different cycle phases for all the cases and a comparison of the secondary flow structures between different cases will be presented.
Low-Dimensional Models for Physiological Systems: Nonlinear Coupling of Gas and Liquid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staples, A. E.; Oran, E. S.; Boris, J. P.; Kailasanath, K.
2006-11-01
Current computational models of biological organisms focus on the details of a specific component of the organism. For example, very detailed models of the human heart, an aorta, a vein, or part of the respiratory or digestive system, are considered either independently from the rest of the body, or as interacting simply with other systems and components in the body. In actual biological organisms, these components and systems are strongly coupled and interact in complex, nonlinear ways leading to complicated global behavior. Here we describe a low-order computational model of two physiological systems, based loosely on a circulatory and respiratory system. Each system is represented as a one-dimensional fluid system with an interconnected series of mass sources, pumps, valves, and other network components, as appropriate, representing different physical organs and system components. Preliminary results from a first version of this model system are presented.
Permeable Gas Flow Influences Magma Fragmentation Speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, D.; Scheu, B.; Spieler, O.; Dingwell, D.
2008-12-01
Highly viscous magmas undergo fragmentation in order to produce the pyroclastic deposits that we observe, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The overpressure required to initiate fragmentation depends on a number of physical parameters, such as the magma's vesicularity, permeability, tensile strength and textural properties. It is clear that these same parameters control also the speed at which a fragmentation front travels through magma when fragmentation occurs. Recent mathematical models of fragmentation processes consider most of these factors, but permeable gas flow has not yet been included in these models. However, it has been shown that permeable gas flow through a porous rock during a sudden decompression event increases the fragmentation threshold. Fragmentation experiments on natural samples from Bezymianny (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Krakatau (Indonesia) and Augustine (USA) volcanoes confirm these results and suggest in addition that high permeable flow rates may increase the speed of fragmentation. Permeability from the investigated samples ranges from as low as 5 x 10-14 to higher than 9 x 10- 12 m2 and open porosity ranges from 16 % to 48 %. Experiments were performed for each sample series at applied pressures up to 35 MPa. Our results indicate that the rate of increase of fragmentation speed is higher when the permeability is above 10-12 m2. We confirm that it is necessary to include the influence of permeable flow on fragmentation dynamics.
Experimental investigation of gas flow type DPAL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Taro; Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio
2017-01-01
We have developed a small-scale, diode-pumped alkali laser with a closed-loop gas circulation device and investigated the effect of gas circulation on the laser output power. The gain cell, with a 5 cm active length, is fitted with antireflection windows, and a cross-flow fan is incorporated inside it. The active medium is composed of cesium, hydrocarbon, and a buffer gas whose total pressure is approximately 2 atmospheres. The laser output power was measured as a function of the gas flow velocity for different buffer gases. In the case of argon, the laser power was strongly dependent on the gas flow velocity, whereas it was almost independent of the gas flow in the case of helium. The maximum output power of the argon buffer was close to that of the helium buffer when the gas velocity exceeded 6 m/s. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.; Sander, G. F.
1983-01-01
In connection with the desirability of optimizing the design of a gas turbine combustion chamber, there exists a need for a more complete understanding of the fluid dynamics of the flow in such chambers. In order to satisfy this need, experimental and theoretical research is being conducted with the objective to study two-dimensional axisymmetric geometries under low speed, nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions. The flow enters the test section and proceeds into a larger chamber. Inlet swirl vanes are adjustable to a variety of vane angles. The present investigation concentrates on the time-mean flow characteristics which are generated by the upstream annular swirler. The investigation makes use of a five-hole pitot probe technique. A theoretical analysis of swirl numbers associated with several idealized exit velocity profiles is included, and values of the ratio of maximum swirl velocity to maximum axial velocity at different swirl strengths are given for each case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.; Sander, G. F.
1983-01-01
In connection with the desirability of optimizing the design of a gas turbine combustion chamber, there exists a need for a more complete understanding of the fluid dynamics of the flow in such chambers. In order to satisfy this need, experimental and theoretical research is being conducted with the objective to study two-dimensional axisymmetric geometries under low speed, nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions. The flow enters the test section and proceeds into a larger chamber. Inlet swirl vanes are adjustable to a variety of vane angles. The present investigation concentrates on the time-mean flow characteristics which are generated by the upstream annular swirler. The investigation makes use of a five-hole pitot probe technique. A theoretical analysis of swirl numbers associated with several idealized exit velocity profiles is included, and values of the ratio of maximum swirl velocity to maximum axial velocity at different swirl strengths are given for each case.
Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990
Kim, J.M. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. ); Hashemi, A. )
1990-01-01
Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.
Monte Carlo modeling of electron density in hypersonic rarefied gas flows
Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuhuai; Jiang, Jianzheng
2014-12-09
The electron density distribution around a vehicle employed in the RAM-C II flight test is calculated with the DSMC method. To resolve the mole fraction of electrons which is several orders lower than those of the primary species in the free stream, an algorithm named as trace species separation (TSS) is utilized. The TSS algorithm solves the primary and trace species separately, which is similar to the DSMC overlay techniques; however it generates new simulated molecules of trace species, such as ions and electrons in each cell, basing on the ionization and recombination rates directly, which differs from the DSMC overlay techniques based on probabilistic models. The electron density distributions computed by TSS agree well with the flight data measured in the RAM-C II test along a decent trajectory at three altitudes 81km, 76km, and 71km.
Taylor, L.M.; Swenson, D.V.; Cooper, P.W.
1984-07-01
A two-dimensional finite element model for predicting fracture patterns obtained in high energy gas fracture experiments is presented. In these experiments, a mixture of propellants is used instead of explosives to fracture the rock surrounding the borehole. The propellant mixture is chosen to tailor the pressure pulse so that multiple fractures emanate from the borehole. The model allows the fracture pattern and pressure pulse to be calculated for different combinations of propellant mixture, in situ stress conditions, and rock properties. The model calculates the amount of gas generated by the burning propellants using a burn rate given by a power law in pressure. By assuming that the gas behaves as a perfect gas and that the flow down the fractures is isothermal, the loss of gas from the borehole due to flow down the cracks is accounted for. The flow of gas down the cracks is included in an approximate manner by assuming self-similar pressure profiles along the fractures. Numerical examples are presented and compared to three different full-scale experiments. Results show a good correlation with the experimental data over a wide variety of test parameters. 9 reference, 10 figures, 3 tables.
Gas flow between immobile contact-surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemberskii, V. B.
1982-04-01
Consideration is given to the problem of leakage through imperfectly connected detachable joints. A method is developed to analyze the rate of gas flow through such joints, with allowance for the displacement of the contact surfaces under the influence of the pressure of the gas flowing through the joint. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently large surface displacements the dependence of gas flow rate on the square of gas pressure inside the joint differs significantly fom a linear dependence, which occurs when the displacement effect is absent.
Dense gas flow in minimum length nozzles
Aldo, A.C.; Argrow, B.M.
1995-06-01
Recently, dense gases have been investigated for many engineering applications such as for turbomachinery and wind tunnels. Supersonic nozzle design can be complicated by nonclassical dense-gas behavior in the transonic flow regime. In this paper, a method of characteristics (MOC) is developed for two-dimensional (planar) and axisymmetric flow of a van der Waals gas. A minimum length nozzle design code is developed that employs the MOC procedure to generate an inviscid wall contour. The van der Waals results are compared to perfect gas results to show the real-gas effects on the flow properties and inviscid wall contours.
Apparatus for focusing flowing gas streams
Nogar, N.S.; Keller, R.A.
1985-05-20
Apparatus for focusing gas streams. The principle of hydrodynamic focusing is applied to flowing gas streams in order to provide sample concentration for improved photon and sample utilization in resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis. In a concentric nozzle system, gas samples introduced from the inner nozzle into the converging section of the outer nozzle are focused to streams 50-250-..mu..m in diameter. In some cases diameters of approximately 100-..mu..m are maintained over distances of several centimeters downstream from the exit orifice of the outer nozzle. The sheath gas employed has been observed to further provide a protective covering around the flowing gas sample, thereby isolating the flowing gas sample from possible unwanted reactions with nearby surfaces. A single nozzle variation of the apparatus for achieving hydrodynamic focusing of gas samples is also described.
Multipath ultrasonic flow meters for gas measurement
Saunders, M.P.
1995-11-01
This paper gives an introduction to the practical application of ultrasonic gas flow meters. A general outline of the theory and methods applied using multipath flow meters. The multi-path type meter provides state of the art gas flow measurements and its accuracy and reliability satisfy the requirements for custody transfer. A typical multi-path device can achieve accuracies better than 0.2%.
Hodges, Rex A.; Cooper, Clay; Falta, Ronald
2012-09-17
The Piceance Basin in western Colorado contains significant reserves of natural gas in poorly connected, low-permeability (tight) sandstone lenses of the Mesaverde Group. The ability to enhance the production of natural gas in this area has long been a goal of the oil and gas industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, participated in three tests using nuclear detonations to fracture tight formations in an effort to enhance gas production. The tests were conducted under Project Plowshare, a program designed to identify peaceful, beneficial uses for nuclear devices. The first, Project Gasbuggy, was conducted in 1967 in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The two subsequent tests, Project Rulison in 1969 and Project Rio Blanco in 1973, were in the Piceance Basin. The ability to enhance natural gas production from tight sands has become practical through advances in hydraulic fracturing technology (hydrofracturing). This technology has led to an increase in drilling activity near the Rulison site, raising concerns that contamination currently contained in the subsurface could be released through a gas well drilled too close to the site. As wells are drilled nearer the site, the DOE Office of Legacy Management has taken the approach outlined in the June 2010 Rulison Path Forward document (DOE 2010), which recommends a conservative, staged approach to gas development. Drillers are encouraged to drill wells in areas with a low likelihood of encountering contamination (both distance and direction from the detonation zone are factors) and to collect data from these wells prior to drilling nearer the site’s 40 acre institutional control boundary (Lot 11). Previous modeling results indicate that contamination has been contained within Lot 11 (Figure 1). The Path Forward document couples the model predictions with the monitoring of gas and produced water from the gas wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, S. R.; Kolev, St.; Wang, H. X.; Bogaerts, A.
2017-01-01
We present a 3D and 2D Cartesian quasi-neutral plasma model for a low current argon gliding arc discharge, including strong interactions between the gas flow and arc plasma column. The 3D model is applied only for a short time of 0.2 ms due to its huge computational cost. It mainly serves to verify the reliability of the 2D model. As the results in 2D compare well with those in 3D, they can be used for a better understanding of the gliding arc basic characteristics. More specifically, we investigate the back-breakdown phenomenon induced by an artificially controlled plasma channel, and we discuss its effect on the gliding arc characteristics. The back-breakdown phenomenon, or backward-jump motion of the arc, as observed in the experiments, results in a drop of the gas temperature, as well as in a delay of the arc velocity with respect to the gas flow velocity, allowing more gas to pass through the arc, and thus increasing the efficiency of the gliding arc for gas treatment applications.
Kiaer, T; Dahl, B; Lausten, G S
1993-01-01
Several methods have been employed in the study of bone perfusion. We used a method of determining inert gas wash-out by mass spectrometry in the study of blood flow rates in pigs. The method was validated by comparison of the result obtained with inert gas wash-out to that with measurement by microspheres. Furthermore, the effect of decreased inlet flow and venous congestion on the bone perfusion data was tested. The undisturbed bone blood flow was not significantly different when measured with wash-out of inert gas (7 +/- 0.7 ml/min/100 g) or with microspheres (9 +/- 2.9 ml/min/100 g), and the methods were correlated. Perfusion was reduced significantly, to 20% of the original value, after arterial occlusion. The changes in wash-out curves and accumulation of radioactive tracer provided substantial evidence for impaired intraosseous circulation following venous obstruction also. In conclusion, the study showed that this method of determining inert gas wash-out is feasible for studies of local perfusion rates in bone. The flow rates obtained by wash-out correlated well with the results of microsphere studies. In this animal model, both methods detected a fivefold reduction in flow rate after clamping of the arterial inflow. Obstruction of the venous outflow also impaired blood flow and lowered the cellular supply.
Coupling compositional liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at porous and free-flow domains interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, R.; Trenty, L.; Zhang, Y.
2016-09-01
This paper proposes an efficient splitting algorithm to solve coupled liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at the interface between a porous medium and a free-flow domain. This model is compared to the reduced model introduced in [6] using a 1D approximation of the gas free flow. For that purpose, the gas molar fraction diffusive flux at the interface in the free-flow domain is approximated by a two point flux approximation based on a low-frequency diagonal approximation of a Steklov-Poincaré type operator. The splitting algorithm and the reduced model are applied in particular to the modelling of the mass exchanges at the interface between the storage and the ventilation galleries in radioactive waste deposits.
Coupling compositional liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at porous and free-flow domains interface
Masson, R.; Trenty, L.; Zhang, Y.
2016-09-15
This paper proposes an efficient splitting algorithm to solve coupled liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at the interface between a porous medium and a free-flow domain. This model is compared to the reduced model introduced in [6] using a 1D approximation of the gas free flow. For that purpose, the gas molar fraction diffusive flux at the interface in the free-flow domain is approximated by a two point flux approximation based on a low-frequency diagonal approximation of a Steklov–Poincaré type operator. The splitting algorithm and the reduced model are applied in particular to the modelling of the mass exchanges at the interface between the storage and the ventilation galleries in radioactive waste deposits.
Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2008-09-01
The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements
Scaling of multiphase pipeline flow behavior at high gas density
Crowley, C.J.
1988-01-01
This report contains data that demonstrates the scaling of flow regime, pressure drop, and holdup multiphase flow with pipe diameter. In addition, entrance length effects, the onset of liquid entrainment, and interfacial shear modeling at high gas density are studied for purposes of validating multiphase flow design methods. Stratified, slug and annular flow regimes have been observed. Air, freon, and water have been used to represent pipeline fluids.
Slip length measurement of gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-09-01
In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabris, Gracio
1994-01-01
Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.
Effect of gas flow rate on titanium sponge reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhiliang; Feng, Gaoping; Wang, Mingdong; Hong, Yanji
2017-08-01
This paper expounds the important application of titanium sponge adsorption in inert gas purification, the reaction mechanism of titanium with nitrogen and oxygen was introduced. Explored the relationship between the absorption capacity of sponge titanium on the active gas in air samples and the gas flow rate. The model of sponge titanium for flowing air absorption was established by data analysis. The designed experiment verified the relationship between the titanium processing capacity and the gas collecting device. Finally, the influence of the mass of the sponge titanium on the degassing capacity was studied through experiments.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of rarefied gas flows in microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yonghao; Qin, Rongshan; Emerson, David R.
2005-04-01
For gas flows in microchannels, slip motion at the solid surface can occur even if the Mach number is negligibly small. Since the Knudsen number of the gas flow in a long microchannel can vary widely and the Navier-Stokes equations are not valid for Knudsen numbers beyond 0.1, an alternative method that can be applicable to continuum, slip and transition flow regimes is highly desirable. The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach has recently been expected to have such potential. However, some hurdles need to be overcome before it can be applied to simulate rarefied gas flows. The first major hurdle is to accurately model the gas molecule and wall surface interactions. In addition, the Knudsen number needs to be clearly defined in terms of LBE properties to ensure that the LBE simulation results can be checked against experimental measurements and other simulation results. In this paper, the Maxwellian scattering kernel is adopted to address the gas molecule and surface interactions with an accommodation coefficient (in addition to the Knudsen number) controlling the amount of slip motion. The Knudsen number is derived consistently with the macroscopic property based definition. The simulation results of the present LBE model are in quantitative agreement with the established theory in the slip flow regime. In the transition flow regime, the model captures the Knudsen minimum phenomenon qualitatively. Therefore, the LBE can be a competitive method for simulation of rarefied gas flows in microdevices.
Flowing gas, non-nuclear experiments on the gas core reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunze, J. F.; Suckling, D. H.; Copper, C. G.
1972-01-01
Flow tests were conducted on models of the gas core (cavity) reactor. Variations in cavity wall and injection configurations were aimed at establishing flow patterns that give a maximum of the nuclear criticality eigenvalue. Correlation with the nuclear effect was made using multigroup diffusion theory normalized by previous benchmark critical experiments. Air was used to simulate the hydrogen propellant in the flow tests, and smoked air, argon, or freon to simulate the central nuclear fuel gas. All tests were run in the down-firing direction so that gravitational effects simulated the acceleration effect of a rocket. Results show that acceptable flow patterns with high volume fraction for the simulated nuclear fuel gas and high flow rate ratios of propellant to fuel can be obtained. Using a point injector for the fuel, good flow patterns are obtained by directing the outer gas at high velocity along the cavity wall, using louvered or oblique-angle-honeycomb injection schemes.
Computations of ideal and real gas high altitude plume flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiereisen, William J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1988-01-01
In the present work, complete flow fields around generic space vehicles in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes are studied numerically. Numerical simulation is performed with a flux-split, time asymptotic viscous flow solver that incorporates a generalized equilibrium chemistry model. Solutions to generic problems at various altitude and flight conditions show the complexity of the flow, the equilibrium chemical dissociation and its effect on the overall flow field. Viscous ideal gas solutions are compared against equilibrium gas solutions to illustrate the effect of equilibrium chemistry. Improved solution accuracy is achieved through adaptive grid refinement.
Y. Wu
2004-11-01
The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.
Cleanouts boost Devonian shale gas flow
Not Available
1991-02-04
Cleaning shale debris from the well bores is an effective way to boost flow rates from old open hole Devonian shale gas wells, research on six West Virginia wells begun in 1985 has shown. Officials involved with the study say the Appalachian basin could see 20 year recoverable gas reserves hiked by 315 bcf if the process is used on a wide scale.
A method of determining combustion gas flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bon Tempi, P. J.
1968-01-01
Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.
Gas flows in Galaxies: Mergers Versus Bars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.; Nair, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Scudder, J. M.; Simard, L.
2013-10-01
In this contribution, I will review the latest results of our ongoing work to study the central gas flows in merging galaxies, focusing on triggered star formation, presence of an AGN and changes in the gas-phase metallicity. Results from a sample of close galaxy pairs are compared with bar driven gas inflows in order to quantify the relative importance of hierarchical versus secular processes.
Gas flow rates through transtracheal ventilation catheters.
Marr, Jonathan K; Yamamoto, Loren G
2004-07-01
The purpose of the study was to measure gas flow rates using different methods of transtracheal ventilation. Wall oxygen flow (WOF) at 10 and 15L/min, and a self-inflating ventilation bag (SIVB) were used to deliver gas flow through three transtracheal catheters: 13, 14, and 16 gauge (5 trials each). WOF mean gas flow rates (L/min) through the 16G, 14G, 13G catheters, respectively were: 15.7, 15.7, 16.8 at 15L/min, 10.5, 10.5, 10.3 at 10 L/min, and 5.7, 7.5, 7.7 via SIVB. SIVB gas flow was not continuous since it required the bag to reinflate, which reduces its calculated flow rate. A 500 cc tidal volume can be delivered within 3 seconds (WOF) and 5 seconds (SIVB). Catheter size did not substantially affect gas flow rates (Poiseuille's law not applicable). Transtracheal ventilation is best done by using WOF, but if a device to perform this is not available, then an SIVB may still be sufficient.
2011-02-22
relaxation of a N2 gas flow behind a shock A. Aliat,1,* P. Vedula,1,* and E. Josyula2 1School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of...influence on the relaxation of the macroscopic parameters of the gas flow behind the shock, especially on vibrational distributions of high levels. All...simulate hypersonic gas flows are based on the assumption of quasistationary distributions (Boltzmann or Treanor) over vibrational energies [2–5]. These
Driver gas flow with fluctuations. [shock tube turbulent bursts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. A., III; Jones, W. R.; Santiago, J.
1980-01-01
A shock tube's driver gas can apparently provide flow with turbulent bursts. The fluctuations are interpreted using a boundary layer model of contact surface flow and results form a kinetic theory of turbulence. With this, a lower limit of 4 on the ratio of maximum to minimum turbulent intensities in contact surface instabilities has been estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzija, N.; Yin, W.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.; Peyton, A. J.
2011-01-01
Monitoring of the steel flow through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) during continuous casting presents a challenge for the instrumentation system because of the high temperature environment and the limited access to the nozzle in between the tundish and the mould. Electromagnetic inductance tomography (EMT) presents an attractive tool to visualize the steel flow profile within the SEN. In this paper, we investigate various flow regimes over a range of stopper positions and gas volume flow rates on a model of a submerged entry nozzle. A scaled (approximately 10:1) experimental rig consisting of a tundish, stopper rod, nozzle and mould was used. Argon gas was injected through the centre of the stopper rod and the behaviour of the two-phase GaInSn/argon flow was studied. The experiments were performed with GaInSn as an analogue for liquid steel, because it has similar conductive properties as molten steel and allows measurements at room temperature. The electromagnetic system used in our experiments to monitor the behaviour of the two-phase GaInSn/argon flow consisted of an array of eight equally spaced induction coils arranged around the object, a data acquisition system and a host computer. The present system operates with a sinusoidal excitation waveform with a frequency of 40 kHz and the system has a capture rate of 40 frames per second. The results show the ability of the system to distinguish the different flow regimes and to detect the individual bubbles. Sample tomographic images given in the paper clearly illustrate the different flow regimes.
Stripped interstellar gas in cluster cooling flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.
1991-01-01
It is suggested that nonlinear perturbations which lead to thermal instabilities in cooling flows might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stipped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly 100 solar masses/yr, which is similar to the rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows. It is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low-entropy perturbations may help to maintain their identities by suppressing both thermal conduction and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, which may be one mechanism for producing wideangle-tail radio galaxies.
Behafarid, F.; Shaver, D. R.; Bolotnov, I. A.; Jansen, K. E.; Antal, S. P.; Podowski, M. Z.
2012-07-01
The required technological and safety standards for future Gen IV Reactors can only be achieved if advanced simulation capabilities become available, which combine high performance computing with the necessary level of modeling detail and high accuracy of predictions. The purpose of this paper is to present new results of multi-scale three-dimensional (3D) simulations of the inter-related phenomena, which occur as a result of fuel element heat-up and cladding failure, including the injection of a jet of gaseous fission products into a partially blocked Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) coolant channel, and gas/molten sodium transport along the coolant channels. The computational approach to the analysis of the overall accident scenario is based on using two different inter-communicating computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) codes: a CFD code, PHASTA, and a RANS code, NPHASE-CMFD. Using the geometry and time history of cladding failure and the gas injection rate, direct numerical simulations (DNS), combined with the Level Set method, of two-phase turbulent flow have been performed by the PHASTA code. The model allows one to track the evolution of gas/liquid interfaces at a centimeter scale. The simulated phenomena include the formation and breakup of the jet of fission products injected into the liquid sodium coolant. The PHASTA outflow has been averaged over time to obtain mean phasic velocities and volumetric concentrations, as well as the liquid turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate, all of which have served as the input to the core-scale simulations using the NPHASE-CMFD code. A sliding window time averaging has been used to capture mean flow parameters for transient cases. The results presented in the paper include testing and validation of the proposed models, as well the predictions of fission-gas/liquid-sodium transport along a multi-rod fuel assembly of SFR during a partial loss-of-flow accident. (authors)
Ozturk, S S; Palsson, B O; Thiele, J H
1989-02-05
Dynamic reaction diffusion models were used to analyze the consequences of aggregation for syntrophic reactions in methanogenic ecosystems. Flocs from a whey digestor were used to measure all model parameters under the in situ conditions of a particular defined biological system. Fermentation simulations without adjustable parameters could precisely predict the kinetics of H(2) gas production of digestor flocs during syntrophic methanogenesis from ethanol. The results demonstrated a kinetic compartmentalization of H(2) metabolism inside the flocs. The interspecies electron transfer reaction was mildly diffusion controlled. The H(2) gas profiles across the flocs showed high H (2) concentrations inside the flocs at any time. Simulations of the syntrophic metabolism at low substrate concentrations such as in digestors or sediments showed that it is impossible to achieve high H(2) gas turnovers at simultaneously low steady-state H(2) concentrations. This showed a mechanistic contradiction in the concept of postulated low H(2) microenvironments for the anaerobic digestion process. The results of the computer experiments support the conclusion that syntrophic H(2) production may only be a side reaction of H(2) independent interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic ecosystems.
Gas flow in a stratified porous medium with crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hedong; Gao, Chengtai; Qian, Huanqun; Zhou, Fangde
2002-02-01
A new model called semi-permeable wall model is presented for multilayer gas reservoir. The model is used to study the influence of crossflow on pressure transient well tests and other single-phase flow problems. It is suggested here to use this model to approximate the actual multilayer gas reservoir, so that the problem is greatly simplified mathematically. Its differential equation is established here for multilayer gas reservoirs, and is linearized by normalized pseudo pressure and pseudo time. Simulation program is developed by finite-difference method when all layers are perforated. The feature of wellbore pressure and rate is clarified by analyzing the results of numerical simulation.
Gas liquid flow at microgravity conditions - Flow patterns and their transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dukler, A. E.; Fabre, J. A.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vernon, R.
The prediction of flow patterns during gas-liquid flow in conduits is central to the modern approach for modeling two phase flow and heat transfer. The mechanisms of transition are reasonably well understood for flow in pipes on earth where it has been shown that body forces largely control the behavior observed. This work explores the patterns which exist under conditions of microgravity when these body forces are suppressed. Data are presented which were obtained for air-water flow in tubes during drop tower experiments and Learjet trajectories. Preliminary models to explain the observed flow pattern map are evolved.
Gas liquid flow at microgravity conditions - Flow patterns and their transitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dukler, A. E.; Fabre, J. A.; Mcquillen, J. B.; Vernon, R.
1987-01-01
The prediction of flow patterns during gas-liquid flow in conduits is central to the modern approach for modeling two phase flow and heat transfer. The mechanisms of transition are reasonably well understood for flow in pipes on earth where it has been shown that body forces largely control the behavior observed. This work explores the patterns which exist under conditions of microgravity when these body forces are suppressed. Data are presented which were obtained for air-water flow in tubes during drop tower experiments and Learjet trajectories. Preliminary models to explain the observed flow pattern map are evolved.
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas flow...
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as...
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as...
Schmidt, R.C.; Patankar, S.V.
1988-05-01
The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional boundary layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to current LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. Finally, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, Rodney C.; Patankar, Suhas V.
1988-01-01
The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional boundary layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to current LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. Finally, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.
On mechanisms of choked gas flows in microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shan, Xiaodong; Wang, Moran
2015-10-01
Choked gas flows in microchannels have been reported before based solely on experimental measurements, but the underlining physical mechanism has yet to be clarified. In this work, we are to explore the process via numerical modeling of choked gas flows through a straight microchannel that connects two gas reservoirs. The major theoretical consideration lies in that, since the gas in microchannels may not be necessarily rarefied even at a high Knudsen number, a generalized Monte Carlo method based on the Enskog theory, GEMC, was thus used instead of direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). Our results indicate that the choked gas flows in microchannels can be divided into two types: sonic choking and subsonic choking, because the sonic point does not always exist even though the gas flows appear choked, depending on the inlet-outlet pressure ratio and the length-height ratio of the channel. Even if the gas flow does not reach a sonic point at the outlet region, the effective pressure ratio (pi /po) acting on the channel becomes asymptotically changeless when the pressure ratio on the buffer regions (pi‧ / po‧) is higher than a certain value. The subsonic choking may caused by the expansion wave or the strong non-equilibrium effect at the outlet.
Prediction of strongly-heated internal gas flows
McEligot, D.M. ||; Shehata, A.M.; Kunugi, Tomoaki |
1997-12-31
The purposes of the present article are to remind practitioners why the usual textbook approaches may not be appropriate for treating gas flows heated from the surface with large heat fluxes and to review the successes of some recent applications of turbulence models to this case. Simulations from various turbulence models have been assessed by comparison to the measurements of internal mean velocity and temperature distributions by Shehata for turbulent, laminarizing and intermediate flows with significant gas property variation. Of about fifteen models considered, five were judged to provide adequate predictions.
Gas Bubble Formation in Stagnant and Flowing Mercury
Wendel, Mark W; Abdou, Ashraf A; Riemer, Bernie; Felde, David K
2007-01-01
Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant and flowing mercury have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX, was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant mercury. Bubbles produced at the upwards-oriented vertical gas injector were measured with proton radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The comparison of the CFD results to the radiographic images shows good agreement for bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. Although several gas flows were measured, this paper focuses on the case with a gas flow rate of 8 cc/min through the 100-micron-diameter injector needle. The acoustic waves emitted due to the detachment of the bubble and during subsequent bubble oscillations were recorded with a microphone, providing a precise measurement of the bubble sizes. As the mercury flow rate increases, the drag force causes earlier bubble detachment and therefore smaller bubbles.
Internal flows of relevance to gas-turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGuirk, J. J.; Whitelaw, J. H.
An attempt is made to formulate the best combination of equations, numerical discretization, and turbulence modeling assumptions for internal aerodynamic flows relevant to gas turbines. Typical of the problems treated are the solution of the three-dimensional, time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for laminar and turbulent flow in 90-deg bends, and the relative advantages obtainable from parabolized forms in bends, in S-type intake ducts, in turbine blade passages, and in forced mixers. In the present discussion of the influence of numerical assumptions on the calculation of isothermal flow in gas turbine combustors, emphasis is given to the assessment and removal of numerical errors.
Rotationally symmetric viscous gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigant, W.; Plotnikov, P. I.
2017-03-01
The Dirichlet boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of a barotropic viscous compressible fluid is considered. The flow region and the data of the problem are assumed to be invariant under rotations about a fixed axis. The existence of rotationally symmetric weak solutions for all adiabatic exponents from the interval (γ*,∞) with a critical exponent γ* < 4/3 is proved.
Kinetic theory model for the flow of a simple gas from a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, B. R.
1991-01-01
A system of nonlinear integral equations equivalent to the Krook kinetic equations for the steady state is the mathematical basis used to develop a computer code to model the flowfields for low-thrust three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles. The method of characteristics is used to solve numerically by an iteration process the approximated Boltzmann equation for the number density, temperature, and velocity profiles of a simple gas as it expands into a vacuum. Results predict backscatter and show the effect of the nozzle wall boundary layer on the external flowfields.
Brooks, Dennis E; Komaromy, Andras M; Kallberg, Maria E; Miyabashi, Taka; Ollivier, Franck J; Lambrou, George N
2007-01-01
To determine the effect on blood flow velocity of the ophthalmic artery and anterior superficial optic nerve head (ONH) capillaries by changing inhaled gas from 100% oxygen to carbogen (95% oxygen, 5% CO(2)) in rhesus monkeys receiving chronic unilateral orbital endothelin-1 administration. The right eye of six young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received endothelin-1 (ET-1) by osmotic minipumps to the perineural optic nerve (0.3 microg/day) for 8 months. Three additional monkeys (control group) received the ET-1 vehicle (Sham) solution to the right optic nerve for the same period of time. The left eye served as a nontreated control in both groups. The blood flow velocities of the anterior ONH capillaries and ophthalmic artery were assessed in both eyes using confocal laser scanning flowmetry (CSLF) and color Doppler imaging (CDI), respectively. A slight increase in the CDI blood flow velocities and a small decrease in the resistive index of the ophthalmic artery, and increased flow of the ONH capillaries in rhesus monkeys were detected when inhaled gas was changed from 100% oxygen to carbogen. The difference in CSLF blood flow in the nasal ONH between the endothelin-1 (ET-1) treated right eye and the normal left eye of the same individual monkeys was significantly greater than the difference in blood flow between the Sham-treated right eye and the normal left eye in control animals under the conditions of carbogen and oxygen inhalation. Carbogen inhalation slightly influences the microcirculation of the globe and ONH in rhesus monkeys. These data suggest that low dose ET-1 administration has a subtle vasorelaxing effect in the ONH microcirculation in this animal model of ONH ischemia.
Gas flow headspace liquid phase microextraction.
Yang, Cui; Qiu, Jinxue; Ren, Chunyan; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Xifeng; Wu, Xue; Li, Donghao
2009-11-06
There is a trend towards the use of enrichment techniques such as microextraction in the analysis of trace chemicals. Based on the theory of ideal gases, theory of gas chromatography and the original headspace liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) technique, a simple gas flow headspace liquid phase microextraction (GF-HS-LPME) technique has been developed, where the extracting gas phase volume is increased using a gas flow. The system is an open system, where an inert gas containing the target compounds flows continuously through a special gas outlet channel (D=1.8mm), and the target compounds are trapped on a solvent microdrop (2.4 microL) hanging on the microsyringe tip, as a result, a high enrichment factor is obtained. The parameters affecting the enrichment factor, such as the gas flow rate, the position of the microdrop, the diameter of the gas outlet channel, the temperatures of the extracting solvent and of the sample, and the extraction time, were systematically optimized for four types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results were compared with results obtained from HS-LPME. Under the optimized conditions (where the extraction time and the volume of the extracting sample vial were fixed at 20min and 10mL, respectively), detection limits (S/N=3) were approximately a factor of 4 lower than those for the original HS-LPME technique. The method was validated by comparison of the GF-HS-LPME and HS-LPME techniques using data for PAHs from environmental sediment samples.
Equations and simulations for multiphase compressible gas-dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oran, Elaine; Houim, Ryan
2014-11-01
Dust-gas multiphase flows are important in physical scenarios such as dust explosions in coal mines, asteroid impact disturbing lunar regolith, and soft aircraft landings dispersing desert or beach sand. In these cases, the gas flow regime can range from highly subsonic and nearly incompressible to supersonic and shock-laden flow, the grain packing can range from fully packed to completely dispersed, and both the gas and the dust can range from chemically inert to highly exothermic. To cover the necessary parameter range in a single model, we solve coupled sets of Navier-Stokes equations describing the background gas and the dust. As an example, a reactive-dust explosion that results in a type of shock-flame complex is described and discussed. Sponsored by the University of Maryland through Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, and through the Glenn L. Martin Institute Chaired Professorship at the A. James Clark School of Engineering.
Controlling Gas-Flow Mass Ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Brian G.
1990-01-01
Proposed system automatically controls proportions of gases flowing in supply lines. Conceived for control of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio in new gaseous-propellant rocket engines. Gas-flow control system measures temperatures and pressures at various points. From data, calculates control voltages for electronic pressure regulators for oxygen and hydrogen. System includes commercially available components. Applicable to control of mass ratios in such gaseous industrial processes as chemical-vapor depostion of semiconductor materials and in automotive engines operating on compressed natural gas.
Controlling Gas-Flow Mass Ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Brian G.
1990-01-01
Proposed system automatically controls proportions of gases flowing in supply lines. Conceived for control of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio in new gaseous-propellant rocket engines. Gas-flow control system measures temperatures and pressures at various points. From data, calculates control voltages for electronic pressure regulators for oxygen and hydrogen. System includes commercially available components. Applicable to control of mass ratios in such gaseous industrial processes as chemical-vapor depostion of semiconductor materials and in automotive engines operating on compressed natural gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xunliang; Lou, Guofeng; Wen, Zhi
A non-isothermal, steady-state, three-dimensional (3D), two-phase, multicomponent transport model is developed for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with parallel gas distributors. A key feature of this work is that a detailed membrane model is developed for the liquid water transport with a two-mode water transfer condition, accounting for the non-equilibrium humidification of membrane with the replacement of an equilibrium assumption. Another key feature is that water transport processes inside electrodes are coupled and the balance of water flux is insured between anode and cathode during the modeling. The model is validated by the comparison of predicted cell polarization curve with experimental data. The simulation is performed for water vapor concentration field of reactant gases, water content distribution in the membrane, liquid water velocity field and liquid water saturation distribution inside the cathode. The net water flux and net water transport coefficient values are obtained at different current densities in this work, which are seldom discussed in other modeling works. The temperature distribution inside the cell is also simulated by this model.
Subsonic Gas Flow Past A Wing Profile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christianovich, S. A.; Yuriev, I. M.
1950-01-01
The use of the linearized equations of Chaplygin to calculate the subsonic flow of a gas permits solving the problem of the flow about a wing profile for absence and presence of circulation. The solution is obtained in a practical convenient form that permits finding all the required magnitudes for the gas flow (lift, lift moment velocity distribution over the profile, and critical Mach number). This solution is not expressed in simple closed form; for a certain simplifying assumption, however, the equations of Chaplygin can be reduced to equations with constant coefficients, and solutions are obtained by using only the mathematical apparatus of the theory of functions of a complex variable. The method for simplifying the equations was pointed out by Chaplygin himself. These applied similar equations to the solution of the flow problem and obtained a solution for the case of the absence of circulation.
Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A
2013-01-01
Improved understanding of structure and function relationships in the human lungs in individuals and subpopulations is fundamentally important to the future of pulmonary medicine. Image-based measures of the lungs can provide sensitive indicators of localized features, however to provide a better prediction of lung response to disease, treatment, and environment, it is desirable to integrate quantifiable regional features from imaging with associated value-added high-level modeling. With this objective in mind, recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the bronchial airways-from a single bifurcation symmetric model to a multiscale image-based subject-specific lung model-will be reviewed. The interaction of CFD models with local parenchymal tissue expansion-assessed by image registration-allows new understanding of the interplay between environment, hot spots where inhaled aerosols could accumulate, and inflammation. To bridge ventilation function with image-derived central airway structure in CFD, an airway geometrical modeling method that spans from the model 'entrance' to the terminal bronchioles will be introduced. Finally, the effects of turbulent flows and CFD turbulence models on aerosol transport and deposition will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiasi-Freez, Javad; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Ziaii, Mansur
2012-09-01
Intelligent reservoir characterization is a prerequisite study for development of oil and gas fields. Hydraulic flow units are mappable portions of hydrocarbon-bearing rocks that control fluid flow, and their modeling allows an accurate understanding of reservoir quality within a hydrocarbon field. The current study presents two committee machines based on intelligent models to make a quantitative formulation between flow units and conventional log responses in the South Pars Gas Field, Iran. First, a committee machine with intelligent systems (CMIS) is constructed using a genetic algorithm-pattern search technique. The overall mean squared error and coefficient of determination between the measured and predicted flow zone indicators (FZI) using the CMIS for the test data are 0.1468 and 0.775, respectively. Afterwards, a committee fuzzy inference system (CFIS) is constructed. For this purpose, the training data are divided into two individual clusters based on the FZI values. The two FZI clusters are trained with the individual fuzzy inference systems, and a classifier network assigns appropriate weights to each cluster. The MSE and coefficient of determination of the CFIS are 0.1233 and 0.812, respectively. The CFIS shows some improvement in the accuracy of predictions in comparison with the CMIS. The results of this study demonstrate the higher performance of the committee machines compared to the individual expert systems for estimating reservoir properties. Moreover, a primary clustering of the model data and their training with the individual expert systems can lead to a considerable improvement in the accuracy of committee machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Shuiqing; Yang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhentao; Zhao, Ruijie; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Junfeng
2017-09-01
Numerical simulations of gas-liquid two-phase flows in aluminum electrolysis cells using the Euler-Euler approach were presented. The attempt was made to assess the performance and applicability of different interphase forces (drag, lift, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion forces) and turbulence models (standard k- ɛ, renormalization group k- ɛ, standard k- ω, shear stress transport k- ω, and Reynolds stress models). Moreover, three different bubble-induced turbulence models have been also analyzed. The simulated electrolyte velocity profiles were discussed by comparing with each other and against published experimental data. Based on the results of the validation of different interphase forces and turbulence models, a set consisting of the dispersed standard k- ɛ model, Grace drag coefficient model, Simonin turbulent dispersion force model, and Sato et al.'s bubble-induced effective viscosity model was found to provide the best agreement with the experimental data. The prediction results showed that the contributions of the lift force and the wall lubrication force can be neglected for the present bubbly flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Shuiqing; Yang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhentao; Zhao, Ruijie; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Junfeng
2017-03-01
Numerical simulations of gas-liquid two-phase flows in aluminum electrolysis cells using the Euler-Euler approach were presented. The attempt was made to assess the performance and applicability of different interphase forces (drag, lift, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion forces) and turbulence models (standard k-ɛ, renormalization group k-ɛ, standard k-ω, shear stress transport k-ω, and Reynolds stress models). Moreover, three different bubble-induced turbulence models have been also analyzed. The simulated electrolyte velocity profiles were discussed by comparing with each other and against published experimental data. Based on the results of the validation of different interphase forces and turbulence models, a set consisting of the dispersed standard k-ɛ model, Grace drag coefficient model, Simonin turbulent dispersion force model, and Sato et al.'s bubble-induced effective viscosity model was found to provide the best agreement with the experimental data. The prediction results showed that the contributions of the lift force and the wall lubrication force can be neglected for the present bubbly flows.
Smith, D.H.; Powell, V.; Ibrahim, E.; Ferer, M.; Ahmadi, G.
1996-12-31
The use of cylindrical candle filters to remove fine ({approx}0.005 mm) particles from hot ({approx}500- 900{degrees}C) gas streams currently is being developed for applications in advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies. Successfully deployed with hot-gas filtration, PFBC and IGCC technologies will allow the conversion of coal to electrical energy by direct passage of the filtered gases into non-ruggedized turbines and thus provide substantially greater conversion efficiencies with reduced environmental impacts. In the usual approach, one or more clusters of candle filters are suspended from a tubesheet in a pressurized (P {approx_lt}1 MPa) vessel into which hot gases and suspended particles enter, the gases pass through the walls of the cylindrical filters, and the filtered particles form a cake on the outside of each filter. The cake is then removed periodically by a backpulse of compressed air from inside the filter, which passes through the filter wall and filter cake. In various development or demonstration systems the thickness of the filter cake has proved to be an important, but unknown, process parameter. This paper describes a physical model for cake and pressure buildups between cleaning backpulses, and for longer term buildups of the ``baseline`` pressure drop, as caused by incomplete filter cleaning and/or re-entrainment. When combined with operating data and laboratory measurements of the cake porosity, the model may be used to calculate the (average) filter permeability, the filter-cake thickness and permeability, and the fraction of filter-cake left on the filter by the cleaning backpulse or re-entrained after the backpulse. When used for a variety of operating conditions (e.g., different coals, sorbents, temperatures, etc.), the model eventually may provide useful information on how the filter-cake properties depend on the various operating parameters.
Numerical investigations of flow structure in gas turbine shroud gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasilczuk, F.; Flaszyński, P.; Doerffer, P.
2016-10-01
The structure of the flow in the labyrinth sealing of an axial gas turbine was investigated by means of numerical simulations. Additionally, the flow structure for two- and three-dimensional axisymmetric models was compared. The porous disc as a model for the pressure drop relevant to the obtained in the cascade was proposed and tested. Several flow structure features existing in the sealing cavities are investigated: vortical structure and separation bubble on the rib and the correlation between the pressure drop and the clearance size. The carried out investigations indicate that the innovation aimed at decreasing the leakage flow through implementation of the flow control devices is possible. Furthermore the comparison between 2D and 3D models shows good agreement, thus application of less demanding 2D model introduces negligible differences. It is shown that the proposed porous disc model applied to mimic pressure drop in cascade can be effectively used for rotor blade sealing simulations.
Theoretical models for trace gas preconcentrators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jihyun
2013-11-01
Muntz et al., in 2004 and 2011, had attempted to describe theoretical models about the shape of a main flow channel and the concentration ratio of trace gas for a Continuous Flow-Through Trace Gas Preconcentrator by concepts of net flux and mass flow rate respectively. The possibilities were suggested to obtain theoretical models for the preconcentrator even through they were not satisfied with experimental results, because the theoretical models were only considered for free molecular flow. In this study, new theoretical models based on net flux and mass flow rate have been applied for each regime; free molecular flow, transition flow, and hydrodynamic flow. There are comprehensive numerical models to describe entire regimes with the new theoretical models induced by mass flow rate, but the new theoretical models induced by net flux can be only obtained for the hydrodynamic flow. The numerical predictions were compared with existing experimental results of the prototype of the preconcentrator. The numerical predictions of hydrodynamic and transition flows by mass flow rate were close to the experimental results, but other cases were different to the experimental data. Nevertheless, the theoretical models can provide the possibility to develop the theory of preconcentrator.
Surface Effects on Nanoscale Gas Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beskok, Ali; Barisik, Murat
2010-11-01
3D MD simulations of linear Couette flow of argon gas confined within nano-scale channels are performed in the slip, transition and free molecular flow regimes. The velocity and density profiles show deviations from the kinetic theory based predictions in the near wall region that typically extends three molecular diameters (s) from each surface. Utilizing the Irwin-Kirkwood theorem, stress tensor components for argon gas confined in nano-channels are investigated. Outside the 3s region, three normal stress components are identical, and equal to pressure predicted using the ideal gas law, while the shear stress is a constant. Within the 3s region, the normal stresses become anisotropic and the shear stress shows deviations from its bulk value due to the surface virial effects. Utilizing the kinetic theory and MD predicted shear stress values, the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for argon gas interacting with FCC structured walls (100) plane facing the fluid is calculated to be 0.75; this value is independent of the Knudsen number. Results show emergence of the 3s region as an additional characteristic length scale in nano-confined gas flows.
Ultrasonic meters measure gas pipeline flow
1995-04-01
New ultrasonic meters from Stork Ultrasonic Technologies, Houston are improving pipeline gas flow measurements, custody transfers, process gas flow measurements, and flare gas applications. The meters are easy to install, extremely accurate, and all feature realtime measurements. This meter (Gassonic 400) is designed for use in 8-in. to 64-in. gas pipelines and features a dual transducer device which uses the absolute digital travel time method of pulse transmission. Wide band piezoceramic transducers are used in this bi-directional, single bounce system which includes pulse verification and high-speed electronic processing by a central processing unit. Measuring values of this meter are obtained by direct digital measurement of travel time of each individual ultrasonic pulse which covers a pre-determined distance between two transducers inserted in the pipe wall. These transducers cause negligible flow restriction and absolute digital reference and excellent repeatability is possible without adjustment or re-calibration. Dozens of measurements can be processed so that average output values are updated every second during use. It is a field-programmable meter for variations in site parameters, presentation of service diagnostics, user selected velocity or quantity outputs, and has standard analog and digital interfaces. Also, it is suitable for swirl measurement or compensation. Since it relies on a reflection method, the ultrasonic meter allows easy, one-sided insertion and it is suitable for hot-tapping. This instrument is especially useful in gas blending stations, compressor control, leak detection, salt dome storage applications, pipeline balancing, and additive injection systems.
Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.
1994-01-01
Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.
Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.
1994-01-01
Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.
Opposed-flow ignition and flame spread over melting polymers with Navier-Stokes gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Guanyu; Wichman, Indrek S.; Bénard, André
2002-06-01
A numerical model is constructed to predict transient opposed-flow flame spread behaviour in a channel flow over a melting polymer. The transient flame is established by initially applying a high external radiation heat flux to the surface. This is followed by ignition, transition and finally steady opposed-flow flame spread. The physical phenomena under consideration include the following: gas phase: channel flow, thermal expansion and injection flow from the pyrolyzed fuel; condensed phase: heat conduction, melting, and discontinuous thermal properties (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) across the phase boundary; gas-condensed phase interface: radiation loss. There is no in-depth gas radiation absorption in the gas phase. It is necessary to solve the momentum, species, energy and continuity equations in the gas along with the energy equation(s) in the liquid and solid. Agreement is obtained between the numerical spread rate and a flame spread formula. The influence of the gas flow is explored by comparing the Navier-Stokes (NS) and Oseen (OS) models. An energy balance analysis describes the flame-spread mechanism in terms of participating heat transfer mechanisms.
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas...
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luff, Roger; Wallmann, Klaus
2003-09-01
A numerical model was applied to investigate and to quantify biogeochemical processes and methane turnover in gas hydrate-bearing surface sediments from a cold vent site situated at Hydrate Ridge, an accretionary structure located in the Cascadia Margin subduction zone. Steady state simulations were carried out to obtain a comprehensive overview on the activity in these sediments which are covered with bacterial mats and are affected by strong fluid flow from below. The model results underline the dominance of advective fluid flow that forces a large inflow of methane from below (869 μmol cm -2 a -1) inducing high oxidation rates in the surface layers. Anaerobic methane oxidation is the major process, proceeding at a depth-integrated rate of 870 μmol cm -2 a -1. A significant fraction (14%) of bicarbonate produced by anaerobic methane oxidation is removed from the fluids by precipitation of authigenic aragonite and calcite. The total rate of carbonate precipitation (120 μmol cm -2 a -1) allows for the build-up of a massive carbonate layer with a thickness of 1 m over a period of 20,000 years. Aragonite is the major carbonate mineral formed by anaerobic methane oxidation if the flow velocity of methane-charge fluids is high enough (≥10 cm a -1) to maintain super-saturation with respect to this highly soluble carbonate phase. It precipitates much faster within the studied surface sediments than previously observed in abiotic laboratory experiments, suggesting microbial catalysis. The investigated station is characterized by high carbon and oxygen turnover rates (≈1000 μmol cm -2 a -1) that are well beyond the rates observed at other continental slope sites not affected by fluid venting. This underlines the strong impact of fluid venting on the benthic system, even though the flow velocity of 10 cm a -1 derived by the model is relative low compared to fluid flow rates found at other cold vent sites. Non-steady state simulations using measured fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alber, Mark S.; Kiskowski, Maria; Jiang, Yi; Newman, Stuart
Modelling pattern formation and morphogenesis are fundamental problems in biology. One useful approach is lattice gas cellular automata (LGCA) model. This paper reviews several stochastic lattice gas models for pattern formation in myxobacteria fruiting body morphogenesis and vertebrate limb skeletogenesis. The fruiting body formation in myxobacteria is a complex morphological process that requires the organized, collective effort of tens of thousands of cells. It provides new insight into collective microbial behavior since myxobacteria morphogenic pattern formation is governed by cell-cell interactions rather than chemotaxis. We describe LGCA models for the aggregation stage of the fruiting body formation. Limb bud precartilage mesenchymal cells in micromass culture undergo chondrogenic pattern formation, which results in the formation of regularly-spaced "islands" of cartilage analogous to the cartilage primordia of the developing limb skeleton. An LGCA model, based on reaction-diffusion coupling and cell-matrix adhesion, is described for this process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.
1997-01-01
An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.
1997-01-01
An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.
Rarefied gas flow in microtubes at different inlet-outlet pressure ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Z.; Garimella, S. V.
2009-05-01
A model is developed for rarefied gas flow in long microtubes with different inlet-outlet pressure ratios at low Mach numbers. The model accounts for significant changes in Knudsen number along the length of the tube and is therefore applicable to gas flow in long tubes encountering different flow regimes along the flow length. Predictions from the model show good agreement with experimental measurements of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and inferred streamwise pressure distribution obtained under different flow conditions and offer a better match with experiments than do those from a conventional slip flow model.
Gas Flow Simulation in GCB Chambers Featuring Hot Gas Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Katsuharu; Kawano, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Yasunori
A hot gas simulation in self-blast type GCBs was performed and revised. As a result, it was foundto be important to consider the thermodynamic and transport properties of SF6-PTFE gas at high pressures and temperatures. Moreover, modelling arc diameters are also important in the chamber. They have become the main factors in determining the rise of puffer pressure in self-blast type GCBs, while they were not relevant in conventional puffer-type GCBs.
Resonance Line Formation in Moving Gas Flows with High Porosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shulman, S. G.
2017-06-01
The formation of resonance lines in gas flows generated by interactions of circumstellar gas with a star's magnetosphere is examined. An effective method is proposed for calculating these lines when the magnetospheric wind is highly porous. The resonance sodium lines observed in the spectrum of UX Ori type star RZ Psc are modelled as an example. It is shown that the narrow absorptions observed in the short wavelength wings of these lines can be formed by scattering of the star's radiation in two gas jets that are semitransparent at the line frequencies when they cross the line of sight.
SSME hot gas manifold flow comparison test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, G. B., Jr.; Dill, C. C.
1988-01-01
An account is given of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFT) component of NASA's Alternate Turbopump Development effort, which is aimed at the proper aerodynamic integration of the current Phase II three-duct SSME Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) and the future 'Phase II-plus' two-duct HGM. Half-scale water flow tests of both HGM geometries were conducted to provide initial design data for the HPFT. The results reveal flowfield results and furnish insight into the performance differences between the two HGM flowpaths. Proper design of the HPFT can potentially secure significant flow improvements in either HGM configuration.
SSME hot gas manifold flow comparison test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, G. B., Jr.; Dill, C. C.
1988-01-01
An account is given of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFT) component of NASA's Alternate Turbopump Development effort, which is aimed at the proper aerodynamic integration of the current Phase II three-duct SSME Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) and the future 'Phase II-plus' two-duct HGM. Half-scale water flow tests of both HGM geometries were conducted to provide initial design data for the HPFT. The results reveal flowfield results and furnish insight into the performance differences between the two HGM flowpaths. Proper design of the HPFT can potentially secure significant flow improvements in either HGM configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Li, R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.
2014-12-01
Oxidation Flow Reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed mainly from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that radical chemistry in OFRs can be characterized as a function of 3 main parameters: UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (e.g. from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). In OFR185, OH exposure is more sensitive to external OH reactivity than in OFR254, because injected O3 in OFR254 greatly promotes the recycling of HO2 to OH, making external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. The uncertainties of modeled OH, O3, and H2O2 due to uncertain kinetic parameters are within 40% in most cases. Sensitivity analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis and reactions involving OH and HO2, e.g. 2HO2→H2O2+O2 and OH+O3→HO2+O2. Reactants of atmospheric interest are dominantly consumed by OH, except some biogenics that can have substantial contributions from O3. Other highly reactive species (UV photons, O(1D), and O(3P)) only contribute for some species under conditions low H2O concentration and/or high external OH reactivity, which can be avoided by experimental planning. OFR185 and OFR254 are comparable in terms of non-OH oxidants' influence. In OFRs NO is fast oxidized. RO2 fate is similar to that in the atmosphere under low NO conditions. A comprehensive comparison of OFRs with typical environmental chamber studies with UV blacklights and with the atmosphere is also performed. OFRs' key advantages are their short experimental time scales, portability to field sites, and generally good
HYDROGEN ELECTROLYZER FLOW DISTRIBUTOR MODEL
Shadday, M
2006-09-28
The hybrid sulfur process (HyS) hydrogen electrolyzer consists of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) sandwiched between two porous graphite layers. An aqueous solution of sulfuric acid with dissolved SO{sub 2} gas flows parallel to the PEM through the porous graphite layer on the anode side of the electrolyzer. A flow distributor, consisting of a number of parallel channels acting as headers, promotes uniform flow of the anolyte fluid through the porous graphite layer. A numerical model of the hydraulic behavior of the flow distributor is herein described. This model was developed to be a tool to aid the design of flow distributors. The primary design objective is to minimize spatial variations in the flow through the porous graphite layer. The hydraulic data from electrolyzer tests consists of overall flowrate and pressure drop. Internal pressure and flow distributions are not measured, but these details are provided by the model. The model has been benchmarked against data from tests of the current electrolyzer. The model reasonably predicts the viscosity effect of changing the fluid from water to an aqueous solution of 30 % sulfuric acid. The permeability of the graphite layer was the independent variable used to fit the model to the test data, and the required permeability for a good fit is within the range literature values for carbon paper. The model predicts that reducing the number of parallel channels by 50 % will substantially improve the uniformity of the flow in the porous graphite layer, while maintaining an acceptable pressure drop across the electrolyzer. When the size of the electrolyzer is doubled from 2.75 inches square to 5.5 inches square, the same number of channels as in the current design will be adequate, but it is advisable to increase the channel cross-sectional flow area. This is due to the increased length of the channels.
Interaction of a surface glow discharge with a gas flow
Aleksandrov, A. L. Schweigert, I. V.
2010-05-15
A surface glow discharge in a gas flow is of particular interest as a possible tool for controlling the flow past hypersonic aircrafts. Using a hydrodynamic model of glow discharge, two-dimensional calculations for a kilovolt surface discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 Torr are carried out in a stationary gas, as well as in a flow with a velocity of 1000 m/s. The discharge structure and plasma parameters are investigated near a charged electrode. It is shown that the electron energy in a cathode layer reaches 250-300 eV. Discharge is sustained by secondary electron emission. The influence of a high-speed gas flow on the discharge is considered. It is shown that the cathode layer configuration is flow-resistant. The distributions of the electric field and electron energy, as well as the ionization rate profile in the cathode layer, do not change qualitatively under the action of the flow. The basic effect of the flow's influence is a sharp decrease in the region of the quasineutral plasma surrounding the cathode layer due to fast convective transport of ions.
Unsteady Swirling Flows in Gas Turbines
1980-05-01
surge, aeroacoustic noise and flutter, at present, little is known about this phenomenon -- despite its importance to the aircraft engine overall...Implications of Conclusions Obtained During Phase I Effort as related to Aircraft Gas Turbines ..................................... 16 5. Written...found to occur in various aircraft engine components. This flow instability, dubbed here as "Vortex Whistle", is one of the most subtle and treacherous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sourabh
Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land based power generation and various industrial applications. Developments in innovative gas turbine cooling technology enhance the efficiency and power output, with an increase in turbine rotor inlet temperatures. These advancements of turbine cooling have allowed engine design to exceed normal material temperature limits. For internal cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to hot stream are based on the increase of heat transfer areas and on promotion of turbulence of the cooling flow. In this study, it is obtained by casting repeated continuous V and broken V shaped ribs on one side of the two pass square channel into the core of blade. Despite extensive research on ribs, only few papers have validated the numerical data with experimental results in two pass channel. In the present study, detailed experimental investigation is carried out for two pass square channels with 180° turn. Detailed heat transfer distribution occurring in the ribbed passage is reported for steady state experiment. Four different combinations of 60° and Broken 60° V ribs in channel are considered. Thermocouples are used to obtain the temperature on the channel surface and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for various Reynolds numbers, within the turbulent flow regime. Area averaged data are calculated in order to compare the overall performance of the tested ribbed surface and to evaluate the degree of heat transfer enhancement induced by the ribs with. Flow within the channels is characterized by heat transfer enhancing ribs, bends, rotation and buoyancy effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out for the same geometries using different turbulence models such as k-o Shear stress transport (SST) and Reynolds stress model (RSM). These CFD simulations were based on advanced computing in order to improve the accuracy of three dimensional metal
Mangan, M.; Mastin, L.; Sisson, T.
2004-01-01
In this paper we examine the consequences of bubble nucleation mechanism on eruptive degassing of rhyolite magma. We use the results of published high temperature and pressure decompression experiments as input to a modified version of CONFLOW, the numerical model of Mastin and Ghiorso [(2000) U.S.G.S. Open-File Rep. 00-209, 53 pp.] and Mastin [(2002) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 3, 10.1029/2001GC000192] for steady, two-phase flow in vertical conduits. Synthesis of the available experimental data shows that heterogeneous nucleation is triggered at ??P 120-150 MPa, and leads to disequilibrium degassing at extreme H2O supersaturation. In this latter case, nucleation is an ongoing process controlled by changing supersaturation conditions. Exponential bubble size distributions are often produced with number densities of 106-109 bubbles/cm3. Our numerical analysis adopts an end-member approach that specifically compares equilibrium degassing with delayed, disequilibrium degassing characteristic of homogeneously-nucleating systems. The disequilibrium simulations show that delaying nucleation until ??P =150 MPa restricts degassing to within ???1500 m of the surface. Fragmentation occurs at similar porosity in both the disequilibrium and equilibrium modes (???80 vol%), but at the distinct depths of ???500 m and ???2300 m, respectively. The vesiculation delay leads to higher pressures at equivalent depths in the conduit, and the mass flux and exit pressure are each higher by a factor of ???2.0. Residual water contents in the melt reaching the vent are between 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, roughly twice that of the equilibrium model. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Study of Mixed Collisionality Gas Flow in the VASIMR Thruster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batishchev, Oleg; Molvig, Kim
2000-11-01
The degree of gas ionization in the VASIMR plasma thruster [1] is about one percent. This allows separating of the gas propellant flow from the plasma dynamics. The Knudsen number of the hydrogen (deuterium) or helium gas flow in a system of pipes of varying diameter falls into the .2-5 range. This indicates that the kinetic approach is required. First we present results from 1D hybrid Poiseuille-Knudsen model for viscous - free molecular pipe flow [2]. We compare simulation results to the experimental measurements. Next we study effects of (i) internal baffles to assist the retaining of the propellant, and (ii) gas pre-heating. Finally, we describe an extension of our 1D2V fully kinetic finite volume method [3] to a semi-collisional gas flow simulation. [1] F. Chang-Díaz et al., Bulletin of APS, 44 (1999) 99. [2] O. Batishchev and K. Molvig, AIAA 2000-3754 paper (2000). [3] Batishchev O. et al., J. Plasma Phys. 61 (1999) 347.
Baba, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Aikawa, Tetsuya; Koike, Kenichi
2013-04-08
The purpose of this study was to show the effects of the tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) technique on gas exchange using helium-oxygen mixtures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). We hypothesized that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique (0.3 L/min) would enhance gas exchange during HFOV. Three rabbits were prepared and ventilated by HFOV with carrier 70% helium/oxygen or 70% nitrogen/oxygen gas mixture with TGI in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen70% to helium70% and back was performed three times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Compared with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture, the helium-oxygen mixture of TGI reduced PaCO2 by 7.6 mmHg (p < 0.01) and improved PaO2 by 14 mmHg (p < 0.01). Amplitude during TGI was significantly lower with the helium-oxygen mixture than with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture (p < 0.01) and did not significantly affect mean airway pressure. This study demonstrated that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique would enhance CO2 elimination and improve oxygenation during HFOV.
2013-01-01
Objective The purpose of this study was to show the effects of the tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) technique on gas exchange using helium-oxygen mixtures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). We hypothesized that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique (0.3 L/min) would enhance gas exchange during HFOV. Methods Three rabbits were prepared and ventilated by HFOV with carrier 70% helium/oxygen or 70% nitrogen/oxygen gas mixture with TGI in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen70% to helium70% and back was performed three times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Results Compared with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture, the helium-oxygen mixture of TGI reduced PaCO2 by 7.6 mmHg (p < 0.01) and improved PaO2 by 14 mmHg (p < 0.01). Amplitude during TGI was significantly lower with the helium-oxygen mixture than with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture (p < 0.01) and did not significantly affect mean airway pressure. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique would enhance CO2 elimination and improve oxygenation during HFOV. PMID:23566050
Inspiratory flow and intrapulmonary gas distribution
Rehder, K.; Knopp, T.J.; Brusasco, V.; Didier, E.P.
1981-01-01
The effect of flow of inspired gas on intrapulmonary gas distribution was examined by analysis of regional pulmonary /sup 133/Xe clearances and of total pulmonary /sup 133/Xe clearance measured at the mouth after equilibration of the lungs with /sup 133/Xe. Five awake healthy volunteers (24 to 40 yr of age) and another 5 healthy, anesthetized-paralyzed volunteers (26 to 28 yr of age) were studied while they were in the right lateral decubitus position. The awake subjects were studied at 3 inspiratory flows (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 L/s) and the anesthetized-paralyzed subjects at 4 inspiratory flows (0.2, 0.5, 1.1, and 1.6 L/s). Interregional differences in /sup 133/Xe clearances along the vertical axis were significantly less during anesthesia-paralysis and mechanical ventilation than during spontaneous breathing in the awake state. No differences in the regional or total pulmonary /sup 133/Xe clearances were detected at these different flows in either of the two states, i.e., the difference between the awake and anesthetized-paralyzed states persisted.
Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces
Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A.; Bourgeois, T.
1998-12-01
The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, Vladimir B.
2009-02-01
At present there is no doubt that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is mainly partially ionized hydrogen gas moving with a supersonic flow relative to the solar system. The bulk velocity of this flow is approximately equal ˜26 km/s. Although the interaction of the solar wind with the charged component (below plasma component) of the LISM can be described in the framework of hydrodynamic approach, the interaction of H atoms with the plasma component can be correctly described only in the framework of kinetic theory because the mean free path of H atoms in the main process of the resonance charge exchange is comparable with a characteristic length of the problem considered. Results of self-consistent, kinetic-hydrodynamic models are considered in this review paper. First, such the model was constructed by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 98(A9):15,157-15,163, 1993). Up to now it is mainly developed by Moscow group taking into account new experimental data obtained onboard spacecraft studying outer regions of the solar system (Voyager 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, Hubble Space Telescope, Ulysses, SOHO and so on). Predictions and interpretations of experimental data obtained on the basis of these models are presented. Kinetic models for describing H atom motion were later suggested by Fahr et al. (Astron. Astrophys 298:587-600, 1995) and Lipatov et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 103(A9):20,631-20,642, 1998). However they were not self-consistent and did not incorporate sources to the plasma component. A self-consistent kinetic-hydrodynamic model suggested by Heerikhuisen et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 2006, Astrophys. J. 655:L53-L56, 2007) was not tested on the results by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 1993) although it was suggested much later. Besides authors did not describe in details their Monte Carlo method for a solution of the H atom Boltzmann equation and did not inform about an accuracy of this method. Therefore the results of
Thomas J. Hanratty
2005-02-25
A research program was carried out at the University of Illinois in which develops a scientific approach to gas-liquid flows that explains their macroscopic behavior in terms of small scale interactions. For simplicity, fully-developed flows in horizontal and near-horizontal pipes. The difficulty in dealing with these flows is that the phases can assume a variety of configurations. The specific goal was to develop a scientific understanding of transitions from one flow regime to another and a quantitative understanding of how the phases distribute for a give regime. These basic understandings are used to predict macroscopic quantities of interest, such as frictional pressure drop, liquid hold-up, entrainment in annular flow and frequency of slugging in slug flows. A number of scientific issues are addressed. Examples are the rate of atomization of a liquid film, the rate of deposition of drops, the behavior of particles in a turbulent field, the generation and growth of interfacial waves. The use of drag-reducing polymers that change macroscopic behavior by changing small scale interactions was explored.
Fundamentals of multiphase, gas-solid and gas-liquid flows in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazaheri, Ali Reza
This thesis is concerned with fundamentals and applications of multiphase and particulate flows. The study contains three parts covering gas-liquid flows through porous media, gas-solid flows and Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP). A continuum model for multiphase fluid flows through poro-elastic media is developed. It is shown that the present theory leads to the extended Darcy's law and contains, as its special case, Biot's theory of saturated poro-elastic media. The capillary pressure formulation derived from the new model is used and the equation governing the evolution of the saturation and its temporal variation in porous media is derived. The resulting nonlinear diffusion equation is then solved numerically. The results show that the capillary hysteresis occurs when the temporal variation of saturation is included. Application of the developed model to CO2 sequestration is discussed. Computer simulations of dilute Gas-Solid flows in complex geometry regions are studied. A procedure for handling particle trajectory analysis in unstructured grid is developed. Examples of particle transport and removal in human lung and hot-gas cleaning systems are presented. The simulation results for the human lung show that the capture efficiency is affected by the turbulence in the upper three bifurcation airways. Computer simulations of gas-solid flows in hot-gas cleaning for a demonstration scale filtration system is studied in details. Alternative designs of the filter vessel are proposed. The corresponding vessel performance are numerically simulated. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has become critical to the fabrication of advanced multilevel integrated circuit in microelectronic industry. The effect of course surface roughness of abrasive particles on the polishing rate in CMP is studied. The effects of slurry pH and double layer attraction and repulsion on chemical-mechanical polishing are also studied. It is shown that the slurry pH and colloidal forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John
2011-01-01
A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kavi, K. M.
1984-01-01
There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazhin, O.
2009-05-01
The effect of the gas molecule-molecule interaction and the gas-surface scattering on the gas flow through a slit into a vacuum are investigated in a wide range of the gas rarefaction using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. To study the gas molecule-molecule interaction influence, we used the variable hard sphere and variable soft sphere models defined for an inverse-power-law potential and the generalized hard sphere model defined for the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential. The Maxwell, Cercignani-Lampis, and Epstein models were used to simulate the gas-surface scattering. This study demonstrates that the gas molecule-molecule interaction can have a significant influence on the rarefied gas flow through a slit, while the influence of the gas-surface scattering is negligibly small. The presented numerical results are in agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.
Sazhin, O.
2009-05-15
The effect of the gas molecule-molecule interaction and the gas-surface scattering on the gas flow through a slit into a vacuum are investigated in a wide range of the gas rarefaction using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. To study the gas molecule-molecule interaction influence, we used the variable hard sphere and variable soft sphere models defined for an inverse-power-law potential and the generalized hard sphere model defined for the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential. The Maxwell, Cercignani-Lampis, and Epstein models were used to simulate the gas-surface scattering. This study demonstrates that the gas molecule-molecule interaction can have a significant influence on the rarefied gas flow through a slit, while the influence of the gas-surface scattering is negligibly small. The presented numerical results are in agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahirović, Selma; Scharler, Robert; Kilpinen, Pia; Obernberger, Ingwald
2010-12-01
While reasonably accurate in simulating gas phase combustion in biomass grate furnaces, CFD tools based on simple turbulence-chemistry interaction models and global reaction mechanisms have been shown to lack in reliability regarding the prediction of NOx formation. Coupling detailed NOx reaction kinetics with advanced turbulence-chemistry interaction models is a promising alternative, yet computationally inefficient for engineering purposes. In the present work, a model is proposed to overcome these difficulties. The model is based on the Realizable k-ɛ model for turbulence, Eddy Dissipation Concept for turbulence-chemistry interaction and the HK97 reaction mechanism. The assessment of the sub-models in terms of accuracy and computational effort was carried out on three laboratory-scale turbulent jet flames in comparison with the experimental data. Without taking NOx formation into account, the accuracy of turbulence modelling and turbulence-chemistry interaction modelling was systematically examined on Sandia Flame D and Sandia CO/H2/N2 Flame B to support the choice of the associated models. As revealed by the Large Eddy Simulations of the former flame, the shortcomings of turbulence modelling by the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach considerably influence the prediction of the mixing-dominated combustion process. This reduced the sensitivity of the RANS results to the variations of turbulence-chemistry interaction models and combustion kinetics. Issues related to the NOx formation with a focus on fuel bound nitrogen sources were investigated on a NH3-doped syngas flame. The experimentally observed trend in NOx yield from NH3 was correctly reproduced by HK97, whereas the replacement of its combustion subset by that of a detailed reaction scheme led to a more accurate agreement, but at increased computational costs. Moreover, based on results of simulations with HK97, the main features of the local course of the NOx formation processes were
Carbon and Noble Gas Isotope Banks in Two-Phase Flow: Changes in Gas Composition During Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sathaye, K.; Larson, T.; Hesse, M. A.
2015-12-01
In conjunction with the rise of unconventional oil and gas production, there has been a recent rise in interest in noble gas and carbon isotope changes that can occur during the migration of natural gas. Natural gas geochemistry studies use bulk hydrocarbon composition, carbon isotopes, and noble gas isotopes to determine the migration history of gases from source to reservoir, and to trace fugitive gas leaks from reservoirs to shallow groundwater. We present theoretical and experimental work, which helps to explain trends observed in gas composition in various migration scenarios. Noble gases are used as tracers for subsurface fluid flow due to distinct initial compositions in air-saturated water and natural gases. Numerous field studies have observed enrichments and depletions of noble gases after gas-water interaction. A theoretical two-phase gas displacement model shows that differences in noble gas solubility will cause volatile gas components will become enriched at the front of gas plumes, leaving the surrounding residual water stripped of dissolved gases. Changes in hydrocarbon gas composition are controlled by gas solubility in both formation water and residual oil. In addition to model results, we present results from a series of two-phase flow experiments. These results demonstrate the formation of a noble gas isotope banks ahead of a main CO2 gas plume. Additionally, we show that migrating hydrocarbon gas plumes can sweep biogenic methane from groundwater, significantly altering the isotope ratio of the gas itself. Results from multicomponent, two-phase flow experiments qualitatively agree with the theoretical model, and previous field studies. These experimentally verified models for gas composition changes can be used to aid source identification of subsurface gases.
Numerical simulations of high Knudsen number gas flows and microchannel electrokinetic liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fang
Low pressure and microchannel gas flows are characterized by high Knudsen numbers. Liquid flows in microchannels are characterized by non-conventional driving potentials like electrokinetic forces. The main thrust of the dissertation is to investigate these two different kinds of flows in gases and liquids respectively. High Knudsen number (Kn) gas flows were characterized by 'rarified' or 'microscale' behavior. Because of significant non-continuum effect, traditional CFD techniques are often inaccurate for analyzing high Kn number gas flows. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method offers an alternative to traditional CFD which retains its validity in slip and transition flow regimes. To validate the DSMC code, comparisons of simulation results with theoretical analysis and experimental data are made. The DSMC method was first applied to compute low pressure, high Kn flow fields in partially heated two dimensional channels. The effects of varying pressure, inlet flow and gas transport properties (Kn, Reynolds number, Re and the Prandtl number, Pr respectively) on the wall heat transfer (Nusselt number, Nu) were examined. The DSMC method was employed to explore mixing gas flows in two dimensional microchannels. Mixing of two gas streams (H2 and O2) was considered within a microchannel. The effect of the inlet-outlet pressure difference, the pressure ratio of the incoming streams and the accommodation coefficient of the solid wall on mixing length were all examined. Parallelization of a three-dimensional DSMC code was implemented using OpenMP procedure on a shared memory multi-processor computer. The parallel code was used to simulate 3D high Kn number Couette flow and the flow characteristics are found to be very different from their continuum counterparts. A mathematical model describing electrokinetically driven mass transport phenomena in microfabricated chip devices will also be presented. The model accounts for the principal physical phenomena affecting
Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, John T.
1989-01-01
Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that have been reduced to a relatively compact set of equations in a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-average behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equations a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. Hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates chemical nonequilibrium is considered, and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.
Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, John T.
1990-01-01
Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that were reduced to a relatively compact set of equations of a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-averaged behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equation a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. For hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates, chemical nonequilibrium is considered and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.
Gas permeation through nanoporous membranes in the transitional flow region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petukhov, D. I.; Eliseev, A. A.
2016-02-01
An experimental study on the permeability of anodic alumina (20-120 nm) and track-etched (30 nm) nanoporous membranes for different gases in the transitional flow regime is reported in the range of Knudsen numbers from 0.1 to 10. A significant variation (up to 30%) of the membrane permeance for different gases at the same Knudsen numbers is reported with certainty. It is established that this discrepancy relates to a molecule’s effective collision area, which is poorly described in the frameworks of conventional gas permeation models. Two models are proposed for the description of the effect: self-diffusion of penetrate gases due to intermolecular collisions and enhancement of the slip flow contribution due to tangential momentum accommodation growth with the decrease of a molecule’s effective collision area. The best fit parameters for the simultaneous fit of the experimental data with different models for 30 membrane-gas pairs are given.
Modeling of Low-Speed Rarefied Gas Flows Using a Combined ES-BGK/DSMC Approach (Preprint)
2009-06-04
techniques, such as those based on the solution of the Navier - Stokes equations , are inapplicable, since the near-equlibrium assumptions on stress and heat... equation and the statistical DSMC method to accurately predict radiometric forces on a vane in large vacuum chamber filled with rarefied gas is...presented. The approach in effect combines the accuracy of a statistical solution of the Boltzmann equation with the numerical efficiency of a
McKoy, M.L., Sams, W.N.
1997-10-01
The US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, has sponsored a project to simulate the behavior of tight, fractured, strata-bound gas reservoirs that arise from irregular discontinuous, or clustered networks of fractures. New FORTRAN codes have been developed to generate fracture networks, or simulate reservoir drainage/recharge, and to plot the fracture networks and reservoirs pressures. Ancillary codes assist with raw data analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shikuo; Yang, Tianhong; Ranjith, P. G.; Wei, Chenhui
2017-03-01
Coalbed methane (CBM) is an important high-efficiency, clean-energy raw material with immense potential for application; however, its occurrence in low-permeability reservoirs limits its application. Hydraulic fracturing has been used in low-permeability CBM exploration and as a new technique for preventing gas hazards in coal mines. Fractures are the main pathways of fluid accumulation and migration, and they exert some control over the stability of rock mass. However, the differences in progression between the original fractures of the coal mass and the new discrete fractures caused by hydraulic fracturing remain unclear, and the unsaturated seepage flows require further study. Therefore, a cross-scale hydraulic fractured rock mass numerical model was developed by using the 3D fractured extrusion coupling variables reconstruction technique. This paper uses fracture surface parameters combined with the fractal dimension and multi-medium theory to provide a high-precision characterization and interpretation of the fracture mechanics. The mechanism of the permeability evolution of fractured coal and rock under stress-releasing mining combined with water injection was studied by considering gas adsorption and desorption as well as the coupling characteristic of seepage-stress in fractured rock masses. Aperture, contact area ratio, and stress in permeability and fracture development have a strong influence on the permeability and seepage path, which in turn control the effective radius by absolute water injection. All of these factors should be considered when studying the structural characteristics of rock masses.
Droplet breakup in accelerating gas flows. Part 2: Secondary atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zajac, L. J.
1973-01-01
An experimental investigation to determine the effects of an accelerating gas flow on the atomization characteristics of liquid sprays was conducted. The sprays were produced by impinging two liquid jets. The liquid was molten wax and the gas was nitrogen. The use of molten wax allowed for a quantitative measure of the resulting dropsize distribution. The results of this study, indicate that a significant amount of droplet breakup will occur as a result of the action of the gas on the liquid droplets. Empirical correlations are presented in terms of parameters that were found to affect the mass median dropsize most significantly, the orifice diameter, the liquid injection velocity, and the maximum gas velocity. An empirical correlation for the normalized dropsize distribution is also presented. These correlations are in a form that may be incorporated readily into existing combustion model computer codes for the purpose of calculating rocket engine combustion performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gass, S. I.
1982-05-01
The theoretical and applied state of the art of oil and gas supply models was discussed. The following areas were addressed: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields, production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply.
PREFACE: 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frijns, Arjan; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Colin, Stéphane; Baldas, Lucien
2012-05-01
The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, vacuum generators for extracting biological samples, mass flow and temperature micro-sensors, pressure gauges, micro heat-exchangers for the cooling of electronic components or for chemical applications, and micro gas analyzers or separators). The main characteristic of gas microflows is their rarefaction, which for device design often requires modelling and simulation both by continuous and molecular approaches. In such flows various non-equilibrium transport phenomena appear, while the role played by the interaction between the gas and the solid device surfaces becomes essential. The proposed models of boundary conditions often need an empirical adjustment strongly dependent on the micro manufacturing technique. The 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is organized under the umbrella of the recently established GASMEMS network (www.gasmems.eu/) consisting of 13 participants and six associate members. The main objectives of the network are to structure research and train researchers in the fields of micro gas dynamics, measurement techniques for gaseous flows in micro experimental setups, microstructure design and micro manufacturing with applications in lab and industry. The conference takes place on June 6-8 2012, at the Skiathos Palace Hotel, on the beautiful island of Skiathos, Greece. The conference has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement ITN GASMEMS no. 215504. It owes its success to many people. We would like to acknowledge the support of all members of the Scientific Committee and of all
Modeling of the Internal Two-Phase Flow in a Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Fuel Injector
2009-11-23
Coaxial Fuel Injector 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathaniel Trask, J. Blair Perot, and David P. Schmidt (Univ. of...Trask ∗, J. Blair Perot ∗, David P. Schmidt∗, Terry Meyer†, Malissa Lightfoot‡, Steven Danczyk‡ Predicting the liquid film dynamics inside the injector...International Journal of Multiphase Flow , Vol. 35, 2009, pp. 247–260. 12Weller, H. G., Tabor , G., Jasak, H., and Fureby, C., “A Tensorial Approach to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawfik, Hazem H.
1996-01-01
Thermally sprayed coatings have been extensively used to enhance materials properties and provide surface protection against their working environments in a number of industrial applications. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used to reduce the thermal conductivity of aerospace turbine blades and improve the turbine overall thermal efficiency. TBC allows higher gas operating temperatures and lower blade material temperatures due to the thermal insulation provided by these ceramic coatings. In the automotive industry, coatings are currently applied to a number of moving parts that are subjected to friction and wear inside the engine such as pistons, cylinder liners, valves and crankshafts to enhance their wear resistance and prolong their useful operation and lifetime.
Going with the flow: using gas clouds to probe the accretion flow feeding Sgr A*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCourt, Michael; Madigan, Ann-Marie
2016-01-01
The massive black hole in our Galactic centre, Sgr A*, accretes only a small fraction of the gas available at its Bondi radius. The physical processes determining this accretion rate remain unknown, partly due to a lack of observational constraints on the gas at distances between ˜10 and ˜105 Schwarzschild radii (Rs) from the black hole. Recent infrared observations identify low-mass gas clouds, G1 and G2, moving on highly eccentric, nearly co-planar orbits through the accretion flow around Sgr A*. Although it is not yet clear whether these objects contain embedded stars, their extended gaseous envelopes evolve independently as gas clouds. In this paper we attempt to use these gas clouds to constrain the properties of the accretion flow at ˜103 Rs. Assuming that G1 and G2 follow the same trajectory, we model the small differences in their orbital parameters as evolution resulting from interaction with the background flow. We find evolution consistent with the G-clouds originating in the clockwise disc. Our analysis enables the first unique determination of the rotation axis of the accretion flow: we localize the rotation axis to within 20°, finding an orientation consistent with the parsec-scale jet identified in X-ray observations and with the circumnuclear disc, a massive torus of molecular gas ˜1.5 pc from Sgr A*. This suggests that the gas in the accretion flow comes predominantly from the circumnuclear disc, rather than the winds of stars in the young clockwise disc. This result will be tested by the Event-Horizon Telescope within the next year. Our model also makes testable predictions for the orbital evolution of G1 and G2, falsifiable on a 5-10 year time-scale.
Ethylene Trace-gas Techniques for High-speed Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, David O.; Reichert, Bruce A.
1994-01-01
Three applications of the ethylene trace-gas technique to high-speed flows are described: flow-field tracking, air-to-air mixing, and bleed mass-flow measurement. The technique involves injecting a non-reacting gas (ethylene) into the flow field and measuring the concentration distribution in a downstream plane. From the distributions, information about flow development, mixing, and mass-flow rates can be dtermined. The trace-gas apparatus and special considerations for use in high-speed flow are discussed. A description of each application, including uncertainty estimates is followed by a demonstrative example.
Optical instrumentation and study of gas-solid suspension flows
Ling, S.C.; Pao, H.P.
1990-09-01
A new technique and particle detecting system for the quantification of local fluid flow velocities, particle concentrations and size distributions in gas-solid suspension flows has been successfully developed and constructed. A new 2-inch diameter pneumatic-pipe test-loop facility for study of solids transport flows has been built and in operation. In order to check scaling law developed from the experimental results in the 2-inch pipe, a 4-inch pipe test-loop facility was also designed and constructed. In the past, the mechanics of suspended-solid flow have not been solved in a closed form due to the lack of a model for the turbulent field to pick up solid particles from the flow boundary. In this research project, we have identified the existence of micro-hairpin vortices as a major mechanism for the lifting of solid particles from the flow boundary. This permits one to formulate a realistic model. That is, the introduction of a particle source term in the governing transport equation for the suspended particles. The resultant solution predicts the correct critical flow conditions for the initial pickup of different sizes of solid particles and their subsequent concentrations in the flow field. 21 figs.
Modeling natural gas reservoirs: A simple model
Collier, Richard S.; Monash, E.A.
1981-01-01
A mathematical model is developed and tested for the production of natural gas with water encroachment and gas entrapment. The model is built on the material and volumetric balance relations, the Schilthuis water drive model, and a gas entrapment mechanism which assumes that the rate of gas entrapment is proportional to the volumetric rate of water influx. This model represents an alternative to the large grid models because of its low computer, maintenance, and manpower costs.
VanOsdol, J.G.; Chiang, T-K.
2002-09-19
Two different technologies that are being considered for generating electric power on a large scale by burning coal are Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Particulate emission regulations that have been proposed for future systems may require that these systems be fitted with large scale Hot Gas Clean-Up (HGCU) filtration systems that would remove the fine particulate matter from the hot gas streams that are generated by PFBC and IGCC systems. These hot gas filtration systems are geometrically and aerodynamically complex. They typically are constructed with large arrays of ceramic candle filter elements (CFE). The successful design of these systems require an accurate assessment of the rate at which mechanical energy of the gas flow is dissipated as it passes through the filter containment vessel and the individual candle filter elements that make up the system. Because the filtration medium is typically made of a porous ceramic material having open pore sizes that are much smaller than the dimensions of the containment vessel, the filtration medium is usually considered to be a permeable medium that follows Darcy's law. The permeability constant that is measured in the lab is considered to be a function of the filtration medium only and is usually assumed to apply equally to all the filters in the vessel as if the flow were divided evenly among all the filter elements. In general, the flow of gas through each individual CFE will depend not only on the geometrical characteristics of the filtration medium, but also on the local mean flows in the filter containment vessel that a particular filter element sees. The flow inside the CFE core, through the system manifolds, and inside the containment vessel itself will be coupled to the flow in the filter medium by various Reynolds number effects. For any given filter containment vessel, since the mean flows are different in different locations
Evolution of flow disturbances in cocurrent gas-liquid flows
McCready, M.J.
1992-10-01
Studies of interfacial waves in horizontal gas-liquid flows, close to neutral stability, suggest that the rate of evolution of the interface may be linked to nonlinear interactions between the fundamental mode and the subharmonic -- even if the subharmonic is linearly stable. The rate of evolution increases as the subharmonic becomes more unstable. A comparison of linear stability techniques used to predict the initial behavior of waves reveals similar predictions of growth rates and almost identical speeds between a two layer laminar Orr-Sommerfeld theory and an Orr-Sommerfeld theory when the effect of the (turbulent) gas flow enters as boundary conditions on the liquid layer. However, there is disagreement at small wavenumbers as to the point at which the growth curve crosses 0. This is a significant problem because longwave disturbances, in our case roll waves, form by growth of (initially) small amplitude waves that have frequencies which are 0.5 to 1 Hz, which is in the range where the two theories disagree about the sign of the growth rate. While nonlinear effects are probably involved in the formation of the peak (at least while its amplitude is small), the linear growth rate must play an important role when the amplitude is small.
Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix
Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N.; Gao, Shengyan
2015-01-01
The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir. PMID:26310236
Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix.
Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N; Gao, Shengyan
2015-08-27
The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir.
Generalized second-order slip boundary condition for nonequilibrium gas flows.
Guo, Zhaoli; Qin, Jishun; Zheng, Chuguang
2014-01-01
It is a challenging task to model nonequilibrium gas flows within a continuum-fluid framework. Recently some extended hydrodynamic models in the Navier-Stokes formulation have been developed for such flows. A key problem in the application of such models is that suitable boundary conditions must be specified. In the present work, a generalized second-order slip boundary condition is developed in which an effective mean-free path considering the wall effect is used. By combining this slip scheme with certain extended Navier-Stokes constitutive relation models, we obtained a method for nonequilibrium gas flows with solid boundaries. The method is applied to several rarefied gas flows involving planar or curved walls, including the Kramers' problem, the planar Poiseuille flow, the cylindrical Couette flow, and the low speed flow over a sphere. The results show that the proposed method is able to give satisfied predictions, indicating the good potential of the method for nonequilibrium flows.
Clusters as a diagnostics tool for gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeva, M.; Kashtanov, P. V.; Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Hippler, R.
2015-06-01
The example of a gas flowing through an orifice into the surrounding rarefied space is used to demonstrate the possibility of using clusters for diagnosing gas flows. For the conditions studied (it takes a cluster velocity about the same time to relax to the gas velocity as it does to reach the orifice), information on the flow parameters inside the chamber is obtained from the measurement of the cluster drift velocity after the passage through an orifice for various gas consumptions. Other possible uses of clusters in gas flow diagnostics are discussed as well.
Solids flow mapping in gas-solid risers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhusarapu, Satish Babu
Gas-solid risers are extensively used in many industrial processes for gas-solid reactions (e.g. coal combustion and gasification) and for solid catalyzed gas phase reactions (e.g. fluid catalytic cracking, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride). Ab initio prediction of the complex multiphase fluid dynamics in risers is not yet possible, which makes reactor modeling difficult. In particular, quantification of solids flow and mixing is important. Almost all the experimental techniques used to characterize solids flow lead to appreciable errors in measured variables in large scale, high mass flux systems. In addition, none of the experimental techniques provide all the relevant data required to develop a satisfactory solids flow model. In this study, non-invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) is employed to visualize and quantify the solids dynamics and mixing in the gas-solid riser of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB). A single radioactive tracer particle is monitored during its multiple visits to the riser and with an assumption of ergodicity, the following flow parameters are estimated: (a) Overall solids mass flux in the CFB loop. (b) Solids residence time distribution in the riser and down-comer. (c) Lagrangian and Eulerian solids velocity fields in a fully-developed section of the riser. This includes velocity fluctuations and components of the diffusivity tensor. The existing CARPT technique is extended to large scale systems. A new algorithm, based on a cross-correlation search, is developed for position rendition from CARPT data. Two dimensional solids holdup profiles are estimated using gamma-ray computed tomography. The image quality from the tomography data is improved by implementing an alternating minimization algorithm. This work establishes for the first time a reliable database for local solids dynamic quantities such as time-averaged velocities, Reynolds stresses, eddy diffusivities and turbulent kinetic energy. In addition
A microfluidic chip for generating reactive plasma at gas-gas interface formed in laminar flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Masahiro; Tsukasaki, Katsuki; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru
2015-01-01
A gas-gas interface is used for generating a localized reactive plasma flow at an atmospheric pressure. A microfluidic chip is fabricated as the reactor integrating a small plasma source located upstream. Within a Y-shaped microchannel, a discharging gas flows with a chemical gas. Owing to the small width of the microchannel, the gas flow is stabilized in a laminar flow. The resultant gas-gas interface is formed in the area where two gases flow facing each other activating the chemical gas through the energetic species in the discharging gas. A characteristic stream pattern is observed as the etching profile of a carbon film with a sub-µm sharp step change that can be explained by the spatial distribution of the reactive oxygen. This etching profile is different from that obtained when plasma discharging occurs near the channel exit being affected by the turbulent flow.
Effect of Interphase Forces on Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flow in RH Degasser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Bohong; Liu, Qingcai; Kong, Ming; Yang, Jian; Li, Donghui; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor
2017-10-01
A mathematical model was developed to study the gas-liquid flow behavior in the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) degasser by using the Euler-Euler approach, and the effects of different combinations of interphase forces on the circulation flow rate as well as the distribution of the gas volume fraction were investigated. The results showed that the model predictions correspond with the measured values. As a key factor in avoiding the gas-adhering wall effect, the virtual mass force has a tremendous impact on the circulation flow rate and distribution of the gas volume fraction. The contribution of the turbulent dispersion force on the circulation flow rate is insignificant, but it shows a significant effect on the distribution of the gas volume fraction. Furthermore, the effect of the wall lubrication force and the lift force on gas-liquid flow is negligible when compared with the virtual mass and turbulent dispersion forces.
Effect of Interphase Forces on Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flow in RH Degasser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Bohong; Liu, Qingcai; Kong, Ming; Yang, Jian; Li, Donghui; Chattopadhyay, Kinnor
2017-06-01
A mathematical model was developed to study the gas-liquid flow behavior in the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) degasser by using the Euler-Euler approach, and the effects of different combinations of interphase forces on the circulation flow rate as well as the distribution of the gas volume fraction were investigated. The results showed that the model predictions correspond with the measured values. As a key factor in avoiding the gas-adhering wall effect, the virtual mass force has a tremendous impact on the circulation flow rate and distribution of the gas volume fraction. The contribution of the turbulent dispersion force on the circulation flow rate is insignificant, but it shows a significant effect on the distribution of the gas volume fraction. Furthermore, the effect of the wall lubrication force and the lift force on gas-liquid flow is negligible when compared with the virtual mass and turbulent dispersion forces.
Distribution of the Transit Flow in the Rotor of a Gas Centrifuge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleksandrov, O. E.
2016-09-01
The present work is devoted to computation of the distribution of the transit flow in the rotor of a separation gas centrifuge. The existing transit-flow models have been considered, the equation to find the transit flow has been obtained, and the basic properties of the transit flow have been analyzed. The general equation for the transit-flow distribution has been obtained, and the transit-flow distribution for a simplified scheme of feed supply, extraction, and waste has been calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Gen; Matsukuma, Yosuke; Minemoto, Masaki
This work concentrates on the effects of channel depth and separator shape on cell output performance, current density distribution and gas flow condition in various conditions with PEFC numerical analysis model including gas flow through GDL. When GDL effective porosity was small, the effect of gas flow through GDL which was changed by channel depth on cell output performance became large. However, current density distribution was ununiform. As GDL permeability became larger, cell output density increased, but current density and gas flow rate distribution were ununiform. From the results of changing the gas flow rate, it was found that the ratio of the minimum gas flow rate to the inlet flow rate depended on channel depth. Furthermore, the optimal separator, which increased output density and made the current density distribution and gas flow rate distribution uniform, was examined. It was also found that cell performance had possible to be developed by improving the turning point of the serpentine separator.
Liquid and liquid–gas flows at all speeds
LeMartelot, S.; Nkonga, B.; Saurel, R.
2013-12-15
All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquid–gas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup −3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.
Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows
Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas
2010-06-01
The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.
Gradient Driven Flow: Lattice Gas, Diffusion Equation and Measurement Scales
2001-01-01
03-200 1 Journal Article (refereed) 2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Gradient Driven Flow : Lattice Gas, Diffusion Equation and...time regime, the collective motion exhibits an onset of oscillation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Diffusion; Fick’s Law; Gradient Driven Flow ; Lattice Gas 16...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 20010907 062 Gradient driven flow : lattice gas, diffusion equation and measurement scales R.B
Analysis and Applications of Radiometric Forces in Rarefied Gas Flows
2010-06-16
Forces in Rarefied Gas Flows 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sergey F. Gimelshein & Natalia E. Gimelshein (ERC, Inc...Forces in Rarefied Gas Flows Sergey F. Gimelshein∗, Natalia E. Gimelshein∗, Andrew D. Ketsdever† and Nathaniel P. Selden∗∗ ∗ERC, Inc, Edwards AFB, CA 93524...geometries. Keywords: Radiometric force, shear, ES-BGK equation PACS: 51.10.+y INTRODUCTION Rarefied gas flow surrounding a thin vane with a temperature
Probe measures gas and liquid mass flux in high mass flow ratio two-phase flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burick, R. J.
1972-01-01
Deceleration probe constructed of two concentric tubes with separator inlet operates successfully in flow fields where ratio of droplet flow rate to gas flow rate ranges from 1.0 to 20, and eliminates problems of local flow field disturbances and flooding. Probe is effective tool for characterization of liquid droplet/gas spray fields.
Not Available
1981-10-01
(1) We recommend the establishment of an experimental test facility, appropriately instrumented, dedicated to research on theoretical modeling concepts. Validation of models for the various flow regimes, and establishment of the limitations or concepts used in the construction of models, are sorely needed areas of research. There exists no mechanism currently for funding of such research on a systematic basis. Such a facility would provide information fundamental to progress in the physics of turbulent multi-phase flow, which would also have impact on the understanding of coal utilization processes; (2) combustion research appears to have special institutional barriers to information exchange because it is an established, commercial ongoing effort, with heavy reliance on empirical data for proprietary configurations; (3) for both gasification and combustion reactors, current models appear to handle adequately some, perhaps even most, gross aspects of the reactors such as overall efficiency and major chemical output constituents. However, new and more stringent requirements concerning NOX, SOX and POX (small paticulate) production require greater understanding of process details and spatial inhomogenities, hence refinement of current models to include some greater detail is necessary; (4) further progress in the theory of single-phase turbulent flow would benefit our understanding of both combustors and gasifiers; and (5) another area in which theoretical development would be extremely useful is multi-phase flow.
Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods
Gadgil, Ashok J.
1994-01-01
Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.
Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods
Gadgil, A.J.
1994-01-11
Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.
Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. C.
1972-01-01
Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markicevic, B.; Bazylak, A.; Djilali, N.
The changes of relative permeability and capillary pressure as a function of liquid water phase saturation, two key parameters in two-phase PEMFC models, are investigated using a capillary network model incorporating an invasion percolation algorithm with trapping. The two-dimensional capillary network accounts for capillary dominated drainage and cluster formation. It is shown that relative permeability is constant for low saturation, but follows a power law of saturation for high saturations, with an exponent of about 2.4 that is independent of network size or heterogeneity. An increase of the network size and reduction in heterogeneity tend to reduce the relative permeability, and relative permeabilities of much less then unity are obtained even for saturations as large as 0.8. Capillary pressure on the other hand does not vary with saturation and network size, but is influenced by heterogeneity only. This suggests that regardless of the interface shape and size, the capillaries at the interface maintain a constant average radius causing the capillary pressure to remain constant. It is finally shown that with appropriate scaling and for a given network heterogeneity, the normalized capillary pressure, single-phase permeability and relative permeability can be deduced for other choices of porous medium physical scales without requiring a new set of simulations.
Numerical study of gas-liquid flow morphology in a vertical flowmeter nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kartushinsky, Alexander; Balakin, Boris V.; Kutsenko, Kirill V.; Kosinski, Pawel
2017-07-01
Industrial multiphase flow measurement systems often contain meters based on Venturi principle. Those instruments deal with the differential pressure measurements whose accurate interpretation is possible when the flow morphology is known a-priori. The present paper reports the results of CFD-modelling of a gas-liquid flow through a vertical nozzle accompanied by a blind-T flow conditioner. The model is used for evaluation of the flow morphology in case the volume fractions of both phases are comparable. The model demonstrates high non-uniformities of the flow field after the blind-T, which indicates that this type of flow conditioners may lead to inaccurate results.
Instabilities in granular gas-solid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez González, Rubén; Garzó, Vicente
2017-04-01
A linear stability analysis of the hydrodynamic equations with respect to the homogeneous cooling state is performed to study the conditions for stability of a suspension of solid particles immersed in a viscous gas. The dissipation in such systems arises from two different sources: inelasticity in particle collisions and viscous friction dissipation due to the influence of the gas phase on the solid particles. The starting point is a suspension model based on the (inelastic) Enskog kinetic equation. The effect of the interstitial gas phase on the dynamics of grains is modeled though a viscous drag force. The study is carried out in two different steps. First, the transport coefficients of the system are obtained by solving the Enskog equation by means of the Chapman-Enskog method up to first order in spatial gradients. Explicit expressions for the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients are obtained in terms of the volume fraction, the coefficient of restitution and the friction coefficient characterizing the amplitude of the external force. Once the transport properties are known, then the corresponding linearized hydrodynamic equations are solved to get the dispersion relations. In contrast to previous studies (Garzó et al 2016 Phys. Rev. E 93 012905), the hydrodynamic modes are analytically obtained as functions of the parameter space of the system. For a d-dimensional system, as expected linear stability shows d - 1 transversal (shear) modes and a longitudinal ‘heat’ mode to be unstable with respect to long enough wavelength excitations. The results also show that the main effect of the gas phase is to decrease the value of the critical length L c (beyond which the system becomes unstable) with respect to its value for a dry granular fluid. Comparison with direct numerical simulations for L c shows a qualitative good agreement for conditions of practical interest.
Axial flow gas turbine engine combustor
Shekleton, J.R.; Sawyer, K.W.
1991-02-19
This patent describes a gas turbine engine. It comprises: radial compressor means for compressing air entering through a compressor inlet opening; axial turbine means in axially spaced relation to the radial compressor means; the radial compressor means being operatively associated with the axial turbine means; radial combustor means intermediate the radial compressor means and axial turbine means; turbine nozzle means proximate the axial turbine means for directing gases of combustion thereto; the radial combustor means defining a radial combustion space in communication with both the radial compressor means and the turbine nozzle means. The radial combustor means including means for introducing compressed air generally tangentially into the radial combustion space upstream of the turbine nozzle means and at a point radially outwardly of the turbine nozzle means and the turbine nozzle means being disposed radially inwardly of the radial combustion space to define a generally radial flow path therebetween. The radial combustor means generating the gases of combustion by combusting fuel from a source and air from the radial compressor means; and fuel injection means operatively associated with the radial combustor means radially outwardly of the turbine nozzle means for injecting a fuel/air mixture generally tangentially into the radial combustion space; whereby a tangential swirl flow is established within the radial combustion space.
Effect of gas channel height on gas flow and gas diffusion in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Haruhiko; Nakagaki, Takao; Hori, Michio
An investigation is made of the relationships between the gas channel height, the gas-flow characteristics, and the gas-diffusion characteristics in a plate heat-exchanger type molten carbonate fuel cell stack. Effects of the gas channel height on the uniformity and pressure loss of the gas flow are evaluated by numerical analysis using a computational fluid dynamics code. The effects of the gas channel height on the distribution of the reactive gas concentration in the direction perpendicular to the channel flow are evaluated by an analytical solution of the two-dimensional concentration transport equation. Considering the results for uniformity and pressure loss of the gas flow, and for distribution of the reactive gas concentration, the appropriate gas channel height in the molten carbonate fuel cell stack is investigated.
Toward the improved simulation of microscale gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNenly, Matthew James
2007-12-01
Recent interest in fluidic micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in gaseous environments has increased the need for accurate simulation techniques to aid in their design process. Many fluidic MEMS operate in a low-speed non-equilibrium gas flow regime that is challenging to simulate both accurately and efficiently. Classic computational fluid dynamics techniques (e.g. Navier-Stokes simulation) are based on the assumption that the fluid behaves as a continuum. This assumption, however, becomes increasingly less accurate as the local flow conditions deviate further from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Alternatively, it is possible to achieve an accurate approximation of non-equilibrium gas flows using particle-based methods (e.g. DSMC), but the resulting simulations are much more computationally expensive than the continuum-based method. In fact, for the very low speeds commonly found in fluidic MEMS, the slow convergence of the DSMC solution can lead to intractably long computation times on all but the largest supercomputers. Two different approaches are pursued in this investigation, in an effort to design a physically accurate and computationally efficient simulation of low-speed, non-equilibrium flows. The first approach constructs new empirical models to correct the error in the Navier-Stokes simulation in the transition regime due to the appreciable deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. The empirically corrected Navier-Stokes simulation is not actually predicting strongly non-equilibrium gas flows; however, it is shown to be a useful analysis tool in certain design situations. The second more novel approach develops an original quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) particle simulation that retains the physical accuracy of the DSMC method while at the same time achieving a faster (near-linear) convergence rate. The design of a QMC method is far more complex in general than a Monte Carlo method for the same problem. Further, no known QMC particle simulation has
Modelling pulmonary blood flow.
Tawhai, Merryn H; Burrowes, Kelly S
2008-11-30
Computational model analysis has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geistlinger, H. W.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Jia, R.; Lazik, D.
2009-12-01
sequestration mechanisms. In order to investigate the stability of buoyancy-driven gas flow and the transition between coherent flow, incoherent flow, and their correlation to capillary trapping, we conducted high-resolution optical bench scale experiments. We observed a grain-size (dk) - and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Based on core-annular flow (= cooperative pore-body filling), we propose a dynamic stability criterion that could describe our experimental results. Our experimental results for vertical gas flow support the experimental results by Lenormand et al. [1983] obtained for horizontal flow, if one takes into account that gravity leads to more unstable flow conditions. Our main results, which are in strong contradiction to the accepted conceptual model of the sloped aquifer, are: (1) Capillary Trapping can already occur during injection and at the front of the plume [Lazik et al., 2008] (2) Gas clusters or bubbles can be mobile (incoherent gas flow) and immobile (capillary trapping), and (3) Incoherent gas flow can not be described by a generalized Darcy law [Geistlinger et al., 2006, 2009].
A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Champney, Joelle M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.
1990-01-01
A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles.
Discharge effects on gas flow dynamics in a plasma jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xian, Yu Bin; Hasnain Qaisrani, M.; Yue, Yuan Fu; Lu, Xin Pei
2016-10-01
Plasma is used as a flow visualization method to display the gas flow of a plasma jet. Using this method, it is found that a discharge in a plasma jet promotes the transition of the gas flow to turbulence. A discharge at intermediate frequency (˜6 kHz in this paper) has a stronger influence on the gas flow than that at lower or higher frequencies. Also, a higher discharge voltage enhances the transition of the gas flow to turbulence. Analysis reveals that pressure modulation induced both by the periodically directed movement of ionized helium and Ohmic heating on the gas flow plays an important role in inducing the transition of the helium flow regime. In addition, since the modulations induced by the high- and low-frequency discharges are determined by the frequency-selective effect, only intermediate-frequency (˜6 kHz) discharges effectively cause the helium flow transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow. Moreover, a discharge with a higher applied voltage makes a stronger impact on the helium flow because it generates stronger modulations. These conclusions are useful in designing cold plasma jets and plasma torches. Moreover, the relationship between the discharge parameters and the gas flow dynamics is a useful reference on active flow control with plasma actuators.
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-05-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-01-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
Granular flow in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup
Hsiau, S.S.; Smid, J.; Tsai, H.H.; Kuo, J.T.; Chou, C.S.
1999-07-01
Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Drofan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls, the velocity fields of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The PE beads with diameter of 6 mm were used as filter granules. The filter bed was filled with beads continuously and circulated until the granular flows inside the panel reached the steady state condition. In the moving granular bed, there is a central fast flowing core of filter granules surrounded by large quasi-stagnant zones located close to the louver walls. The existence of quasi-stagnant zones may result in the dust plugging problems. The velocity fields of filter granules are plotted for three different louver geometries.
Pulsatile flow and gas transfer over arrays of cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Kit Yan; Fujioka, Hideki; Grotberg, James B.
2004-11-01
In an artificial lung device, blood passes through arrays of porous microfibers and the gas transfer occurring across the fiber surfaces strongly depends on the flow field. Pulsatile flow distribution and gas transfer over arrays of porous microfibers (modeled as cylinders) are numerically simulated for both Newtonian and Casson fluids using Finite Volume method. Different arrangements of the cylinders: square array, rectangular array, staggered array are considered in this study. For some of the studies, the average x-velocity U(t) is described by U(t) = U0 ( 1 +A sin ( ω t) ) [1], where U0 is the time-average x-velocity, A is the amplitude of the oscillation, and ω is the frequency. For other studies, half of a cycle is described by [1] and half of the cycle U(t) = 0. The inclusion of a zero average velocity period in U(t) is physiologically a better description of the time-average velocity of blood exiting the heart. Interestingly, gas transfer increases when U(t) is described this way, due to the appearance of large vortices that enhance mixing. The existence, the size and the location of the recirculation zones are found to be controlled by array geometry and flow parameters. In general, conditions that enhance the gas transfer also at the same time increase the maximum flow resistance; such as the increase of the Reynolds number, the Womersley number, A, and cylinder density, with the exception of the increase of the yield stress for a Casson fluid. This work is supported by NIH: HL 69420.
Gentle protein ionization assisted by high-velocity gas flow.
Yang, Pengxiang; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng; Hawkridge, Adam M; Muddiman, David C
2005-10-01
Gentle protein electrospray ionization is achieved using the high-velocity gas flow of an air amplifier to improve desolvation in conventional ESI and generate intact folded protein ions in the gas phase. Comparisons are made between the ESI spectra of a number of model proteins, including ubiquitin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and myoglobin, over a range of pH values under optimized conditions, with and without using an air amplifier to achieve high-velocity gas flow. Previously reported increased ion signals are confirmed. In addition, the peaks recorded using the air amplifier are shown to be narrower, corresponding to more complete desolvation. Significant changes in the charge-state distribution also are observed, with a shift to lower charge state at high-velocity flow. The relationship between the observed charge-state distribution and protein conformation was explored by comparing the charge-state shifts and the distributions of charge states for proteins that are or are not stable in their native conformations in low pH solutions. The data suggest retention of native or nativelike protein conformations using the air amplifier in all cases examined. This is explained by a mechanism in which the air amplifier rapidly creates small droplets from the original large ESI droplets and these microdroplets then desolvate without a significant decrease in pH, resulting in retention of the folded protein conformations. Furthermore, the holoform of ionized myoglobin is visible at pH 3.5, a much lower value than the minimum needed to see this form in conventional ESI. These results provide evidence for the importance of the conditions used in the desolvation process for the preservation of the protein conformation and suggest that the conditions achieved when using high-velocity gas flows to assist droplet evaporation and ion desolvation are much gentler than those in conventional ESI experiments.
Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration
Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.
2007-08-20
In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology
FORCE2: A multidimensional flow program for gas solids flow theory guide
Burge, S.W.
1991-05-01
This report describes the theory and structure of the FORCE2 flow program. The manual describes the governing model equations, solution procedure and their implementation in the computer program. FORCE2 is an extension of an existing B&V multidimensional, two-phase flow program. FORCE2 was developed for application to fluid beds by flow implementing a gas-solids modeling technology derived, in part, during a joint government -- industry research program, ``Erosion of FBC Heat Transfer Tubes,`` coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The development of FORCE2 was sponsored by ASEA-Babcock, an industry participant in this program. This manual is the principal documentation for the program theory and organization. Program usage and post-processing of code predictions with the FORCE2 post-processor are described in a companion report, FORCE2 -- A Multidimensional Flow Program for Fluid Beds, User`s Guide. This manual is segmented into sections to facilitate its usage. In section 2.0, the mass and momentum conservation principles, the basis for the code, are presented. In section 3.0, the constitutive relations used in modeling gas-solids hydrodynamics are given. The finite-difference model equations are derived in section 4.0 and the solution procedures described in sections 5.0 and 6.0. Finally, the implementation of the model equations and solution procedure in FORCE2 is described in section 7.0.
Combined simulation of combustion and gas flow in a grate-type incinerator.
Ryu, C; Shin, D; Choi, S
2002-02-01
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion chamber of a solid waste incinerator provides crucial insight into the incinerator's performance. However, the interrelation of the gas flow with the burning waste has not been adequately treated in many CFD models. A strategy for a combined simulation of the waste combustion and the gas flow in the furnace is introduced here. When coupled with CFD, a model of the waste combustion in the bed provides the inlet conditions for the gas flow field and receives the radiative heat flux onto the bed from the furnace wall and gaseous species. An unsteady one-dimensional bed model was used for the test simulation, in which the moving bed was treated as a packed bed of homogeneous fuel particles. The simulation results show the physical processes of the waste combustion and its interaction with the gas flow for various operational parameters.
Study of interfacial behavior in cocurrent gas-liquid flows
McCready, M.J.
1990-01-01
We have examined the mechanism of formation of solitary waves on gas-liquid flows and found, that these form from existing periodic waves which have sufficiently large ({approximately}1.5 to 2 depending upon fluid properties) amplitude to liquid layer-thickness ratios. The exact process for the wave shape change is not understood but it does not seem to be related to the wave steepness (amplitude/wavelength) or to separation of gas flow over the waves. The observed confinement of solitary waves to low liquid Reynolds numbers results because the necessary large precursor waves do not form if the wave speed dispersion is too large or if the wavelength of the dominant waves is too short, as occurs for higher Re{sub L}. Measurements of interface tracings and calculations of power spectra and bispectra as a function of flow distance for conditions close to neutral stability reveal that the initially, linearly unstable mode is stabilized by formation of overtones which are linearly stable and can dissipate energy. As a result, a stable wave field can occur. Mode equations, which include quadratic nonlinearities, can model this process to the extent of producing some degree of quantitative predictions for the amplitudes of the wave modes. However, a complete picture of the wave field must include sidebands as well because these are observed for some flow conditions. 34 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer....
Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Branum, L. W.
1966-01-01
Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.
Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2008-09-01
The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a typical prismatic gas-cooled (GCR) reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A detailed description of the model, scaling, the experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that are presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic GCR design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet flow is also presented.
Viewing inside Pyroclastic Flows - Large-scale Experiments on hot pyroclast-gas mixture flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breard, E. C.; Lube, G.; Cronin, S. J.; Jones, J.
2014-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents are the largest threat from volcanoes. Direct observations of natural flows are persistently prevented because of their violence and remain limited to broad estimates of bulk flow behaviour. The Pyroclastic Flow Generator - a large-scale experimental facility to synthesize hot gas-particle mixture flows scaled to pyroclastic flows and surges - allows investigating the physical processes behind PDC behaviour in safety. The ability to simulate natural eruption conditions and to view and measure inside the hot flows allows deriving validation and calibration data sets for existing numerical models, and to improve the constitutive relationships necessary for their effective use as powerful tools in hazard assessment. We here report on a systematic series of large-scale experiments on up to 30 ms-1 fast, 2-4.5 m thick, 20-35 m long flows of natural pyroclastic material and gas. We will show high-speed movies and non-invasive sensor data that detail the internal structure of the analogue pyroclastic flows. The experimental PDCs are synthesized by the controlled 'eruption column collapse' of variably diluted suspensions into an instrumented channel. Experiments show four flow phases: mixture acceleration and dilution during free fall; impact and lateral blasting; PDC runout; and co-ignimbrite cloud formation. The fully turbulent flows reach Reynolds number up to 107 and depositional facies similar to natural deposits. In the PDC runout phase, the shear flows develop a four-partite structure from top to base: a fully turbulent, strongly density-stratified ash cloud with average particle concentrations <<1vol%; a transient, turbulent dense suspension region with particle concentrations between 1 and 10 vol%; a non-turbulent, aerated and highly mobile dense underflows with particle concentrations between 40 and 50 vol%; and a vertically aggrading bed of static material. We characterise these regions and the exchanges of energy and momentum
Bypass Flow Resistance in Prismatic Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors
McEligot, Donald M.; Johnson, Richard W.
2016-12-20
Available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of pressure distributions in the vertical bypass flow between blocks in a prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) have been analyzed to deduce apparent friction factors and loss coefficients for systems and network codes. We performed calculations for vertical gap spacings "s" of 2, 6 and 10 mm, horizontal gaps between the blocks of two mm and two flow rates, giving a range of gap Reynolds numbers Re_{Dh} of about 40 to 5300. Laminar predictions of the fully-developed friction factor f_{fd} were about three to ten per cent lower than the classical infinitely-wide channel In the entry region, the local apparent friction factor was slightly higher than the classic idealized case but the hydraulic entry length L_{hy} was approximately the same. The per cent reduction in flow resistance was greater than the per cent increase in flow area at the vertical corners of the blocks. The standard k-ϵ model was employed for flows expected to be turbulent. Its predictions of f_{fd} and flow resistance were significantly higher than direct numerical simulations for the classic case; the value of L_{hy} was about thirty gap spacings. Initial quantitative information for entry coefficients and loss coefficients for the expansion-contraction junctions between blocks is also presented. Our study demonstrates how CFD predictions can be employed to provide integral quantities needed in systems and network codes.
Bypass Flow Resistance in Prismatic Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors
McEligot, Donald M.; Johnson, Richard W.
2016-12-20
Available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of pressure distributions in the vertical bypass flow between blocks in a prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) have been analyzed to deduce apparent friction factors and loss coefficients for systems and network codes. We performed calculations for vertical gap spacings "s" of 2, 6 and 10 mm, horizontal gaps between the blocks of two mm and two flow rates, giving a range of gap Reynolds numbers ReDh of about 40 to 5300. Laminar predictions of the fully-developed friction factor ffd were about three to ten per cent lower than the classical infinitely-wide channel In themore » entry region, the local apparent friction factor was slightly higher than the classic idealized case but the hydraulic entry length Lhy was approximately the same. The per cent reduction in flow resistance was greater than the per cent increase in flow area at the vertical corners of the blocks. The standard k-ϵ model was employed for flows expected to be turbulent. Its predictions of ffd and flow resistance were significantly higher than direct numerical simulations for the classic case; the value of Lhy was about thirty gap spacings. Initial quantitative information for entry coefficients and loss coefficients for the expansion-contraction junctions between blocks is also presented. Our study demonstrates how CFD predictions can be employed to provide integral quantities needed in systems and network codes.« less
Thermoacoustic compression based on alternating to direct gas flow conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, D. M.; Wang, K.; Xu, Y.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Qiu, L. M.
2012-05-01
We present a remarkable thermoacoustically driven compression effect based on the conversion of gas flow from an alternating state to a direct state. The alternating gas flow is generated by the thermoacoustic effect in thermoacoustic engines, whereas direct gas flow is achieved by means of the flow rectification effect of check valves. A demonstrative thermoacoustic compressor consisting of two standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, two reservoirs, and three check valves is constructed for experimental investigation. With nitrogen as a working gas and an initial pressure of 2.4 MPa in all components, a usable pressure difference of 0.4 MPa is achieved, with the average gas pumping rate reaching 2.85 Nm3/h during the first 3 s of the compression process. The simple mechanical structure and thermally driven nature of the compressor show potential in gas compression, power generation, and refrigeration applications.
Calculation of two-phase flow in gas turbine combustors
Tolpadi, A.K.
1995-10-01
A method is presented for computing steady two-phase turbulent combusting flow in a gas turbine combustor. The gas phase equations are solved in an Eulerian frame of reference. The two-phase calculations are performed by using a liquid droplet spray combustion a model and treating the motion of the evaporating fuel droplets in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The numerical algorithm employs nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates, a multigrid iterative solution procedure, the standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model, and a combustion model comprising an assumed shape probability density function and the conserved scalar formulation. The trajectory computation of the fuel provides the source terms for all the gas phase equations. This two-phase model was applied to a real piece of combustion hardware in the form of a modern GE/SNECMA single annular CFM56 turbofan engine combustor. For the purposes of comparison, calculations were also performed by treating the fuel as a single gaseous phase. The effect on the solution of two extreme situations of the fuel as a gas and initially as a liquid was examined. The distribution of the velocity field and the conserved scalar within the combustor, as well as the distribution of the temperature field in the reaction zone and in the exhaust, were all predicted with the combustor operating both at high-power and low-power (ground idle) conditions. The calculated exit gas temperature was compared with test rig measurements. Under both low and high-power conditions, the temperature appeared to show an improved agreement with the measured data when the calculations were performed with the spray model as compared to a single-phase calculation.
Prediction of inverted velocity profile for gas flow in nanochannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. T.; Ren, Y. R.
2014-11-01
Velocity inversion is an interesting phenomenon of nanoscale which means that the velocity near the wall is greater than that of center. To solve this problem, fluid flow in nanochannel attracts more attention in recent years. The physical model of gas flow in two-dimensional nanochannel was established here. To describe the process with conventional control equations, Navier-Stokes equations combined with high-order accurate slip boundary conditions was used as mathematical model. With the introduction of new dimensionless variables, the problem was reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Then it was analytically solved and investigated using homotopy analysis method (HAM). The results were verified by comparing with other available experiment data. Result shows that the proposed method could predict velocity phenomenon.
Visualization of Atomization Gas Flow and Melt Break-up Effects in Response to Nozzle Design
Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Meyer, John; Byrd, David; Heidloff, Andy
2011-04-01
Both powder particle size control and efficient use of gas flow energy are highly prized goals for gas atomization of metal and alloy powder to minimize off-size powder inventory (or 'reverb') and excessive gas consumption. Recent progress in the design of close-coupled gas atomization nozzles and the water model simulation of melt feed tubes were coupled with previous results from several types of gas flow characterization methods, e.g., aspiration measurements and gas flow visualization, to make progress toward these goals. Size distribution analysis and high speed video recordings of gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) experiments on special ferritic stainless steel alloy powders with an Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixture were performed to investigate the operating mechanisms and possible advantages of several melt flow tube modifications with one specific gas atomization nozzle. In this study, close-coupled gas atomization under closed wake gas flow conditions was demonstrated to produce large yields of ultrafine (dia.<20 {mu}m) powders (up to 32%) with moderate standard deviations (1.62 to 1.99). The increased yield of fine powders is consistent with the dual atomization mechanisms of closed wake gas flow patterns in the near-field of the melt orifice. Enhanced size control by stabilized pre-filming of the melt with a slotted trumpet bell pour tube was not clearly demonstrated in the current experiments, perhaps confounded by the influence of the melt oxidation reaction that occurred simultaneously with the atomization process. For this GARS variation of close-coupled gas atomization, it may be best to utilize the straight cylindrical pour tube and closed wake operation of an atomization nozzle with higher gas mass flow to promote the maximum yields of ultrafine powders that are preferred for the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys made from these powders.
Local pulmonary blood flow: control and gas exchange.
Sheehan, D W; Farhi, L E
1993-10-01
We studied the local response of the pulmonary vasculature to combined changes in alveolar PO2 and PCO2 in the right apical lobe (RAL) of six conscious sheep. That lobe inspired an O2-CO2-N2 mixture adjusted to produce one of 12 alveolar gas compositions: end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) of 40, 50, and 60 Torr, each coupled with end-tidal PO2 (PETO2) of 100, 75, 50, and 25 Torr. In addition, at each of the four PETO2, the inspired CO2 was set to 0 and PETCO2 was allowed to vary as RAL perfusion changed. The remainder of the lung, which served as control (CL) inspired air. Fraction of the total pulmonary blood flow going to the RAL (%QRAL) was obtained by comparing the methane elimination from the RAL to that of the whole lung, and expressed as a percentage of that fraction at PETCO2 = 40, PETO2 = 100. Cardiac output, pulmonary vascular pressures, and CL gas tensions were unaffected or only minimally affected by changes in RAL gas composition. A drop in PO2 from 100 to 50 Torr decreased local blood flow by 60% in normocapnia and by 66% at a PCO2 of 60. At all levels of oxygenation, an increase in PCO2 from 40 to 60 reduced QRAL by nearly 50%. With these stimulus-response data, we developed a model of gas exchange, which takes into account the effects of test segment size on blood flow diversion. This model predicts that: (1) when the ventilation to one compartment of a two compartment lung is progressively decreased, PAO2 remains above 60 Torr for up to 60% reductions in alveolar ventilation, irrespective of compartment size; (2) the decrease in PAO2 that occurs at altitude is accompanied by a drop in PACO2 that limits the decrease in conductance and minimizes the pulmonary hypertension; and (3) as we stand, local blood flow control by the alveolar gas tensions halves the alveolar-arterial PO2 and PCO2 differences imposed by gravity.
Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Hua; Thomas, Brian G.
2001-12-01
Bubble formation during gas injection into turbulent downward-flowing water is studied using high-speed videos and mathematical models. The bubble size is determined during the initial stages of injection and is very important to turbulent multiphase flow in molten-metal processes. The effects of liquid velocity, gas-injection flow rate, injection hole diameter, and gas composition on the initial bubble-formation behavior have been investigated. Specifically, the bubble-shape evolution, contact angles, size, size range, and formation mode are measured. The bubble size is found to increase with increasing gas-injection flow rate and decreasing liquid velocity and is relatively independent of the gas injection hole size and gas composition. Bubble formation occurs in one of four different modes, depending on the liquid velocity and gas flow rate. Uniform-sized spherical bubbles form and detach from the gas injection hole in mode I for a low liquid speed and small gas flow rate. Modes III and IV occur for high-velocity liquid flows, where the injected gas elongates down along the wall and breaks up into uneven-sized bubbles. An analytical two-stage model is developed to predict the average bubble size, based on realistic force balances, and shows good agreement with measurements. Preliminary results of numerical simulations of bubble formation using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model qualitatively match experimental observations, but more work is needed to reach a quantitative match. The analytical model is then used to estimate the size of the argon bubbles expected in liquid steel in tundish nozzles for conditions typical of continuous casting with a slide gate. The average argon bubble sizes generated in liquid steel are predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the same flow conditions. However, the differences lessen with increasing liquid velocity.
Breakup of Droplets in an Accelerating Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickerson, R. A.; Coultas, T. A.
1966-01-01
A study of droplet breakup phenomena by an accelerating gas flow is described. The phenomena are similar to what propellant droplets experience when exposed to accelerating combustion gas flow in a rocket engine combustion zone. Groups of several dozen droplets in the 100-10 750-micron-diameter range were injected into a flowing inert gas in a transparent rectangular nozzle. Motion photography of the behavior of the droplets at various locations in the accelerating gas flow has supplied quantitative and qualitative data on the breakup phenomena which occur under conditions similar to those found in large rocket engine combustors. A blowgun injection device, used to inject very small amounts of liquid at velocities of several hundred feet per second into a moving gas stream, is described. The injection device was used to inject small amounts of liquid RP-1 and water into the gas stream at a velocity essentially equal to the gas velocity where the group of droplets was allowed to stabilize its formation in a constant area section before entering the convergent section of the transparent nozzle. Favorable comparison with the work of previous investigators who have used nonaccelerating gas flow is found with the data obtained from this study with accelerating gas flow. The criterion for the conditions of minimum severity required to produce shear-type droplet breakup in an accelerating gas flow is found to agree well with the criterion previously established at Rocketdyne for breakup in nonaccelerating flow. An extension of the theory of capillary surface wave effects during droplet breakup is also presented. Capillary surface waves propagating in the surface of the droplet, according to classical hydrodynamical laws, are considered. The waves propagate tangentially over the surface of the droplet from the forward stagnation point to the major diameter. Consideration of the effects of relative gas velocity on the amplitude growth of these waves allows conclusions to be
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.
Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation
Veronica J. Rutledge
2011-03-01
The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.
Gas flow within Martian soil: experiments on granular Knudsen compressors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koester, Marc; Kelling, Thorben; Teiser, Jens; Wurm, Gerhard
2017-09-01
Thermal creep efficiently transports gas through Martian soil. To quantify the Martian soil pump we carried out laboratory analog experiments with illuminated granular media at low ambient pressure. We used samples of 1 μm to 5 μm SiO2 (quartz), basalt with a broad size distribution between 63 μm and 125 μm, and JSC-Mars 1A with a size fraction from 125 μm to 250 μm. The mean ambient pressure was varied between 50 Pa and 9000 Pa. Illumination was varied between 100 W/m2 and 6700 W/m2. The experiments confirm strong directed gas flows within granular and dusty soil and local sub-soil pressure variations. We find that Martian soil pumps can be described with existing models of thermal creep for capillaries, using the average grain size and light flux related temperatures.
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...
Modeling hydrodynamic nonequilibrium in cavitating flows
Chen, Y.; Heister, S.D.
1996-03-01
A nonlinear numerical model has been developed to assess nonequilibrium effects in cavitating flows. The numerical implementation involves a two-phase treatment with the use of a pseudo-density which varies between the liquid and gas/vapor extremes. A new constitutive equation for the pseudo-density is derived based on the bubble response described by a modified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Use of this constitutive equation in a numerical procedure permits the assessment of nonequilibrium effects. This scheme provides a quantitative description of scaling effects in cavitated flows. With minimal modifications, the model can also be used for bubbly two-phase flows.
Carbothermic Reduction of Chromite Ore Under Different Flow Rates of Inert Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Dolly; Ranganathan, S.; Sinha, S. N.
2010-02-01
The reduction of chromite ore with carbon has been studied extensively in many laboratories. Inert gases have been used in these investigations to control the experimental conditions. However, little information is available in the literature on the influence of the gas flow rate on the rate of reduction. Experiments were carried out to study the influence of the flow rate of inert gas on the reducibility of chromite ore. The experiments showed that the rate of reduction increased with the increasing flow rate of argon up to an optimum flow rate. At higher flow rates, the rate of reduction decreased. The influence of the proportion of reductant on the extent of reduction depended on the rate of flow rate of inert gas. The experimental results are interpreted on the basis of a model that postulates that the mechanism of reduction changes with the flow rate of argon.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng
2014-04-11
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.
Comet Gas and Dust Dynamics Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Allmen, Paul A.; Lee, Seungwon
2010-01-01
This software models the gas and dust dynamics of comet coma (the head region of a comet) in order to support the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) project. MIRO will study the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma system. The instrument will measure surface temperature, gas-production rates and relative abundances, and velocity and excitation temperatures of each species along with their spatial temporal variability. This software will use these measurements to improve the understanding of coma dynamics. The modeling tool solves the equation of motion of a dust particle, the energy balance equation of the dust particle, the continuity equation for the dust and gas flow, and the dust and gas mixture energy equation. By solving these equations numerically, the software calculates the temperature and velocity of gas and dust as a function of time for a given initial gas and dust production rate, and a dust characteristic parameter that measures the ability of a dust particle to adjust its velocity to the local gas velocity. The software is written in a modular manner, thereby allowing the addition of more dynamics equations as needed. All of the numerical algorithms are added in-house and no third-party libraries are used.
Gas flow driven by thermal creep in dusty plasma.
Flanagan, T M; Goree, J
2009-10-01
Thermal creep flow (TCF) is a flow of gas driven by a temperature gradient along a solid boundary. Here, TCF is demonstrated experimentally in a dusty plasma. Stripes on a glass box are heated by laser beam absorption, leading to both TCF and a thermophoretic force. The design of the experiment allows isolating the effect of TCF. A stirring motion of the dust particle suspension is observed. By eliminating all other explanations for this motion, we conclude that TCF at the boundary couples by drag to the bulk gas, causing the bulk gas to flow, thereby stirring the suspension of dust particles. This result provides an experimental verification, for the field of fluid mechanics, that TCF in the slip-flow regime causes steady-state gas flow in a confined volume.
Strongly coupled turbulent gas-particle flows in vertical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Rodney O.; Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier
2015-11-01
Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) simulations of strongly coupled (high mass loading) gas-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of exploring the fundamental physics of fully developed, wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. An adaptive spatial filter is developed that accurately decomposes the total granular energy of the particles into correlated and uncorrelated components at each location in the wall-normal direction of the flow. In this manner, Reynolds- and phase-averaged (PA) two-phase turbulence statistics up to second order are reported for both phases and for three values of the PA mean fluid velocity. As expected due to the high mass loading, in all cases the turbulence production due to mean drag dominates production due to mean shear. A multiphase LRR-IP Reynolds-stress turbulence model is developed to predict the turbulent flow statistics as a function of the wall-normal distance. Using a correlation for the vertical drift velocity developed from the EL data, the turbulence model predictions agree satisfactorily with all of one-point EL statistics for the vertical channel flows, as well as for the homogeneous cluster-induced turbulence (CIT) statistics reported previously. Funded by U.S. National Science Foundation (CBET-1437865).
Laser absorption phenomena in flowing gas devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, P. K.; Otis, J. H.
1976-01-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of CW CO2 laser radiation in flowing gases seeded with alkali metals. In order to motivate this development, some simple models are described of several space missions which could use laser powered rocket vehicles. Design considerations are given for a test call to be used with a welding laser, using a diamond window for admission of laser radiation at power levels in excess of 10 kW. A detailed analysis of absorption conditions in the test cell is included. The experimental apparatus and test setup are described and the results of experiments presented. Injection of alkali seedant and steady state absorption of the laser radiation were successfully demonstrated, but problems with the durability of the diamond windows at higher powers prevented operation of the test cell as an effective laser powered thruster.
Simulation of two-phase flow using lattice gas automata methods
Tsumaya, Akira; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru
1996-08-01
Two-phase flow simulation has been primarily based on experimental data in the sense that constitutive relations necessary for solving fundamental equations are experimentally determined. This assures validity of simulation of two-phase flow within the experimental conditions, but it is difficult to predict the behavior of two-phase flow under extreme or complex conditions which occur, for example, in severe accidents of nuclear reactors. Lattice gas automaton (LGA) simulation has recently attracted attention as a method for numerical simulation of multi phase flow. The authors extend phase-separation LGA models and develop methods for two-phase flow simulation. First, they newly added a flow model to the immiscible lattice gas model and applied it to two-dimensional Poiseuille flow. They obtained a result looking like lubricated pipelining of crude oil with water. Also, considering the gravity effect, they introduced a buoyancy force into the liquid-gas model. As a result, they demonstrated that gas bubbles of various diameters rise and gradually coalesce each other turning into larger bubbles. Using these newly developed LGA models, they succeeded in simulating various flow patterns of two-phase flow.
Optical Diagnostics of Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Highly Rarefied Gas Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niimi, Tomohide
2003-05-01
The necessity of non-intrusive measurement of the thermodynamic variables in rarefied gas flows has motivated the development of optical diagnostics, such as electron beam fluorescence, laser induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, and so on. These spectroscopic methods have enabled to detect the nonequilibrium in the gas flows, based on the internal energy distributions obtained from spectral profiles. In this paper, the laser-based techniques for detection of the nonequilibrium phenomena in the highly rarefied gas flows and some results obtained by us are described.
Flow of Gas Through Turbine Lattices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deich, M E
1956-01-01
This report is concerned with fluid mechanics of two-dimensional cascades, particularly turbine cascades. Methods of solving the incompressible ideal flow in cascades are presented. The causes and the order of magnitude of the two-dimensional losses at subsonic velocities are discussed. Methods are presented for estimating the flow and losses at high subsonic velocities. Transonic and supersonic flows in lattices are then analyzed. Some three-dimensional features of the flow in turbines are noted.
DSMC-computation of the Rarefied Gas Flow through a Slit into a Vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazhin, Oleg
2008-12-01
The gas rarefaction, gas molecule-molecule interaction and gas-surface scattering influence on the gas flow through a slit into a vacuum is investigated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. To study the gas molecule-molecule interaction influence on the gas flow we used the hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS) anc variable soft sphere (VSS) models defined for the inverse-power-law (IPL) potential and also the generalized hard sphere (GHS) model defined for the 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. Maxwell (specular-diffuse scheme), Cercignani-Lampis (CL) and Epstein approaches were used to simulate the gas-surface scattering. The results of computations of the mas; flow rate in a wide range of rarefactions and distributions of the density, temperature and mass velocity, and streamlines are presented. This study demonstrates that the gas molecule-molecule interaction significantly interferes with the gas flow through a slit, while the influence of the gas-surface scattering is negligibly small. Our results are in agreement with the corresponding theoretical asymptotes, experimental and numerical data.
Modeling of transitional flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lund, Thomas S.
1988-01-01
An effort directed at developing improved transitional models was initiated. The focus of this work was concentrated on the critical assessment of a popular existing transitional model developed by McDonald and Fish in 1972. The objective of this effort was to identify the shortcomings of the McDonald-Fish model and to use the insights gained to suggest modifications or alterations of the basic model. In order to evaluate the transitional model, a compressible boundary layer code was required. Accordingly, a two-dimensional compressible boundary layer code was developed. The program was based on a three-point fully implicit finite difference algorithm where the equations were solved in an uncoupled manner with second order extrapolation used to evaluate the non-linear coefficients. Iteration was offered as an option if the extrapolation error could not be tolerated. The differencing scheme was arranged to be second order in both spatial directions on an arbitrarily stretched mesh. A variety of boundary condition options were implemented including specification of an external pressure gradient, specification of a wall temperature distribution, and specification of an external temperature distribution. Overall the results of the initial phase of this work indicate that the McDonald-Fish model does a poor job at predicting the details of the turbulent flow structure during the transition region.
Numerical study of liquid-gas flow on complex boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Sheng; Desjardins, Olivier
2015-11-01
Simulation techniques for liquid-gas flows near solid boundaries tend to fall two categories, either focusing on accurate treatment of the phase interface away from wall, or focusing on detailed modeling of contact line dynamics. In order to fill the gap between these two categories and to simulate liquid-gas flows in large scale engineering devices with complex boundaries, we develop a conservative, robust, and efficient framework for handling moving contact lines. This approach combines a conservative level set method to capture the interface, an immersed boundary method to represent the curved boundary, and a macroscopic moving contact line model. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed through several simulations. A drop spreading on a flat plate and a circular cylinder validate the equilibrium contact angle. The migration of a drop on an inclined plane is employed to validate the contact line dynamics. The framework is then applied to perform a 3D simulation of the migration of a drop through porous media, which consists of irregular placed cylinders. The conservation error is shown to remain small for all the simulations.
Study of Solid Particle Behavior in High Temperature Gas Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majid, A.; Bauder, U.; Stindl, T.; Fertig, M.; Herdrich, G.; Röser, H.-P.
2009-01-01
The Euler-Lagrangian approach is used for the simulation of solid particles in hypersonic entry flows. For flow field simulation, the program SINA (Sequential Iterative Non-equilibrium Algorithm) developed at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme is used. The model for the effect of the carrier gas on a particle includes drag force and particle heating only. Other parameters like lift Magnus force or damping torque are not taken into account so far. The reverse effect of the particle phase on the gaseous phase is currently neglected. Parametric analysis is done regarding the impact of variation in the physical input conditions like position, velocity, size and material of the particle. Convective heat fluxes onto the surface of the particle and its radiative cooling are discussed. The variation of particle temperature under different conditions is presented. The influence of various input conditions on the trajectory is explained. A semi empirical model for the particle wall interaction is also discussed and the influence of the wall on the particle trajectory with different particle conditions is presented. The heat fluxes onto the wall due to impingement of particles are also computed and compared with the heat fluxes from the gas.
Computational Modeling of Supercritical and Transcritical Flows
2017-01-11
19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/11/2017 Briefing Charts 01 January 2017 - 31 January 2017 Computational Modeling of Supercritical and...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 17031 Computational Modeling of Supercritical and Transcritical Flows Matthew Harvazinski1, Guilhem Lacaze2, Joseph...Products T >> Tc Significant problems trying to model sub-scale liquid rocket engine (LRE) injector experiments because of real gas effects
Modelling gas generation for landfill.
Chakma, Sumedha; Mathur, Shashi
2016-09-27
A methodology was developed to predict the optimum long-term spatial and temporal generation of landfill gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide on post-closure landfill. The model incorporated the chemical and the biochemical processes responsible for the degradation of the municipal solid waste. The developed model also takes into account the effects of heterogeneity with different layers as observed at the site of landfills' morphology. The important parameters for gas generation due to biodegradation such as temperature, pH, and moisture content were incorporated. The maximum and the minimum generations of methane and hydrogen sulphide were observed. The rate of gas generation was found almost same throughout the depth after 30 years of landfill closure. The proposed model would be very useful for landfill engineering in the mining landfill gas and proper design for landfill gas management systems.
Flowing gas, non-nuclear experiments on the gas core reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunze, J. F.; Cooper, C. G.; Macbeth, P. J.
1973-01-01
Variations in cavity wall and injection configurations of the gas core reactor were aimed at establishing flow patterns that give a maximum of the nuclear criticality eigenvalue. Correlation with the nuclear effect was made using multigroup diffusion theory normalized by previous benchmark critical experiments. Air was used to simulate the hydrogen propellant in the flow tests, and smoked air, argon, or Freon to simulate the central nuclear fuel gas. Tests were run both in the down-firing and upfiring directions. Results showed that acceptable flow patterns with volume fraction for the simulated nuclear fuel gas and high flow rate ratios of propellant to fuel can be obtained. Using a point injector for the fuel, good flow patterns are obtained by directing the outer gas at high velocity long the cavity wall, using louvered injection schemes. Recirculation patterns were needed to stabilize the heavy central gas when different gases are used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Bryce; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad
2014-11-01
For gas-liquid flows through pipes and channels, a flow regime (referred to as slug flow) may occur when waves form at the interface of a stratified flow and grow until they bridge the pipe diameter trapping large elongated gas bubbles within the liquid. Slug formation is often accompanied by strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions, wave breaking, and gas entrainment. This work numerically investigates the fully nonlinear interfacial evolution of a two-phase density/viscosity stratified flow through a horizontal channel. A Navier-Stokes flow solver coupled with a conservative volume-of-fluid algorithm is use to carry out high resolution three-dimensional simulations of a turbulent gas flowing over laminar (or turbulent) liquid layers. The analysis of such flows over a range of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers permits the characterization of the interfacial stresses and turbulent flow statistics allowing for the development of physics-based models that approximate the coupled interfacial-turbulent interactions and supplement the heuristic models built into existing industrial slug simulators.
System for controlling the flow of gas into and out of a gas laser
Alger, Terry; Uhlich, Dennis M.; Benett, William J.; Ault, Earl R.
1994-01-01
A modularized system for controlling the gas pressure within a copper vapor or like laser is described herein. This system includes a gas input assembly which serves to direct gas into the laser in a controlled manner in response to the pressure therein for maintaining the laser pressure at a particular value, for example 40 torr. The system also includes a gas output assembly including a vacuum pump and a capillary tube arrangement which operates within both a viscous flow region and a molecular flow region for drawing gas out of the laser in a controlled manner.
Heat flow anomalies in oil- and gas-bearing structures
Sergiyenko, S.I.
1988-02-01
The main features of the distribution of heat flow values in oil, gas and gas-condensate fields on the continents have been discussed by Makarenko and Sergiyenko. The method of analysis used made it possible to establish that the presence of hydrocarbons in formations leads to high heat-flow, regardless of the age of folding of the potentially oil- and gas-bearing zones. Only in regions adjacent to marginal Cenozoic folded mountain structures and in zones of Cenozoic volcanism is the world average higher, by 2.5 to 10%, than in the oil- and gas-bearing structures in those regions. The earlier analysis of the distribution of heat flow values in oil and gas structures was based on 403 measurements. The author now has nearly doubled the sample population, enabling him substantially to revise the ideas on the distribution of heat flow values and the development of the thermal regime of local oil and gas structures. He notes that the method previously used, comparing heat flow values on young continental platforms with values in local oil and gas structures, makes it possible to estimate the thermal effect of the presence of oil and gas. This conclusion stems from the fact that the overwhelming majority of heat flow measurements were made on various kinds of positive structural forms, and distortions of the thermal field caused by thermal anisotropy phenomena are equally characteristic of both productive and nonproductive structures. As a result, for the first time a continuous time series of heat flow measurements over oil and gas structures in various tectonic regions, with ages of consolidation ranging from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic, was established. 26 references.
Gas Flow in the Capillary of the Atmosphere-to-Vacuum Interface of Mass Spectrometers.
Skoblin, Michael; Chudinov, Alexey; Soulimenkov, Ilia; Brusov, Vladimir; Kozlovskiy, Viacheslav
2017-07-18
Numerical simulations of a gas flow through a capillary being a part of mass spectrometer atmospheric interface were performed using a detailed laminar flow model. The simulated interface consisted of atmospheric and forevacuum volumes connected via a thin capillary. The pressure in the forevacuum volume where the gas was expanding after passing through the capillary was varied in the wide range from 10 to 900 mbar in order to study the volume flow rate as well as the other flow parameters as functions of the pressure drop between the atmospheric and forevacuum volumes. The capillary wall temperature was varied in the range from 24 to 150 °C. Numerical integration of the complete system of Navier-Stokes equations for a viscous compressible gas taking into account the heat transfer was performed using the standard gas dynamic simulation software package ANSYS CFX. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements of gas flow parameters both performed using our experimental setup and taken from the literature. The simulated volume flow rates through the capillary differed no more than by 10% from the measured ones over the entire pressure and temperatures ranges. A conclusion was drawn that the detailed digital laminar model is able to quantitatively describe the measured gas flow rates through the capillaries under conditions considered. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Gas Flow in the Capillary of the Atmosphere-to-Vacuum Interface of Mass Spectrometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skoblin, Michael; Chudinov, Alexey; Soulimenkov, Ilia; Brusov, Vladimir; Kozlovskiy, Viacheslav
2017-10-01
Numerical simulations of a gas flow through a capillary being a part of mass spectrometer atmospheric interface were performed using a detailed laminar flow model. The simulated interface consisted of atmospheric and forevacuum volumes connected via a thin capillary. The pressure in the forevacuum volume where the gas was expanding after passing through the capillary was varied in the wide range from 10 to 900 mbar in order to study the volume flow rate as well as the other flow parameters as functions of the pressure drop between the atmospheric and forevacuum volumes. The capillary wall temperature was varied in the range from 24 to 150 °C. Numerical integration of the complete system of Navier-Stokes equations for a viscous compressible gas taking into account the heat transfer was performed using the standard gas dynamic simulation software package ANSYS CFX. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements of gas flow parameters both performed using our experimental setup and taken from the literature. The simulated volume flow rates through the capillary differed no more than by 10% from the measured ones over the entire pressure and temperatures ranges. A conclusion was drawn that the detailed digital laminar model is able to quantitatively describe the measured gas flow rates through the capillaries under conditions considered. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Gas Flow in the Capillary of the Atmosphere-to-Vacuum Interface of Mass Spectrometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skoblin, Michael; Chudinov, Alexey; Soulimenkov, Ilia; Brusov, Vladimir; Kozlovskiy, Viacheslav
2017-07-01
Numerical simulations of a gas flow through a capillary being a part of mass spectrometer atmospheric interface were performed using a detailed laminar flow model. The simulated interface consisted of atmospheric and forevacuum volumes connected via a thin capillary. The pressure in the forevacuum volume where the gas was expanding after passing through the capillary was varied in the wide range from 10 to 900 mbar in order to study the volume flow rate as well as the other flow parameters as functions of the pressure drop between the atmospheric and forevacuum volumes. The capillary wall temperature was varied in the range from 24 to 150 °C. Numerical integration of the complete system of Navier-Stokes equations for a viscous compressible gas taking into account the heat transfer was performed using the standard gas dynamic simulation software package ANSYS CFX. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements of gas flow parameters both performed using our experimental setup and taken from the literature. The simulated volume flow rates through the capillary differed no more than by 10% from the measured ones over the entire pressure and temperatures ranges. A conclusion was drawn that the detailed digital laminar model is able to quantitatively describe the measured gas flow rates through the capillaries under conditions considered.
Two critical issues in Langevin simulation of gas flows
Zhang, Jun; Fan, Jing
2014-12-09
A stochastic algorithm based on the Langevin equation has been recently proposed to simulate rarefied gas flows. Compared with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the Langevin method is more efficient in simulating small Knudsen number flows. While it is well-known that the cell sizes and time steps should be smaller than the mean free path and the mean collision time, respectively, in DSMC simulations, the Langevin equation uses a drift term and a diffusion term to describe molecule movements, so no direct molecular collisions have to be modeled. This enables the Langevin simulation to proceed with a much larger time step than that in the DSMC method. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation are addressed in this paper. The first issue is how to reproduce the transport properties as that described by kinetic theory. Transport coefficients predicted by Langevin equation are obtained by using Green-Kubo formulae. The second issue is numerical scheme with boundary conditions. We present two schemes corresponding to small time step and large time step, respectively. For small time step, the scheme is similar to DSMC method as the update of positions and velocities are uncoupled; for large time step, we present an analytical solution of the hitting time, which is the crucial factor for accurate simulation. Velocity-Couette flow, thermal-Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard flow and wall-confined problem are simulated by using these two schemes. Our study shows that Langevin simulation is a promising tool to investigate small Knudsen number flows.
Phase-locked measurements of gas-liquid horizontal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos
2014-11-01
A flow of gas and liquid in a horizontal pipe can be described in terms of various flow regimes, e.g. wavy stratified, annular or slug flow. These flow regimes appear at characteristic gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and feature unique wave phenomena. Wavy stratified flow is populated by low amplitude waves whereas annular flow contains high amplitude and long lived waves, so called disturbance waves, that play a key role in a liquid entrainment into the gas phase (droplets). In a slug flow regime, liquid-continuous regions travel at high speeds through a pipe separated by regions of stratified flow. We use a refractive index matched dynamic shadowgraphy technique using a high-speed camera mounted on a moving robotic linear rail to track the formation and development of features characteristic for the aforementioned flow regimes. We show that the wave dynamics become progressively more complex with increasing liquid and gas Reynolds numbers. Based on the shadowgraphy measurements we present, over a range of conditions: (i) phenomenological observations of the formation, and (ii) statistical data on the downstream velocity distribution of different classes of waves. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.
10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...
10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN
Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure
Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford
1997-02-13
The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.
Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows
Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.
2012-07-01
Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.
2006-11-01
We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.
Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.
2014-12-01
We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production
Progress in Creating Stabilized Gas Layers in Flowing Liquid Mercury
Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A; D'Urso, Brian R; West, David L
2009-01-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee uses a liquid mercury target that is bombarded with protons to produce a pulsed neutron beam for materials research and development. In order to mitigate expected cavitation damage erosion (CDE) of the containment vessel, a two-phase flow arrangement of the target has been proposed and was earlier proven to be effective in significantly reducing CDE in non-prototypical target bodies. This arrangement involves covering the beam "window", through which the high-energy proton beam passes, with a protective layer of gas. The difficulty lies in establishing a stable gas/liquid interface that is oriented vertically with the window and holds up to the strong buoyancy force and the turbulent mercury flow field. Three approaches to establishing the gas wall have been investigated in isothermal mercury/gas testing on a prototypical geometry and flow: (1) free gas layer approach, (2) porous wall approach, and (3) surface-modified approach. The latter two of these approaches show success in that a stabilized gas layer is produced. Both of these successful approaches capitalize on the high surface energy of liquid mercury by increasing the surface area of the solid wall, thus increasing gas hold up at the wall. In this paper, a summary of these experiments and findings is presented as well as a description of the path forward toward incorporating the stabilized gas layer approach into a feasible gas/mercury SNS target design.
Modeling of multicomponent countercurrent gas permeators
Kovvali, A.S.; Admassu, W. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Vemury, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1994-04-01
Modeling of gas permeation in hollow-fiber or spiral wound modules necessitates considering the effect of permeate pressure variation along the module length which could have a significant effect on the prediction of the exit compositions and membrane area requirements depending on the membrane characteristics and module geometry. The transport equations governing the permeator performance are a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The complexity of the solution procedure for these equations increases with the number of components in the mixture and consideration of pressure variation. Thus, there is a need for simplified solution methodologies which could reduce the computational efforts. This paper presents a solution methodology to solve the multicomponent gas permeator transport equations in a countercurrent flow pattern, taking the permeate pressure variation into consideration. The present method yields analytical expressions for flow rates, permeate pressure, membrane area, and compositions along the length of the permeator.
Formation of a Multi-Charged Plasma in the Directed Gas Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramov, I. S.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Shalashov, A. G.
2016-05-01
We consider a gas-dynamic model describing the formation of a plasma with multiply ionized ions under the conditions of resonant heating of the electron component. Based on the isothermal approximation, possible regimes of the plasma flow are classified, the influence of the geometric divergence of the flow on the formation of the ion charge distribution is studied, and optimal regimes for the achievement of the maximum ion charge are identified. The model can be used for optimization and interpretation of modern experiments on generation of the extreme ultraviolet radiation due to the excitation of lines of multiply ionized atoms in a gas flow heated by strong millimeter or submillimeter waves.
Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments
Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L.
1995-12-31
The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path.
Modeling of neutral gas dynamics in high-density plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canupp, Patrick Wellington
This thesis describes a physical model of chemically reactive neutral gas flow and discusses numerical solutions of this model for the flow in an inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. To obtain these solutions, this research develops an efficient, implicit numerical method. As a result of the enhanced numerical stability of the scheme, large time steps advance the solution from initial conditions to a final steady state in fewer iterations and with less computational expense than simpler explicit methods. This method would incorporate suitably as a module in currently existing large scale plasma simulation tools. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis presents results from two simulations of flows that possess theoretical solutions. The first case is the inviscid flow of a gas through a converging nozzle. A comparison of the numerical solution to isentropic flow theory shows that the numerical technique capably captures the essential flow features of this environment. The second case is the Couette flow of a gas between two parallel plates. The simulation results compare well with the exact solution for this flow. After establishing the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis discusses results for the flow of chemically reactive gases in a chlorine plasma etch reactor. This research examines the influence of the plasma on the neutral gas and the dynamics exhibited by the neutral gas in the reactor. This research finds that the neutral gas temperature strongly depends on the rate at which inelastic, electron-impact dissociation reactions occur and on atomic chlorine wall recombination rates. Additionally, the neutral gas Aow in the reactor includes a significant mass flux of etch product from the wafer surface. Resolution of these effects is useful for neutral gas simulation. Finally, this thesis demonstrates that continuum fluid models provide reasonable accuracy for these low pressure reactor flows due to the fact
Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G
2010-07-01
Gas-phase dispersion in granular biofilter materials with a wide range of particle sizes was investigated using atmospheric air and nitrogen as tracer gases. Two types of materials were used: (1) light extended clay aggregates (LECA), consisting of highly porous particles, and (2) gravel, consisting of solid particles. LECA is a commercial material that is used for insulation, as a soil conditioner, and as a carrier material in biofilters for air cleaning. These two materials were selected to have approximately the same particle shape. Column gas transport experiments were conducted for both materials using different mean particle diameters, different particle size ranges, and different gas flow velocities. Measured breakthrough curves were modeled using the advection-dispersion equation modified for mass transfer between mobile and immobile gas phases. The results showed that gas dispersivity increased with increasing mean particle diameter for LECA but was independent of mean particle diameter for gravel. Gas dispersivity also increased with increasing particle size range for both media. Dispersivities in LECA were generally higher than for gravel. The mobile gas content in both materials increased with increasing gas flow velocity but it did not show any strong dependency on mean particle diameter or particle size range. The relative fraction of mobile gas compared with total porosity was highest for gravel and lowest for LECA likely because of its high internal porosity.
Stochastic power flow modeling
Not Available
1980-06-01
The stochastic nature of customer demand and equipment failure on large interconnected electric power networks has produced a keen interest in the accurate modeling and analysis of the effects of probabilistic behavior on steady state power system operation. The principle avenue of approach has been to obtain a solution to the steady state network flow equations which adhere both to Kirchhoff's Laws and probabilistic laws, using either combinatorial or functional approximation techniques. Clearly the need of the present is to develop sound techniques for producing meaningful data to serve as input. This research has addressed this end and serves to bridge the gap between electric demand modeling, equipment failure analysis, etc., and the area of algorithm development. Therefore, the scope of this work lies squarely on developing an efficient means of producing sensible input information in the form of probability distributions for the many types of solution algorithms that have been developed. Two major areas of development are described in detail: a decomposition of stochastic processes which gives hope of stationarity, ergodicity, and perhaps even normality; and a powerful surrogate probability approach using proportions of time which allows the calculation of joint events from one dimensional probability spaces.
Hot gas cross flow filtering module
Lippert, Thomas E.; Ciliberti, David F.
1988-01-01
A filter module for use in filtering particulates from a high temperature gas has a central gas duct and at least one horizontally extending support mount affixed to the duct. The support mount supports a filter element thereon and has a chamber therein, which communicates with an inner space of the duct through an opening in the wall of the duct, and which communicates with the clean gas face of the filter element. The filter element is secured to the support mount over an opening in the top wall of the support mount, with releasable securement provided to enable replacement of the filter element when desired. Ceramic springs may be used in connection with the filter module either to secure a filter element to a support mount or to prevent delamination of the filter element during blowback.
Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows
ICONE 15
2007-04-01
Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.
Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project
Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning
1992-02-01
A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.
Lagrangian solution of supersonic real gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, Ching-Yuen; Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
The present extention of a Lagrangian approach of the Riemann solution procedure, which was originally proposed for perfect gases, to real gases, is nontrivial and requires the development of an exact real-gas Riemann solver for the Lagrangian form of the conservation laws. Calculations including complex wave interactions of various types were conducted to test the accuracy and robustness of the approach. Attention is given to the case of 2D oblique waves' capture, where a slip line is clearly in evidence; the real gas effect is demonstrated in the case of a generic engine nozzle.
Vacuum rated flow controllers for inert gas ion engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pless, L. C.
1987-01-01
Electrical propulsion systems which use a gas as a propellant require a gas flowmeter/controller which is capable of operating in a vacuum environment. The presently available instruments in the required flow ranges are designed and calibrated for use at ambient pressure. These instruments operate by heating a small diameter tube through which the gas is flowing and then sensing the change in temperature along the length of the tube. This temperature change is a function of the flow rate and the gas heat capacity. When installed in a vacuum, the change in the external thermal characteristics cause the tube to overheat and the temperature sensors are then operating outside their calibrated range. In addition, the variation in heat capacity with temperature limit the accuracy obtainable. These problems and the work in progress to solve them are discussed.
Vacuum rated flow controllers for inert gas ion engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pless, L. C.
1987-01-01
Electrical propulsion systems which use a gas as a propellant require a gas flowmeter/controller which is capable of operating in a vacuum environment. The presently available instruments in the required flow ranges are designed and calibrated for use at ambient pressure. These instruments operate by heating a small diameter tube through which the gas is flowing and then sensing the change in temperature along the length of the tube. This temperature change is a function of the flow rate and the gas heat capacity. When installed in a vacuum, the change in the external thermal characteristics cause the tube to overheat and the temperature sensors are then operating outside their calibrated range. In addition, the variation in heat capacity with temperature limit the accuracy obtainable. These problems and the work in progress to solve them are discussed.
Flow and criticality in the open cycle gas core.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunze, J. F.; Lofthouse, J. H.
1971-01-01
A series of flowing gas experiments using air, argon, and freon has been conducted in Idaho. The purpose is to study methods of obtaining flow patterns which would create maximum possible system reactivity consistent with an acceptably low uranium to coolant-gas loss ratio. These have been conducted on both ?two-dimensional' and truly three-dimensional spherical configurations of diameters 18 to 42 inches. The larger diameter is that proposed for a minimum cost flowing gas critical experiment, and the size extremes make extrapolations to the large 6 and 8 foot diameter configurations more reliable. Results show that large enough inner gas (fuel) volume fractions can be achieved to attain criticality.
Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments
Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L.
1995-10-01
The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.
Gas-Particle Interactions in a Microgravity Flow Cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Louge, Michel; Jenkins, James
1999-01-01
We are developing a microgravity flow cell in which to study the interaction of a flowing gas with relatively massive particles that collide with each other and with the moving boundaries of the cell. The absence of gravity makes possible the independent control of the relative motion of the boundaries and the flow of the gas. The cell will permit gas-particle interactions to be studied over the entire range of flow conditions over which the mixture is not turbulent. Within this range, we shall characterize the viscous dissipation of the energy of the particle fluctuations, measure the influence of particle-phase viscosity on the pressure drop along the cell, and observe the development of localized inhomogeneities that are likely to be associated with the onset of clusters. These measurements and observations should contribute to an understanding of the essential physics of pneumatic transport.
Flow field thermal gradient gas chromatography.
Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan
2015-09-01
Negative temperature gradients along the gas chromatographic separation column can maximize the separation capabilities for gas chromatography by peak focusing and also lead to lower elution temperatures. Unfortunately, so far a smooth thermal gradient over a several meters long separation column could only be realized by costly and complicated manual setups. Here we describe a simple, yet flexible method for the generation of negative thermal gradients using standard and easily exchangeable separation columns. The measurements made with a first prototype reveal promising new properties of the optimized separation process. The negative thermal gradient and the superposition of temperature programming result in a quasi-parallel separation of components each moving simultaneously near their lowered specific equilibrium temperatures through the column. Therefore, this gradient separation process is better suited for thermally labile molecules such as explosives and natural or aroma components. High-temperature GC methods also benefit from reduced elution temperatures. Even for short columns very high peak capacities can be obtained. In addition, the gradient separation is particularly beneficial for very fast separations below 1 min overall retention time. Very fast measurements of explosives prove the benefits of using negative thermal gradients. The new concept can greatly reduce the cycle time of high-resolution gas chromatography and can be integrated into hyphenated or comprehensive gas chromatography setups.
Droplet breakup in accelerating gas flows. Part 1: Primary atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zajac, L. J.
1973-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of an accelerating gas flow on the atomization characteristics of liquid sprays was conducted. The sprays were produced by impinging two liquid jets. The liquid was molten wax, while the gas was nitrogen. The use of molten wax allowed for a quantitative measure of the resulting dropsize distribution. The effects of the accelerating gas flow on the formation of the spray were examined. The results of this study indicate that the parameters that most affect the resulting dropsize are the injector parameters of orifice diameter and injection velocity, the maximum gas velocity, and the distance from the injector face at which the maximum gas velocity is attained. Empirical correlations for both the mass median dropsize and the dropsize distribution are presented. These correlations can be readily incorporated into existing computer codes for the purpose of calculating rocket engine combustion performance.
Gas-kinetic BGK Schemes for 3D Viscous Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yuehong
2009-11-01
Gas-kinetic BGK scheme developed as an Euler and Navier-Stokes solver is dated back to the early 1990s. There are now numerous literatures on the method. Here we focused on extending this approach to 3D viscous flow. Firstly, to validate the code, some test cases are carried out, including 1D Sod problem, interaction between shock and boundary layer. Then to improve its computational efficiency, two main convergence acceleration techniques, which are local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing, have adopted and tested. The results indicate that the speed-up to convergence steady state is significant. The last is to incorporate turbulence model into current code with the increasing Reynolds number. As a proof of accuracy, the transonic flow over ONERA M6 wing and pressure distributions at various selected span-wise directions have been tested. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, which implies the extension to turbulent flow is very encouraging and of good help for further development.
Numerical simulation of gas-phonon coupling in thermal transpiration flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaohui; Singh, Dhruv; Murthy, Jayathi; Alexeenko, Alina A.
2009-10-01
Thermal transpiration is a rarefied gas flow driven by a wall temperature gradient and is a promising mechanism for gas pumping without moving parts, known as the Knudsen pump. Obtaining temperature measurements along capillary walls in a Knudsen pump is difficult due to extremely small length scales. Meanwhile, simplified analytical models are not applicable under the practical operating conditions of a thermal transpiration device, where the gas flow is in the transitional rarefied regime. Here, we present a coupled gas-phonon heat transfer and flow model to study a closed thermal transpiration system. Discretized Boltzmann equations are solved for molecular transport in the gas phase and phonon transport in the solid. The wall temperature distribution is the direct result of the interfacial coupling based on mass conservation and energy balance at gas-solid interfaces and is not specified a priori unlike in the previous modeling efforts. Capillary length scales of the order of phonon mean free path result in a smaller temperature gradient along the transpiration channel as compared to that predicted by the continuum solid-phase heat transfer. The effects of governing parameters such as thermal gradients, capillary geometry, gas and phonon Knudsen numbers and, gas-surface interaction parameters on the efficiency of thermal transpiration are investigated in light of the coupled model.
P. Dixon
2004-02-11
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.
Gas phase depletion and flow dynamics in horizontal MOCVD reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van de Ven, J.; Rutten, G. M. J.; Raaijmakers, M. J.; Giling, L. J.
1986-08-01
Growth rates of GaAs in the MOCVD process have been studied as a function of both lateral and axial position in horizontal reactor cells with rectangular cross-sections. A model to describe growth rates in laminar flow systems on the basis of concentration profiles under diffusion controlled conditions has been developed. The derivation of the growth rate equations includes the definition of an entrance length for the concentration profile to developed. In this region, growth rates appear to decrease with the 1/3 power of the axial position. Beyond this region, an exponential decrease is found. For low Rayleigh number conditions, the present experimental results show a very satisfactory agreement with the model without parameter fitting for both rectangular and tapered cells, and with both H 2 and N 2 as carrier gases. Theory also predicts that uniform deposition can be obtained over large areas in the flow direction for tapered cells, which has indeed been achieved experimentally. The influence of top-cooling in the present MOCVD system has been considered in more detail. From the experimental results, conclusions could be drawn concerning the flow characteristics. For low Rayleigh numbers (present study ≲ 700) it follows that growth rate distributions correspond with forced laminar flow characteristics. For relatively high Rayleigh numbers (present work 1700-2800), free convective effects with vortex formation are important. These conclusions are not specific for the present system, but apply to horizontal cold-wall reactors in general. On the basis of the present observations, recommendations for a cell design to obtain large area homogeneous deposition have been formulated. In addition, this work supports the conclusion that the final decomposition of trimethylgallium in the MOCVD process mainly takes place at the hot substrate and susceptor and not in the gas phase.
Cascading Tesla Oscillating Flow Diode for Stirling Engine Gas Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger
2012-01-01
Replacing the mechanical check-valve in a Stirling engine with a micromachined, non-moving-part flow diode eliminates moving parts and reduces the risk of microparticle clogging. At very small scales, helium gas has sufficient mass momentum that it can act as a flow controller in a similar way as a transistor can redirect electrical signals with a smaller bias signal. The innovation here forces helium gas to flow in predominantly one direction by offering a clear, straight-path microchannel in one direction of flow, but then through a sophisticated geometry, the reversed flow is forced through a tortuous path. This redirection is achieved by using microfluid channel flow to force the much larger main flow into this tortuous path. While microdiodes have been developed in the past, this innovation cascades Tesla diodes to create a much higher pressure in the gas bearing supply plenum. In addition, the special shape of the leaves captures loose particles that would otherwise clog the microchannel of the gas bearing pads.
Gas separation by the molecular exchange flow through micropores of the membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Michiaki; Nakaye, Shoeji; Sugimoto, Hiroshi
2016-11-01
A model gas separator that makes use of the molecular exchange flow through porous membrane of 18 cm2 area is fabricated. The gas separator performance is tested for helium-neon mixture. The separator divides a continuous flow of gas mixture into two flows of different gases. The difference of mole percentage is around 8 % at the volumetric feed flow rate of 1 sccm. In the present system, the molecular exchange flow is induced in two Knudsen pumps, where the mixed cellulose ester membrane is used as the thermal transpiration material. The experiment demonstrates the capability of these pumps to increase the concentration of heavy and light molecules, respectively, from the feed mixture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleiff, M.; Thiele, W.; Matschiner, H.
1983-01-01
In an electrochemical reactor with gas-evolving electrodes, the transporting action of the gas bubbles can be used to move the electrolyte in a cycle flow, when the structure of the flow channels is suitable. For an electrolysis cell with such a circulation system a mathematic model was set up and evaluated. It is shown that in this manner, a rapid flow through the electrode gap can be achieved without additional energy consumption, in addition to a low gas fraction and a low cell voltage. The cell voltage and the attainable cycle spread are investigated as a function of the geometric parameters for their optimum values.
Gas-Liquid Flows and Phase Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John
2004-01-01
Common issues for space system designers include:Ability to Verify Performance in Normal Gravity prior to Deployment; System Stability; Phase Accumulation & Shedding; Phase Separation; Flow Distribution through Tees & Manifolds Boiling Crisis; Heat Transfer Coefficient; and Pressure Drop.The report concludes:Guidance similar to "A design that operates in a single phase is less complex than a design that has two-phase flow" is not always true considering the amount of effort spent on pressurizing, subcooling and phase separators to ensure single phase operation. While there is still much to learn about two-phase flow in reduced gravity, we have a good start. Focus now needs to be directed more towards system level problems .
Not Available
1980-07-31
The Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are to: (1) develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales; (2) determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales; (3) recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales; (4) analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance; and (5) study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. During the previous annual period, a mathematical model describing gas flow through Devonian shales and the software for a radial one-dimensional numerical model for single well performance were completed and placed into operation. Although the radial flow model is a powerful tool for studying single well behavior, it is inadequate for determining the effects of well spacing, stimulation treatments, and variation in reservoir properties. Hence, it has been necessary to extend the model to two-dimensions, maintaining full capability regarding Klinkerberg effects, desorption, and shale matrix parameters. During the current annual period, the radial flow model has been successfully extended to provide the two-dimensional capability necessary for the attainment of overall program objectives, as described above.
Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.
2014-12-01
We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gasmore » causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design
Tranchida, Peter Q; Franchina, Flavio A; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi
2014-09-12
The present research is specifically based on the use of greatly-reduced gas flows, in flow-modulator (FM) comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography systems. In particular, focus of the present research is directed to FM devices characterized by an accumulation stage, and a much briefer re-injection step. It has been widely accepted that the operation of such FM systems requires high gas flows (≥20mL/min), to re-inject the gas-phase contents of sample (or accumulation) loops, onto the second column. On the contrary, it will be herein demonstrated that much lower gas flows (≈ 6-8mL/min) can efficiently perform the modulation step of re-injection. The possibility of using such improved operational conditions is given simply by a fine optimization of the processes of accumulation and re-injection. The application of lower gas flows not only means that second-dimension separations are carried out under better analytical conditions, but, even more importantly, greatly reduces problems which arise when using mass spectrometry (i.e., sensitivity and instrumental pumping capacity).
DANIEL: A computer code for high-speed dusty gas flows with multiple particle sizes
Horn, M.
1989-05-01
This report describes a calculational model for nonreacting high-speed gas-particle flow dynamics. Differential equations are derived for a compressible, polytropic dusty gas with suspended larger particles. Dust is described as rigid particles small enough to maintain temperature and velocity equilibrium with the clean gas. The larger particles are rigid, noncolliding spheres of various sizes having velocities and temperatures significantly different from those of the gas. Exchange terms are included in the differential equations to account for momentum and energy transfer between the dusty gas and the particles. An explicit, Eulerian numerical algorithm approximates the solution of the differential equations. This algorithm is used to simulate volcanic pyroclastic fountaining. The numerical technique produces plausible volcanic eruption models. These results support the appropriateness of further code development, including adaptation to low flow speeds, turbulence transport and diffusion, and swirl. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
Gas permeability and flow characterization of simulated lunar regolith
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toutanji, Houssam; Goff, Christopher M.; Ethridge, Edwin; Stokes, Eric
2012-04-01
Recent discoveries of water ice trapped within lunar topsoil (regolith) have placed a new emphasis on the recovery and utilization of water for future space exploration. Upon heating the lunar ice to sublimation, the resulting water vapor could theoretically transmit through the lunar regolith, to be captured on the surface. As the permeability of lunar regolith is essential to this process, this paper seeks to experimentally determine the permeability and flow characteristics of various gas species through simulated lunar regolith (SLR). Two different types of SLR were compacted and placed into the permeability setup to measure the flow-rate of transmitted gas through the sample. Darcy's permeability constant was calculated for each sample and gas combination, and flow characteristics were determined from the results. The results show that Darcy's permeability constant varies with SLR compaction density, and identified no major difference in permeable flow between the several tested gas species. Between the two tested SLR types, JSC-1A was shown to be more permeable than NU-LHT under similar conditions. In addition, a transition zone was identified in the flow when the gas pressure differential across the sample was less than ˜40 kPa.
Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1980-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.
Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1980-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.
Magnetogasdynamic Power Extraction and Flow Conditioning for a Gas Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamovich, Igor V.; Rich, J. William; Schneider, Steven; Blankson, Isaiah
2003-01-01
An extension of the Russian AJAX concept to a turbojet is being explored. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass engine cycle incorporating conventional gas turbine technology has MHD flow conditioning at the inlet to electromagnetically extract part of the inlet air kinetic energy. The electrical power generated can be used for various on-board vehicle requirements including plasma flow control around the vehicle or it may be used for augmenting the expanding flow in the high speed nozzle by MHD forces to generate more thrust. In order to achieve this interaction, the air needs to be ionized by an external means even up to fairly high flight speeds, and the leading candidates may be classified as electrical discharge devices. The present kinetic modeling calculations suggest that the use of electron beams with characteristics close to the commercially available e-beam systems (electron energy approx. 60 keV, beam current approx. 0.2 mA/sq cm) to sustain ionization in intermediate pressure, low-temperature (P = 0.1 atm, T = 300 K) supersonic air flows allows considerable reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 10 to 20 percent in M = 3 flows). The calculations also suggest that this can be achieved at a reasonable electron beam efficiency (eta approx. 5), even if the e-beam window losses are taken into account. At these conditions, the exit NO and O atom concentrations due to e-beam initiated chemical reactions do not exceed 30 ppm. Increasing the beam current up to approx. 2 mA/sq cm, which corresponds to a maximum electrical conductivity of sigma(sub max) approx. 0.8 mho/m at the loading parameter of K = 0.5, would result in a much greater reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 30 to 40 percent). The MHD channel efficiency at these conditions would be greatly reduced (to eta approx. 1) due to increased electron recombination losses in the channel. At these conditions, partial energy conversion from kinetic energy to heat would result in a
Particle-wall interaction and wall friction in gas-solid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doss, E. D.; Srinivasan, M. G.; Raptis, A. C.
Analytical modeling based on one-dimensional two-phase flow for solid-gas suspensions in pipes is the objective of the work described here. The paper focuses on three different empirical correlations based on physical models available for expressing the effect of wall friction on the solid-gas suspension. The three correlations are described and comparisons are made for a typical case of pipe flow. Predictions of pressure drop and particle velocity based on the three models agree well with each other for certain values of empirical parameters. The actual choice of the approach will be made on the basis of experiments to be performed at the Argonne National Laboratory.
Conical flow near singular rays. [shock generation in ideal gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahalak, G. I.; Myers, M. K.
1974-01-01
The steady flow of an ideal gas past a conical body is investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, with particular emphasis on the flow near the singular ray occurring in linearized theory. The first-order problem governing the flow in this region is formulated, leading to the equation of Kuo, and an approximate solution is obtained in the case of compressive flow behind the main front. This solution is compared with the results of previous investigations with a view to assessing the applicability of the Lighthill-Whitham theories.
About the statistical description of gas-liquid flows
Sanz, D.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Carrica, P.
1995-09-01
Elements of the probabilistic geometry are used to derive the bubble coalescence term of the statistical description of gas liquid flows. It is shown that the Boltzmann`s hypothesis, that leads to the kinetic theory of dilute gases, is not appropriate for this kind of flows. The resulting integro-differential transport equation is numerically integrated to study the flow development in slender bubble columns. The solution remarkably predicts the transition from bubbly to slug flow pattern. Moreover, a bubbly bimodal size distribution is predicted, which has already been observed experimentally.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.
A model for insect tracheolar flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staples, Anne; Chatterjee, Krishnashis
2015-11-01
Tracheoles are the terminal ends of the microscale tracheal channels present in most insect respiratory systems that transport air directly to the tissue. From a fluid dynamics perspective, tracheolar flow is notable because it lies at the intersection of several specialized fluid flow regimes. The flow through tracheoles is creeping, microscale gas flow in the rarefied regime. Here, we use lubrication theory to model the flow through a single microscale tracheole and take into account fluid-structure interactions through an imposed periodic wall deformation corresponding to the rhythmic abdominal compression found in insects, and rarefaction effects using slip boundary conditions. We compare the pressure, axial pressure gradient, and axial and radial velocities in the channel, and the volumetric flow rate through the channel for no-slip, low slip, and high slip conditions under two different channel deformation regimes. We find that the presence of slip tends to reduce the flow rate through the model tracheole and hypothesize that one of the mechanical functions of tracheoles is to act as a diffuser to decelerate the flow, enhance mixing, and increase the residency time of freshly oxygenated air at the surface of the tissue. This work was funded by the NSF under grant no. 1437387.
An apparent permeability model of shale gas under formation conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peng; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shanshan
2017-08-01
There are various types of pores in shale, mainly consisting of nanopores and micropores, causing flow regime variations and apparent permeability changes during the development of the reservoir. In this paper, a Knudsen number calculation model is proposed with the actual conditions of gas in a shale reservoir. Then, based on the distribution of pores in shale, an apparent permeability model is established using hydrodynamics, and a calculation method is put forward for the actual permeability of a reservoir. Finally, the Knudsen number model and the permeability correction coefficient model are used to analyze the flow regime and permeability correction coefficients in pores during the development of the shale gas reservoir. Results show that with a decreasing of pressure, the Knudsen number increases, the flow regime changes from continuous flow and slip flow to transition flow or free molecular flow. When the Knudsen number is Kn > 0.1, and with a further increasing of Kn, gas molecule slippage greatly intensifies and the permeability correction coefficient K app/Kd significantly increases. While the Knudsen number increases, the permeability correction coefficient significantly increases in the micropores and the small pores, but this does not appear in the macropores and the mesopores. These results can be used to guide flow regime analysis and production forecasting in shale gas reservoirs.
Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part I verification studies
Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Li, Tingwen; Pannala, Sreekanth
2012-01-01
With rapid advancements in computer hardware, it is now possible to perform large simulations of granular flows using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). As a result, solids are increasingly treated in a discrete Lagrangian fashion in the gas solids flow community. In this paper, the open-source MFIX-DEM software is described that can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles. This method is referred to as the continuum discrete method (CDM) to clearly make a distinction between the ambiguity of using a Lagrangian or Eulerian reference for either continuum or discrete formulations. This freely available CDM code for gas solids flows can accelerate the research in computational gas solids flows and establish a baseline that can lead to better closures for the continuum modeling (or traditionally referred to as two fluid model) of gas solids flows. In this paper, a series of verification cases is employed which tests the different aspects of the code in a systematic fashion by exploring specific physics in gas solids flows before exercising the fully coupled solution on simple canonical problems. It is critical to have an extensively verified code as the physics is complex with highly-nonlinear coupling, and it is difficult to ascertain the accuracy of the results without rigorous verification. These series of verification tests set the stage not only for rigorous validation studies (performed in part II of this paper) but also serve as a procedure for testing any new developments that couple continuum and discrete formulations for gas solids flows.
Simulation of rarefied gas flows in atmospheric pressure interfaces for mass spectrometry systems.
Garimella, Sandilya; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng
2013-12-01
The understanding of the gas dynamics of the atmospheric pressure interface is very important for the development of mass spectrometry systems with high sensitivity. While the gas flows at high pressure (>1 Torr) and low pressure (<10(-3) Torr) stages are relatively well understood and could be modeled using continuum and molecular flows, respectively, the theoretical modeling or numeric simulation of gas flow through the transition pressure stage (1 to 10(-3) Torr) remains challenging. In this study, we used the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DMSC) method to develop the gas dynamic simulations for the continuous and discontinuous atmospheric pressure interfaces (API), with different focuses on the ion transfer by gas flows through a skimmer or directly from the atmospheric pressure to a vacuum stage, respectively. The impacts by the skimmer location in the continuous API and the temporal evolvement of the gas flow with a discontinuous API were characterized, which provide a solid base for the instrument design and performance improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doi, Toshiyuki
2017-06-01
Flows of a rarefied gas between plane parallel walls with nonuniform surface properties are studied based on kinetic theory. It is assumed that one wall is a diffuse reflection boundary and the other wall is a Maxwell-type boundary whose accommodation coefficient varies periodically in the longitudinal direction. Four fundamental flows are studied, namely, Poiseuille flow, thermal transpiration, Couette flow, and the heat transfer problem. These flow problems are numerically studied based on the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-Welander model of the Boltzmann equation over a wide range of the mean free path and the parameters characterizing the distribution of the accommodation coefficient. The flow fields, the mass and heat flow rates through a cross section or the wall surfaces, and the tangential force acting on the wall surfaces are studied. Due to the nonuniform surface properties, a longitudinal motion of the gas induces a local heat transfer through the wall surface in Poiseuille, thermal transpiration, and Couette flows; a temperature difference between the walls induces a motion of a gas and a local tangential stress on the walls in the heat transfer problem. However, the heat flow rate through the wall surface in the first three flow problems and the tangential force acting on the wall surface in the heat transfer problem vanish if integrated over one period. No net mass flow is induced in the heat transfer problem. Six reciprocity relations among the flow rates in the aforementioned four flows are numerically confirmed. Among the six relations, both hand sides of three relations vanish. The background of this phenomenon is discussed based on the flow field of the gas.
Integrable geodesic flows and super polytropic gas equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Partha
2003-06-01
The polytropic gas equations are shown to be the geodesic flows with respect to an L2 metric on the semidirect product space Diff( S1)⊙ C∞( S1), where Diff( S1) is the group of orientation preserving diffeomorphisms of the circle. We also show that the N=1 supersymmetric polytropic gas equation constitute an integrable geodesic flow on the extended Neveu-Schwarz space. Recently other kinds of supersymmetrizations have been studied vigorously in connection with superstring theory and are called supersymmetric-B (SUSY-B) extension. In this paper we also show that the SUSY-B extension of the polytropic gas equation form a geodesic flow on the extension of the Neveu-Schwarz space.
Cold molecular gas in cooling flow clusters of galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salomé, P.; Combes, F.
2003-12-01
The results of a CO line survey in central cluster galaxies with cooling flows are presented. Cold molecular gas is detected with the IRAM 30 m telescope, through CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission lines in 6-10 among 32 galaxies. The corresponding gas masses are between 3*E8 and 4*E10 Msun. These results are in agreement with recent CO detections by \\cite{Edg01}. A strong correlation between the CO emission and the Hα luminosity is also confirmed. Cold gas exists in the center of cooling flow clusters and these detections may be interpreted as evidence of the long searched for very cold residual of the hot cooling gas. Tables 1-4 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/657
Multiscale simulation of non-isothermal microchannel gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.
2014-08-01
This paper describes the development and application of an efficient hybrid continuum-molecular approach for simulating non-isothermal, low-speed, internal rarefied gas flows, and its application to flows in Knudsen compressors. The method is an extension of the hybrid continuum-molecular approach presented by Patronis et al. (2013) [4], which is based on the framework originally proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [3] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high aspect ratio. The extensions are: 1) the ability to simulate non-isothermal flows; 2) the ability to simulate low-speed flows by implementing a molecular description of the gas provided by the low-variance deviational simulation Monte Carlo (LVDSMC) method; and 3) the application to three-dimensional geometries. For the purposes of validation, the multiscale method is applied to rarefied gas flow through a periodic converging-diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration). For this flow problem it is computationally feasible to obtain a solution by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for comparison: very close agreement is observed. The efficiency of the multiscale method, allows the investigation of alternative Knudsen-compressor channel configurations to be undertaken. We characterise the effectiveness of the single-stage Knudsen-compressor channel by the pressure drop that can be achieved between two connected reservoirs, for a given temperature difference. Our multiscale simulations indicate that the efficiency is surprisingly robust to modifications in streamwise variations of both temperature and cross-sectional geometry.
Gas Flow Dynamics in Inlet Capillaries: Evidence for non Laminar Conditions.
Wißdorf, Walter; Müller, David; Brachthäuser, Yessica; Langner, Markus; Derpmann, Valerie; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Polaczek, Christine; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus; Benter, Thorsten
2016-09-01
In this work, the characteristics of gas flow in inlet capillaries are examined. Such inlet capillaries are widely used as a first flow restriction stage in commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers. Contrary to the common assumption, we consider the gas flow in typical glass inlet capillaries with 0.5 to 0.6 mm inner diameters and lengths about 20 cm as transitional or turbulent. The measured volume flow of the choked turbulent gas stream in such capillaries is 0.8 L·min(-1) to 1.6 L·min(-1) under typical operation conditions, which is in good agreement to theoretically calculated values. Likewise, the change of the volume flow in dependence of the pressure difference along the capillary agrees well with a theoretical model for turbulent conditions as well as with exemplary measurements of the static pressure inside the capillary channel. However, the results for the volume flow of heated glass and metal inlet capillaries are neither in agreement with turbulent nor with laminar models. The velocity profile of the neutral gas in a quartz capillary with an inner diameter similar to commercial inlet capillaries was experimentally determined with spatially resolved ion transfer time measurements. The determined gas velocity profiles do not contradict the turbulent character of the flow. Finally, inducing disturbances of the gas flow by placing obstacles in the capillary channel is found to not change the flow characteristics significantly. In combination the findings suggest that laminar conditions inside inlet capillaries are not a valid primary explanation for the observed high ion transparency of inlet capillaries under common operation conditions. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Gas Flow Dynamics in Inlet Capillaries: Evidence for non Laminar Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wißdorf, Walter; Müller, David; Brachthäuser, Yessica; Langner, Markus; Derpmann, Valerie; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Polaczek, Christine; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus; Benter, Thorsten
2016-09-01
In this work, the characteristics of gas flow in inlet capillaries are examined. Such inlet capillaries are widely used as a first flow restriction stage in commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers. Contrary to the common assumption, we consider the gas flow in typical glass inlet capillaries with 0.5 to 0.6 mm inner diameters and lengths about 20 cm as transitional or turbulent. The measured volume flow of the choked turbulent gas stream in such capillaries is 0.8 L·min-1 to 1.6 L·min-1 under typical operation conditions, which is in good agreement to theoretically calculated values. Likewise, the change of the volume flow in dependence of the pressure difference along the capillary agrees well with a theoretical model for turbulent conditions as well as with exemplary measurements of the static pressure inside the capillary channel. However, the results for the volume flow of heated glass and metal inlet capillaries are neither in agreement with turbulent nor with laminar models. The velocity profile of the neutral gas in a quartz capillary with an inner diameter similar to commercial inlet capillaries was experimentally determined with spatially resolved ion transfer time measurements. The determined gas velocity profiles do not contradict the turbulent character of the flow. Finally, inducing disturbances of the gas flow by placing obstacles in the capillary channel is found to not change the flow characteristics significantly. In combination the findings suggest that laminar conditions inside inlet capillaries are not a valid primary explanation for the observed high ion transparency of inlet capillaries under common operation conditions.
Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: Annual report, Phase 3
Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.; Coker, D.
1987-12-01
Tight gas sands are a vast future source of natural gas. These sands are characterized as having very low porosity and permeability. The main resource development problem is efficiently extracting the gas from the reservoir. Future production depends on a combination of gas price and technological advances. Gas production can be enhanced by fracturing. Studies have shown that many aspects of fracture design and gas production are influenced by properties of the rock matrix. Computer models for stimulation procedures require accurate knowledge of flow properties of both the rock matrix and the fractured regions. In the proposed work, these properties will be measured along with advanced core analysis procedure aimed at understanding the relationship between pore structure and properties. The objective of this project is to develop reliable core analysis techniques for measuring the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands. Recent research has indicated that the flow conditions in the reservoir can be greatly enhanced by the presence of natural fractures, which serve as a transport path for gas from the less permeable matrix. The study is mainly concerned with the dependence of flow in tight gas matrix and healed tectonic fractures on water saturation and confining pressure. This dependency is to be related to the detailed pore structure of tight sands as typified by cores recovered in the Multi-Well experiment. 22 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs.
Gas flow in spiral galaxies - effects of rotation, thermal processes, and self-gravitation
Berman, V.G.; Marochnik, L.S.; Mishurov, IU.N.; Suchkov, A.A.; Timonin, P.N.
1986-02-01
The motion of interstellar gas in the gravitational field of a spiral density wave is investigated. Numerical integration of the nonlinear gas-dynamics equations coupled with equations for thermal processes indicates that in order for gas flowing through the spiral field to undergo a phase transition and to condense into clouds by thermal instability, the gaseous model galactic disk must be rotating. If the disk is sufficiently thin and dense, the thermal processes and self-gravitation of the gas will act jointly to produce very compact clumps of rapidly rising density and falling temperature, although they show no tendency toward gravitational fragmentation. 14 references.
Gas, liquids flow rates hefty at Galveston Bay discovery
Petzet, G.A.
1998-01-19
Extended flow tests indicate a large Vicksburg (Oligocene) gas, condensate, and oil field is about to be developed in western Galveston Bay. Internal estimates indicates that ultimate recovery from the fault block in which the discovery well was drilled could exceed 1 tcf of gas equivalent of proved, possible, and probable reserves. The paper discusses the test program for this field and other prospects in the Galveston Bay area.
Reacting Multi-Species Gas Capability for USM3D Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Schuster, David M.
2012-01-01
The USM3D Navier-Stokes flow solver contributed heavily to the NASA Constellation Project (CxP) as a highly productive computational tool for generating the aerodynamic databases for the Ares I and V launch vehicles and Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV). USM3D is currently limited to ideal-gas flows, which are not adequate for modeling the chemistry or temperature effects of hot-gas jet flows. This task was initiated to create an efficient implementation of multi-species gas and equilibrium chemistry into the USM3D code to improve its predictive capabilities for hot jet impingement effects. The goal of this NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment was to implement and validate a simulation capability to handle real-gas effects in the USM3D code. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.
Heat transfer between a stationary granular packing and a descending flow of dusty gas
Dryabin, V.A.; Galershtein, D.M.
1988-10-01
The transfer of heat from a stationary granular bed (packing) to a gas-particle flow has been investigated experimentally. Heat transfer experiments were carried out on an apparatus with an open gas-particle flow system. Monodisperse packing comprised of smooth steel balls or round porcelain granules was used. Particles used in the gas flow consisted of grades of sand and electrical corundum. The external heat transfer coefficient was determined by local modeling of heat transfer in the steady temperature field regime. Calorimetry was used for determining this regime as well as the temperature of the air and dusty gas. A correlation was obtained for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in the system.
A model of flow in a helium loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knížat, B.; Világi, F.; Urban, F.; Olšiak, R.; Mlkvik, M.; RidzoÅ, F.
2017-09-01
Naturally circulated helium loop is a device designed for a decay heat removal from fast nuclear reactors of the type ALLEGRO. The flow is provided by a potential energy difference between hot and cold piping branch. Here we introduce a 1D model of flow in the loop. The model describes the flow of a highly compressed gas with changing density in straight pipes and in the obstacles. The results of the model are compared with experiment.
Structural support bracket for gas flow path
2016-08-02
A structural support system is provided in a can annular gas turbine engine having an arrangement including a plurality of integrated exit pieces (IEPs) forming an annular chamber for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors to a first row of turbine blades. A bracket structure is connected between an IEP and an inner support structure on the engine. The bracket structure includes an axial bracket member attached to an IEP and extending axially in a forward direction. A transverse bracket member has an end attached to the inner support structure and extends circumferentially to a connection with a forward end of the axial bracket member. The transverse bracket member provides a fixed radial position for the forward end of the axial bracket member and is flexible in the axial direction to permit axial movement of the axial bracket member.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Juan; Smits, Alexander
2003-11-01
Experimental investigation over a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model (SUBOFF Model) was performed using flow visualization and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The model has an axisymmetric body with sail and fins, and it was supported by a streamlined strut that was formed by the extension of the sail appendage. The range of flow conditions studied correspond to a Reynolds numbers based on model length, Re_L, of about 10^5. Velocity vector fields, turbulence intensities, vorticity fields, and flow visualization in the vicinity of the junction flows are presented. In the vicinity of the control surface and sail hull junctions, the presence of streamwise vortices in the form of horseshoe or necklace vortices locally dominates the flow. The effects of unsteady motions about an axis passing through the sail are also investigated to understand the evolution of the unsteady wake.
Time-Resolved Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in Hot Gas Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen
2008-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure time-resolved gas velocity, temperature, and density in unseeded gas flows at sampling rates up to 32 kHz. A high power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to the spectral analysis and detection equipment. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photomultipler tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high frequency sampling of the circular interference pattern to provide time-resolved flow property measurements. Mean and rms velocity and temperature fluctuation measurements in both an electrically-heated jet facility with a 10-mm diameter nozzle and also in a hydrogen-combustor heated jet facility with a 50.8-mm diameter nozzle at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented.
Two parametric flow measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Z.; Chen, C.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, Z.
The importance and current development of two parametric measurement during two-phase flow are briefly reviewed in this paper. Gas-liquid two-phase two parametric metering experiments were conducted by using an oval gear meter and a sharp edged orifice mounted in series in a horizontal pipe. Compressed air and water were used as gas and liquid phases respectively. The correlations, which can be used to predict the total flow rate and volumetric quality of two-phase flow or volumetric flow rate of each phase, have also been proposed in this paper. Comparison of the calculated values of flow rate of each phase from the correlations with the test data showed that the root mean square fractional deviation for gas flow rate is 2.9 percent and for liquid flow rate 4.4 percent. The method proposed in this paper can be used to measure the gas and liquid flow rate in two-phase flow region without having to separate the phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, K.-M.; Hu, M.-H.; Hung, C.-T.; Wu, J.-S.; Hwang, F.-N.; Chen, Y.-S.; Cheng, G.
2012-12-01
Development of a hybrid numerical algorithm which couples weakly with the gas flow model (GFM) and the plasma fluid model (PFM) for simulating an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) and its acceleration by two approaches is presented. The weak coupling between gas flow and discharge is introduced by transferring between the results obtained from the steady-state solution of the GFM and cycle-averaged solution of the PFM respectively. Approaches of reducing the overall runtime include parallel computing of the GFM and the PFM solvers, and employing a temporal multi-scale method (TMSM) for PFM. Parallel computing of both solvers is realized using the domain decomposition method with the message passing interface (MPI) on distributed-memory machines. The TMSM considers only chemical reactions by ignoring the transport terms when integrating temporally the continuity equations of heavy species at each time step, and then the transport terms are restored only at an interval of time marching steps. The total reduction of runtime is 47% by applying the TMSM to the APPJ example presented in this study. Application of the proposed hybrid algorithm is demonstrated by simulating a parallel-plate helium APPJ impinging onto a substrate, which the cycle-averaged properties of the 200th cycle are presented. The distribution patterns of species densities are strongly correlated by the background gas flow pattern, which shows that consideration of gas flow in APPJ simulations is critical.
Numerical simulation of rarefied gas flow through a slit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jeng, Duen-Ren; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Chung, Chan-Hong
1990-01-01
Two different approaches, the finite-difference method coupled with the discrete-ordinate method (FDDO), and the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, are used in the analysis of the flow of a rarefied gas from one reservoir to another through a two-dimensional slit. The cases considered are for hard vacuum downstream pressure, finite pressure ratios, and isobaric pressure with thermal diffusion, which are not well established in spite of the simplicity of the flow field. In the FDDO analysis, by employing the discrete-ordinate method, the Boltzmann equation simplified by a model collision integral is transformed to a set of partial differential equations which are continuous in physical space but are point functions in molecular velocity space. The set of partial differential equations are solved by means of a finite-difference approximation. In the DSMC analysis, three kinds of collision sampling techniques, the time counter (TC) method, the null collision (NC) method, and the no time counter (NTC) method, are used.
Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow
Orosa, John
2014-03-11
An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.
Analytical treatment of gas flows through multilayer insulation, project 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, J. T.
1972-01-01
A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system was made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was also investigated. It was shown that when the relaxation time is less than the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given and comparisons with experimental data were made.
Nonideal isentropic gas flow through converging-diverging nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bober, W.; Chow, W. L.
1990-01-01
A method for treating nonideal gas flows through converging-diverging nozzles is described. The method incorporates the Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain a solution. Numerical results were obtained for methane gas. Typical plots of pressure, temperature, and area ratios as functions of Mach number are given. From the plots, it can be seen that there exists a range of reservoir conditions that require the gas to be treated as nonideal if an accurate solution is to be obtained.
A numerical simulation of flows around a deformable gas bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugano, Minoru; Ishii, Ryuji; Morioka, Shigeki
1991-12-01
A numerical simulation of flows around a (deformable) gas bubble rising through an incompressible viscous fluid was carried out on a supercomputer Fujitsu VP2600 at Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. The solution algorithm is a modified Marker And Cell (MAC) method. For the grid generation, an orthogonal mapping proposed by Ryskin and Leal was applied. it is assumed that the shape of the bubble and the flow field are axisymmetric.
Operator splitting method for simulation of dynamic flows in natural gas pipeline networks
Dyachenko, Sergey A.; Zlotnik, Anatoly; Korotkevich, Alexander O.; ...
2017-09-19
Here, we develop an operator splitting method to simulate flows of isothermal compressible natural gas over transmission pipelines. The method solves a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) of hydrodynamic type for mass flow and pressure on a metric graph, where turbulent losses of momentum are modeled by phenomenological Darcy-Weisbach friction. Mass flow balance is maintained through the boundary conditions at the network nodes, where natural gas is injected or withdrawn from the system. Gas flow through the network is controlled by compressors boosting pressure at the inlet of the adjoint pipe. Our operator splitting numerical scheme ismore » unconditionally stable and it is second order accurate in space and time. The scheme is explicit, and it is formulated to work with general networks with loops. We test the scheme over range of regimes and network configurations, also comparing its performance with performance of two other state of the art implicit schemes.« less
Multiphase imaging of gas flow in a nanoporous material usingremote detection NMR
Harel, Elad; Granwehr, Josef; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pines, Alex
2005-10-03
Pore structure and connectivity determine how microstructured materials perform in applications such as catalysis, fluid storage and transport, filtering, or as reactors. We report a model study on silica aerogel using a recently introduced time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging technique to characterize the flow field and elucidate the effects of heterogeneities in the pore structure on gas flow and dispersion with Xe-129 as the gas-phase sensor. The observed chemical shift allows the separate visualization of unrestricted xenon and xenon confined in the pores of the aerogel. The asymmetrical nature of the dispersion pattern alludes to the existence of a stationary and a flow regime in the aerogel. An exchange time constant is determined to characterize the gas transfer between them. As a general methodology, this technique provides new insights into the dynamics of flow in porous media where multiple phases or chemical species may be present.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollis, Brian R.
1996-01-01
A computational algorithm has been developed which can be employed to determine the flow properties of an arbitrary real (virial) gas in a wind tunnel. A multiple-coefficient virial gas equation of state and the assumption of isentropic flow are used to model the gas and to compute flow properties throughout the wind tunnel. This algorithm has been used to calculate flow properties for the wind tunnels of the Aerothermodynamics Facilities Complex at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which air, CF4. He, and N2 are employed as test gases. The algorithm is detailed in this paper and sample results are presented for each of the Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex wind tunnels.
The Effect of Gas Flow Rate on Radio-Frequency Hollow Cathode Discharge Characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Guoming; Sun, Qian; Zhao, Shuxia; Gao, Shuxia; Zhang, Lianzhu
2014-07-01
It is known that gas flow rate is a key factor in controlling industrial plasma processing. In this paper, a 2D PIC/MCC model is developed for an rf hollow cathode discharge with an axial nitrogen gas flow. The effects of the gas flow rate on the plasma parameters are calculated and the results show that: with an increasing flow rate, the total ion (N+2, N+) density decreases, the mean sheath thickness becomes wider, the radial electric field in the sheath and the axial electric field show an increase, and the energies of both kinds of nitrogen ions increase; and, as the axial ion current density that is moving toward the ground electrode increases, the ion current density near the ground electrode increases. The simulation results will provide a useful reference for plasma jet technology involving rf hollow cathode discharges in N2.
Influence of flowing helium gas on plasma plume formation in atmospheric pressure plasma
Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Ogura, Kazuo
2015-05-15
We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and a foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. The helium gas flowing out of quartz tube mixes with air, and the flow channel is composed of the regions of flowing helium gas and air. The plasma plume length is equivalent to the reachable distance of flowing helium gas. Although the amount of helium gas on the flow channel increases by increasing the inner diameter of quartz tube at the same gas flow velocity, the plasma plume length peaks at around 8 m/s of gas flow velocity, which is the result that a flow of helium gas is balanced with the amount of gas. The plasma plume is formed at the boundary region where the flow of helium gas is kept to the wall of the air.
Turbulence modeling for separated flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1994-01-01
Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.
Reduced-order modellin for high-pressure transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agaie, Baba G.; Khan, Ilyas; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alqahtani, Aisha M.
2017-05-01
In this paper the transient flow of hydrogen compressed-natural gas (HCNG) mixture which is also referred to as hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a pipeline is numerically computed using the reduced-order modelling technique. The study on transient conditions is important because the pipeline flows are normally in the unsteady state due to the sudden opening and closure of control valves, but most of the existing studies only analyse the flow in the steady-state conditions. The mathematical model consists in a set of non-linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. The objective of this paper is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of the HCNG transient flow parameters using the Reduced-Order Modelling (ROM). The ROM technique has been successfully used in single-gas and aerodynamic flow problems, the gas mixture has not been done using the ROM. The study is based on the velocity change created by the operation of the valves upstream and downstream the pipeline. Results on the flow characteristics, namely the pressure, density, celerity and mass flux are based on variations of the mixing ratio and valve reaction and actuation time; the ROM computational time cost advantage are also presented.
Hassan, Yassin; Anand, Nk
2016-03-30
A 1/16th scaled VHTR experimental model was constructed and the preliminary test was performed in this study. To produce benchmark data for CFD validation in the future, the facility was first run at partial operation with five pipes being heated. PIV was performed to extract the vector velocity field for three adjacent naturally convective jets at statistically steady state. A small recirculation zone was found between the pipes, and the jets entered the merging zone at 3 cm from the pipe outlet but diverged as the flow approached the top of the test geometry. Turbulence analysis shows the turbulence intensity peaked at 41-45% as the jets mixed. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1000 frames were sufficient to measure statistically steady state. The results were then validated by extracting the flow rate from the PIV jet velocity profile, and comparing it with an analytic flow rate and ultrasonic flowmeter; all flow rates lie within the uncertainty of the other two methods for Tests 1 and 2. This test facility can be used for further analysis of naturally convective mixing, and eventually produce benchmark data for CFD validation for the VHTR during a PCC or DCC accident scenario. Next, a PTV study of 3000 images (1500 image pairs) were used to quantify the velocity field in the upper plenum. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1500 frames were sufficient to precisely estimate the flow. Subsequently, three (3, 9, and 15 cm) Y-lines from the pipe output were extracted to consider the output differences between 50 to 1500 frames. The average velocity field and standard deviation error that accrued in the three different tests were calculated to assess repeatability. The error was varied, from 1 to 14%, depending on Y-elevation. The error decreased as the flow moved farther from the output pipe. In addition, turbulent intensity was calculated and found to be high near the output. Reynolds stresses and turbulent intensity were used to validate the data by
Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling
Moujaes, S.F.
1983-07-01
This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.
1995-02-17
The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.
Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows
Sun, Jin
2007-01-01
Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the
Scaling and modeling of turbulent suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1989-01-01
Scaling factors determining various aspects of particle-fluid interactions and the development of physical models to predict gas-solid turbulent suspension flow fields are discussed based on two-fluid, continua formulation. The modes of particle-fluid interactions are discussed based on the length and time scale ratio, which depends on the properties of the particles and the characteristics of the flow turbulence. For particle size smaller than or comparable with the Kolmogorov length scale and concentration low enough for neglecting direct particle-particle interaction, scaling rules can be established in various parameter ranges. The various particle-fluid interactions give rise to additional mechanisms which affect the fluid mechanics of the conveying gas phase. These extra mechanisms are incorporated into a turbulence modeling method based on the scaling rules. A multiple-scale two-phase turbulence model is developed, which gives reasonable predictions for dilute suspension flow. Much work still needs to be done to account for the poly-dispersed effects and the extension to dense suspension flows.
Simulating nonlinear waves on the surface of thin liquid film entrained by turbulent gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vozhakov, I. S.; Arkhipov, D. G.; Tsvelodub, O. Yu.
2015-03-01
A new system of equations has been derived to simulate the dynamics of long-wave perturbations on the surface of a thin layer of viscous liquid, flowing down a vertical plane and blown by co-current turbulent gas flow. The analysis of linear stability of the unperturbed flow has been performed. It has been found that at moderate Reynolds numbers of liquid, Benjamin linear model and model of boundary conditions transfer to the unperturbed level for a disturbed gas flow give qualitatively similar results. With decreasing Reynolds number differences between the results obtained by different turbulence models become more pronounced. In the case of small Reynolds numbers of fluid, the system of equations results in a single evolution equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. Some solutions of this equation have been considered.
Statistical parameter characteristics of gas-phase fluctuations for gas-liquid intermittent flow
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Takaguchi, M.
1995-09-01
This study deals with theoretical analysis on the general behaviour of statistical parameters of gas-phase fluctuations and comparison of statistical parameter characteristics for the real void fraction fluctuations measured with those for the wave form modified the real fluctuations. In order to investigate the details of the relation between the behavior of the statistical parameters in real intermittent flow and analytical results obtained from information on the real flow, the distributions of statistical parameters for general fundamental wave form of gas-phase fluctuations are discussed in detail. By modifying the real gas-phase fluctuations to a trapezoidaly wave, the experimental results can be directly compared with the analytical results. The analytical results for intermittent flow show that the wave form parameter, and the total amplitude of void fraction fluctuations, affects strongly on the statistical parameter characteristics. The comparison with experiment using nitrogen gas-water intermittent flow suggests that the parameters of skewness and excess may be better as indicators of flow pattern. That is, the macroscopic nature of intermittent flow can be grasped by the skewness and the excess, and the detailed flow structure may be described by the mean and the standard deviation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zerkle, Ronald D.; Prakash, Chander
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation summarizes some CFD experience at GE Aircraft Engines for flows in the primary gaspath of a gas turbine engine and in turbine blade cooling passages. It is concluded that application of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is not adequate for accurate CFD simulation of aerodynamic performance and heat transfer in the primary gas path of a gas turbine engine. New models are required in the near-wall region which include more physics than wall functions. The two-layer modeling approach appears attractive because of its computational complexity. In addition, improved CFD simulation of film cooling and turbine blade internal cooling passages will require anisotropic turbulence models. New turbulence models must be practical in order to have a significant impact on the engine design process. A coordinated turbulence modeling effort between NASA centers would be beneficial to the gas turbine industry.
Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.
2014-11-01
Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.
Design and Uncertainty Analysis for a PVTt Gas Flow Standard
Wright, John D.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Moldover, Michael R.
2003-01-01
A new pressure, volume, temperature, and, time (PVTt) primary gas flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of between 0.02 % and 0.05 %. The standard spans the flow range of 1 L/min to 2000 L/min using two collection tanks and two diverter valve systems. The standard measures flow by collecting gas in a tank of known volume during a measured time interval. We describe the significant and novel features of the standard and analyze its uncertainty. The gas collection tanks have a small diameter and are immersed in a uniform, stable, thermostatted water bath. The collected gas achieves thermal equilibrium rapidly and the uncertainty of the average gas temperature is only 7 mK (22 × 10−6 T). A novel operating method leads to essentially zero mass change in and very low uncertainty contributions from the inventory volume. Gravimetric and volume expansion techniques were used to determine the tank and the inventory volumes. Gravimetric determinations of collection tank volume made with nitrogen and argon agree with a standard deviation of 16 × 10−6 VT. The largest source of uncertainty in the flow measurement is drift of the pressure sensor over time, which contributes relative standard uncertainty of 60 × 10−6 to the determinations of the volumes of the collection tanks and to the flow measurements. Throughout the range 3 L/min to 110 L/min, flows were measured independently using the 34 L and the 677 L collection systems, and the two systems agreed within a relative difference of 150 × 10−6. Double diversions were used to evaluate the 677 L system over a range of 300 L/min to 1600 L/min, and the relative differences between single and double diversions were less than 75 × 10−6. PMID:27413592
The evolution of cooling flows. I - Self-similar cluster flows. [of gas in intergalactic medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chevalier, Roger A.
1987-01-01
The evolution of a cooling flow from an initial state of hydrostatic equilibrium in a cluster of galaxies is investigated. After gas mass and energy are injected into the cluster at an early phase, the gas approaches hydrostatic equilibrium over most of the cluster and cooling becomes important in the dense central regions. As time passes, cooling strongly affects an increasing amount of gas. The effects of mass removal from the flow, the inclusion of magnetic or cosmic-ray pressure, and heat conduction are considered individually.
CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2010-07-01
This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian fluid that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing.
Numerical simulation of free surface incompressible liquid flows surrounded by compressible gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caboussat, A.; Picasso, M.; Rappaz, J.
2005-03-01
A numerical model for the three-dimensional simulation of liquid-gas flows with free surfaces is presented. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are assumed to hold in the liquid domain. In the gas domain, the velocity is disregarded, the pressure is supposed to be constant in each connected component of the gas domain and follows the ideal gas law. The gas pressure is imposed as a normal force on the liquid-gas interface. An implicit splitting scheme is used to decouple the physical phenomena. Given the gas pressure on the interface, the method described in [J. Comput Phys. 155 (1999) 439; Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 42(7) (2003) 697] is used to track the liquid domain and to compute the velocity and pressure fields in the liquid. Then the connected components of the gas domain are found using an original numbering algorithm. Finally, the gas pressure is updated from the ideal gas law in each connected component of gas. The implementation is validated in the frame of mould filling. Numerical results in two and three space dimensions show that the effect of pressure in the bubbles of gas trapped by the liquid cannot be neglected.
Review of coaxial flow gas core nuclear rocket fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, H.
1976-01-01
Almost all of the fluid mechanics research associated with the coaxial flow gas core reactor ended abruptly with the interruption of NASA's space nuclear program because of policy and budgetary considerations in 1973. An overview of program accomplishments is presented through a review of the experiments conducted and the analyses performed. Areas are indicated where additional research is required for a fuller understanding of cavity flow and of the factors which influence cold and hot flow containment. A bibliography is included with graphic material.
Fast Gas Replacement in Plasma Process Chamber by Improving Gas Flow Pattern
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morishita, Sadaharu; Goto, Tetsuya; Akutsu, Isao; Ohyama, Kenji; Ito, Takashi; Ohmi, Tadahiro
2009-01-01
The precise and high-speed alteration of various gas species is important for realizing precise and well-controlled multiprocesses in a single plasma process chamber with high throughput. The gas replacement times in the replacement of N2 by Ar and that of H2 by Ar are measured in a microwave excited high-density and low electron-temperature plasma process chamber at various working pressures and gas flow rates, incorporating a new gas flow control system, which can avoid overshoot of the gas pressure in the chamber immediately after the valve operation, and a gradational lead screw booster pump, which can maintain excellent pumping capability for various gas species including lightweight gases such as H2 in a wide pressure region from 10-1 to 104 Pa. Furthermore, to control the gas flow pattern in the chamber, upper ceramic shower plates, which have thousands of very fine gas injection holes (numbers of 1200 and 2400) formed with optimized allocation on the plates, are adopted, while the conventional gas supply method in the microwave-excited plasma chamber uses many holes only opened at the sidewall of the chamber (gas ring). It has been confirmed that, in the replacement of N2 by Ar, a short replacement time of approximately 1 s in the cases of 133 and 13.3 Pa and approximately 3 s in the case of 4 Pa can be achieved when the upper shower plate has 2400 holes, while a replacement time longer than approximately 10 s is required for all pressure cases where the gas ring is used. In addition, thanks to the excellent pumping capability of the gradational lead screw booster pump for lightweight gases, it has also been confirmed that the replacement time of H2 by Ar is almost the same as that of N2 by Ar.
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test...
Melt removal mechanism by transverse gas flow during laser irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Cheng-hua; Zhu, Yong-xiang; Zhou, Meng-lian; Ma, Zhi-liang; Wu, Tao-tao
2017-05-01
To determine the mechanism of melt removal by transverse gas flow, a lateral visualization technique of hydrodynamics on melt pool was developed and experimental apparatus were built. The intensity distribution of the focused beam was confirmed to be in top-hat shape with the 15mm×40mm rectangular. The interface of liquid-solid and free surface of molten metal was observed by a high velocity video camera with acquisition rate of 1kHz. Gas flow blew from left to right and the velocity varied from 15m/s to 90m/s to investigate the evolution of hydrodynamics. Experiment results showed that surface wave was generated at the initial stage and molten metal was removed out from the melt pool by shear stress. When some amount molten metal was removed from melt pool, gas flow separated at the leading edge and reattaches downstream of melt pool. Thus a stagnation point was formed at the downstream edge and a recirculation zone was generated on the left side of stagnation. With recirculation gas flow constrain, the molten metal only can be entrained into main stream and then be swept away. The molten material was removed out by shear stress on the right side of stagnation.
Effects of argon gas flow rate on laser-welding.
Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rate of argon gas flow on joint strength in the laser-welding of cast metal plates and to measure the porosity. Two cast plates (Ti and Co-Cr alloy) of the same metal were abutted and welded together. The rates of argon gas flow were 0, 5 and 10 L/min for the Co-Cr alloy, and 5 and 10 L/min for the Ti. There was a significant difference in the ratio of porosity according to the rate of argon gas flow in the welded area. Argon shielding had no significant effect on the tensile strength of Co-Cr alloy. The 5 L/min specimens showed greater tensile strength than the 10 L/min specimens for Ti. Laser welding of the Co-Cr alloy was influenced very little by argon shielding. When the rate of argon gas flow was high, joint strength decreased for Ti.
Computer program determines gas flow rates in piping systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franke, R.
1966-01-01
Computer program calculates the steady state flow characteristics of an ideal compressible gas in a complex piping system. The program calculates the stagnation and total temperature, static and total pressure, loss factor, and forces on each element in the piping system.
Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.
2014-11-01
A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.
Pockels-effect cell for gas-flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weimer, D.
1982-01-01
A Pockels effect cell using a 75 cu cm DK*P crystal was developed and used as a gas flow simulator. Index of refraction gradients were produced in the cell by the fringing fields of parallel plate electrodes. Calibration curves for the device were obtained for index of refraction gradients in excess of .00025 m.
Groundwater flow and transport modeling
Konikow, L.F.; Mercer, J.W.
1988-01-01
Deterministic, distributed-parameter, numerical simulation models for analyzing groundwater flow and transport problems have come to be used almost routinely during the past decade. A review of the theoretical basis and practical use of groundwater flow and solute transport models is used to illustrate the state-of-the-art. Because of errors and uncertainty in defining model parameters, models must be calibrated to obtain a best estimate of the parameters. For flow modeling, data generally are sufficient to allow calibration. For solute-transport modeling, lack of data not only limits calibration, but also causes uncertainty in process description. Where data are available, model reliability should be assessed on the basis of sensitivity tests and measures of goodness-of-fit. Some of these concepts are demonstrated by using two case histories. ?? 1988.
Navier-Stokes simulation of real gas flows in nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagaraj, N.; Lombard, C. K.
1987-01-01
Air flow in a hypersonic nozzle causes real gas effects due to reaction among the species constituting air. Such reactions may be in chemical equilibrium or in chemical nonequilibrium. Here using the CSCM upwind scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the real gas flowfield in an arcjet nozzle is computed for both the equilibrium case and the nonequilibrium case. A hypersonic nozzle flow arising from a pebble bed heated plenum is also computed for the equilibrium situation. Between the equilibrium cases, the chemistry is treated by two different schemes and comments are made as to computational complexity. For the nonequilibrium case, a full set of seventeen reactions and full implicit coupling of five species with gasdynamics is employed to compute the flowfield. For all cases considered here the gas is assumed to be a calorically imperfect mixture of ideal gases in thermal equilibrium.
Navier-Stokes simulation of real gas flows in nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagaraj, N.; Lombard, C. K.
1987-01-01
Air flow in a hypersonic nozzle causes real gas effects due to reaction among the species constituting air. Such reactions may be in chemical equilibrium or in chemical nonequilibrium. Here using the CSCM upwind scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, the real gas flowfield in an arcjet nozzle is computed for both the equilibrium case and the nonequilibrium case. A hypersonic nozzle flow arising from a pebble bed heated plenum is also computed for the equilibrium situation. Between the equilibrium cases, the chemistry is treated by two different schemes and comments are made as to computational complexity. For the nonequilibrium case, a full set of seventeen reactions and full implicit coupling of five species with gasdynamics is employed to compute the flowfield. For all cases considered here the gas is assumed to be a calorically imperfect mixture of ideal gases in thermal equilibrium.
GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993
Not Available
1993-07-01
The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.
Numerical analysis of flow in the hot gas manifold of the Space Shuttle main engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Singhal, A. K.; Przekwas, A. J.; Glynn, D. R.; Costes, N. C.
1986-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model and results of analyses carried out to characterize the flow through the two duct configuration of the Hot Gas Manifold of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Three dimensional computations have been performed for a half-scale air test model using a nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate system. The calculation domain is extended from the inlet of the turnaround duct to the exit of the transfer duct. Three test cases, one for laminar flow and two for turbulent flow, have been considered. For turbulent flows, constant eddy viscosity and the k-epsilon model of turbulence were employed. As expected, laminar flow calculation predicts much larger pressure drop than turbulent flow cases. The turbulent flow results are in good agreement with the available flow-visualization data. This study and experimental data indicate that the two-transfer duct design will significantly improve the flow distribution in the Hot Gas Manifold and thereby enhance the overall performance of the SSME.
Ground Based Studies of Gas-Liquid Flows in Microgravity Using Learjet Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, W. S.; Dukler, A. E.
1994-01-01
A 1.27 cm diameter two phase gas-liquid flow experiment has been developed with the NASA Lewis Research Center to study two-phase flows in microgravity. The experiment allows for the measurement of void fraction, pressure drop, film thickness and bubble and wave velocities as well as for high speed photography. Three liquids were used to study the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension, and flow pattern maps are presented for each. The experimental results are used to develop mechanistically based models to predict void fraction, bubble velocity, pressure drop and flow pattern transitions in microgravity.
Deem, S; McKinney, S; Polissar, N L; Hedges, R G; Swenson, E R
1999-12-01
Isovolemic anemia results in improved gas exchange in rabbits with normal lungs but in relatively poorer gas exchange in rabbits with whole-lung atelectasis. In the current study, the authors characterized the effects of hemodilution on gas exchange in a distinct model of diffuse lung injury: venous gas embolization. Twelve anesthetized rabbits were mechanically ventilated at a fixed rate and volume. Gas embolization was induced by continuous infusion of nitrogen via an internal jugular venous catheter. Serial hemodilution was performed in six rabbits by simultaneous withdrawal of blood and infusion of an equal volume of 6% hetastarch; six rabbits were followed as controls over time. Measurements included hemodynamic parameters and blood gases, ventilation-perfusion (V(A)/Q) distribution (multiple inert gas elimination technique), pulmonary blood flow distribution (fluorescent microspheres), and expired nitric oxide (NO; chemoluminescence). Venous gas embolization resulted in a decrease in partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and an increase in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), with markedly abnormal overall V(A)/Q distribution and a predominance of high V(A)/Q areas. Pulmonary blood flow distribution was markedly left-skewed, with low-flow areas predominating. Hematocrit decreased from 30+/-1% to 11+/-1% (mean +/- SE) with hemodilution. The alveolar-arterial PO2 (A-aPO2) difference decreased from 375+/-61 mmHg at 30% hematocrit to 218+/-12.8 mmHg at 15% hematocrit, but increased again (301+/-33 mmHg) at 11% hematocrit. In contrast, the A-aPO2 difference increased over time in the control group (P < 0.05 between groups over time). Changes in PaO2 in both groups could be explained in large part by variations in intrapulmonary shunt and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2); however, the improvement in gas exchange with hemodilution was not fully explained by significant changes in V(A)/Q or pulmonary blood flow distributions, as quantitated
Large-Flow-Area Flow-Selective Liquid/Gas Separator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vasquez, Arturo; Bradley, Karla F.
2010-01-01
This liquid/gas separator provides the basis for a first stage of a fuel cell product water/oxygen gas phase separator. It can separate liquid and gas in bulk in multiple gravity environments. The system separates fuel cell product water entrained with circulating oxygen gas from the outlet of a fuel cell stack before allowing the gas to return to the fuel cell stack inlet. Additional makeup oxygen gas is added either before or after the separator to account for the gas consumed in the fuel cell power plant. A large volume is provided upstream of porous material in the separator to allow for the collection of water that does not exit the separator with the outgoing oxygen gas. The water then can be removed as it continues to collect, so that the accumulation of water does not impede the separating action of the device. The system is designed with a series of tubes of the porous material configured into a shell-and-tube heat exchanger configuration. The two-phase fluid stream to be separated enters the shell-side portion of the device. Gas flows to the center passages of the tubes through the porous material and is then routed to a common volume at the end of the tubes by simple pressure difference from a pumping device. Gas flows through the porous material of the tubes with greater ease as a function of the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the water and gas. By careful selection of the dimensions of the tubes (wall thickness, porosity, diameter, length of the tubes, number of the tubes, and tube-to-tube spacing in the shell volume) a suitable design can be made to match the magnitude of water and gas flow, developed pressures from the oxygen reactant pumping device, and required residual water inventory for the shellside volume.
Radial gas flow in the upper shaft and its influence on blast furnace performance
Beppler, E.; Kowalski, W.; Langner, K.; Wachsmuth, H.
1996-12-31
Knowledge of and control of gas flow in the upper shaft and over the blast furnace radius is an important factor for constant optimization of blast furnace performance in terms of fuel consumption and productivity. Radial gas flow in the blast furnace is generally controlled by the radial distribution of burden and coke. However, there are other influencing variables which determine radial gas flow, in particular central gas flow: (a) Increased sinter degradation displaces the cohesive zone downwards, constricting the gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone. This hinders central gas flow. (b) Lower coke strengths also lead to deterioration in gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone and hence to decline in central gas flow. (c) Decreasing coke layers in the blast furnace hinder central gas flow. (d) Increasing coal injection rates produce higher coke degradation in the blast furnace and hence also hinder central gas flow. (e) High coal rates and lower CSR values lead to shortening of combustion zone, which hinders the gas flow to the blast furnace center. (f) Finally, increasing hot metal-slag levels divert the gas to the outside. As the significance of the question of the central gas flow is growing,and because radial gas flow at Thyssen Stahl AG can only be measured sporadically with an in-burden probe, an inclined probe (inclination 35{degree}) just above the stock line was developed for simultaneous temperature measurement and gas sampling at 9 points along the radius.
Isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dukler, A. E.
1990-01-01
Research on adiabatic gas-liquid flows under reduced gravity condition is presented together with experimental data obtained using a NASA-Lewis RC 100-ft drop tower and in a LeRC Learjet. It is found that flow patterns and characteristics remain unchanged after the first 1.5 s into microgravity conditions and that the calculated time for a continuity wave to traverse the test section is less than 1.2 s. It is also found that the dispersed bubbles move at the same velocity as that of the front of the slug and that the transition between bubbly and slug flow is insensitive to diameter. Both the bubbly and the slug flows are suggested to represent a continuum of the same physical process. The characteristics of annular, slug, and bubbly flows are compared.
Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi
2016-04-08
The main objective of the herein described research was focused on performing satisfactory flow modulation (FM), in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS), using an MS-compatible second-dimension gas flow of approx. 4 mL min(-1). The FM model used was based on that initially proposed by Seeley et al. [3]. The use of limited gas flows was enabled through fine tuning of the FM parameters, in particular the duration of the re-injection (or flushing) process. Specifically, the application of a long re-injection period (i.e., 700 ms) enabled efficient accumulation-loop flushing with gas flows of about 4 mL min(-1). It was possible to apply such extended re-injection periods by using different restrictor lengths in the connections linking the modulator to the auxiliary pressure source. FM GC×GC-MS applications were performed on a mixture containing C9-10 alkanes, and on a sample of essential oil. GC×GC-MS sensitivity was compared with that attained by using conventional GC-MS analysis, in essential oil applications. It was observed that signal intensities were, in general, considerably higher in the FM GC×GC-MS experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Unified gas-kinetic scheme for diatomic molecular simulations in all flow regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Sha; Yu, Pubing; Xu, Kun; Zhong, Chengwen
2014-02-01
A unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is constructed for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The underlying principle for the development of UGKS is the direct modeling for the gas evolution process from the kinetic to the hydrodynamic scale, which is used in the flux construction across a cell interface. More specifically, the physical process from the kinetic particle free transport to the hydrodynamic pressure wave propagation is recovered in the flux function. In the previous study, the UGKS has been developed mainly for monatomic gas with particle translational motion only. The construction of time evolution solution is based on the BGK, Shakhov, and ES-BGK models. The UGKS has been validated through extensive numerical tests. In this paper, a UGKS for diatomic gas will be constructed, where the gas-kinetic Rykov model with a Landau-Teller-Jeans-type rotational energy relaxation is used in the numerical scheme. The new scheme will be tested in many cases, such as homogeneous flow relaxation, shock structure calculations, hypersonic flow passing a flat plate, and the flow around a blunt circular cylinder. The analytic, DSMC, and experimental measurements will be used for validating the solutions of UGKS.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1989-01-01
Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows is described and discussed. Starting with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, methods of statistical averaging are described by means of which the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are developed. Unknown averages in these equations are approximated using various closure concepts. Zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are discussed. Computations of supersonic and hypersonic flows obtained using several of the models are discussed and compared with experimental results. Specific examples include attached boundary layer flows, shock wave boundary layer interactions and compressible shear layers. From these examples, conclusions regarding the status of modeling and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
Winter, Jeff D; Fierstra, Jorn; Dorner, Stephanie; Fisher, Joseph A; St Lawrence, Keith S; Kassner, Andrea
2010-11-01
To demonstrate the feasibility and repeatability of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) imaging using a controlled CO(2) challenge in mechanically ventilated juvenile pigs. Precise end-tidal partial pressure CO(2) (PETCO(2)) control was achieved via a computer-controlled model-driven prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET) system integrated with mechanical ventilation using a custom-built secondary breathing circuit. Test-retest blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) CVR images were collected in nine juvenile pigs by quantifying the BOLD response to iso-oxic square-wave PETCO(2) changes. For comparison, test-retest baseline arterial spin labeling (ASL) cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were collected. Repeatability was quantified using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). The repeatability of the PETCO(2) (CV < 2%) step changes resulted in BOLD CVR ICC > 0.94 and CV < 6% for cortical brain regions, which was similar to ASL CBF repeatability (ICC > 0.96 and CV < 4%). This study demonstrates the feasibility and precision of CVR imaging with an MPET CO(2) challenge in mechanically ventilated subjects using an animal model. Translation of this method into clinical imaging protocols may enable CVR imaging in young children with cerebrovascular disease who require general anesthesia. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Analysis of gas flow through a multilayer insulation system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, J. T.
1973-01-01
A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system has been made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas mixture was obtained by considering the diffusion mechanism of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was investigated. It has been shown that when the relaxation time is small compared with the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given and comparison with experimental data was made.
Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.
2016-10-01
Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1994-01-01
Various approaches to the modeling of jets in cross flow are reviewed. These are grouped into four classes, namely: empirical models, integral models, perturbation models, and numerical models. Empirical models depend largely on the correlation of experimental data and are mostly useful for first-order estimates of global properties such as jet trajectory and velocity and temperature decay rates. Integral models are based on some ordinary-differential form of the conservation laws, but require substantial empirical calibration. They allow more details of the flow field to be obtained; simpler versions have to assume similarity of velocity and temperature profiles, but more sophisticated ones can actually calculate these profiles. Perturbation models require little empirical input, but the need for small parameters to ensure convergent expansions limits their application to either the near-field or the far-field. Therefore, they are mostly useful for the study of flow physics. Numerical models are based on conservation laws in partial-differential form. They require little empirical input and have the widest range of applicability. They also require the most computational resources. Although many qualitative and quantitative features of jets in cross flow have been predicted with numerical models, many issues affecting accuracy such as grid resolution and turbulence model are not completely resolved.
Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David
2013-01-01
A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and
Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David
2013-01-01
A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and
The hydrodynamics of off-vertical flow for corrosion modeling
Zhang, X.; Rajagopalan, S.; Wagner, J.; Tree, D.A.; High, M.S.
1998-12-31
A study has been conducted on pressure drop modeling in horizontal two-phase flow in order to extend the corrosion prediction software package, DREAM, into off-vertical wells and collection lines. Thermodynamic pressure has a significant influence on the amount of liquid present in gas wells which, in turn, influences the flow regime and mass transfer. Thus an accurate pressure drop model is essential to the prediction of corrosion rate. Four pressure drop models were evaluated for stratified flow, and three pressure drop models were evaluated for annular flow. The results from the pressure drop models were compared with experimental data. Based on the comparison with the experimental data, the best available pressure drop models are the model of Spedding and Hand for stratified flow and the Olujic model for annular flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chupin, Sylvain; Colinart, Thibaut; Didierjean, Sophie; Dubé, Yves; Agbossou, Kodjo; Maranzana, Gaël; Lottin, Olivier
For optimal performances, proton exchange membrane fuel cells require fine water and thermal management. Accurate modelling of the physical phenomena occurring in the fuel cell is a key issue to improve fuel cell technology. Here, an analytic steady state diphasic 2D model of heat and mass transfer is presented. Through this model, the aim of this work is to study the influence of local events on the global performances of a fuel cell. A part of the complete model is a microscopic representation of the coupling between water transport and charge transfers in the electrodes. The thickness of the liquid layer around the reactive agglomerates is deduced from the saturation. The evolution of the quantity of water within the catalyst layer is monitored and its influence on the global performances of the cell is investigated. In gas diffusion layers (GDLs), liquid and vapour water transport through are computed regarding the temperature. The flow direction of cooling water modifies the current density distribution along the cell. The impact of the direction of air and hydrogen feeding channels are investigated. It can modify greatly the fuel cell mean current density and the net water transport coefficient. The counter-flow mode was preferable. Likewise, thanks to a better membrane hydration, it results in independent performances regarding the hydrogen inlet relative humidity or stoichiometry.
Continuum modeling of cooperative traffic flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngoduy, D.; Hoogendoorn, S. P.; Liu, R.
2009-07-01
This paper presents a continuum approach to model the dynamics of cooperative traffic flow. The cooperation is defined in our model in a way that the equipped vehicle can issue and receive a warning massage when there is downstream congestion. Upon receiving the warning massage, the (up-stream) equipped vehicle will adapt the current desired speed to the speed at the congested area in order to avoid sharp deceleration when approaching the congestion. To model the dynamics of such cooperative systems, a multi-class gas-kinetic theory is extended to capture the adaptation of the desired speed of the equipped vehicle to the speed at the downstream congested traffic. Numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of the penetration rate of the equipped vehicles on traffic flow stability and capacity in a freeway.
Multiscale gas-kinetic simulation for continuum and near-continuum flows.
Xu, Kun; Liu, Hongwei
2007-01-01
It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, predictions from continuum formulations, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. The inclusion of higher-order terms, such as Burnett or high-order moment equations, could improve the predictive capabilities of such continuum formulations, but there has been only limited success. Here, we present a multiscale model. On the macroscopic level, the flow variables are updated based on the mass, momentum, and energy conservation through the fluxes. On the other hand, the fluxes are constructed on the microscopic level based on the gas-kinetic equation, which is valid in both continuum and near-continuum flow regimes. Based on this model, the nonequilibrium shock structure, Poiseuille flow, nonlinear heat conduction problems, and unsteady Rayleigh problem will be studied. In the near-continuum flow regime, the current gas-kinetic simulation is more efficient than microscopic methods, such as the direction Boltzmann solver and direct-simulation Monte Carlo method. In the continuum flow limit, the current formulation will go back to the gas-kinetic Navier-Stokes flow solver automatically.
Three-Dimensional CFD Analysis on Gas Flow in Corrugated Wall Channel
Nam-il Tak; Won-Jae Lee; Jonghwa Jang
2006-07-01
A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is known as one of the promising types for an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) of a nuclear hydrogen production system. This paper presents fundamental numerical results on gas flow behaviors in a typical PCHE geometry. Laminar and turbulent flows were analyzed based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Local friction coefficient and local Nusselt number were evaluated and compared with those by typical correlations for tubes. In the case of a turbulent flow, various turbulence models were applied. The results clearly show the significance of a careful selection of a turbulence model. (authors)
Flow of a Gas Turbine Engine Low-Pressure Subsystem Simulated
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veres, Joseph P.
1997-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center is managing a task to numerically simulate overnight, on a parallel computing testbed, the aerodynamic flow in the complete low-pressure subsystem (LPS) of a gas turbine engine. The model solves the three-dimensional Navier- Stokes flow equations through all the components within the LPS, as well as the external flow around the engine nacelle. The LPS modeling task is being performed by Allison Engine Company under the Small Engine Technology contract. The large computer simulation was evaluated on networked computer systems using 8, 16, and 32 processors, with the parallel computing efficiency reaching 75 percent when 16 processors were used.
McCready, M.J.
1994-12-01
Long-wave stability curves for two-layer laminar flow, laminar liquid and a turbulent gas (simulated with a polynomial profile) from the full differential equations and boundary conditions are compared to the standard 1-d equation methods of predicting flow regime transitions. The differential models predict instability at much less severe conditions than the integral equations -- as much as an order of magnitude when plotted on friction velocity -- liquid depth coordinates. Since this plot removes most of the base state`s effects, the 1-d models clearly are not predicting linear stability of anything. So agreement between the 1-d models with observed transitions is fortuitous since either the flow is too short or convenient parameter values have been chosen; otherwise flow regimes are not linked with linear stability. A polynomial profile gas, laminar liquid model, developed for a first approximation to turbulent flow, gives growth curves near the two-layer laminar exact solutions if the interfacial friction velocity and liquid depth are matched. The main differences are that the wavelength is predicted somewhat shorter for the turbulent model and the growth rate slightly larger for a laminar gas. These linear stability studies point to a need to determine the base state before significant results are obtained. Solutions for laminar flow in a rectangular channel over a solid wavy surface show that the wavelength/channel height ratio profoundly affects the stress variations. For waves long compared to channel height, pressure is completely in phase with wave slope, not wave height, as occurs for high Re in infinitely high channels. Nonlinear effects reduce the relative magnitude of the shear stress variation and phase angle that could explain saturation in the growth of waves formed by shear variation for very thin liquid layers. But since the pressure variation and phase are increased, this is not a likely explanation wave saturation on thicker layers.
Effect of particle inertia on fluid turbulence in gas-solid disperse flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mito, Yoichi
2016-11-01
The effect of particle inertia on the fluid turbulence in gas-solid disperse flow through a vertical channel has been examined by using a direct numerical simulation, to calculate the gas velocities seen by the particles, and a simplified non-stationary flow model, in which a uniform distribution of solid spheres of density ratio of 1000 are added into the fully-developed turbulent gas flow in an infinitely wide channel. The gas flow is driven downward with a constant pressure gradient. The frictional Reynolds number defined with the frictional velocity before the addition of particles, v0*, is 150. The feedback forces are calculated using a point force method. Particle diameters of 0.95, 1.3 and 1.9, which are made dimensionless with v0* and the kinematic viscosity, and volume fractions, ranging from 1 ×10-4 to 2 ×10-3 , in addition to the one-way coupling cases, are considered. Gravitational effect is not clearly seen where the fluid turbulence is damped by feedback effect. Gas flow rate increases with the decrease in particle inertia, that causes the increase in feedback force. Fluid turbulence decreases with the increase in particle inertia, that causes the increase in diffusivity of feedback force and of fluid turbulence. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420097.
Parallel magnetic resonance imaging of gas-liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Christoph; Penn, Alexander; Pruessmann, Klaas P.
2015-03-01
Gas-liquids flows are commonly encountered in nature and industry. Experimental measurements of gas-liquid flows are challenging since such systems can be visually opaque and highly dynamic. Here we report the implementation of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies allowing us to probe the dynamics (voidage and velocity measurements) of gas-liquid flows with ultra-fast acquisition speeds. Specifically, parallel MRI which exploits the spatial encoding capabilities of multiple receiver coils was implemented. To this end a tailored, 16 channels MR receive array was constructed and employed in the MR acquisition. A magnetic susceptibility matched gas-liquid system was set-up and used to probe the motion, splitting and coalescence of bubbles. The temporal and spatial resolution of our acquired data was 5 ms and 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm, respectively. The total field of view was 200 mm x 200 mm. We will conclude with an outlook of further possible advances in MRI that have the potential to reduce substantially the acquisition time, providing flexible gains in temporal and spatial resolution.
Magnetic Field Generation and Zonal Flows in the Gas Giants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, L.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.
2013-12-01
The surface dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn is dominated by a banded system of fierce zonal winds. The depth of these winds remains unclear but they are thought to be confined to the very outer envelopes where hydrogen remains molecular and the electrical conductivity is negligible. The dynamo responsible for the dipole dominated magnetic fields of both Gas Giants, on the other hand, likely operates in the deeper interior where hydrogen assumes a metallic state. We present numerical simulations that attempt to model both the zonal winds and the interior dynamo action in an integrated approach. Using the anelastic version of the MHD code MagIC, we explore the effects of density stratification and radial electrical conductivity variations. The electrical conductivity is assumed to remain constant in the thicker inner metallic region and decays exponentially towards the outer boundary throughout the molecular envelope. Our results show that the combination of stronger density stratification (Δρ≈55) and a weaker conducting outer layer is essential for reconciling dipole dominated dynamo action and a fierce equatorial zonal jet. Previous simulations with homogeneous electrical conductivity show that both are mutually exclusive, with solutions either having strong zonal winds and multipolar magnetic fields or weak zonal winds and dipole dominated magnetic fields. The particular setup explored here allows the equatorial jet to remain confined to the weaker conducting region where is does not interfere with the deeper seated dynamo action. The equatorial jet can afford to remain geostrophic and reaches throughout the whole shell. This is not an option for the additional mid to higher latitude jets, however. In dipole dominated dynamo solutions, appropriate for the Gas Giants, zonal flows remain very faint in the deeper dynamo region but increase in amplitude in the weakly conducting outer layer in some of our simulations. This suggests that the mid to high latitude jets
Closures for Course-Grid Simulation of Fluidized Gas-Particle Flows
Sankaran Sundaresan
2010-02-14
Gas-particle flows in fluidized beds and riser reactors are inherently unstable, and they manifest fluctuations over a wide range of length and time scales. Two-fluid models for such flows reveal unstable modes whose length scale is as small as ten particle diameters. Yet, because of limited computational resources, gas-particle flows in large fluidized beds are invariably simulated by solving discretized versions of the two-fluid model equations over a coarse spatial grid. Such coarse-grid simulations do not resolve the small-scale spatial structures which are known to affect the macroscale flow structures both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus there is a need to develop filtered two-fluid models which are suitable for coarse-grid simulations and capturing the effect of the small-scale structures through closures in terms of the filtered variables. The overall objective of the project is to develop validated closures for filtered two-fluid models for gas-particle flows, with the transport gasifier as a primary, motivating example. In this project, highly resolved three-dimensional simulations of a kinetic theory based two-fluid model for gas-particle flows have been performed and the statistical information on structures in the 100-1000 particle diameters length scale has been extracted. Based on these results, closures for filtered two-fluid models have been constructed. The filtered model equations and closures have been validated against experimental data and the results obtained in highly resolved simulations of gas-particle flows. The proposed project enables more accurate simulations of not only the transport gasifier, but also many other non-reacting and reacting gas-particle flows in a variety of chemical reactors. The results of this study are in the form of closures which can readily be incorporated into existing multi-phase flow codes such as MFIX (www.mfix.org). Therefore, the benefits of this study can be realized quickly. The training provided