Science.gov

Sample records for gas management options

  1. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  3. Options for fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, L.D. Jr.; Chance, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The key to cofiring wood or other biomass with coal in existing power stations is fuel management. Fuel management includes the procurement, receiving, processing, storage, and blending of the biomass with coal. Procurement options may include the purchase of lower cost biomass fuels, receipt of subsidies to make capital modifications to cofire biomass {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} fuels or receive tipping fees where biomass waste disposal options for a particular area are expensive. Biomass receiving options include delivery methods, unloading, measurement, and inspection. Processing options are associated with screen types, drying systems, final particle size required, and associated questions of fuel supply reliability. Issues include the ability of the coal yard to accept this processing operation, handling convenience, traffic patterns, staffing requirements, and ultimately the cost of fuel at the burner. Issues associated with storage include locating the facility, managing dust, managing moisture pick-up, and managing runoff. Blending options include pre-blending or designing a system to blend the fuels as they are transported from the coal yard to the bunkers. This paper reviews the major decisions that have to be made, and discusses some of the options available. It draws upon existing experience in cofiring systems to achieve a low cost, high reliability system to use biomass at coal-fired electricity generating stations.

  4. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  5. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  6. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  7. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  9. School Management Options for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streiff, Paul R.

    In response to the Presidential/Secretarial Educational Objective of 1975 which called for a statement from American Indian communities relative to their educational management preferences, the Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP) established a program for gathering and disseminating educational management options to Indian people. A seven…

  10. Options in dairy data management.

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, W G; Kinsel, M L; Marsh, W E

    1995-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the development of dairy herd management software in the last few years. At the same time, the speed, capacity, and portability of computer hardware have increased, while costs have decreased, thus encouraging use by veterinarians, dairy herd managers, and other industry support groups. A review of the literature indicates that an increasing number of producers, veterinarians, and other dairy industry service personnel are using computers and dairy herd management software in the delivery of their services (1-3,5,9-11,26-30,38,39). Wider adoption will occur if information generated through the use of these systems is directed towards the improvement of the profitability of dairy production. The quality of a decision is only as good as the information used to make it. In the past, the limited availability of reliable herd data has restricted our understanding of factors that influence herd performance. In essence, we must define what is normal before we can determine what is abnormal. More importantly, we must define what management practices are profitable and to what extent they increase revenue (31,32). Improved record keeping will benefit the dairy industry by allowing producers and dairy consultants to make profitable decisions based on more accurate and complete information. The ability to merge biological, management, and economic data may prove valuable in the evaluation of intervention at the herd and individual animal level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7859210

  11. Management options in decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neeral L; Banaei, Yasmin Pourkazemi; Hojnowski, Kristen L; Cornella, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic injury to the liver from a variety of different sources can result in irreversible scarring of the liver, known as cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was responsible for 31,903 deaths in 2010 alone. It is thus of the utmost importance to appropriately manage these patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting to improve morbidity and mortality. In this review, we address four major areas of cirrhosis management: outpatient management of portal hypertension with decompensation, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and bleeding/coagulation issues. Outpatient management covers recommendations for health care maintenance and screening. Hepatic encephalopathy encompasses a brief review of pathophysiology, treatment in the acute setting, and long-term prevention. Hepatorenal syndrome is discussed in regards to pathophysiology and treatment in the hospital setting. Finally, a discussion of the assessment of coagulation profiles in cirrhosis and recommendations for bleeding and thrombosis complications is included. These topics are not all encompassing with regard to this complicated population, but rather an overview of a few medical problems that are commonly encountered in their care.

  12. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  14. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  15. Landfill-gas utilization: Options, benefits, and barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Thorneloe, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Of the more than 6,000 active municipal solid waste landfills in the United States (U.S.), there are 114 landfill gas (LFG) to energy projects. The paper describes the different options for LFG to energy projects and provides statistics on the U.S. LFG industry. The paper also provides an overview of the benefits associated with LFG utilization and identifies some of the current barriers in the U.S. that affect LFG utilization. The support for the research is from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Global Climate Change Program on emissions and mitigation from landfills and other waste management facilities that produce greenhouse gases. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) has responsibility for EPA's research on emissions and mitigation for the major sources contributing to global climate change.

  16. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    the potential for long-term sustainability are presented. Galveston Island is a 47 km long sand barrier island along the upper Texas coast (Figure...1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND , TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1, ANDREW MORANG1, DAVID B. KING1, ROBERT C. THOMAS2 1. U.S. Army...Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the

  17. Selected Energy Management Options for Small Business and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This document is a checklist of 257 energy management options for small business and local government. The energy management options are categorized under: (1) Energy management strategies; (2) Buildings; (3) Lighting; (4) Water; (5) Waste operations; (6) Equipment; (7) Transportation; and (8) Food preparation. To select options for…

  18. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  19. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH.

  20. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  1. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options.

    PubMed

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-01

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  2. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  3. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  4. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  5. Melasma: clinical diagnosis and management options.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Pandya, Amit G

    2015-08-01

    Melasma is a common acquired disorder of pigmentation most commonly seen in those with skin of colour. It has long been a condition that is frustrating for both the dermatologist and patient to treat. This article provides a review of the literature on melasma and examines, in detail, various treatment options currently available to treat it.

  6. A real-world way to manage real options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions.

  7. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  8. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  9. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  10. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  11. The infected total knee: management options.

    PubMed

    Cuckler, John M

    2005-06-01

    The management of infection after total knee arthroplasty depends on the chronicity of the infection, host factors, and sensitivity of the infecting bacteria. Two-stage salvage consisting of removal of implants and cement, placement of an antibiotic spacer, and appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy followed by reimplantation with an antibiotic-impregnated cement appears to be the predominant approach to managing this complication. The use of articulated spacers consisting of the sterilized femoral and polyethylene components with antibiotic cement allows maintenance of motion and bone stock. This report details the author's experience with 44 infected knee arthroplasties.

  12. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  13. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  14. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  15. The best MSW treatment option by considering greenhouse gas emissions reduction: a case study in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tayyeba, Omid; Olsson, Monika; Brandt, Nils

    2011-08-01

    The grave concern over climate change and new economic incentives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) have given more weight to the potential of projects for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the Adjara solid waste management project, even though the need for reductions in GHG emissions is acknowledged, it is not one of the key factors for selecting the most appropriate treatment method. This study addresses the benefit of various solid waste treatment methods that could be used in the Adjara project in terms of reducing GHG emissions. Seven different options for solid waste treatment are examined: open dumping as the baseline case, four options for landfill technology (no provision of landfill gas capture, landfill gas capture with open flare system, with enclosed flare system and with electricity generation), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production. CDM methodologies were used to quantify the amount of reductions for the scenarios. The study concludes sanitary landfill with capture and burning of landfill gas by an enclosed flare system could satisfy the requirements, including GHG reduction potential. The findings were tested for uncertainty and sensitivity by varying the data on composition and amount of waste and were found to be robust.

  16. Options for perioperative pain management in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Kai, Alice M; Tran, Daniel; Kodumudi, Gopal; Legler, Aron; Ayrian, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-to-severe pain following neurosurgery is common but often does not get attention and is therefore underdiagnosed and undertreated. Compounding this problem is the traditional belief that neurosurgical pain is inconsequential and even dangerous to treat. Concerns about problematic effects associated with opioid analgesics such as nausea, vomiting, oversedation, and increased intracranial pressure secondary to elevated carbon dioxide tension from respiratory depression have often led to suboptimal postoperative analgesic strategies in caring for neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical patients may have difficulty or be incapable of communicating their need for analgesics due to neurologic deficits, which poses an additional challenge. Postoperative pain control should be a priority, because pain adversely affects recovery and patient outcomes. Inconsistent practices and the quality of current analgesic strategies for neurosurgical patients still leave room for improvement. Given the complexity of postoperative pain management for these patients, multimodal strategies are often required to optimize pain control and at the same time limit undesired side effects. PMID:26929661

  17. Whooping crane egg management: options and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs to build captive whooping crane (Grus americana) flocks and most eggs for reintroduction experiments have come from second viable eggs in 2-egg clutches in Canada. Four years ago, egg removal ceased. Based on reproductive rates for years when second eggs were removed and for years when eggs were not removed, we project numbers of young fledging in the wild and in captivity for the 2 most likely egg-management strategies. From existing data sets, we find that reproductive performance was, on average, better during the era of routine removal of the second viable eggs than when no manipulation occurred. Further, the number of young produced in captivity from the removed eggs, on average, resulted in a doubling of the number of young birds (wild and captive) alive each autumn.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    PubMed

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  19. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. [Conservative management option in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Guienne, Véronique; Parahy, Sophie; Testa, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    "Conservative management" is as an alternative care pathway offered to patients who elect not to start dialysis often because of a heavy burden of comorbid illness and advanced ages. Our research, characterized by a transdisciplinary medical and social investigation and based on a case by case analysis, intends to understand the reasons and the context in which this choice has to be made. On the first hand, the results show that all the studied cases can be explained by two variables, the latter can be combined: when the patient is suffering from important clinical pathologies; when the patient lives with this renal failure as a trouble linked to the age. On the second hand, two important questions are raised: the first one is about the medical practices and stems from the influence of criteria always present in the decisions to take (the paramedical exams and the clinical information from the interview, the patient's examination and the discussion with his/her close family member). The second one is about the patient's autonomy and can be analyzed regarding to his/her capacity to express his/her choices and share it with his close family. But also, to live in according to his age, that is to say the relation he/she has with his/her edged body and to the limits of his/her existence. The key notion of shared decision-making renewed is to refer in the consultation and the choices to take to the question of the advantages/drawbacks for the patient's life and not only to the question of the connection between the results and the medical risks, in order to exchange view with the patient on his/her future life and not only on the condition of his failed organ.

  1. Thermal management system options for high power space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Lehtinen, A.; Parish, R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal Management System (TMS) design options for a high power (75kWe), low earth orbit, multimodule space platform were investigated. The approach taken was to establish a baseline TMS representative of current technology, and to make incremental improvements through successive subsystem trades that lead to a candidate TMS. The TMS trades included centralized and decentralized transport, single-phase and two-phase transport, alternate working fluids, liquid loop and heat pipe radiators, deployed fixed, body mounted and steerable radiators, and thermal storage. The subsystem options were evaluated against criteria such as weight, TMS power requirement, reliability, system isothermality penalty, and growth potential.

  2. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  3. The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

  4. Perioperative pain management in hip arthroscopy; what options are there?

    PubMed Central

    Bech, N. H.; Hulst, A. H.; Spuijbroek, J. A.; van Leuken, L. L. A.; Haverkamp, D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a fast growing orthopedic field of expertise. As in any field of surgery adequate postoperative pain management regimes are of utmost importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on anesthetic options for perioperative pain management for hip arthroscopy. We searched the Pubmed/Medline and Embase database for literature and included 10 studies for our analysis. Because of the variety of pain scales and different ways of measured pain no meta-analysis could be performed and a descriptive review is performed. There are several types of pain regimens that can mostly be divided in two groups: local anesthetics and nerve blocks. Included studies show a rather large variation in reported visual analogue scale scores, post anesthesia care unit admission time and opioid usage. There are several anesthetic options available for hip arthroscopy. Different studies use different dosages, anesthetic regimens and different protocols; this partly explains the differences between studies with similar techniques. Peripheral nerve blocks seems promising but regarding current literature no clear recommendation can be made about what the best perioperative pain management option is, an overview of all reported techniques is given. PMID:27583156

  5. Sickle cell disease: management options and challenges in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on early counselling, new-born screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  6. Gastrointestinal chronic graft-versus-host disease: management options.

    PubMed

    Awan, Farrukh; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2007-03-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common and debilitating condition afflicting a number of allogeneic stem cell recipients more than 100 days after their transplant. Limited options are available for the acute management of patients with severe gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including gastric bleeding. Along with increased immunosuppression and aggressive supportive care, we report here the use of aminocaproic acid in the management of patients with GI bleeding resulting from severe GVHD. The use of aminocaproic acid enabled us to reduce the frequency and number of blood product transfusions required to manage our patient. Anti-fibrinolytic agents may therefore serve as useful adjunctive but underutilized therapy in the management of patients with severe GI chronic GVHD.

  7. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

  8. Integrated Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options and Related Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution (combined with detrimental health effects) and climate change have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies for criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. However, stringent regulatory policies can possibly have a...

  9. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the research will be focused on the preliminary analyses of hydrogen fuel based power production technologies utilizing hydrogen fuel in a large size, heavy-duty gas turbines in integrated reformer combined cycle (IRCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation. The research will be expanded step-by-step to include other advanced (e.g., Net Power, a potentially transformative technology utilizing a high efficiency CO2 conversion cycle (Allam cycle), and chemical looping etc.) pre-combustion and post-combustion technologies applied to natural gas, other fossil fuels (coal and heavy oil) and biomass/biofuel based on findings. Screening analysis is already under development and data for the analysis is being processed. The immediate action on this task include preliminary economic and environmental analysis of power production technologies applied to natural gas. Data for catalytic reforming technology to produce hydrogen from natural gas is being collected and compiled on Microsoft Excel. The model will be expanded for exploring and comparing various technologies scenarios to meet our goal. The primary focus of this study is to: 1) understand the chemic

  10. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  11. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Options Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James William; Bayless, Paul David

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary scoping calculations are being performed for a 100 MWt gas-cooled test reactor. The initial design uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to identify some reactor design features to investigate further. Current status of the effort is described.

  12. 13 CFR 107.250 - Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sbic § 107.250 Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. Stock options... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. 107.250 Section 107.250 Business Credit and Assistance...

  13. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  15. Natural Gas Propulsion Options for Short Sea Shipping Routes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    International Maritime Organization LCG Longitudinal Center of Gravity LNG Liquefied Natural Gas MDF Marine Diesel Fuel NDF Natural Defense Funds NECA...marine diesel fuel ( MDF ) or heavy fuel oil (HFO) provided that the fuel system and engine are properly preheated. The Wärtsilä 34DF Project Guide...systems perform such jobs as handling the LNG, supplying the marine diesel fuel ( MDF ), distributing the lube oil, and utilizing the compressed air for

  16. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4

  17. Identifying and Managing Gas Leakage from Subsurface Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface gas accumulations exist from both natural sources such as hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as, man-made sources such as natural gas storage, gas pipelines, CO2 storage, or even H2 storage. Both natural and manmade sources of subsurface gases have the potential to leak to the surface. Leakage can cause safety hazards and detrimental impacts associated with the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Leak management, which involves identifying, characterizing, assessing, and remediating leakage requires a coordinated and systematic approach to effectively deal with these occurrences. Here an overall workflow for leak management is presented, along with technological options and challenges for successful implementation. Many tools and approaches for leak management are available and in use today. However, the increased attention to leakage from a larger variety of sources, particularly associated with legacy facilities and infrastructure, raises new issues and challenges that are highlighted here.

  18. Carbon footprint and energy use of food waste management options for fresh fruit and vegetables from supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Mattias; Spångberg, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    Food waste is a problem with economic, environmental and social implications, making it both important and complex. Previous studies have addressed food waste management options at the less prioritised end of the waste hierarchy, but information on more prioritised levels is also needed when selecting the best available waste management options. Investigating the global warming potential and primary energy use of different waste management options offers a limited perspective, but is still important for validating impacts from the waste hierarchy in a local context. This study compared the effect on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use of different food waste management scenarios in the city of Växjö, Sweden. A life cycle assessment was performed for four waste management scenarios (incineration, anaerobic digestion, conversion and donation), using five food products (bananas, tomatoes, apples, oranges and sweet peppers) from the fresh fruit and vegetables department in two supermarkets as examples when treated as individual waste streams. For all five waste streams, the established waste hierarchy was a useful tool for prioritising the various options, since the re-use options (conversion and donation) reduced the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use to a significantly higher degree than the energy recovery options (incineration and anaerobic digestion). The substitution of other products and services had a major impact on the results in all scenarios. Re-use scenarios where food was replaced therefore had much higher potential to reduce environmental impact than the energy recovery scenarios where fossil fuel was replaced. This is due to the high level of resources needed to produce food compared with production of fossil fuels, but also to fresh fruit and vegetables having a high water content, making them inefficient as energy carriers. Waste valorisation measures should therefore focus on directing each type of food to the waste

  19. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  20. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  1. Macro material flow modeling for analyzing solid waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Pennock, K.A.; Shaver, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability. This capability is intended to provide part of the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as evaluating the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. The MMFM capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. This model is a macro-level simulation of the flows of the various materials through the solid waste management system, and also through the associated materials production and use system. Inclusion of materials production and use within the modeling context allows a systems approach to be used, providing a much more complete understanding of the origins of the solid waste materials and also of possible options for materials recovery and reuse than if a more traditional ``end-of-pipe`` view of solid waste is adopted. The MMFM is expected to be useful in evaluating longer-term, broader-ranging solid waste impacts than are traditionally evaluated by decision-makers involved in implementing solutions to local or regional solid waste management problems. This paper discusses the types of questions of interest in evaluating long-term, broad-range impacts from solid waste. It then identifies the basic needs for predictive modeling capabilities like the MMFM, and provides a basic description of the conceptual framework for the model and the associated data. Status of the MMFM implementation is also discussed.

  2. Macro material flow modeling for analyzing solid waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Pennock, K.A.; Shaver, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability. This capability is intended to provide part of the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as evaluating the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. The MMFM capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. This model is a macro-level simulation of the flows of the various materials through the solid waste management system, and also through the associated materials production and use system. Inclusion of materials production and use within the modeling context allows a systems approach to be used, providing a much more complete understanding of the origins of the solid waste materials and also of possible options for materials recovery and reuse than if a more traditional end-of-pipe'' view of solid waste is adopted. The MMFM is expected to be useful in evaluating longer-term, broader-ranging solid waste impacts than are traditionally evaluated by decision-makers involved in implementing solutions to local or regional solid waste management problems. This paper discusses the types of questions of interest in evaluating long-term, broad-range impacts from solid waste. It then identifies the basic needs for predictive modeling capabilities like the MMFM, and provides a basic description of the conceptual framework for the model and the associated data. Status of the MMFM implementation is also discussed.

  3. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Options analysis of managed care contracting and regulation: theory and evidence.

    PubMed

    McLean, R A; Magiera, F T

    2000-08-01

    Managed care contracts can be represented as bundles of options. In particular, the managed care provider is short a call option. To hedge the risk involved in such contracts, managed care contractors can construct several types of virtual put options, among them the ownership of facilities. Agency theory and options theory suggest that for-profit managed care plans, in the presence of debt, will engage in less hedging activity than will other managed care plans. Here, the authors test that hypothesis, using data for Florida HMOs in 1995, and they reject the null hypothesis. That managed care organizations act as if they are short a call option raises interesting regulatory issues, including the possibility of using a hedge-based regulatory scheme in place of a net-worth-based scheme.

  5. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-05-28

    Fullerenes were picked as first option for H storage because of potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Results indicate that about 6 wt% H (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model with thermally activated hydrogenation/dehydrogenation was developed. Activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, respectively; difference is interpreted as heat release during hydrogenation. The activation energies and hydrogenation heat may be modifiable by catalysts. Preliminary H storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed (a 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with inner dia 0.02 m filled with fullerene powders). Results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. Rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity, eg, by incorporating a metal mesh. The simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient H storage devices using fullerenes. More controlled experiments, model development, and physical property determinations are needed; catalyst use also needs to be pursued. Future ORNL/MER cooperative work is planned.

  6. A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and the humeral head. Hemiarthroplasty provides patients with reliable pain relief and its indications include fracture dislocations, humeral head splitting fractures and some three- and four- part fractures. The key areas of surgical technique that influence functional outcome include correctly restoring the humeral height, humeral version and tuberosity position. Function, however, is poor if the tuberosities either fail to unite or mal-unite. The interest in reverse shoulder arthroplasty as an alternative option has therefore recently increased, particularly in older patients with poor bone quality and tuberosity comminution. The evidence supporting this, however, is currently limited to multiple case series with higher level studies currently underway. PMID:25067968

  7. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-10-01

    Fullerenes are selected as the first option for investigating advanced thermal management technologies for hydrogen storage because of their potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Experimental results indicate that about 6 wt% of hydrogen (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model assuming thermally activated hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes was developed to explain the experimental findings. The activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes, respectively. The difference is interpreted as the heat released during hydrogenation. There are indications that the activation energies and the heat of hydrogenation can be modified by the use of catalysts. Preliminary hydrogen storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed. A 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with an inner diameter of 0.02 m was assumed to be filled with fullerene powders. The results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. The rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity of the material inside the cylinder, e.g., by incorporating a metal mesh. Results from the simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient hydrogen storage devices using fullerenes. While the preliminary models developed in this study explain some of the observation, more controlled experiments, rigorous model development, and physical property determinations are needed for the development of practical hydrogen storage devices. The use of catalysts to optimize the hydrogen storage characteristics of fullerenes also needs to be pursued. Future cooperative work between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Material & Electrochemical Research Corporation (MER) is planned to address these needs.

  8. Creative Approaches to Health Education in Higher Education: Wellness Management Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.

    Wellness Management has been designed as an option in the health education bachelors program at Plymouth State College of the University System of New Hampshire. The Wellness Management option was created because alumni and employers stated that graduates needed business skills in order to be more marketable and effective as health educators. The…

  9. Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) - A lower Green-House-Gas (GHG) option for industrial wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shuwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-12-01

    A high-retention membrane bioreactor system, the Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) is a wastewater reclamation process which has the potential to tap on waste heat generated in industries to produce high quality product water. There are a few key factors which could make MDBR an attractive advanced treatment option, namely tightening legal requirements due to increasing concerns on the micropollutants in industrial wastewater effluents as well as concerns over the electrical requirement of pressurized advanced treatment processes and greenhouse gas emissions associated with wastewater reclamation. This paper aims to provide a consolidated review on the current state of research for the MDBR system and to evaluate the system as a possible lower Green House Gas (GHG) emission option for wastewater reclamation using the membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) system as a baseline for comparison. The areas for potential applications and possible configurations for MDBR applications are discussed.

  10. Surgical options for the management of visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Van Petersen, A; Meerwaldt, R; Geelkerken, R; Zeebregts, C

    2011-06-01

    Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare entity but increased use of abdominal imaging has led to an increased prevalence. Rupture is related to a high mortality rate. Open repair, endovascular treatment and laparoscopic techniques have been described as treatment options. In this systematic review we describe the surgical options for treating VAA. A literature search identified articles focussing on the key issues of visceral artery aneurysms and surgical options using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Case reports dominate the literature about VAA. Twenty-seven small case series and ten review articles have been published in the last 20 years concerning the surgical options for VAA. The evidence does not exceed level 3. Surgical treatment is dictated by both patient and aneurysm characteristics. Whether VAA should be treated largely depends upon age, gender, presence of hypertension (e.g. in renal aneurysm), aneurysm size and presentation. Aneurysm size and characteristics, anatomical location and presence of collateral circulation dictate the surgical option to be chosen. The mortality and morbidity rates after elective open repair are low. Literature about surgical options for treating VAA remains scarce. Only a few clinical trials have shown the possibilities and results of open surgical repair. In general, there is no consensus on the surgical treatment of VAA and the highest level of evidence is based upon expert opinions.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from a managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. K.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Ball, B. C.

    2005-07-01

    Managed grasslands contribute to global warming by the exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. To reduce uncertainties of the global warming potential of European grasslands and to assess potential mitigation options, an integrated approach quantifying fluxes from all three gases is needed. Greenhouse gas emissions from a grassland site in the SE of Scotland were measured in 2002 and 2003. Closed static chambers were used for N 2O and CH 4 flux measurements, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Closed dynamic chambers were used for soil respiration measurements, using infrared gas analysis. Three organic manures and two inorganic fertilizers were applied at a rate of 300 kg N ha -1 a -1 (available N) and compared with a zero-N control on grassland plots in a replicated experimental design. Soil respiration from plots receiving manure was up to 1.6 times larger than CO 2 release from control plots and up to 1.7 times larger compared to inorganic treatments ( p<0.05). A highly significant ( p<0.001) effect of fertilizer and manure treatments on N 2O release was observed. Release of N 2O from plots receiving inorganic fertilizers resulted in short term peaks of up to 388 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1. However losses from plots receiving organic manures were both longer lasting and greater in magnitude, with an emission of up to 3488 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1 from the sewage sludge treatments. During the 2002 growing season the cumulative total N 2O flux from manure treatments was 25 times larger than that from mineral fertilizers. CH 4 emissions were only significantly increased ( p<0.001) for a short period following applications of cattle slurry. Although soil respiration in manure plots was high, model predictions and micrometeorological flux measurements at an adjacent site suggest that all plots receiving fertilizer or manure acted as a sink for CO 2. Therefore in terms of global warming potentials the contribution of N 2O from

  12. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  13. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  14. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

  15. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  16. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  17. Assessment and management options for women with vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kim J; Neville, Cynthia E

    2012-01-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic pain disorder that affects sexual function in adult women. The etiology of vulvodynia is poorly understood, making the condition difficult to diagnose and treat. Women with vulvodynia often suffer significant psychological distress and have difficulty finding a compassionate and supportive health care provider. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, educational strategies, and treatment options for vulvodynia with the aim of increasing primary care providers' knowledge and assessment skills. Physical therapy and other nonsurgical treatment modalities are explored in depth.

  18. Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    SWP water supply contractors or to meet other SWP and State obligations. In other words , transferred water received lowest conveyance and storage...and operation. For agricultural water districts, the existence of water banks and spot markets during drought has implications for the wording of water ...AD-A273 276 / j US Army Corps II l IIIIIIIIII of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water

  19. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2015-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  20. A treatment algorithm for managing Achilles tendinopathy: new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Alfredson, Håkan; Cook, J

    2007-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy affects athletes, recreational exercisers and even inactive people. The pathology is not inflammatory; it is a failed healing response. The source of pain in tendinopathy could be related to the neurovascular ingrowth seen in the tendon's response to injury. The treatment of Achilles tendinopathy is primarily conservative with an array of effective treatment options now available to the primary care practitioner. If conservative treatment is not successful, then surgery relieves pain in the majority of cases. Directing a patient through the algorithm presented here will maximise positive treatment outcomes. PMID:17311806

  1. Current options for nonsurgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Hans; Colbert, Agatha; Frydl, Jennifer; Arnall, Elizabeth; Elliot, Molly; Carlson, Nels

    2010-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common of the entrapment neuropathies. Surgical decompression is commonly performed and has traditionally been considered the defnitive treatment for CTS. Conservative treatment options include physical therapy, bracing, steroid injections and alternative medicine. While CTS is often progressive, patients may get better without formal treatment. The resolution of symptoms is not necessarily related to the severity of the clinical findings and self-limited activity is common. The current literature suggests that bracing and corticosteroid injections may be useful in the nonsurgical treatment of CTS, although the benefits may be short term. There is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of other treatments, such as therapy, exercise, yoga, acupuncture, lasers and magnets, and further studies are needed. Surgery is recommended for progressive functional deficits and significant pain. PMID:20490348

  2. Managing oil disruptions: issues and policy options. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Webre, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) prepared the analysis of policy options to help Congress decide whether to extend or expand the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, or whether to let it lapse on September 30, 1981. The central theme is that large disruptions of imported oil can deal the economy a severe blow that reduces output and increases unemployment and inflation. Alternative policies might allow this blow to be offset in different ways, but they cannot eliminate an impact. Some policies better contain the inflationary effects of a disruption, but are less effective in mitigating losses in aggregate production and higher unemployment. For others, the converse is true. Further, the appropriateness of each policy varies with the size and anticipated duration of the import disruption. Congress may wish to consider a portfolio of standby policies as well as the selection of just one. Two appendices offer further policy analyses. 10 references, 3 tables.

  3. Workshop 3 (synthesis): climate variability, water systems and management options.

    PubMed

    Connor, R; Kuylenstierna, J

    2004-01-01

    Addressing climate variability now will better prepare us for future impacts of climate change. Sustained, multi-stakeholder dialogue at local through national levels is an approach that will reach the widest audience, helped by tools that illustrate vulnerability such as the Climate Vulnerability Index. Integrated water resources management deals with managing for variability and change and is therefore highly appropriate for dealing with climate impacts.

  4. CAD/CAM data management needs, requirements and options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopatka, R. S.; Johnson, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a data management system in support of technical or scientific applications and possible courses of action were reviewed. Specific requirements were evolved while working towards higher level integration impacting all phases of the current design process and through examination of commercially marketed systems and related data base research. Arguments are proposed for varied approaches in implementing data base systems ranging from no action necessary to immediate procurement of an existing data base management system.

  5. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  6. Middle ear capillary haemangioma: Review of literature and appraisal of management options.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Ali A; Casselden, Elizabeth; Theaker, Jeffrey; Batty, Vincent; Thomas, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Infantile middle ear capillary haemangiomas (MECH) are a rare entity with only five reported cases in the literature. At present there is no consensus regarding the management of such lesions. Extra-cutaneous haemangiomas have been successfully managed with oral propranolol but not yet reported in MECH. We present a further case and appraise the management options. At present oral propranolol has not been used in the treatment of MECH. The literature suggests that infantile MECH have a higher propensity to spontaneously involute and a greater likelihood of response to propranolol. Surgical excision is the best option in older children and adults.

  7. PHILADELPHIA AIR TOXICS STUDY: EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS USING MIRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of risk management options usually takes place within single programs at the U.S. EPA. This can produce inadvertent tradeoffs among important criteria by risk managers and other decision makers; resulting in decision surprises. This study is a demonstration of a diff...

  8. Greenhouse gas balances in low-productive drained boreal peatlands - is climate-friendly management possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Heikkinen, Tiina; Penttilä, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Five million hectares of peatland has been drained for forestry in Finland. About 20% of that, i.e. one million hectares, has been estimated to be so low-productive that the profitability of keeping them in forestry is questionable. At the same time, drainage has introduced changes in the ecosystem functions of these peatlands, including fluxes of greenhouse gases. Options to manage such peatlands include for example 1) no measures, i.e. leaving the drained peatlands as they are 2) increasing intensity by e.g. repetitive fertilisations and 3) restoration back to functional peatlands. Here we estimate the greenhouse gas impacts of these three management options. We collected GHG and organic carbon flux data from 50 low-productive peatlands under these management options over two years 2014-2015. Gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured with closed chambers. Litter production rates of different plants above and below ground were estimated using litter traps (trees), biomass sampling (roots), through-grow nets (mosses), allometric biomass models (other vasculars) and published turnover rates (roots, other vasculars). Characteristics for estimating tree stand biomass increment were measured at each site from circular sample plots. In this presentation we will estimate the GHG impacts for the different management options, and aim to find the most climate-friendly options for the management of low-productive peatlands in the short and long term. This work was funded by Life+ LIFE12/ENV/FI/150.

  9. How to manage fatigue in fibromyalgia: nonpharmacological options.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Anna; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest recommendations for the management of fatigue in fibromyalgia (FM) by reviewing and compiling findings of nonpharmacological treatment for fatigue in patients with FM. The management of fatigue in FM should incorporate regular physical exercise maintained for a longer period of time, which contributes to improved general health and facilitates coping with fatigue and other symptoms. The evidence is still low and the effect of exercise on fatigue in FM needs to be further studied. Patients with FM appear to benefit from general sleep hygiene advice and also need to develop individual strategies to manage the complex factors in everyday life that may be related to fatigue.

  10. ANALYSIS OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR TRANSGENIC BT CORN,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met through the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such ana...

  11. Models to compare management options for a protogynous fish.

    PubMed

    Heppell, Selina S; Heppell, Scott A; Coleman, Felicia C; Koenig, Christopher C

    2006-02-01

    Populations of gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), a hermaphroditic grouper, have experienced a dramatic shift in sex ratio over the past 25 years due to a decline in older age classes. The highly female-skewed sex ratio can be predicted as a consequence of increased fishing mortality that truncates the age distribution, and raises some concern about the overall fitness of the population. Management efforts may need to be directed toward maintenance of sex ratio as well as stock size, with evaluations of recruitment based on sex ratio or male stock size in addition to the traditional female-based stock-recruitment relationship. We used two stochastic, age-structured models to heuristically compare the effects of reducing fishing mortality on different life history stages and the relative impact of reductions in fertilization rates that may occur with highly skewed sex ratios. Our response variables included population size, sex ratio, lost egg fertility, and female spawning stock biomass. Population growth rates were highest for scenarios that reduced mortality for female gag (nearshore closure), while improved sex ratios were obtained most quickly with spawning reserves. The effect of reduced fertility through sex ratio bias was generally low but depended on the management scenario employed. Our results demonstrate the utility of evaluation of fishery management scenarios through model analysis and simulation, the synergistic interaction of life history and response to changes in mortality rates, and the importance of defining management goals.

  12. Options in the local management of invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J; Troyan, S L; Harris, J R

    1996-08-01

    Newly diagnosed, early-stage breast cancer confronts the patient and her clinician with multiple treatment decisions. This review examines some of these local treatment options including the choice between breast-conserving treatment (BCT) and mastectomy, how best to treat the axilla, and the optimal sequencing of local and systemic therapy. Key elements in the selection of patients for BCT or mastectomy include preoperative mammography, careful pathological evaluation, and an assessment of patient desires in order to balance the risk of local recurrence against preservation of a cosmetically acceptable breast. Although some absolute contraindications to BCT exist, most patients are candidates for BCT. The role of axillary dissection is currently being redefined, and in the future, more limited procedures may be able to identify patients who can avoid axillary dissection. The relationship between timing of breast surgery with regard to the menstrual cycle and outcome is intriguing but not yet established. As well, the appropriate sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery (CS) is uncertain, although randomized trials are beginning to shed some light on this issue. Whether all patients treated with CS require treatment with RT is another question that is currently under investigation. This article addresses these issues, focusing on the specifics of treatment implementation.

  13. Current Diagnostic and Management Options in Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Sumera; Gores, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are heterogeneous biliary tract tumors with dismal prognosis. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) involves the large bile ducts of the hepatic hilum, and is the most common type of CCA. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an established risk factor for pCCA. Although the diagnosis of pCCA is challenging, recent advances have been made including cytologic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization. Endoscopic ultrasound with sampling of regional lymph nodes is emerging as a valuable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis and staging of pCCA. Curative treatment options are limited to early stage disease, and include surgical resection and liver transplantation after neoadjuvant therapy. This underscores the importance of early detection, and the need for development of innovative diagnostic tools such as biomarkers. A dense desmoplastic tumor stroma plays an integral role in pCCA progression. The tumor stroma represents an additional target for development of new therapies. Herein, we discuss these advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pCCA. PMID:24860985

  14. Management Options for a High Elevation Forest in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandl, R.; Jandl, N.; Schindlbacher, A.

    2013-12-01

    We explored different management strategies for a Cembran pine forest close to the timber line with respect to maintenance of the stand structure, the sequestration of carbon in the biomass and the soil, and the economical relevance of timber production. We used the forest growth simulation model Caldis for the implementation of three management intensities (zero managment, thinning every 30 years, thinning every 50 years) under two climate scenarios (IPCC A1B and B1). The soil carbon dynamics were analyzed with the simulation model Yasso07. The ecological evaluation of our simulation data showed that the extensive management with cutting interventions every 50 years allows the maintenance of the ecosystem carbon pool. Zero managment leads to the build-up of the carbon pool because the forest stand is rather unvulnerable to disturbances (bark beetle, storm). The more intensive mangement causes a decline in the ecosystem carbon pool. The economical evaluation showed the marginal relevance of the income generated by timber production. The main challenge is the compensation for the high harvesting costs (long-distance cable logging system). Even at extremely favorable market prices for timber from Cembran pine it is impossible to extract an appropriate amount of timber to justify the temporary instalment of the harvesting system and to maintain a stand density expected for a protection forest. We conclude that timber production is not a feasible object for mountain forests close to the timber line. Even in a warmer climate the productivity situation of forests close to the timberline will not change sufficiently. Therefore it will require public subsidies and personal efforts to maintain the silvicultural intensity at a level that is required for the sustainable maintenance of protection forests.

  15. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  16. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  17. Textile industry: Profile and DSM (demand-side management) options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Textile Industry Guidebook provides electric utility planning, marketing, and customer service staff with a practical tool to better understand the textile industry and the challenges it faces; its manufacturing processes, technologies, and energy use; and its opportunities for demand-site management (DSM). The Guidebook concludes with guidance and summary data for developing and evaluating DSM plans to realize such opportunities. 5 refs., 37 figs., 52 tabs.

  18. Management of hepatitis delta: Need for novel therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam

    2015-08-28

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is the smallest single stranded RNA virus infecting humans. The hepatitis B surface antigen envelope protein protects the HDV nucleocapsid antigen and provides a means for the virus to enter and exit the hepatocyte. Hepatitis B and D viruses exploit the human sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), a receptor, for their entry into hepatocytes. Prenylation of the large delta antigen is a critical determinant of HDV particle assembly. Treatment with pegylated interferon results in sustained virological response six months post-treatment in one fourth of the patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) have been widely tested in hepatitis delta, but they appear to be ineffective. Combination treatment of NAs with interferon also proved to be disappointing so there is a need for novel therapeutic options. The receptor function of NTCP is blocked by Myrcludex B, a synthetic N-acylated preS1 lipopeptide that competes with infectious virions for receptor binding. There are already some approved drugs available, including irbesartan, ezetimibe, and ritonavir and cyclosporin A, with documented inhibitory effects on NTCP's metabolic function. These drugs may have a role in HDV treatment. Interference with host-mediated post-translational changes of proteins that are crucial to the HDV life cycle, such as prenylation may become an important tool to control HDV infection and prevent replication. Lonafarnib, a prenylation inhibitor significantly reduces virus levels in hepatitis delta patients. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides which are complementary to genomic HDV ribozyme self-cleavage site and stem I regions can inhibit genomic HDV ribozyme activity.

  19. Diagnosis and management options in malignant pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ramakant; Agarwal, KC; Gokhroo, Archana; Patil, Chetan B; Meena, Manoj; Shah, Narender S; Arora, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) denotes an advanced malignant disease process. Most of the MPE are metastatic involvement of the pleura from primary malignancy at lung, breast, and other body sites apart from lymphomas. The diagnosis of MPE has been traditionally made on cytological examination of pleural fluid and/or histological examination of pleural biopsy tissue that still remains the initial approach in these cases. There has been tremendous advancement in the diagnosis of MPE now a day with techniques i.e. characteristic Ultrasound and computed tomography features, image guided biopsies, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging, thoracoscopy with direct biopsy under vision, tumor marker studies and immunocytochemical analysis etc., that have made possible an early diagnosis of MPE. The management of MPE still remains a challenge to pulmonologist and oncologist. Despite having various modalities with better tolerance such as pleurodesis and indwelling pleural catheters etc., for long-term control, all the management approaches remain palliative to improve the quality of life and reduce symptoms. While choosing an appropriate management intervention, one should consider the clinical status of the patient, life expectancy, overall cost, availability and comparative institutional outcomes, etc. PMID:28360465

  20. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon.

  1. New options for the management of hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Douthat, Walter Guillermo; Chiurchiu, Carlos Raul; Massari, Pablo Ulises

    2012-01-01

    The persistence and severity of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) post-renal transplantation is relatively frequent and primarily associated with the timing and its magnitude in the pre-transplant period and with the presence of parathyroid adenomas. HPT after renal transplantation is clinically manifested with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, bone pain, fractures, and in more serious cases with cardiovascular calcifications that affect the survival. The primary clinical objective for patients with secondary HPT after renal transplantation is to obtain a level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) adequate to the renal transplanted function and to normalize levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. In many cases during this period, the development of hypercalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia makes it necessary to take different therapeutic measures. The use of vitamin D or its analogues has been extrapolated from the management of pre-transplant HPT obtaining variable outcomes, although its use is limited by its capacity to produce hypercalcemia. Calcimimetics are drugs that have proven be effective in reducing PTH levels in patients with HPT on dialysis and has been effective in reducing up to 50% PTH levels in moderate to severe HPT in post-renal transplantation.When HPT persists after renal transplantation and does not respond to medical treatment, invasive management by percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of parathyroid glands or parathyroidectomy should be considered. The emergence of new methods for the management of HPT expands the availability of therapeutic tools for transplant patients. PMID:24175195

  2. Short bowel syndrome: a review of management options.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Prasad; Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Extensive resection of the intestinal tract frequently results in inadequate digestion and/or absorption of nutrients, a condition known as short bowel syndrome (SBS). This challenging condition demands a dedicated multidisciplinary team effort to overcome the morbidity and mortality in these patients. With advances in critical care management, more and more patients survive the immediate morbidity of massive intestinal resection to present with SBS. Several therapies, including parenteral nutrition (PN), bowel rehabilitation and surgical procedures to reconstruct bowel have been used in these patients. Novel dietary approaches, pharmacotherapy and timely surgical interventions have all added to the improved outcome in these patients. However, these treatments only partially correct the underlying problem of reduced bowel function and have limited success resulting in 30% to 50% mortality rates. However, increasing experience and encouraging results of intestinal transplantation has added a new dimension to the management of SBS. Literature available on SBS is exhaustive but inconclusive. We conducted a review of scientific literature and electronic media with search terms 'short bowel syndrome, advances in SBS and SBS' and attempted to give a comprehensive account on this topic with emphasis on the recent advances in its management.

  3. Review of Options for Ammonia/Ammonium Management

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2016-05-06

    This report is a review of literature supporting practical ammonia/ammonium destruction processes. Melter research supporting Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass production has shown that significant amounts of ammonia will be in the melter offgas condensate. Further work with secondary waste forms indicates the potential need to remove the ammonia, perhaps by an oxidative process. This review finds likely practical chemical methods to oxidize ammonia in aqueous solution at moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressure, using easily obtained reagents. Leading candidates include nitrite oxidation to produce nitrogen gas, various peroxide oxidative processes, and air stripping. This work reviews many other processes and provides reasoning to not consider those processes further for this application.

  4. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forest sector of Russia: National and project level assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.; Andrasko, K.A.

    1996-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options in the Russian forest sector include: afforestation and reforestation of unforested/degraded land area; enhanced forest productivity; incorporation of nondestructive methods of wood harvesting in the forest industry; establishment of land protective forest stands; increase in stand age of final harvest in the European part of Russia; increased fire control; increased disease and pest control; and preservation of old growth forests in the Russian Far-East, which are presently threatened. Considering the implementation of all of the options presented, the GHG mitigation potential within the forest and agroforestry sectors of Russia is approximately 0.6-0.7 Pg C/yr or one half of the industrial carbon emissions of the United States. The difference between the GHG mitigation potential and the actual level of GHGs mitigated in the Russian forest sector will depend to a great degree on external financing that may be available. One possibility for external financing is through joint implementation (JI). However, under the JI process, each project will be evaluated by considering a number of criteria including also the difference between the carbon emissions or sequestration for the baseline (or reference) and the project case, the permanence of the project, and leakage. Consequently, a project level assessment must appreciate the near-term constraints that will face practitioners who attempt to realize the GHG mitigation potential in the forest and agroforestry sectors of their countries. 25 refs.

  6. Alternative management and funding options for aeronautics programs, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research and technology will be at lower program levels with basic military research for aviation decreasing as fewer aircraft programs are initiated and the present new aircraft programs move into the prototype and production status. The key question is can industry take on the management and financing role and meet the criteria and characteristics considered essential for a viable research and technology program. The criteria for evaluating alternative approaches include an examination of the nature of the product to be provided, responsiveness to changing needs, efficiency in terms of costs, ability to provide leadership, and to provide impartial and independent evaluation of approaches, and to provide technological inputs for regulating functions.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: modern concepts and management options.

    PubMed

    Sayuk, Gregory S; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2015-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, manifesting as abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel function. Despite affecting as many as 20% of adults, a lack of understanding of etiopathogenesis and evaluation strategies results in diagnostic uncertainty, and in turn frustration of both the physician and the patient. This review summarizes the current literature on the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome, with attention to evidence-based approaches. A 4-step treatment strategy that has been used successfully in our tertiary referral practice is presented and should lead to successful therapeutic outcomes in the majority of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  8. Management of post dermato- oncological defects: a case series and discussion of treatment options.

    PubMed

    Roodbergen, Sofie Louise; van der Geer, Simone; Krekels, Gertruud A

    2012-02-01

    Managing poorly healing wounds and large defects of the scalp after treatment of skin cancer in elderly men is a common and challenging problem. The increasing incidence of scalp pathology, and the often concomitant morbidity in these patients, often restricts invasive treatment options. Subsequently, this requires the dermatologist to look at alternative treatment options. Attention has been focused on well-tolerable treatments with good long-term outcomes. This report describes four patients who received treatment by either the use of a purse-string suture, pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment, and/or healing by secondary intention. Additionally, recent literature concerning these management strategies is discussed.

  9. Financial incentives: Possible options for sustainable rangeland management?

    PubMed

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Yigezu, Yigezu A; Werner, Jutta; Dashtseren, Lojoo; El-Shater, Tamer; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Large-scale mismanagement of natural resources emanating from lack of appropriate policies and regulatory framework is arguably one of the reasons that led to resource degradation and poor livelihoods in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Sustainable rangeland management practices (SRMPs) are considered to be a solution to feed shortages and rangeland degradation. However, the scope for SRMP adoption, has been a subject of debate. Using a case study from Syria and the application of the Minimum Data Analysis method (TOA-MD), this paper provides empirical evidence for ensuring wider adoption of SRMP. The paper argues that the introduction of financial incentives in the form of payments for agricultural-environmental services can increase the economic viability and enhance the adoption of SRMPs and is a better alternative to the unsustainable state subsidies for fodder purchases and barley cultivation on rangelands. Model results indicate that further investment in reasearch toward generating low cost technologies and tailored governance strategies including a financial incentive system would lead to better management of rangelands and improve livelihoods in the Syrian Badia. These findings are valuable for policy makers, donors as well as development and extension practitioners in the MENA region as they can better inform future courses of actions.

  10. Current and emerging treatment options in the management of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Natasha; D’Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with variable clinical manifestations. While the clearest guidelines for the treatment of SLE exist in the context of lupus nephritis, patients with other lupus manifestations such as neuropsychiatric, hematologic, musculoskeletal, and severe cutaneous lupus frequently require immunosuppression and/or biologic therapy. Conventional immunosuppressive agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide are widely used in the management of SLE with current more rationalized treatment regimens optimizing the use of these agents while minimizing potential toxicity. The advent of biologic therapies has advanced the treatment of SLE particularly in patients with refractory disease. The CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-BLyS agent belimumab are now widely in use in clinical practice. Several other biologic agents are in ongoing clinical trials. While immunosuppressive and biologic agents are the foundation of inflammatory disease control in SLE, the importance of managing comorbidities such as cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and minimizing susceptibility to infection should not be neglected. PMID:27529058

  11. Current and emerging treatment options in the management of lupus.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Natasha; D'Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with variable clinical manifestations. While the clearest guidelines for the treatment of SLE exist in the context of lupus nephritis, patients with other lupus manifestations such as neuropsychiatric, hematologic, musculoskeletal, and severe cutaneous lupus frequently require immunosuppression and/or biologic therapy. Conventional immunosuppressive agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide are widely used in the management of SLE with current more rationalized treatment regimens optimizing the use of these agents while minimizing potential toxicity. The advent of biologic therapies has advanced the treatment of SLE particularly in patients with refractory disease. The CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-BLyS agent belimumab are now widely in use in clinical practice. Several other biologic agents are in ongoing clinical trials. While immunosuppressive and biologic agents are the foundation of inflammatory disease control in SLE, the importance of managing comorbidities such as cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and minimizing susceptibility to infection should not be neglected.

  12. Pharmacologic options for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Randall T

    2002-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with a wide-ranging impact on physical functioning. Although pharmacotherapy plays an indispensable role in the management of MS symptoms, optimal disease management requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines medication, rehabilitation, and patient education. Successful control of symptoms is critical to quality of life for MS patients. Immunomodulating drugs provide a means of controlling the underlying disease process, but they are not a cure. This places responsibility on health care providers to control a patient's MS-related symptoms to limit disability and delay impairment in the activities of daily living. Owing to the importance of symptom control, comprehensive patient evaluations should be performed at regular intervals to determine the extent of neurological damage and disease progression and to address changing patient needs. The goal of interventions should be not only to treat the primary and secondary symptoms of MS but also to provide access to the psychosocial support that will help MS patients and their families continue to cope as disease status changes.

  13. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  14. Toxic epidermal necrolysis - management issues and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are characterized by extensive necrosis and cleavage of the epidermis from the dermis akin to a superficial or partial thickness burn. Sepsis is the usual cause of mortality but much of the pathophysiologic process results from an outpouring of cytokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) which have a destructive effect on the extracellular matrix and may play a part in the epidermal/dermal cleavage seen with this disease. Recent attention has been focused on the modulation of proteases in an attempt to decrease the MMP-mediated destruction. Nanocrystalline silver (NCS) is one such agent that has good anti-microbial efficacy, but is also effective in modulating MMP levels. Twelve cases of confirmed TEN that were treated with NCS were analyzed with a view to assessing efficacy and setting logical guidelines for managing this condition, particularly in relation to immunosupressed patients. From this study important issues have been highlighted for discussion.

  15. Pediatric and adolescent obesity: management, options for surgery, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Inge, Thomas H; Reichard, Kirk W; Browne, Allen F; Harmon, Carroll M; Michalsky, Marc P

    2014-03-01

    The past four decades have witnessed a marked rise in the number of children and adolescents with obesity. Severe obesity has also become increasingly prevalent. More young patients who have obesity are being referred for weight management and weight loss surgery, thus posing new challenges to both the medical personnel who care for them as well as the institutions in which that care is provided. This manuscript is generated from the material presented at the Education Day symposium entitled "Surgical Care of the Obese Child" held at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in Palm Desert, CA, on May 22, 2011. Herein the presenters at the symposium update the material addressing evaluation of a young person for weight loss surgery (including the team approach to patient evaluation and institutional infrastructure and responsibilities). The procedures most frequently available to young patients with obesity are identified, and current outcomes, trends, and future direction are also discussed.

  16. Global Change Drought in the Southwest: New Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B. H.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Long held worries about future runoff declines in the Colorado River under climate change are proving to be more than just theory. Fifteen years into this century flows of the Colorado are already declining due mostly to unprecedented temperatures, and as warming proceeds, declines in river flow will grow larger. Temperature-driven droughts, some lasting decades and much more severe than the current 15-year drought, will also become more commonplace if climate change continues unabated. Current projections of future water availability almost universally understate the risk of large Colorado flow reductions under business-as-usual warming. Betting on highly uncertain projections of increased precipitation to overcome even part of the flow reductions due to virtually certain warming is a poor risk management strategy. Many of the existing water policy arrangements in the Colorado River Basin will fail in the 21st century unless innovative new solutions are developed under leadership from the federal government and its basin state partners.

  17. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated. PMID:23723584

  18. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-04-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated.

  19. Management options to limit nitrate leaching from grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttle, S. P.; Scholefield, D.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrate leaching can be reduced by the adoption of less intensive grassland systems which, though requiring a greater land area to achieve the same agricultural output, result in less nitrate leaching per unit of production than do intensively managed grasslands. The economic penalties associated with reductions in output can be partly offset by greater reliance on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the use of clover-based swards in place of synthetic N fertilisers. Alternatively, specific measures can be adopted to improve the efficiency of nitrogen use in intensively managed systems in order to maintain high outputs but with reduced losses. Controls should take account of other forms of loss and flows of nitrogen between grassland and other components of the whole-farm system and, in most instances, should result in an overall reduction in nitrogen inputs. Removing stock from the fields earlier in the grazing season will reduce the accumulation of high concentrations of potentially leachable nitrate in the soil of grazed pastures but will increase the quantity of manure produced by housed animals and the need to recycle this effectively. Supplementing grass diets with low-nitrogen forages such as maize silage will reduce the quantity of nitrogen excreted by livestock but may increase the potential for nitrate leaching elsewhere on the farm if changes to cropping patterns involve more frequent cultivation of grassland. Improved utilisation by the sward of nitrogen in animal excreta and manures and released by mineralisation of soil organic matter will permit equivalent reductions to be made in fertiliser inputs, provided that adequate information is available about the supply of nitrogen from these non-fertiliser sources.

  20. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  1. Management Options for Reducing the Release of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pruden, Amy; Amézquita, Alejandro; Collignon, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Graham, David W.; Lazorchak, James M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Topp, Edward; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action. PMID:23735422

  2. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance.

  3. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  4. Hot asphalt burns: a review of injuries and management options.

    PubMed

    Bosse, George M; Wadia, Shernaz A; Padmanabhan, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Hot asphalt burns to human tissue can increase the likelihood of infection and potential conversion of partial thickness to full-thickness injuries. Successful intervention for hot asphalt burns requires immediate and effective cooling of the asphalt on the tissue followed by subsequent gradual removal of the cooled asphalt. A review of the literature reveals that multiple substances have been used to remove asphalt, including topical antibiotics, petroleum jelly, a commercial product known as De-Solv-It (ORANGE-SOL, Chandler, AZ), sunflower oil, baby oil, liquid paraffin, butter, mayonnaise, and moist-exposed burn ointment (MEBO). Although many of these products may be effective in the removal of asphalt, they may not be readily available in an emergency department setting. Topical antibiotics are readily available, are more commonly described in the medical literature, and would be expected to be effective in the removal of asphalt. We developed guidelines for on scene (first-aid) management and the initial care of such patients upon presentation to a health care facility. These guidelines emphasize the principles of early cooling, gradual removal of adherent asphalt using topical antibiotics, and avoidance of the use of topical agents, which are likely to result in tissue toxicity.

  5. Integration of the Brayton and Rankine cycle to maximize gas turbine performance--A cogeneration option

    SciTech Connect

    Meserlie, R.L.; Strother, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    The Brayton and Rankine cycles are well known and widely used in their own way to generate power. A combining of the fluids of the two cycles has been proposed by International Power Technology and tested by Allison Gas Turbine Operations. Steam generated by the exhaust heat is mixed with the fuel and air in the gas turbine combustion chamber prior to expansion through the turbine. The thermal efficiency of an existing engine can be increased by 40% and power output by 60% at constant turbine temperature. This concept is identified as the Dual Fluid Cycle (DFC). In addition to the basic improvement in cycle performance, the DFC provides an added degree of flexibility to the power plant engineer in his effort to satisfy plant needs for power, heat, and steam. Allison test results of this concept on a Model 501-KB engine have been correlated with a computer model of the engine and show good agreement. This paper shows how the DFC can be used to maximize thermal efficiency while meeting the requirement for power and steam in selected cases. Comparisons are made to other options for power and steam generation.

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  7. Analysis of options for coal combustion waste management in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

    1993-10-01

    Many Pacific Basin countries rely on oil for electricity production. Alternative fuel sources such as coal, which is available in the Pacific Basin, can help mitigate adverse impacts of sudden price increases or supply disruptions. Coal combustion produces solid and potentially hazardous wastes of concern to environmental regulators and utility managers. This paper identifies issues associated with managing coal combustion wastes in the Pacific Basin, using the state of Hawaii as a case study. Hawaii is typical of many Pacific Basin locations in that it depends on oil, has limited sites, for waste management operations, and is subject to domestic and international waste management regulations. The paper discusses coal-fired utility wastes, environmental impacts of coal combustion waste disposal, and regulatory requirements that impact coal waste management. From this baseline, potential on- and off-island options for coal waste management are identified. Waste management costs are estimated and non-quantifiable issues are addressed for each option. Many options are applicable across the Pacific Rim and may serve as a basis for future fuel-use decisions.

  8. Options and problems in environmental management and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.

    1980-03-01

    Although logical compromise agreement between all the conflicting users of the sea seems the most obvious way to protect marine life, we have in practice mainly ad-hoc restrictions aimed at protecting habitats or species, or at trying to prevent chemical/physical deterioration of the environment. The establishment of reserves on biological rather than touristic grounds necessitates consideration of the criteria, appropriate to marine life, that should be used. Successful reserve management or species protection measures depend upon distinguishing between natural and man-made changes, an ability that can be enhanced in part by appropriate disturbance experiments. Anti-pollution measures have centred upon effluent input rather than biological effect in the field, with “acceptable discharge levels” being based upon lethal and sub-lethal experimental effects. But the ultimate criteria of environmental well-being are ecological responses at the population and community levels where, unfortunately, many natural and man-made influences produce similar changes. Knowledge of community dynamics and a resulting ability to discount natural events require long-term studies and are slow to accumulate. Thus while short-term sublethal studies proliferate many ecological data remain uninterpretable except in localities of gross and obvious pollution (including tanker accidents). The scarcity of sub-lethal and ecological effects in the field is even supplemented by ecological changes that are contrary to expectations based on pollution loadings. Is this because ecological expertise is still inadequate, or because experimental and environmental loading data grossly overstate the risks and are largely irrelevant at the community level? Can we assume that fears of chronic pollution are unfounded or must we intensify our efforts? If the latter, in which direction?

  9. The RealGas and RealGasH2O options of the TOUGH+ code for the simulation of coupled fluid and heat flow in tight/shale gas systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas. The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and sh...

  10. A Many-Objective Analysis of Supply and Demand Management Options for the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Harou, J. J.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we link water basin simulation and many-objective evolutionary optimization to evaluate tradeoffs for the water stressed Thames water supply system in South East England which includes the city of London. We consider both infrastructure additions and demand management options to satisfy the future supply/demand balance, in order to develop management alternatives that can meet a range of fiscal and performance constraints under future supply and demand trajectories. The suite of new infrastructure options includes a new reservoir, water transfers, conjunctive use of groundwater, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Additionally, demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and the introduction of seasonal tariffs. Infrastructure options are evaluated using quantitative performance measures that minimize costs and energy use while maximizing engineering, social and environmental performance, subject to supply reliability constraints set by the local water utility and the Environment Agency regulator. Pareto approximate trade-off curves show the tradeoffs between engineering, cost, social and environmental performance measures. We use interactive visual analytics to show the performance of solutions across a broad range of performance measures and interrogate the impact of the infrastructure portfolios on the performance measures. Using an optimization—simulation framework enables the consideration of non-linear and rule-based phenomena, which are frequently useful or necessary to accurately describe how real water systems are managed. Results suggest that a diverse portfolio of supply-side and demand side options can aid water management in the UK. The Thames basin is modeled using a generalized computationally efficient open-source water resource simulator, Interactive River-Aquifer Simulation-2010 (IRAS-2010). The IRAS-2010 Thames system model is linked via a C++ wrapper to the Epsilon Dominance

  11. GRAFEC: A New Spanish Program to Investigate Waste Management Options for Radioactive Graphite - 12399

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez, Eva; Pina, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Marina; Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Leganes Nieto, Jose Luis; Quiros Gracian, Maria

    2012-07-01

    graphite in a long term stable glass matrix. The principal applicability has been already proved by FNAG. Crushed graphite mixed with a suitable glass powder has been pressed at elevated temperature under vacuum. The vacuum is required to avoid gas enclosures in the obtained product. The obtained products, named IGM for 'Impermeable Graphite Matrix', have densities above 99% of theoretical density. The amount of glass has been chosen with respect to the pore volume of the former graphite parts. The method allows the production of encapsulated graphite without increasing the disposal volume. This paper will give a short overview of characterisation results of different irradiated graphite materials obtained at CIEMAT and in the Carbowaste project as well as the proposed methods and the actual status of the program including first results about leaching of non-radioactive IGM samples and hopefully first tendencies concerning the C-14 separation from graphite of Vandellos I by thermal treatment. Both processes, the thermal treatment as well as the IGM, have the potential to solve problems related to the management of irradiated graphite in Spain. However the methods have only been tested with different types of i-graphite and virgin graphite, respectively. Only investigations with real i-graphite from Spain will reveal whether the described methods are applicable to graphite from Vandellos I. However all partners are convinced that one of these new methods or a combination of them will lead to a feasible option to manage i-graphite in Spain on an industrial scale. (authors)

  12. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  13. The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO): Science at Your Fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, L. N.; Treasure, E.; Moore Myers, J.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is an ever-increasing volume of useful scientific knowledge about climate change effects and management options for natural ecosystems. Agencies such as the USDA Forest Service have been charged with the need to evaluate this body of knowledge and if necessary adapt to the impacts of climate change in their forest planning and management. However, the combined volume of existing information and rate of development of new information, lack of climate change specialists, and limited technology transfer mechanisms make efficient access and use difficult. The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) addresses this difficulty through its publically accessible web-based tool that puts current and concise climate change science at the fingertips of forest planners and managers. A collaborative product of the USDA Forest Service Research Stations and the National Forest System, TACCIMO integrates peer-reviewed research with management and planning options through search and reporting tools that connect land managers with information they can trust. TACCIMO highlights elements from the wealth of climate change science with attention to what natural resource planners and managers need through a searchable repository of over 4,000 effects of climate change and close to 1,000 adaptive management options, all excerpted from a growing body of peer-reviewed scientific literature. A geospatial mapping application provides downscaled climate data for the nation and other spatially explicit models relevant to evaluating climate change impacts on forests. Report generators assist users in capturing outputs specific to a given location and resource area in a consistent and organized manner. For USDA Forest Service users, science findings can be readily linked with management conditions and capabilities from national forest management plans. The development of TACCIMO was guided by interactions with natural resource professionals, resulting

  14. Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Nick; Pantus, Francis; Welna, Andrzej; Butler, Alan

    2008-09-01

    A suite of management options for a prawn trawl fishery in Torres Strait, Australia was assessed for impacts on the benthic fauna using a dynamic management strategy evaluation approach. The specification of the management options was gained through consultation with stakeholders. Data for the model was drawn from several sources: the fleet data from fishery logbooks and satellite vessel monitoring systems, benthic depletion rates from trawl-down experiments, benthic recovery rates from post-experiment recovery monitoring studies, and benthic distribution from large-scale benthic surveys. Although there were large uncertainties in the resulting indicators, robust measures relevant to management were obtained by taking ratios relative to the status quo. The management control with the biggest effect was total effort; reducing trawl effort always led to increases in benthic faunal density of up to 10%. Spatial closures had a smaller benefit of up to 2%. The effect of closing a set of buffer zones around reefs to trawling was indistinguishable from the status quo option. Closing a larger area, however, was largely beneficial especially for sea cucumbers. When the spatial distributions of fauna prior to fishing were accounted for, fauna with distributions positively correlated with effort improved relative to those negatively correlated. The reduction in prawn catch under effort reduction scenarios could be ameliorated by introducing temporal closures over the full-moon period.

  15. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater events in river systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Janice L; Baldwin, Darren S; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2013-01-15

    Blackwater events are characterised by a high concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the water column. They occur naturally in lowland rivers with forested floodplains and bring a variety of benefits to both aquatic and floodplain biota. However, particularly when accompanied by high temperatures, respiration of the organic carbon may cause blackwater to become hypoxic. This may lead to a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on the aquatic biota. We review the current scientific knowledge concerning the management of blackwater and hypoxia, and examine how this knowledge may be applied to the management of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems. A range of management options, which aim to either prevent the development of hypoxic blackwater or to reintroduce oxygen into deoxygenated waters, are reported. Mitigation options that may be applicable to lowland river systems include manipulating the season and magnitude of floods in regulated rivers, increasing roughness in flow paths, establishing oxygenated refugia for aquatic biota and introducing hydraulic structures that promote turbulence and re-aeration. With climatic changes trending towards a scenario where extreme events leading to the development of hypoxic blackwater are more probable, it is now vital to validate and optimise management options on local and regional scales and work towards closing knowledge gaps. With judicious management of regulated rivers, it is possible to minimise the impacts of hypoxic flows while preserving the benefits brought to floodplain and river ecosystems by seasonal flooding and carbon exchange.

  16. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What role does my agency... What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? Your agency head or designee's role is to: (a) Designate an agency-level Standard and Optional Forms...

  17. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  18. Decision analysis and drug development portfolio management: uncovering the real options value of your projects.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Nicoletta

    2002-04-01

    Project selection and portfolio management are particularly challenging in the pharmaceutical industry due to the high risk - high stake nature of the drug development process. In the recent years, scholars and industry experts have agreed that traditional Net-Present-Value evaluation of the projects fails to capture the value of managerial flexibility, and encouraged adopting a real options approach to recover the missed value. In this paper, we take a closer look at the drug development process and at the indices currently used to rank projects. We discuss the economic value of information and of real options arising in drug development and present decision analysis as an ideal framework for the implementation of real options valuation.

  19. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    PubMed

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply.

  20. Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.

    PubMed

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  1. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  2. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which

  3. Herbal Medicine Offered as an Initiative Therapeutic Option for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Ru; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Effective treatment of this disease is limited by the complicated molecular mechanism underlying HCC pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic options for HCC management are urgently needed. Targeting the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, and Hippo-YAP signaling pathways in cancer stem cell development has been extensively investigated as an alternative treatment. Herbal medicine has emerged as an initiative therapeutic option for HCC management because of its multi-level, multi-target, and coordinated intervention effects. In this article, we summarized the recent progress and clinical benefits of targeting the above mentioned signaling pathways and using natural products such as herbal medicine formulas to treat HCC. Proving the clinical success of herbal medicine is expected to deepen the knowledge on herbal medicine efficiency and hasten the adoption of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Part II—Management Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Gillis, Christopher C.; Shih, Patrick; O'Toole, John E.; Fessler, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Broad narrative review. Objectives Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are uncommon lesions that can affect any age group or sex. However, numerous IMSCT exist and the clinical course of each tumor varies. The following article addresses the various management options and outcomes in patients with IMSCT. Methods An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, addressing management options and clinical outcomes of patients with IMSCT. Results Early diagnosis and intervention are essential to obtain optimal functional outcome. Each IMSCT have specific imaging characteristics, which help in the clinical decision-making and prognostication. A comprehension of the tumor pathology and the clinical course associated with each tumor can allow for the proper surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, and reduce any associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the operative management of such lesions have increased the success rate of tumor removal while minimizing iatrogenic-related trauma to the patient and, in tandem, improving patient outcomes. Conclusions Awareness and understanding of IMSCT is imperative to design proper management and obtain optimal patient outcomes. Meticulous operative technique and the use of surgical adjuncts are essential to accomplish proper tumor removal, diminish the risk of recurrence, and preserve neurologic function. Operative management of IMSCT should be individualized and based on tumor type, location, and dimensional extensions. To assist with preoperative and intraoperative decision-making, a general algorithm is provided. PMID:26933620

  5. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  6. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives.

  7. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: clinical presentation and management options

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramulu, Basapogu; Shyam, Naragani DVN; Ajay, Pilla; Suman, Pathipaka

    2015-01-01

    Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and precocious aggressive periodontitis, leading to premature loss of deciduous and permanent dentition at a very young age. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, like immunologic alterations, genetic mutations, and the role of bacteria. Dentists play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of PLS as there are characteristic manifestations like periodontal destruction at an early age and an early eruption of permanent teeth. Here, we are presenting an elaborate review of PLS, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management options. PMID:26203280

  8. Tubo-ovarian abscess management options for women who desire fertility.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Mitchell; Breitkopf, Dan; Waud, Kay

    2009-10-01

    Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA), a serious sequela of pelvic inflammatory disease, occurs usually in women of ages 20 to 40. Up to 59% of these women are nulliparous. Traditionally, pregnancy rates after TOA are estimated to be 15% or less. Current proposed management algorithms for TOA do not include a separate pathway for women of reproductive age who may desire future pregnancies. A MEDLINE search and extensive review of published literature was undertaken to study management options for patients with TOA, and to compare rates of responders, pregnancies and complications associated with each management option. If intra-abdominal rupture is suspected, and patients are treated with fertility-preserving, conservative surgery, reported pregnancy rate is 25%. If no rupture is suspected and patients are treated with medical management alone, reported pregnancy rates vary between 4% and 15%. If no rupture is suspected, and the treatment is medical management with immediate laparoscopic drainage within 24 hours, reported pregnancy rates vary between 32% and 63%. Laparoscopy should be considered to all patients with TOA who desire future conception. Overall, the advantages of immediate laparoscopy allow for an accurate diagnosis, effective treatment under magnification with minimal complications, possibly faster response rates with shorter hospitalization times and decreased infertility.

  9. Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Gerald Sehlke

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a 'safe' level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints (e.g., insufficient supplies and competing ecological and anthropogenic needs) will limit our options for producing energy and for reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the 'climate wedges' proposal of Pacala and Sokolow [1], and evaluating the potential water impacts of the 'wedges' associated with energy production. Results indicate that there is a range of water impacts, with some options reducing water demand while others increase water demand. Mitigation options that improve energy conversion and end-use efficiency have the greatest potential for reducing water resources impacts. These options provide 'win-win-win' scenarios for reducing GHG emissions, lowering energy costs and reducing water demand. Thet may merit higher priority than alternative options that emphasize deploying new low-carbon energy facilities or modifying existing facilities with energy intensive GHG mitigation technologies to reduce GHG emissions. While the latter can reduce GHG emissions, they will typically increase energy costs and water impacts.

  10. Waste Management Options for Long-Duration Space Missions: When to Reject, Reuse, or Recycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Gallo, Christopher A.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Hegde, Uday G.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of waste generated on long-duration space missions away from Earth orbit creates the daunting challenge of how to manage the waste through reuse, rejection, or recycle. The option to merely dispose of the solid waste through an airlock to space was studied for both Earth-moon libration point missions and crewed Mars missions. Although the unique dynamic characteristics of an orbit around L2 might allow some discarded waste to intersect the lunar surface before re-impacting the spacecraft, the large amount of waste needed to be managed and potential hazards associated with volatiles recondensing on the spacecraft surfaces make this option problematic. A second option evaluated is to process the waste into useful gases to be either vented to space or used in various propulsion systems. These propellants could then be used to provide the yearly station-keeping needs at an L2 orbit, or if processed into oxygen and methane propellants, could be used to augment science exploration by enabling lunar mini landers to the far side of the moon.

  11. Conceptual approaches for incorporating climatic change into the development of forest management options for sequestering carbon

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for significant enviromental change over the next 100 years has resulted in efforts to develop mitigation options for reducing the rate of increase of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. One of the more promising options is management of forest and agroforestry systems. However, most of the assessments of the potential of forest management options to sequester carbon have not factored in future environmental change (climate and CO2 concentration) into their analyses. Climate and ecological models that could be used to incorporate environmental change into forest mitigation planning efforts are reviewed in the paper in terms of their relative strengths and limitations for this particular application. Recommendations are then made as to how to use the available models to estimate the global and regional potential for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, incorporating future environmental change into the analyses. Recommendations are also made as to how to target the most promising regions for reforestation efforts given the likelihood of future environmental change. (Copyright (c) Inter-Research 1993.)

  12. Fecal incontinence in acutely and critically ill patients: options in management.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M

    2006-12-01

    Fecal incontinence presents a major challenge in the comprehensive nursing care of acutely and critically ill patients. When manifested as diarrhea, the effects of fecal incontinence can range from mild (superficial skin irritation) to profound (severe perineal dermatitis, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and sepsis). Fecal incontinence has many etiologies and risk factors. These include damage to the anal sphincter or pelvic floor, liquid stool consistency, abnormal colonic transport, and decreased intestinal capacity. To avoid or minimize complications, the cause of diarrhea should be addressed, fecal leakage prevented, stool contained, and skin integrity preserved. Management options addressing these goals include diet, pharmacological therapy, and the use of containment products. Management options and their respective advantages and disadvantages are presented with a special focus on safety issues. Diverse approaches are safe only if they are knowledgeably selected, carefully instituted, and constantly monitored for their effects on patient outcomes. Research to identify which options work best in selected clinical situations and which combinations of therapies are most effective is needed.

  13. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more “traditional” stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

  14. Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian D; Gleason, Daniel F; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D; Friedlander, Alan M; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E; Miller, Steven L; Steneck, Robert S

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more "traditional" stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

  15. Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the

  16. Land management restrictions and options for change in perpetual conservation easements.

    PubMed

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  17. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    PubMed

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion.

  18. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain

    PubMed Central

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM’s actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM’s side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990–2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion. PMID:27162346

  19. Sustainable approaches for minimizing biosolids production and maximizing reuse options in sludge management: A review.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Hee; Dello Monaco, Francesca; Antmann, Eric; Chorath, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Sludge generation during wastewater treatment is inevitable even with proper management and treatment. Yet proper handling and disposal of sludge are still challenging in terms of treatment cost, presence of recalcitrant contaminants of concern, sanitary issues, and public acceptance. Conventional disposal methods (i.e. landfilling, incineration) have created concerns in terms of legislative restrictions and community perception, incentivizing consideration of substitute sludge management options. Furthermore, with proper treatment, biosolids from sludge, rich in organic materials and nutrients, could be utilizable as fertilizer. Despite the challenges of dealing with sludge, no review has dealt with integrated source reduction and reuse as the best sustainable management practices for sludge treatment. In this review, we present two main approaches as potentially sustainable controls: (i) pretreatment for minimizing extensive sludge treatment, and (ii) recycling and reuse of residual sludge. Drawing on these approaches, we also suggest strategies for efficient pretreatment mechanisms and residual reuse, presenting ideas for prospective future research.

  20. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Background Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. Aim To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Design of study Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Setting Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Method Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5–2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Results Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the ‘baby’; and pain and bleeding. Conclusions Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and

  1. Medication therapy management: why it no longer should be considered optional.

    PubMed

    Molokwu, Ogochukwu Chidozie; Nkansah, Nancy Twum

    2009-08-01

    Medications are the primary therapeutic intervention in many health care settings. As prescription drug use continues to grow, and medication therapies become more complex, our health care systems have become more prone to medication errors and adverse drug events. Medication Therapy Management services provided by pharmacists have been shown to help reduce medication errors, adverse drug events, and costs. Such services need to be integrated into the health care system and not be regarded as optional. This article is intended to provide pharmacists, pharmacy leaders, and health care policymakers the information needed to broach this topic at the health care policy level.

  2. The RealGas and RealGasH2O options of the TOUGH+ code for the simulation of coupled fluid and heat flow in tight/shale gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moridis, George J.; Freeman, Craig M.

    2014-04-01

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas. The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) reservoirs. The gas mixture is treated as either a single-pseudo-component having a fixed composition, or as a multicomponent system composed of up to 9 individual real gases. The RealGas option has the same general capabilities, but does not include water, thus describing a single-phase, dry-gas system. In addition to the standard capabilities of all members of the TOUGH+ family of codes (fully-implicit, compositional simulators using both structured and unstructured grids), the capabilities of the two codes include coupled flow and thermal effects in porous and/or fractured media, real gas behavior, inertial (Klinkenberg) effects, full micro-flow treatment, Darcy and non-Darcy flow through the matrix and fractures of fractured media, single- and multi-component gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media following several isotherm options, discrete and fracture representation, complex matrix-fracture relationships, and porosity-permeability dependence on pressure changes. The two options allow the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in problems of geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, and of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CH4) and non-condensable gas mixtures. The codes are verified against available analytical and semi-analytical solutions. Their capabilities are demonstrated in a series of problems of increasing complexity, ranging from isothermal flow in simpler 1D and 2D conventional gas reservoirs, to non-isothermal gas flow in 3D fractured shale gas reservoirs involving 4 types of fractures, micro-flow, non-Darcy flow and gas

  3. The RealGas and RealGasH2O Options of the TOUGH+ Code for the Simulation of Coupled Fluid and Heat Flow in Tight/Shale Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George; Freeman, Craig

    2013-09-30

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas . The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) reservoirs. The gas mixture is treated as either a single-pseudo-component having a fixed composition, or as a multicomponent system composed of up to 9 individual real gases. The RealGas option has the same general capabilities, but does not include water, thus describing a single-phase, dry-gas system. In addition to the standard capabilities of all members of the TOUGH+ family of codes (fully-implicit, compositional simulators using both structured and unstructured grids), the capabilities of the two codes include: coupled flow and thermal effects in porous and/or fractured media, real gas behavior, inertial (Klinkenberg) effects, full micro-flow treatment, Darcy and non-Darcy flow through the matrix and fractures of fractured media, single- and multi-component gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media following several isotherm options, discrete and fracture representation, complex matrix-fracture relationships, and porosity-permeability dependence on pressure changes. The two options allow the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in problems of geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, and of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CH4) and non-condensable gas mixtures. The codes are verified against available analytical and semi-analytical solutions. Their capabilities are demonstrated in a series of problems of increasing complexity, ranging from isothermal flow in simpler 1D and 2D conventional gas reservoirs, to non-isothermal gas flow in 3D fractured shale gas reservoirs involving 4 types of fractures, micro-flow, non-Darcy flow and gas

  4. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    ). In that way, the research captures the balance of benefits between the private landholder and the global public good. Joint assessment of food production and emissions may produce optimal management strategies that balance the competing demands of food production and climate stabilization. For example, nitrous oxide emissions per unit of product are lowest at intermediate (not the lowest) fertilization rates (Van Groenigen et al 2010) which differs from the optimal strategy for reducing emissions per unit area. Costs associated with collecting the additional data are likely to be small relative to the operational budget for GHG field research and could viably become standard practice. Cost-differentiated measurements . Potential end users of the protocol are diverse in their purpose, resources available, and capacity to carry out research. For example, development organizations may want to determine the relative difference in emission impacts between mitigation options while governments may be interested in quantification of impacts across landscapes to develop Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. The most useful approach to quantification therefore lies at the nexus among key constraints: objectives, resources, and capacity. The protocol develops a system of 'tiered' entry points for greenhouse gas accounting, with explicit attention directed toward the uncertainty induced from the various measurement selections. The protocol will include decision pathways to help users quickly determine the quantification options suitable for their goals and constraints to optimize the relationship among accuracy, costs, and scale. The CCAFS-CGIAR protocol is being developed and field-tested in mixed crop-livestock systems of Kenya and intensive rice production in the Philippines, with plans to expand to other sites and agroecosystems in the next year. These initial pilot projects provide a trial of the approach and methods, highlighting technical gaps and promising

  5. Waste management options in southern Europe using field and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Koufodimos, George; Samaras, Zissis

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of the Waste Management Hierarchy concept that appeared to be an essential element in current national environmental policies was investigated in the case of a region in Southern Europe. The waste generation profile that determines the appropriateness of different waste management options was created after a 1-year municipal waste sampling investigation conducted in the Municipality of Pilea in Northern Greece. The paper describes the results of (1) the sampling method, which was conducted four times during 1 year (once per season) in selected areas of the city, (2) the qualitative analysis of the collected samples and (3) the waste treatment, which consisted of drying, grinding, calorific value measurement, incineration and chemical analysis of the collected samples. Comparative analysis between the above mentioned data and on past data derived from investigations conducted in other Greek regions with similar characteristics to those of Pilea were used to identify and discuss future trends in the composition of generated waste over time. An analysis of the current waste management status in Greece as well as the feasibility of implementing a comprehensive management approach is assessed taking into account guidelines set worldwide to promote renewable energy sources use. It is concluded that recycling, perhaps the most positively received of all waste management practices, is going to be an essential part of contemporary waste management strategies, composting can play an important role, while incineration seems to be a conditionally feasible solution.

  6. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  7. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  8. A System Dynamics Approach for the Selection of Contaminated Land Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, U. S.; Kuebert, M.; Finkel, M.; Bieg, M.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale contaminated land and groundwater is a widespread problem that can severely impact human health, the environment and the economy at many urban sites all over the world. Usually a considerable number of potential management solutions exist at each of these sites. A detailed investigation of all these options, however, is not economically feasible which makes streamlining of the planning and decision process a mandatory requirement. Decisions to be taken should be made as early as possible in order to reduce expenditures on site investigation. Therefore, a tiered decision-making procedure is required, including (i) identification and prioritization of focal areas of risks, (ii) feasibility screening of remediation targets and available management alternatives to narrow the range of possible options for (iii) subsequent detailed investigations of only a select group of preferable options. For each of these elements, tailored decision and investigation concepts are required. These concepts and applied methods should be specifically adapted to the type and scale of the particular decision to be taken- more target-oriented, cost-efficient investigation programs, as well as model-based assessment methods are needed (Ruegner et al. 2006). A gap exists within this framework with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies representing the first decision level. To fill this gap, a new system dynamics approach has been developed that represents the system of source- pathway-receptor sequences by means of a mass flux model. The dynamics are governed by the effects of possible remedial actions, which are described as mass flux change over time (Serapiglia et al. 2005). This approach has been implemented in the preliminary evaluation tool CARO-plus (Cost-efficiency Assessment of Remediation Options) that models the effects of potential remedial actions, including tackling the contaminant source and managing the groundwater plume. The model represents the causal

  9. Gouty arthritis: understanding the disease state and management options in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sunkureddi, Prashanth

    2011-09-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of monosodium urate crystal deposits into the joint space. The disease is associated with debilitating clinical symptoms and functional impairments as well as adverse economic and quality-of-life burdens. Because gouty arthritis is typically diagnosed and managed in the primary care setting, clinicians require a thorough knowledge of the presenting clinical features, risk factors, differential diagnoses, and treatment options for appropriate management. Although generally effective, the use of currently available therapies to control gouty arthritis is challenging because many medications used to treat comorbidities can exacerbate gouty arthritis and because current agents are associated with a number of adverse events, contraindications, or both. Based on an understanding of the underlying inflammatory pathogenesis of gouty arthritis, several new agents are being developed that may provide improved efficacy.

  10. Pain management in critically ill patients: a review of multimodal treatment options.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Matthew; Chiu, Felicia; Gelber, Katherine M; Webb, Christopher Aj; Weyker, Paul D

    2016-11-01

    Pain management for critically ill patients provides physicians with the challenge of maximizing patient comfort while avoiding the risks that arise with oversedation. Preventing oversedation has become increasingly important as we better understand the negative impact it has on patients' experiences and outcomes. Current research suggests that oversedation can result in complications such as thromboembolism, pulmonary compromise, immunosuppression and delirium. Fortunately, the analgesic options available for physicians to limit these complications are growing as more treatment modalities are being researched and implemented in the intensive care unit. Our goal is to outline some of the effective and widely utilized tools available to physicians to appropriately and safely manage pain while avoiding oversedation in the critically ill population.

  11. Integrated dissolved gas management for contaminated aquifer in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Gantzer, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Integrated management is the simultaneous management of a target gas concentration and the total gas pressure in an aqueous stream. A membrane-based integrated gas management system is presented that allows the aqueous delivery of elevated dissolved concentrations of gaseous microbial substrates to an aquifer with no potential for bubble formation. The delivery of gaseous microbial substrates can enhance the in situ bioremediation of a contaminated aquifer. Bubble information in an aquifer is undesirable for three reasons: substrate is wasted, gases migrate off site, and the aquifer clogs with bubbles. Integrated gas management is a two-step process. The first step consists of the nonselective removal of dissolved gases to reduce the total gas pressure of the injection water. The second step consists of dissolving the desired gaseous substrate. The resulting water has an elevated concentration of the gaseous substrate and a total gas pressure less than the absolute hydrostatic pressure at the delivery point for the aquifer. A membrane-based integrated gas management system has operated for 9 months at a former manufactured gas plant site and delivers 5 gpm of oxygenated water (25 mg O{sub 2}/L) to a silt-clay aquifer at a total gas pressure of 1 atmosphere.

  12. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hornibrook, C.

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  13. Bayesian decision analysis for evaluating management options to promote recovery of a depleted salmon population.

    PubMed

    Pestes, Lynsey R; Peterman, Randall M; Bradford, Michael J; Wood, Chris C

    2008-04-01

    The endangered population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Cultus Lake, British Columbia, Canada, migrates through commercial fishing areas along with other, much more abundant sockeye salmon populations, but it is not feasible to selectively harvest only the latter, abundant populations. This situation creates controversial trade-offs between recovery actions and economic revenue. We conducted a Bayesian decision analysis to evaluate options for recovery of Cultus Lake sockeye salmon. We used a stochastic population model that included 2 sources of uncertainty that are often omitted from such analyses: structural uncertainty in the magnitude of a potential Allee effect and implementation uncertainty (the deviation between targets and actual outcomes of management actions). Numerous state-dependent, time-independent management actions meet recovery objectives. These actions prescribe limitations on commercial harvest rates as a function of abundance of Cultus Lake sockeye salmon. We also quantified how much reduction in economic value of commercial harvests of the more abundant sockeye salmon populations would be expected for a given increase in the probability of recovery of the Cultus population. Such results illustrate how Bayesian decision analysis can rank options for dealing with conservation risks and can help inform trade-off discussions among decision makers and among groups that have competing objectives.

  14. Which cropland greenhouse gas mitigation options give the greatest benefits in different world regions? Climate and soil specific predictions from integrated empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, J.; Brentrup, F.; Wattenbach, M.; Walter, C.; Garcia-Suarez, T.; Mila-i-Canals, L.; Smith, P.

    2012-04-01

    Major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural crop production are nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting from the application of mineral and organic fertiliser, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil carbon losses. Consequently, choice of fertiliser type, optimising fertiliser application rates and timing, reducing microbial denitrification and improving soil carbon management are focus areas for mitigation. We have integrated separate models derived from global data on fertiliser induced soil N2O emissions, soil nitrification inhibitors, and the effects of tillage and soil inputs of soil C stocks into a single model in order to determine optimal mitigation options as a function of soil type, climate, and fertilisation rates. After Monte Carlo sampling of input variables we aggregated the outputs according to climate, soil and fertiliser factors to consider the benefits of several possible emissions mitigation strategies, and identified the most beneficial option for each factor class on a per hectare basis. The optimal mitigation for each soil-climate-region was then mapped to propose geographically specific optimal GHG mitigation strategies for crops with varying N requirements. The use of empirical models reduces the requirements for validation (since they are calibrated on globally or continentally observed phenomena). However, since they are relatively simple in structure, they may not be applicable for accurate site specific prediction of GHG emissions. The value of this modelling approach is for initial screening and ranking of potential agricultural mitigation options and to explore the potential impact of regional agricultural GHG abatement policies. Given the clear association between management practice and crop productivity, it is essential to incorporate characterisation of the yield effect on a given crop before recommending any mitigation practice.

  15. The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor: A Promising Option for Near Term Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    LaBar, Malcolm P.

    2002-07-01

    The Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is an advanced nuclear power system that offers unparalleled safety, high thermal efficiency, environmental advantages, and competitive electricity generation costs. The GT-MHR module couples a gas-cooled modular helium reactor (MHR) with a high efficiency modular Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) energy conversion system. The reactor and power conversion systems are located in a below grade concrete silo that provides protection against sabotage. The GT-MHR safety is achieved through a combination of inherent safety characteristics and design selections that take maximum advantage of the gas-cooled reactor coated particle fuel, helium coolant and graphite moderator. The GT-MHR is projected to be economically competitive with alternative electricity generation technologies due to the high operating temperature of the gas-cooled reactor, high thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle power conversion system, high fuel burnup (>100,000 MWd/MT), and low operation and maintenance requirements. (author)

  16. Placing the power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers - taking the next step.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Rohan; Howden, Mark; Hayman, Peter

    2013-07-30

    This paper explores heuristic methods with potential to place the analytical power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers. The complexity of real options analysis has led to patchy or ephemeral adoption even by corporate managers familiar with the financial-market origins of valuation methods. Intuitively accessible methods for estimating the value of real options have begun to evolve, but their evaluation has mostly been limited to researcher-driven applications. In this paper we work closely with Bush Heritage Australia to evaluate the potential of real options analysis to support the intuitive judgement of conservation estate managers in covenanting land with uncertain future conservation value due to climate change. The results show that modified decision trees have potential to estimate the option value of covenanting individual properties while time and ongoing research resolves their future conservation value. Complementing this, Luehrman's option space has potential to assist managers with limited budgets to increase the portfolio value of multiple properties with different conservation attributes.

  17. NOHIMS (Naval Occupational Health Information Management System) Users’ Guide: Introduction and OHS (Occupational Health System) Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-26

    irred. 2’. 4’.. Nava Het esarch CenterU 0i P. 0. Bx 8512 San iego Caiforia 2138917 P. W. SUMMARY The Naval Occupational Health information Management System (WHIMS...Introduction and OHS Options I. INTRODUCTION TO THE NAVY OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NOHIMS) The objective of NOHIMS is to provide an

  18. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    PubMed

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management.

  19. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  20. Sustainability and energy development: influences of greenhouse gas emission reduction options on water use in energy production.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D Craig; Sehlke, Gerald

    2012-03-20

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a "safe" level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints will limit our options for meeting society's growing demand for energy while also reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the climate wedges proposal of Pacala and Socolow (Science2004, 305 (5686), 968-972) and evaluating the potential water-use impacts of the wedges associated with energy production. GHG mitigation options that improve energy conversion or use efficiency can simultaneously reduce GHG emissions, lower energy costs, and reduce energy impacts on water resources. Other GHG mitigation options (e.g., carbon capture and sequestration, traditional nuclear, and biofuels from dedicated energy crops) increase water requirements for energy. Achieving energy sustainability requires deployment of alternatives that can reduce GHG emissions, water resource impacts, and energy costs.

  1. Capturing and explaining preference heterogeneity for wetland management options in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Speelman, Stijn; Mombo, Felister; Vandermeulen, Valerie; Phillip, Damas; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Wetland degradation has recently received considerable research attention. Although wetlands are valuable ecosystems, their actual value is difficult to measure because the services they provide often do not have market values. The current study seeks to investigate the preferences for wetland management options in the Kilombero Valley, central Tanzania using choice modeling. The results show that both respondents from the Kilombero Valley and Morogoro Municipality desire improvements in the condition of the wetlands. This indicates that the ongoing degradation is not socially optimal. A second finding is that the preferences for wetland conservation are heterogeneous and can be linked to livelihood characteristics. Communities living in the area, for example, are highly dependent on the wetland for their livelihood and would be impacted by conservation measures. Therefore, in order to reduce the pressure on wetlands, it is necessary and imperative to explore the options for alternative income-generating activities or to focus, for example, on technologies to improve efficiency and effectiveness in crop production.

  2. Capturing and Explaining Preference Heterogeneity for Wetland Management Options in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speelman, Stijn; Mombo, Felister; Vandermeulen, Valerie; Phillip, Damas; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Wetland degradation has recently received considerable research attention. Although wetlands are valuable ecosystems, their actual value is difficult to measure because the services they provide often do not have market values. The current study seeks to investigate the preferences for wetland management options in the Kilombero Valley, central Tanzania using choice modeling. The results show that both respondents from the Kilombero Valley and Morogoro Municipality desire improvements in the condition of the wetlands. This indicates that the ongoing degradation is not socially optimal. A second finding is that the preferences for wetland conservation are heterogeneous and can be linked to livelihood characteristics. Communities living in the area, for example, are highly dependent on the wetland for their livelihood and would be impacted by conservation measures. Therefore, in order to reduce the pressure on wetlands, it is necessary and imperative to explore the options for alternative income-generating activities or to focus, for example, on technologies to improve efficiency and effectiveness in crop production.

  3. Endoscopic options in the management of isolated fourth ventricles. Case report.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Aaron

    2005-07-01

    Isolation of the fourth ventricle is occasionally observed after shunt treatment of the lateral ventricles for obstructive panventricular hydrocephalus. Of the various surgical options currently available, placement of shunts in the fourth ventricle has remained as the mainstay of treatment. These shunts are difficult to place, however, and have been associated with higher complication rates. With the advent of neuroendoscopic techniques, the treatment of this condition has shifted from shunt therapy to endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and aqueductal reconstruction. The authors report on four patients (age range 11-28 years old) who had undergone fourth ventricular shunt placement earlier in childhood to treat panventricular hydrocephalus and who presented with an isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) during the follow-up period. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging to identify the extent of the stenosed aqueduct. Symptoms improved in all and the size of the fourth ventricle decreased as well, indicating a functioning stent. The ETV failed in two patients, however, and they required placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Aqueductal stenting with an ETV or a VP shunt is a promising option in the management of IFVs.

  4. Federal and Indian oil and gas royalty valuation and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book covers: Royalty management-an M.M.S. overview; Payor/operator/lessee royalty liability; Royalty issues for OCS lessees; Royalty valuation procedures; Gas marketing royalty issues - industry perspective; Gas marketing royalty issues - M.M.S. perspective; Settlements of gas contract disputes Royalty reporting issues; Production reporting issues; Indian royalty issues; Litigation/regulatory updates; Over/under production on federal leases, units, and communitized areas; Audit program; and M.M.S. Reference Handbook.

  5. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  6. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Carmen D; Tamayo-Agrait, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of HIV-1 infection using both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Optimal prevention of the MTCT of HIV requires antiretroviral drugs (ARV) during pregnancy, during labor, and to the infant. ARVs reduce viral replication, lowering maternal plasma viral load and thus the likelihood of MTCT. Postexposure prophylaxis of ARV agents in newborns protect against infection following potential exposure to maternal HIV during birth. In general, the choice of an ARV for treatment of HIV-infected women during pregnancy is complicated by the need to consider the effectiveness of the therapy for the maternal disease as well as the teratogenic or teratotoxic potential of these drugs. Clinicians managing HIV in pregnancy need to discuss the potential risks and benefits of available therapy options so that mothers can make informed decisions in choosing the best treatment regimen for themselves and for their children. PMID:22096378

  7. Pain management following spinal surgeries: An appraisal of the available options

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Haldar, Rudrashish

    2015-01-01

    Spinal procedures are generally associated with intense pain in the postoperative period, especially for the initial few days. Adequate pain management in this period has been seen to correlate well with improved functional outcome, early ambulation, early discharge, and preventing the development of chronic pain. A diverse array of pharmacological options exists for the effective amelioration of post spinal surgery pain. Each of these drugs possesses inherent advantages and disadvantages which restricts their universal applicability. Therefore, combination therapy or multimodal analgesia for proper control of pain appears as the best approach in this regard. The current manuscript discussed the pathophysiology of postsurgical pain including its nature, the various tools for assessment, and the various pharmacological agents (both conventional and upcoming) available at our disposal to respond to post spinal surgery pain. PMID:26288544

  8. A review of the current management and treatment options for superficial venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Henry T; Bush, Ruth L

    2014-10-01

    The recognition of lower extremity venous disease as a significant cause of morbidity and lower quality of life, afflicting up to 25 % of Western populations, has led to rapid and drastic improvements in treatment options as well as an increasing awareness of the disease. Superficial venous disease, a frequent medical problem encountered in clinical practices, is now a common reason for referral to providers offering a spectrum of interventions. Venous guidelines have been set forth by the American Venous Forum and Society for Vascular Surgery covering simple spider veins to chronic venous ulcerations. (Gloviczki et al. J Vas Surg 53:2S-48S, 2011) This review provides an overview of the modern management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

  9. Management options for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a regional perspective on value.

    PubMed

    Ollendorf, Daniel A; Migliaccio-Walle, Kristen; Colby, Jennifer A; Pearson, Steven D

    2013-05-01

    Use of comparative effectiveness information in local healthcare decisions can be confounded by variations in practice, barriers to access and population demographics. The New England Comparative Effectiveness Public Advisory Council was convened as a public deliberative panel that considers evidence on the comparative clinical effectiveness and comparative value of a variety of therapeutic interventions. The council is tasked with making summary judgments on the evidence and recommendations for applying the evidence in medical and drug coverage policy, as well as initiating educational efforts for patients and clinicians. The New England Comparative Effectiveness Public Advisory Council met in June 2012 to discuss management options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guided by a recent comparative effectiveness review from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and supplementary economic analyses conducted by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review. This article summarizes the deliberations and reflects on lessons learned regarding use of region-specific economic analyses to guide decision-making.

  10. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  11. Contraception in women with epilepsy: pharmacokinetic interactions, contraceptive options, and management.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Caryn; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Contraceptive counseling is a critical component of the management of the female patient with epilepsy because of the increased risk of pregnancy associated with epilepsy and the multitude of interactions between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraception. Steroid hormones and many of the AEDs are substrates for the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, in particular, the 3A4 isoenzyme. As a result, concomitant use of hormonal contraceptives and AEDs may pose a risk for unexpected pregnancy, seizures, and drug-related adverse effects. The risk of combined oral contraceptive (COC) failure is slightly increased in the presence of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme-inducing AEDs. Several AEDs induce the production of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) to which the progestins are tightly bound, resulting in lower concentrations of free progestin that may also lead to COC failure. There is no increase in the risk of COC failure in women taking nonenzyme-inducing AEDs. Oral contraceptives significantly increase the metabolism of lamotrigine, posing a risk of seizures when hormonal agents are initiated and/or toxicity during pill-free weeks. There is no evidence that COCs increase seizures in women with epilepsy. While higher dose COCs are one contraceptive option for women on enzyme-inducing AEDs, a variety of other options are available. Injectable contraception (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) appears effective with AED use, but the potential for bone mineral density loss is a concern. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) and barrier methods do not rely on hormonal components for contraceptive efficacy, and are therefore appropriate to recommend for use in women using enzyme-inducing medications. This chapter reviews the evidence regarding the pharmacokinetic interaction between AEDs and oral contraceptive hormones, the known or potential interactions with alternative contraceptive methods, and provides practical advice for management of contraceptive needs in reproductive

  12. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, J.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    PubMed

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland.

  14. The outcomes of 31 cases of trisomy 13 diagnosed in utero with various management options.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken; Sasaki, Aiko; Wada, Seiji; Wada, Yuka; Tsukamoto, Keiko; Kosaki, Rika; Ito, Yushi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2017-04-01

    There are few reports on the prognosis of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 13 in relation to postnatal management. The aim of this study was to report on the prenatal and postnatal outcomes and postnatal management of trisomy 13 fetuses that were prenatally diagnosed at our center between 2003 and 2015. The data were retrospectively reviewed from medical records. Of the 31 cases of trisomy 13, 12 patients were diagnosed before 22 weeks of gestation, and 19 were diagnosed at or after 22 weeks of gestation. Nine families opted for termination of the pregnancy, 14 fetuses died, and 8 were born alive. Aggressive treatment was requested in two of the live births, with one patient achieving long-term survival (7 years). The other died during infancy (Day 61). One out of four who received palliative treatment is alive at two years of age with only nutrition supplementation. These three patients who achieved neonatal survival had few structural anomalies. Fetal death and early neonatal death are common in trisomy 13; however, fetuses that receive medical treatment for cases without major ultrasound abnormalities may achieve neonatal survival. Therefore, it is useful to provide comprehensive information, including precise ultrasound findings and treatment options, to parents with trisomy 13 fetuses during genetic counseling.

  15. Preeclampsia – Aetiology, Current Diagnostics and Clinical Management, New Therapy Options and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tallarek, A.-C.; Huppertz, B.; Stepan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease for which the exact causes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. However, in the past few years it has become clear that a placental imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins is the decisive pathogenetic factor for the occurrence of preeclampsia. With the possibility to measure these angiogenic factors (sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) in maternal blood full new diagnostic possibilities have been opened that enable the certain diagnosis or exclusion of the diseases as well as a short-term prognosis to be made. In secondary prevention the current data situation for ASA confirms a moderate but measurable utility. The management concept depends on gestational age. In the case of early clinical manifestations (< 34th week of pregnancy) the clinical management in a perinatal centre remains unchanged with foeto-maternal monitoring and induction of pulmonary maturation, symptomatic therapy under careful blood pressure lowering and determination of the optimal delivery time. A balance must be made here between foetal immaturity and maternal risks upon prolongations. The pathomechanism of anti-angiogenic overload with sFlt-1 provides a starting point for first therapeutic interventions. The present article gives an overview of current diagnostic options and presents possible future therapeutic perspectives for discussion. PMID:26640284

  16. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) comparison of three management options for waste papers: bioethanol production, recycling and incineration with energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Templer, Richard; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental profiles and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for bioethanol production from waste papers and to compare them with the alternative waste management options of recycling or incineration with energy recovery. Bioethanol production scenarios both with and without pre-treatments were conducted. It was found that an oxidative lime pre-treatment reduced GHG emissions and overall environmental burdens for a newspaper-to-bioethanol process whereas a dilute acid pre-treatment raised GHG emissions and overall environmental impacts for an office paper-to-bioethanol process. In the comparison of bioethanol production systems with alternative management of waste papers by different technologies, it was found that the environmental profiles of each system vary significantly and this variation affects the outcomes of the specific comparisons made. Overall, a number of configurations of bioethanol production from waste papers offer environmentally favourable or neutral profiles when compared with recycling or incineration.

  17. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes.

  18. Technological and policy options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents issues and explores options for reducing emissions of carbonaceous pollutants from mobile sources. It discusses first what can be expected from current and proposed emission control system designed chiefly to reduce the output of regulated pollutants, then explores opportunities for incremental control of emissions of carbon (bound in gaseous form) that appear at this time to have good potential for success. The presentation of current and anticipated control technologies is organized by vehicle type, considering, in turn, passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and non-highway vehicular modes. The discussion of incremental control opportunities focuses first on hardware and (existing) fuels modification for reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency, then turns to advanced vehicular technologies and fuels, new refrigerants (to replace CFCs, which, in addition to being implicated in the destruction of stratospheric ozone, are molecule for molecule more potent than carbon dioxide as greenhouse gases), and in-use emissions testing and travel reduction strategies. Finally, opportunities for continuation of the current (net) downward trend in fuel consumption by most non-highway transportation activities are described. The paper concludes that evolutionary developments in most transportation activities-- developments driven in large measure by simple economics--could be at least as effective in mitigating the contribution of (domestic) mobile sources to greenhouse warming'' as any specific revolutionary change. 41 refs.

  19. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  20. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  1. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision

  2. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, strategic options for the management of toxic substances: Electric power generation (fossil fuel) sector, report of stakeholder consultations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Electric Power Generation Sector Issue Table was formed to assess the management of toxic substances released from that sector, and more specifically, to develop (where warranted) goals, targets, and effective and efficient options for managing toxic releases in order to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment. This strategic options report sets out the recommendations of Issue Table members for the management of toxic substances. The introduction includes an industry profile and a review of the provincial management of electric power sector strategic options priority (SOP) substances. Chapter 2 discusses what substances are toxic, estimates releases of SOP substances from the sector, and reviews Issue Table approaches to risk assessment. Chapter 3 outlines Issue Table activities. Chapter 4 screens toxic substance management options, with evaluation of options against 13 groups of criteria. Chapter 5 presents toxic substances management proposals made to the Issue Table by the electric power generation industry, environmental groups, and Environment Canada.

  3. Current classification, treatment options, and new perspectives in the management of adipocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    De Vita, Alessandro; Mercatali, Laura; Recine, Federica; Pieri, Federica; Riva, Nada; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Liverani, Chiara; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors arising from soft tissue or bone, with an uncertain etiology and difficult classification. Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) account for around 1% of all adult cancers. Till date, more than 50 histologic subtypes have been identified. Adipocyte sarcoma or liposarcoma (LPS) is one of the most common STS subtypes, accounting for 15% of all sarcomas, with an incidence of 24% of all extremity STSs and 45% of all retroperitoneal STSs. The new World Health Organization classification system has divided LPS into four different subgroups: atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated LPS, dedifferentiated LPS, myxoid LPS, and pleomorphic LPS. These lesions can develop at any location and exhibit different aggressive potentials reflecting their morphologic diversity and clinical behavior. Patients affected by LPS should be managed in specialized multidisciplinary cancer centers. Whereas surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for localized disease, the benefits of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are still unclear. Systemic treatment, particularly chemotherapy, is still limited in metastatic disease. Despite the efforts toward a better understanding of the biology of LPS, the outcome of advanced and metastatic patients remains poor. The advent of targeted therapies may lead to an improvement of treatment options and clinical outcomes. A larger patient enrollment into translational and clinical studies will help increase the knowledge of the biological behavior of LPSs, test new drugs, and introduce new methodological studies, that is, on treatment response. PMID:27785071

  4. Adaptive Flood Risk Management Under Climate Change Uncertainty Using Real Options and Optimization.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Michelle; Kapelan, Zoran; Gouldby, Ben

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that adaptive and flexible flood risk strategies are required to account for future uncertainties. Development of such strategies is, however, a challenge. Climate change alone is a significant complication, but, in addition, complexities exist trying to identify the most appropriate set of mitigation measures, or interventions. There are a range of economic and environmental performance measures that require consideration, and the spatial and temporal aspects of evaluating the performance of these is complex. All these elements pose severe difficulties to decisionmakers. This article describes a decision support methodology that has the capability to assess the most appropriate set of interventions to make in a flood system and the opportune time to make these interventions, given the future uncertainties. The flood risk strategies have been explicitly designed to allow for flexible adaptive measures by capturing the concepts of real options and multiobjective optimization to evaluate potential flood risk management opportunities. A state-of-the-art flood risk analysis tool is employed to evaluate the risk associated to each strategy over future points in time and a multiobjective genetic algorithm is utilized to search for the optimal adaptive strategies. The modeling system has been applied to a reach on the Thames Estuary (London, England), and initial results show the inclusion of flexibility is advantageous, while the outputs provide decisionmakers with supplementary knowledge that previously has not been considered.

  5. Novel and Expanded Oncology Drug Approvals of 2016-PART 1: New Options in Solid Tumor Management.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Todd C; Saller, James; Walko, Christine M

    2017-02-15

    The nonradiologic medical management of solid tumors has evolved from the use of traditional cytotoxic agents to modern targeted therapies, monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapies. Advances in the understanding of cancer biology and therapeutic strategies have resulted in increasing numbers of new drug applications and approvals. Consequently, practicing oncologists need to learn how the newly available agents function and what toxicities to watch for, as well as ways to optimize the use of both new drugs and previously approved drugs with new indications. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration approved three novel drugs for the treatment of solid malignancies-olaratumab in selected patients with soft-tissue sarcoma, atezolizumab for the treatment of bladder cancer, and rucaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer; also in 2016, the use of previously approved anticancer agents (including atezolizumab) was expanded into 11 new patient populations. The diversity of options for patients is evident in the broad range of the 2016 approvals, which include immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies, monoclonal antibodies, and traditional cytotoxic agents. This article focuses on the new agents and indications that emerged in 2016 for solid tumor treatment. We review the drug indications, mechanisms of action, pivotal trial data, pertinent toxicities, use in special populations, and the appropriate clinical contexts for treatment planning.

  6. Management options for refractory chronic myeloid leukemia: considerations for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2013-07-01

    Despite the excellent results obtained with standard-dose imatinib as first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase, one third of patients do not achieve an optimal response and require alternative therapies due to the emergence of drug resistance. Studies of resistance mechanisms, first tested in vitro and then in vivo, have driven the development of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), dasatinib and nilotinib. These agents have been proven effective in a large number of patients resistant to imatinib and are also effective in older patients. The use of second-generation TKIs in first-line treatment has increased the rate of cytogenetic and molecular responses and reduced the number of patients experiencing disease progression. In this review, we detail the various mechanisms of resistance and management options for refractory patients, in particular in older patients. No differences in terms of efficacy were reported in this subset of patients when treated with nilotinib or dasatinib after imatinib resistance. Results of trials that tested second-generation TKIs as first-line treatment showed similar results in older and younger patients.

  7. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    PubMed

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

  8. Reactor-Based Management of Used Nuclear Fuel: Assessment of Major Options

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip J. Finck; Roald A. Wigeland; Robert N. Hill

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

  9. A Study on Optimized Management Options for the Wolsong Low- and Intermediate - Level Waste Disposal Center in Korea - 13479

    SciTech Connect

    Park, JooWan; Kim, DongSun; Choi, DongEun

    2013-07-01

    The safe and effective management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Currently, for permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) is under construction. It will accommodate a total of 800,000 drums at the final stage after stepwise expansion. As an implementing strategy for cost-effective development of the WLDC, various disposal options suitable for waste classification schemes would be considered. It is also needed an optimized management of the WLDC by taking a countermeasure of volume reduction treatment. In this study, various management options to be applied to each waste class are analyzed in terms of its inventory and disposal cost. For the volume reduction and stabilization of waste, the vitrification and plasma melting methods are considered for combustible and incombustible waste, respectively. (authors)

  10. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  11. Career options.

    PubMed

    2011-06-24

    Practitioners at all levels can plan their future career options through the NHS Nursing Career Framework interactive tool. The tool builds on the pathway-based framework set out in the post-registration career framework for nurses. Career pathways are outlined under each branch and the specialties within the branches, and cover topics including clinical careers, management and moving into education or research.

  12. Environmental assessment of management options for nutrient flows in the food chain in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Fanghao; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Wenqi; Velthof, Gerard; Qin, Wei; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-07-02

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) costs of food production have increased greatly in China during the last 30 years, leading to eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate leaching to groundwater, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present the results of scenario analyses in which possible changes in food production-consumption in China for the year 2030 were explored. Changes in food chain structure, improvements in technology and management, and combinations of these on food supply and environmental quality were analyzed with the NUFER model. In the business as usual scenario, N and P fertilizer consumption in 2030 will be driven by population growth and diet changes and will both increase by 25%. N and P losses will increase by 44 and 73%, respectively, relative to the reference year 2005. Scenarios with increased imports of animal products and feed instead of domestic production, and with changes in the human diet, indicate reductions in fertilizer consumption and N and P losses relative to the business as usual scenario. Implementation of a package of integrated nutrient management measures may roughly nullify the increases in losses in the business as usual scenario and may greatly increase the efficiency of N and P throughout the whole food chain.

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3) for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the ...

  14. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Control Technology Options within the Energy, Water and Food Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Tareq; Korre, Anna; Nie, Zhenggang; Shah, Nilay

    2015-04-01

    The utilisation of Energy, Water and Food (EWF) resources can be described as a nexus of complex linkages embodied in industrial and natural processes. Food production is one such example of a system that mobilises EWF resources to deliver a product which is highly influenced by the efficiency of the industrial processes contributing to it and the conditions of the surrounding natural environment. Aggregating the utilisation of EWF resources into interconnected sub-systems is necessary for the accurate representation of the system's dynamics in terms of its material flow and resource consumption. The methodology used in this study is an extension of previous work developed regarding nexus analysis (Al-Ansari et al. 2014a, Al-Ansari et al. 2014b). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to prepare detailed models of the sub-system components, determine the linkages between the different nexus constituents and evaluate impacts on the natural environment. The nexus system is comprised of water sub-systems represented by a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process. Energy sub-systems for power generation include models for a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and solar Photovoltaics (PV) energy generation, as well as an amine based CO2 capture process enabling the utilisation of CO2 for the artificial fertilization of crops. The agricultural sub-systems include the production and application of fertilizers and the raising of livestock. A biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) for power generation using waste manure from the livestock sub-system is also included. The objective of this study is to consider a conventional food system in Qatar and enhance its environmental performance by using a nexus approach to examine different scenarios and operating modes. For the Qatar case study, three scenarios and four modes of operation were developed as part of the analysis. The baseline scenario uses fossil fuel to power the entire EWF nexus system using CCGT, the

  15. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic

  16. A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Seppälä, Jyri

    2010-03-15

    The decisions on risk management (RM) of contaminated sites in Finland have typically been driven by practical factors such as time and money. However, RM is a multifaceted task that generally involves several additional determinants, e.g. performance and environmental effects of remediation methods, psychological and social factors. Therefore, we adopted a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and developed a decision support tool (DST) that is viable in decision-making in such a complex situation. The basic components of the DST are based on the Dutch REC system. However, our DST is more case-specific and allows the consideration of the type, magnitude and scale of contamination, land use, environmental conditions and socio-cultural aspects (e.g. loss of cultural heritage, image aspects). The construction of the DST was started by structuring the decision problem using a value tree. Based on this work we adopted the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) for data aggregation. The final DST was demonstrated by two model sites for which the RM alternatives and site-specific data were created on the basis of factual remediation projects and by interviewing experts. The demonstration of the DST was carried out in a workshop where representatives of different stakeholders were requested to rank and weight the decision criteria involved. To get information on the consistency of the ranking of the RM alternatives, we used different weighting techniques (ratio estimation and pair-wise weighting) and alternative ways to treat individual respondents' weights in calculating the preference scores for each RM alternative. These dissimilar approaches resulted in some differences in the preference order of the RM alternatives. The demonstration showed that attention has to be paid to the proper description of the site, the principles of the procedure and the decision criteria. Nevertheless, the procedure proved to enable efficient communication between different stakeholders

  17. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    ) and 2009 (1,799 carcasses removed) failed to measurably influence the DNA quantity of C. shasta in targeted waters. Combined with the high numbers of carcasses that contributed myxospores, we therefore deemed that this labor-intensive approach is not a viable management option to reduce the infectivity of C. shasta in Chinook Salmon in the Klamath River. Received January 23, 2015; accepted September 28, 2015.

  18. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. transportation sector produces nearly one-third of total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among various transportation control strategies evaluated in the U.S., use of vehicles fueled with alternative fuels has been proposed to help solve urban air pollution problems, reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and reduce transportation GHG emissions. GHG emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles depend on type of fuels used, type of primary energy sources used to produce the fuels, and energy efficiencies of vehicles and up-stream energy production activities. Past studies have shown widely-varied, sometimes contradicting, results of GHG emissions by alternative-fueled vehicles. A fuel-cycle model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to estimate fuel-cycle emissions and energy consumption of various alternative-fueled vehicles. The model, called Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET), calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methanol, and nitrous oxide). In this paper, the GREET will be used to estimate fuel-cycle GHG emission impacts of near-term and long-term alternative-fueled vehicle technology options.

  19. Stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome: current options and new targets for management.

    PubMed

    Elser, Denise M

    2012-05-01

    In the United States, office visits for women seeking treatment for urinary incontinence more than doubled between 1994 and 2000, from 1845 per 100 000 women. This review article addresses treatment options for 2 common types of incontinence in women: stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and detrusor overactivity (DO), commonly referred to as urge urinary incontinence (UUI). In the past, those with SUI typically faced limited treatment options, such as Kegel exercises, pessaries, or major surgery (Burch or Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz operations). However, treatment options for women also included anticholinergic medications, behavioral therapy, and implantable neuromodulation. In recent years, more options have become available. For women with SUI, a variety of minimally invasive synthetic midurethral sling approaches (eg, retropubic, transobturator, and single incision) and office-based procedures (eg, periurethral injection of bulking agents and radiofrequency collagen denaturation [Renessa®; Novasys Medical]) are now offered. More outpatient options will hopefully be available soon, including an inflatable, free-floating balloon to act as a shock absorber, and injection of muscle-derived stem cells into the periurethral tissue. Women with UUI now have targeted options, such as posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and intravesical injections of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®; Allergan, Inc.), in addition to nonoral systemic medications.

  20. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  1. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  2. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or

  3. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants in subantarctic soils: an effective management option.

    PubMed

    Bramley-Alves, Jessica; Wasley, Jane; King, Catherine K; Powell, Shane; Robinson, Sharon A

    2014-09-01

    Accidental fuel spills on world heritage subantarctic Macquarie Island have caused considerable contamination. Due to the island's high latitude position, its climate, and its fragile ecosystem, traditional methods of remediation are unsuitable for on-site clean up. We investigated the tolerance of a subantarctic native tussock grass, Poa foliosa (Hook. f.), to Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel and its potential to reduce SAB fuel contamination via phytoremediation. Toxicity of SAB fuel to P. foliosa was assessed in an 8 month laboratory growth trial under growth conditions which simulated the island's environment. Single seedlings were planted into 1 L pots of soil spiked with SAB fuel at concentrations of 1000, 5 000, 10,000, 2000 and 40,000 mg/kg (plus control). Plants were harvested at 0, 2, 4 and 8 months and a range of plant productivity endpoints were measured (biomass production, plant morphology and photosynthetic efficiency). Poa foliosa was highly tolerant across all SAB fuel concentrations tested with respect to biomass, although higher concentrations of 20,000 and 40,000 mg SAB/kg soil caused slight reductions in leaf length, width and area. To assess the phytoremediation potential of P. foliosa (to 10 000 mg/kg), soil from the planted pots was compared with that from paired unplanted pots at each SAB fuel concentration. The effect of the plant on SAB fuel concentrations and the associated microbial communities found within the soil (total heterotrophs and hydrocarbon degraders) were compared between planted and unplanted treatments at the 0, 2, 4 and 8 month harvest periods. The presence of plants resulted in significantly less SAB fuel in soils at 2 months and a return to background concentration by 8 months. Microbes did not appear to be the sole driving force behind the observed hydrocarbon loss. This study provides evidence that phytoremediation using P. foliosa is a valuable remediation option for use at Macquarie Island, and may be

  4. DRUMS: Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option for high throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New technologies for analyzing biological samples, like next generation sequencing, are producing a growing amount of data together with quality scores. Moreover, software tools (e.g., for mapping sequence reads), calculating transcription factor binding probabilities, estimating epigenetic modification enriched regions or determining single nucleotide polymorphism increase this amount of position-specific DNA-related data even further. Hence, requesting data becomes challenging and expensive and is often implemented using specialised hardware. In addition, picking specific data as fast as possible becomes increasingly important in many fields of science. The general problem of handling big data sets was addressed by developing specialized databases like HBase, HyperTable or Cassandra. However, these database solutions require also specialized or distributed hardware leading to expensive investments. To the best of our knowledge, there is no database capable of (i) storing billions of position-specific DNA-related records, (ii) performing fast and resource saving requests, and (iii) running on a single standard computer hardware. Results Here, we present DRUMS (Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option), satisfying demands (i)-(iii). It tackles the weaknesses of traditional databases while handling position-specific DNA-related data in an efficient manner. DRUMS is capable of storing up to billions of records. Moreover, it focuses on optimizing relating single lookups as range request, which are needed permanently for computations in bioinformatics. To validate the power of DRUMS, we compare it to the widely used MySQL database. The test setting considers two biological data sets. We use standard desktop hardware as test environment. Conclusions DRUMS outperforms MySQL in writing and reading records by a factor of two up to a factor of 10000. Furthermore, it can work with significantly larger data sets. Our work focuses on mid-sized data

  5. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate colorectal cancer screening options for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Coldman, A.J.; Phillips, N.; Brisson, J.; Flanagan, W.; Wolfson, M.; Nadeau, C.; Fitzgerald, N.; Miller, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several screening methods for colorectal cancer (crc) are available, and some have been shown by randomized trials to be effective. In the present study, we used a well-developed population health simulation model to compare the risks and benefits of a variety of screening scenarios. Tests considered were the fecal occult blood test (fobt), the fecal immunochemical test (fit), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Outcomes considered included years of life gained, crc cases and deaths prevented, and direct health system costs. Methods A natural history model of crc was implemented and calibrated to specified targets within the framework of the Cancer Risk Management Model (crmm) from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. The crmm-crc permits users to enter their own parameter values or to use program-specified base values. For each of 23 screening scenarios, we used the crmm-crc to run 10 million replicate simulations. Results Using base parameter values and some user-specified values in the crmm-crc, and comparing our screening scenarios with no screening, all screening scenarios were found to reduce the incidence of and mortality from crc. The fobt was the least effective test; it was not associated with lower net cost. Colonoscopy screening was the most effective test; it had net costs comparable to those for several other strategies considered, but required more than 3 times the colonoscopy resources needed by other approaches. After colonoscopy, strategies based on the fit were predicted to be the most effective. In sensitivity analyses performed for the fobt and fit screening strategies, fobt parameter values associated with high-sensitivity formulations were associated with a substantial increase in test effectiveness. The fit was more cost-effective at the 50 ng/mL threshold than at the 100 ng/mL threshold. Conclusions The crmm-crc provides a sophisticated and flexible environment in which to evaluate crc control options. All screening

  6. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... implement integrity management programs. In addition to a minor correction in terminology, this document...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  7. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations

  8. NORM management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  9. 76 FR 31998 - Cancellation of an Optional Form by the Office of Personnel Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... application process for both Federal agencies and job seekers, consistent with the goals of Federal hiring... the Optional Application for Federal Employment. The information contained in the OF 612 is now incorporated in the online Resume Builder on the USAJOBS Web site. The need to maintain the OF 612 as...

  10. Estimating gas kick arrival to better manage surface flow

    SciTech Connect

    Merryman, J.

    1997-06-01

    There are many quality, expertly designed programs for teaching rig crews prevention and control of well kicks. Much time and money has been spent training rig crews for procedures and methods to avoid kicks, and what to do if you have one, even though all accepted practices were followed. One false/bad result from this training is that individuals have come away from this training believing that once a gas kick is circulated through the choke, all problems are simple and manageable, i.e., the danger has passed. What you do with gas once it is downstream of the choke has not been given enough emphasis in some training programs, including the one the author is involved in. This article, prepared from experiences on actual rig locations in Wyoming and Argentina, and developed for well control training in Parker Drilling Co.`s Training Center, Odessa, Texas, describes a method for estimating the time, in pump strokes and/or minutes, for a gas kick to reach surface. Reducing pump strokes (circulating flowrate) and knowing available time to gas kick arrival allows the crew to prepare surface handling equipment. Common misconceptions about gas handling and potential resulting problems are noted. An example calculation describes the calculation procedure.

  11. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  12. Report on ISS O2 Production, Gas Supply and Partial Pressure Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan N.; Cook, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is used on International Space Station (ISS) for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Nitrogen is used to maintain total pressure and account for losses associated with leakage and operational losses. Oxygen and nitrogen have been supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to the on-orbit oxygen production capability. Starting in 2014, new high pressure oxygen/nitrogen tanks are available to launch on commercial cargo vehicles and will replace the high pressure gas source that Shuttle used to provide. To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen and nitrogen partial pressures are controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable partial pressures along with the increased ISS cabin volume are utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen and nitrogen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes the amount of gas supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing partial pressures along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  13. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  14. Emerging treatment options in the management of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Filosso, Pier Luigi; Sandri, Alberto; Oliaro, Alberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Cassinis, Maria Carla; Ricardi, Umberto; Lausi, Paolo Olivo; Asioli, Sofia; Ruffini, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) has become the leading cancer-related cause of death in the US and in developed European countries in the last decade. Its incidence is still growing in females and in smokers. Surgery remains the treatment of choice whenever feasible, but unfortunately, many patients have an advanced LC at presentation and one-third of potentially operable patients do not receive a tumor resection because of their low compliance for intervention due to their compromised cardiopulmonary functions and other comorbidities. For these patients the alternative therapeutic options are stereotactic radiotherapy or percutaneous radiofrequency. When surgery is planned, an anatomical resection (segmentectomy, lobectomy, bilobectomy, pneumonectomy, sleeve lobectomy) is usually performed; wedge resection (considered as a nonanatomical one) is generally the accepted option for unfit patients. The recent increase in discovering small and peripheral LCs and/or ground-glass opacities with screening programs has dramatically increased surgeons’ interest in limited resections. The role of these resections is discussed. Also, recent improvements in molecular biology techniques have increased the chemotherapic options for neoadjuvant LC treatment. The role and the importance of targeted chemotherapy is also discussed. PMID:28210115

  15. Using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 To Find a Cost Effective Waste Management Option. - 12241

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Matt; Frost, Matt

    2012-07-01

    The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Project in Portsmouth Ohio was faced with an interesting dilemma. During hot functional testing in August 2010, an upset condition caused gaseous depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) to come in contact with the hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor stream. Although the resulting uranium contamination found in the condensed aqueous hydrofluoric acid was very low, it exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) authorized release limit. After evaluating several commercial options for treatment and disposal using the guidelines found in DOE Order 435.1, Waste Control Specialists LLC was selected for the treatment of the waste, with EnergySolutions' Clive facility selected for disposal of the treated residues. The waste was safely transported from Piketon, Ohio to Andrews, Texas, where it was treated to meet the land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), and was disposed in EnergySolutions operational mixed waste cell. The entire effort was interesting for several reasons. The waste was generated during the last year of the first Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride contractor. The waste became additional scope for the new contractor, adding time delays and introducing new personnel into the project. The effort was also unique because it demonstrated the process mandated by DOE Order 435.1 to evaluate all options, including commercial options, could reveal solutions to waste management problems that are currently available and more cost effective, but not well know within the DOE complex. (authors)

  16. Many objective optimization and impact assessment of water management options in the Jaguaribe Basin of North East Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jaguaribe river basin in the north east of Brazil lies in the country's driest state, Ceará. Rainfall is concentrated in six months of the year, evapotranspiration can reach 2000 mm per year and a high proportion of the population relies on irrigated agriculture for their subsistence or livelihood. The current water management strategy involves negotiating monthly release rates from each of the basin's three major reservoirs twice a year. The state water management company leads these negotiations with representatives of various water user groups; releases are decided based on the currently stored volume and limited modelling of release scenarios. Presently reservoirs are managed such that municipal demands are guaranteed for 30 months from the date of negotiation. We use multi-objective optimization to search for the pareto-optimal number of months of municipal demand to be guaranteed, and the shape of release rules (based on stored volume). System performance is assessed by comparing flow-duration curves and livelihood factors, such as riparian farm land availability and fishery quality , in addition to the satisfaction of demands in the region supplied by each reservoir. Historical monthly flows are used to simulate the system over 90 years. Results shows the trade-offs between different performance measures and the effects of management option combinations on different water users. A few climate change projections of reservoir inflows are used to assess how a selection of the resulting release rules might perform against the same measures under altered future hydrological conditions. The proposed approach helps planners evaluate the impacts of management options and allows finding balanced stakeholder-backed ways to reduce negative impacts on the environment and the region's vulnerable groups while maintaining overall system performance.

  17. Estimation and evaluation of management options to control and/or reduce the risk of not complying with commercial sterility.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Magras, Catherine; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-11-20

    In a previous study, a modular process risk model, from the raw material reception to the final product storage, was built to estimate the risk of a UHT-aseptic line of not complying with commercial sterility (Pujol et al., 2015). This present study was focused on demonstrating how the model (updated version with uncertainty and variability separated and 2(nd) order Monte Carlo procedure run) could be used to assess quantitatively the influence of management options. This assessment was done in three steps: pinpoint which process step had the highest influence on the risk, identify which management option(s) could be the most effective to control and/or reduce the risk, and finally evaluate quantitatively the influence of changing process setting(s) on the risk. For Bacillus cereus, it was identified that during post-process storage in an aseptic tank, there was potentially an air re-contamination due to filter efficiency loss (efficiency loss due to successive in-place sterilizations after cleaning operations), followed by B. cereus growth. Two options were then evaluated: i) reducing by one fifth of the number of filter sterilizations before renewing the filters, ii) designing new UHT-aseptic lines without an aseptic tank, i.e. without a storage period after the thermal process and before filling. Considering the uncertainty in the model, it was not possible to confirm whether these options had a significant influence on the risk associated with B. cereus. On the other hand, for Geobacillus stearothermophilus, combinations of heat-treatment time and temperature enabling the control or reduction in risk by a factor of ca. 100 were determined; for ease of operational implementation, they were presented graphically in the form of iso-risk curves. For instance, it was established that a heat treatment of 138°C for 31s (instead of 138°C for 25s) enabled a reduction in risk to 18×10(-8) (95% CI=[10; 34]×10(-8)), instead of 578×10(-8) (95% CI=[429; 754]×10

  18. New Insights into Potential Prevention and Management Options for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, Janet; Colosimo, Maree; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neurological complications such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and neuropathic pain are frequent side effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents. An increasing survival rate and frequent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy treatments involving neurotoxic agents makes it imperative that accurate diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these neurological complications be implemented. Methods: A consideration was undertaken of the current options regarding protective and treatment interventions for patients undergoing chemotherapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy agent or experience with CIPN. Current knowledge on the mechanism of action has also been identified. The following databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CNKI, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant article retrieval. Results: A range of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and herbal medicine treatments were identified that either showed efficacy or had some evidence of efficacy. Duloxetine was the most effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of CIPN. Vitamin E demonstrated potential for the prevention of cisplatin-IPN. Intravenous glutathione for oxaliplatin, Vitamin B6 for both oxaliplatin and cisplatin, and omega 3 fatty acids for paclitaxel have shown protection for CIPN. Acetyl-L-carnitine may provide some relief as a treatment option. Acupuncture may be of benefit for some patients and Gosha-jinki-gan may be of benefit for protection from adverse effects of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions: Clinicians and researchers acknowledge that there are numerous challenges involved in understanding, preventing, and treating peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapeutic agents. New insights into mechanisms of action from chemotherapy agents may facilitate the development of novel preventative and treatment options, thereby enabling medical staff to better support patients by reducing this

  19. Management of Candida biofilms: state of knowledge and new options for prevention and eradication.

    PubMed

    Bujdáková, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida species (spp.) on medical devices represent a potential health risk. The focus of current research is searching for new options for the treatment and prevention of biofilm-associated infections using different approaches including modern nanotechnology. This review summarizes current information concerning the most relevant resistance/tolerance mechanisms to conventional drugs and a role of additional factors contributing to these phenomena in Candida spp. (mostly Candida albicans). Additionally, it provides an information update in prevention and eradication of a Candida biofilm including experiences with 'lock' therapy, potential utilization of small molecules in biomedical applications, and perspectives of using photodynamic inactivation in the control of a Candida biofilm.

  20. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    PubMed

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  1. Current management of fecal incontinence: Choosing amongst treatment options to optimize outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Koughnett, Julie Ann M; Wexner, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    The severity of fecal incontinence widely varies and can have dramatic devastating impacts on a person’s life. Fecal incontinence is common, though it is often under-reported by patients. In addition to standard treatment options, new treatments have been developed during the past decade to attempt to effectively treat fecal incontinence with minimal morbidity. Non-operative treatments include dietary modifications, medications, and biofeedback therapy. Currently used surgical treatments include repair (sphincteroplasty), stimulation (sacral nerve stimulation or posterior tibial nerve stimulation), replacement (artificial bowel sphincter or muscle transposition) and diversion (stoma formation). Newer augmentation treatments such as radiofrequency energy delivery and injectable materials, are minimally invasive tools that may be good options before proceeding to surgery in some patients with mild fecal incontinence. In general, more invasive surgical treatments are now reserved for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. Functional and quality of life related outcomes, as well as potential complications of the treatment must be considered and the treatment of fecal incontinence must be individualized to the patient. General indications, techniques, and outcomes profiles for the various treatments of fecal incontinence are discussed in detail. Choosing the most effective treatment for the individual patient is essential to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of fecal incontinence. PMID:24409050

  2. Life cycle assessment of three different management options for spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The potential environmental impact of Landfilling, Incineration and Recycling of spent household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal was compared using LCA methodology and the Recipe Impact Assessment method. Major contributors and improvement opportunities for each system were identified and scenarios for 2012 and 2016 legislation targets were evaluated. For 13 out of the 18 impact categories, the Recycling system is the worst alternative, Incineration is the worst option for 4 and Landfill is the worst option only for one impact category. However if additionally in each system the recovery of materials and energy is taken into account there is a noticeable advantage of the Recycling system for all the impact categories. The environmental profiles for 2012 and 2016 scenarios (25% and 45% recycling rates, respectively) show the dominance of the Recycling system for most of the impact categories. Based on the results of this study, it is questioned whether there are environmental benefits of recycling abroad the household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal and, since the low environmental performance of the Recycling system is particularly due to the international transport of the batteries to the recycling plant, is foreseen that a recycling facility located in Portugal, could bring a positive contribution to the environmental impact of the legislation compliance.

  3. Decision-making for ecosystem-based management: evaluating options for a krill fishery with an ecosystem dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Watters, G M; Hill, S L; Hinke, J T; Matthews, J; Reid, K

    2013-06-01

    Decision-makers charged with implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) rely on scientists to predict the consequences of decisions relating to multiple, potentially conflicting, objectives. Such predictions are inherently uncertain, and this can be a barrier to decision-making. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources requires managers of Southern Ocean fisheries to sustain the productivity of target stocks, the health and resilience of the ecosystem, and the performance of the fisheries themselves. The managers of the Antarctic krill fishery in the Scotia Sea and southern Drake Passage have requested advice on candidate management measures consisting of a regional catch limit and options for subdividing this among smaller areas. We developed a spatially resolved model that simulates krill-predator-fishery interactions and reproduces a plausible representation of past dynamics. We worked with experts and stakeholders to identify (1) key uncertainties affecting our ability to predict ecosystem state; (2) illustrative reference points that represent the management objectives; and (3) a clear and simple way of conveying our results to decision-makers. We developed four scenarios that bracket the key uncertainties and evaluated candidate management measures in each of these scenarios using multiple stochastic simulations. The model emphasizes uncertainty and simulates multiple ecosystem components relating to diverse objectives. We summarize the potentially complex results as estimates of the risk that each illustrative objective will not be achieved (i.e., of the state being outside the range specified by the reference point). This approach allows direct comparisons between objectives. It also demonstrates that a candid appraisal of uncertainty, in the form of risk estimates, can be an aid, rather than a barrier, to understanding and using ecosystem model predictions. Management measures that reduce coastal fishing, relative to

  4. Western corn rootworm Diabrotica v. virgifera in Europe: status, and options for future management.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Deuker, A

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifero virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) (western corn rootworm, WCR) unfortunately is now a firmly established European maize pest without indigenous natural enemies. Twenty years after its first introduction into Europe by traffic and trade, eradication is wishful thinking and not longer a viable option. Instead, European legislation calls for toxicological emergency measures on a case by case basis where and when new infestations occur either by new invasions from the native Americas or by introductions from other European countries. It is unclear at which point in time such treatment systems will break down because of development of resistant strains or by other complications of this seemingly unstable situation. Rather than proceeding as usual, sustainable biological, biotechnical and cultural methods should be practiced. Prominent among them are trapping and survey with attractants in conjunction with traditional crop rotation and phytosanitation.

  5. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: current and future management options.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Mark; Thompson, Chris J

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent underlying pathophysiology. Hyponatraemia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and as such appropriate treatment is essential. Treatment options for SIADH include fluid restriction, demeclocycline, urea, frusemide and saline infusion, all of which have their limitations. The introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists has allowed clinicians to specifically target the underlying pathophysiology of SIADH. Initial studies have shown good efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of mild to moderate hyponatraemia. However, studies assessing the efficacy and safety of these agents in acute severe symptomatic hyponatraemia are awaited. Furthermore, the cost of these agents at present may limit their use.

  6. Management of the critical airway when an EXIT procedure is not an option: A case report.

    PubMed

    Diercks, Gillian R; Hartnick, Christopher J; Bates, Sara V

    2015-12-01

    Perinatal imaging facilitates detection of congenital head and neck masses to plan fetal procedures which secure the airway. Ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) procedures are preferred to protect the neonatal airway. Herein we present a case in which a neonate with a large oropharyngeal lymphovascular malformation was delivered and the airway successfully managed without an EXIT procedure using a multidisciplinary approach. Preparations for the non-EXIT delivery and critical airway management are described.

  7. Management Options for Patients with Chronic Back Pain Without an Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Lenny D.; Manusov, Eron G.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and management of low back pain is complex when there is no specific etiology such as cancer, fracture, or herniated disc. An organized approach to management that follows evidence based guidelines will facilitate care in a problem that reflects a lifetime prevalence of over 70 percent. The purpose of this review is to present a guideline to care for a common disabling process with a very heterogeneous etiology. PMID:25114558

  8. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM...

  9. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM...

  10. Personalizing, not patronizing: the case for patient autonomy by unbiased presentation of management options in stage I testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, J; Aparicio, J; Beyer, J; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Cullen, M; Gilligan, T; De Giorgi, U; De Santis, M; de Wit, R; Fosså, S D; Germà-Lluch, J R; Gillessen, S; Haugnes, H S; Honecker, F; Horwich, A; Lorch, A; Ondruš, D; Rosti, G; Stephenson, A J; Tandstad, T

    2015-05-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common neoplasm in males aged 15-40 years. The majority of patients have no evidence of metastases at diagnosis and thus have clinical stage I (CSI) disease [Oldenburg J, Fossa SD, Nuver J et al. Testicular seminoma and non-seminoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2013; 24(Suppl 6): vi125-vi132; de Wit R, Fizazi K. Controversies in the management of clinical stage I testis cancer. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 5482-5492.]. Management of CSI TC is controversial and options include surveillance and active treatment. Different forms of adjuvant therapy exist, including either one or two cycles of carboplatin chemotherapy or radiotherapy for seminoma and either one or two cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for non-seminoma. Long-term disease-specific survival is ∼99% with any of these approaches, including surveillance. While surveillance allows most patients to avoid additional treatment, adjuvant therapy markedly lowers the relapse rate. Weighing the net benefits of surveillance against those of adjuvant treatment depends on prioritizing competing aims such as avoiding unnecessary treatment, avoiding more burdensome treatment with salvage chemotherapy and minimizing the anxiety, stress and life disruption associated with relapse. Unbiased information about the advantages and disadvantages of surveillance and adjuvant treatment is a prerequisite for informed consent by the patient. In a clinical scenario like CSI TC, where different disease-management options produce indistinguishable long-term survival rates, patient values, priorities and preferences should be taken into account. In this review, we provide an overview about risk factors for relapse, potential benefits and harms of adjuvant chemotherapy and active surveillance and a rationale for involving patients in individualized decision making about their treatment rather than adopting

  11. Assessment of coastal management options by means of multilayered ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Ana M.; Ferreira, João G.; Nunes, João P.; Yan, Xiaojun; Bricker, Suzanne; Corner, Richard; Groom, Steve; Gu, Haifeng; Hawkins, Anthony J. S.; Hutson, Rory; Lan, Dongzhao; Silva, João D. Lencart e.; Pascoe, Philip; Telfer, Trevor; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a multilayered ecosystem modelling approach that combines the simulation of the biogeochemistry of a coastal ecosystem with the simulation of the main forcing functions, such as catchment loading and aquaculture activities. This approach was developed as a tool for sustainable management of coastal ecosystems. A key feature is to simulate management scenarios that account for changes in multiple uses and enable assessment of cumulative impacts of coastal activities. The model was applied to a coastal zone in China with large aquaculture production and multiple catchment uses, and where management efforts to improve water quality are under way. Development scenarios designed in conjunction with local managers and aquaculture producers include the reduction of fish cages and treatment of wastewater. Despite the reduction in nutrient loading simulated in three different scenarios, inorganic nutrient concentrations in the bay were predicted to exceed the thresholds for poor quality defined by Chinese seawater quality legislation. For all scenarios there is still a Moderate High to High nutrient loading from the catchment, so further reductions might be enacted, together with additional decreases in fish cage culture. The model predicts that overall, shellfish production decreases by 10%-28% using any of these development scenarios, principally because shellfish growth is being sustained by the substances to be reduced for improvement of water quality. The model outcomes indicate that this may be counteracted by zoning of shellfish aquaculture at the ecosystem level in order to optimize trade-offs between productivity and environmental effects. The present case study exemplifies the value of multilayered ecosystem modelling as a tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management and for the adoption of ecosystem approaches for marine resource management. This modelling approach can be applied worldwide, and may be particularly useful for the application of

  12. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Banar, Mufide Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750 tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management.

  13. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; De Schryver, Sarah; Mill, Jennifer; Mill, Christopher; Dery, Alizee; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. PMID:25368525

  14. Web-based citation management compared to EndNote: options for medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Gomis, Melissa; Gall, Carole; Brahmi, Frances A

    2008-01-01

    The authors of this article analyzed the differences in output when searching MEDLINE direct and MEDLINE via citation management software, EndNote X1, EndNote Web, and RefWorks. Several searches were performed on Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed directly. These searches were compared against the same searches conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed using the search features in EndNote X1, EndNote Web, and RefWorks. Findings indicated that for in-depth research users, should search the databases directly rather than through the citation management software interface. The search results indicated it would be appropriate to search databases via citation management software for citation verification tasks and for cursory keyword searching.

  15. An Estimation of Profitability of Investment Projects in The Oil and Gas Industry Using Real Options Theory / Ocena Opłacalności Projektów Inwestycyjnych W Przemyśle Naftowym Z Wykorzystaniem Teorii Opcji Realnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowski, Piotr; Stopa, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    Paper discusses issues relating to the valuation of investment efficiency in the oil and gas industry using a real options theory. The example of investment pricing using real options was depicted and it was confronted with the analysis executed with the use of traditional methods. Indicators commonly used to evaluate profitability of investment projects, based on a discounted cash flow method, have a few significant drawbacks, the most meaningful of which is staticity which means that any changes resulting from a decision process during the time of investment cannot be taken into consideration. In accordance with a methodology that is currently used, investment projects are analysed in a way that all the key decisions are made at the beginning and are irreversible. This approach assumes, that all the cash flows are specified and does not let the fact that during the time of investment there may appear new information, which could change its original form. What is also not analysed is the possibility of readjustment, due to staff managment's decisions, to the current market conditions, by expanding, speeding up/slowing down, abandoning or changing an outline of the undertaking. In result, traditional methods of investment projects valuation may lead to taking wrong decisions, e.g. giving up an owned exploitation licence or untimely liquidation of boreholes, which seem to be unprofitable. Due to all the above-mentioned there appears the necessity of finding some other methods which would let one make real and adequate estimations about investments in a petroleum industry especially when it comes to unconventional resources extraction. One of the methods which has been recently getting more and more approval in a world petroleum economics, is a real options pricing method. A real option is a right (but not an obligation) to make a decision connected with an investment in a specified time or time interval. According to the method a static model of pricing using DCF is

  16. Management Options in Advanced Prostate Cancer: What is the Role for Sipuleucel-T?

    PubMed

    Bitting, Rhonda L; Armstrong, Andrew J; George, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Most prostate cancer-related deaths occur in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until recently, only therapy with docetaxel and prednisone has been shown to prolong survival in men with metastatic CRPC. With the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approvals of sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate, all based on improvement in overall survival, the landscape for management of men with metastatic CRPC has dramatically changed. In this review we will discuss the pivotal clinical trial data leading to these approvals, with particular focus on the unique indication for sipuleucel-T and the implications for optimal management and sequencing of treatment in this patient population.

  17. Options for venous access in ambulatory care: issues in selection and management.

    PubMed

    Herbst, S L

    1996-01-01

    As advances in VAD technology continue, the biggest challenge becomes the ability to stay abreast of all the emerging devices and the evolutions in management and care. Various resources are available which provide guidelines and standards to enable providers in the care of patients with VADs (see Table 6). It is incumbent upon caregivers to disseminate information as it is gained through observations and experience with VADs. The literature must remain current and accessible to all caregivers in order to ensure optimal management of patients with VADs.

  18. Different Management Options for Transplant Ureteral Obstructions within an Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Debartolo, Merrit Marion; Copertino, Leonard Michael; Szafran, April Adams; Estrada, Chelsea Caron; Lynch, Patrick Gerard; Darras, Frank Sam

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction secondary to an inguinal hernia with transplant ureteral component is an extremely rare entity with only several case reports found in literature. In all previously reported cases, management of the obstruction involved temporary drainage with ureteral stenting or nephrostomy tube placements followed by delayed definitive repair. We present two case reports, here one being the first one managed by immediate definitive repair via ureteral reimplant and herniorrhaphy and a second case by delayed definitive repair after percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Both patients continued to do well postoperatively with normalization of renal function on follow-up. PMID:27144049

  19. Cracked tooth syndrome. Part 2: restorative options for the management of cracked tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Banerji, S; Mehta, S B; Millar, B J

    2010-06-01

    The second of this two part series on 'cracked tooth syndrome' will focus on the available methods for the immediate, intermediate and definitive management of patients affected by this condition. Included in this article is a comprehensive account of the relative merits/drawbacks of various restorative materials and their respective techniques of application for the treatment of symptomatic, incompletely fractured posterior teeth.

  20. The Role of Topiramate in the Management of Cocaine Addiction: a Possible Therapeutic Option.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Bonci, Antonello; Biagio Mercuri, Nicola; Pirritano, Domenico; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an antiepileptic drug able to play a role in both neurological and psychiatric disorders. TPM facilitates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission and inhibits glutamatergic transmission (i.e. AMPA/kainate receptors). Several studies reported that the modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission may reduce cocaine reinforcement. Therefore, TPM could be used in the management of cocaine dependence.

  1. Call It Trash, Garbage or Refuse: Four Case Studies Illustrate Community Waste Management Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazzi, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes four successful community programs dealing with waste management issues, developed with assistance from Keep America Beautiful System: litter prevention (Beatrice, Nebraska); composting yard waste (Centralia, Illinois); recycling (Lake Jackson, Texas); and waste-to-energy incineration (Gastonia, North Carolina). Notes related education…

  2. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: A review of manure management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. This is the second in a series of reports commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to evaluate mitigation pra...

  3. Modelling population dynamics and response to management options in the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Huber, K; Zenner, L; Bicout, D J

    2011-02-28

    The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a major pest and widespread ectoparasite of laying hens and other domestic and wild birds. Under optimal conditions, D. gallinae can complete its lifecycle in less than 10 days, leading to rapid proliferation of populations in poultry systems. This paper focuses on developing a theoretical model framework to describe the population dynamics of D. gallinae. This model is then used to test the efficacy and residual effect of different control options for managing D. gallinae. As well as allowing comparison between treatment options, the model also allows comparison of treatment efficacies to different D. gallinae life stages. Three different means for controlling D. gallinae populations were subjected to the model using computer simulations: mechanical cleaning (killing once at a given time all accessible population stages), sanitary clearance (starving the mite population for a given duration, e.g. between flocks) and acaricide treatment (killing a proportion of nymphs and adults during the persistence of the treatment). Simulations showed that mechanical cleaning and sanitary clearance alone could not eradicate the model D. gallinae population, although these methods did delay population establishment. In contrast, the complete eradication of the model D. gallinae population was achieved by several successive acaricide treatments in close succession, even when a relatively low treatment level was used.

  4. Update on the management of chronic eczema: new approaches and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease with worldwide prevalence, affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults. Recent evidence regarding pathogenesis has implicated epidermal barrier defects deriving from filagrin mutations with resulting secondary inflammation. In this report, the authors comprehensively review the literature on atopic dermatitis therapy, including topical and systemic options. Most cases of AD will benefit from emollients to enhance the barrier function of skin. Topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for most cases of AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus ointment, pimecrolimus cream) are considered second line therapy. Several novel barrier-enhancing prescription creams are also available. Moderate to severe cases inadequately controlled with topical therapy may require phototherapy or systemic therapy. The most commonly employed phototherapy modalites are narrow-band UVB, broadband UVB, and UVA1. Traditional systemic therapies include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine (considered to be the gold standard), methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and most recently leflunamide. Biologic therapies include recombinant monoclonal antibodies acting on the immunoglobulin E / interleukin-5 pathway (omalizumab, mepolizumab), acting as tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab), and acting as T-cell (alefacept) and B-cell (rituxumab) inhibitors, as well as interferon γ and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability are reviewed for each medication. PMID:21437065

  5. Tissue-selective estrogen complexes: a promising option for the comprehensive management of menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2010-07-01

    At menopause many women experience undesired symptoms such as hot flashes and those associated with vulvovaginal atrophy, and are susceptible to loss of bone mass. Menopausal therapies to date include various estrogen and estrogen-progestin (progesterone congener) formulations. However, both physicians and women became concerned about hormone-related therapies following publication of data from the Women's Health Initiative. Thus, the need exists for alternative therapies for postmenopausal women. Tissue-selective estrogen complexes (TSECs) are the pairing of estrogen(s) with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). The goal of developing a TSEC is to provide the clinical benefits of each of its components with improved tolerability. This goal can potentially be achieved by the result of the different molecular and cellular activities of the treatment's estrogen and SERM components. The therapeutic profile of a TSEC would optimally include relief of hot flashes, treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy and its symptoms, and prevention of bone loss, while providing safety for the endometrium and breast. Recent data indicate that the TSEC containing the SERM bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens relieves hot flashes, improves vulvovaginal atrophy and its symptoms, and prevents loss of bone mass without stimulating the endometrium. This article reviews the current options for menopausal treatment as well as the environment that has driven the most recent evolution of new therapies for menopausal women, including the most recent development of the TSEC bazedoxifene and its early preclinical and clinical data.

  6. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction.

  7. Archaelogy of Arid Environment Points to Management Options for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    N. Chapman; A. Dansie; C. McCombie

    2006-08-29

    As with all planned repositories for spent fuel, the critical period over which Yucca Mountain needs to provide isolation is the first hundreds to thousands of years after the fuel is emplaced, when it is at its most hazardous. Both the original and the proposed new EPA standards highlight the central importance of this performance period by focusing on repository behavior during the first 10,000 years. Archaeology has a lot to tell us about the behavior of materials and structures over this time period. There have been numerous studies of archaeological artifacts in conditions relevant to the groundwater saturated environments that are a feature of most international geological disposal concepts, but relatively few in arid environments like that of the Nevada desert. However, there is much information to be gleaned, not only from classic archaeological areas in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean but also, perhaps surprisingly to some, from Nevada itself. Our recent study evaluated archaeological materials from underground openings and shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain, drawing conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could help to assess design and operational options for the high-level waste repository.

  8. Numerical modelling to assess maintenance strategy management options for a small tidal inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaeri, Saeed; Tomlinson, Rodger; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Strauss, Darrell

    2017-03-01

    Small tidal inlets are found to be more sensitive to anthropogenic alteration than their larger counterparts. Such alterations, although typically supported by technical design reports, sometimes require amendments or modification. One of the most suitable tools to conduct the necessary studies in this regard is numerical modelling, since the behaviour of the inlet system in response to proposed remedial actions, can easily be identified. In this paper, various alternative proposals are investigated to determine the most practical and viable option to mitigate the need for ongoing maintenance at a typical small, jettied tidal inlet. The main tool to investigate the alternatives is the hydro-sedimentological modelling of the inlet system, which was performed using the Delft3D software package. The proposed alternative entrance modifications were based upon structural alterations of the inlet system (such as a jetty extension or submerged weir) and non-structural scenarios (such as a change of the time of the dredging campaign or the deposition location of the dredged material). It was concluded that whilst a detailed study is inevitable in order to achieve a comprehensive design plan, based upon the results of this study the construction of a submerged weir at the entrance channel can satisfy the needs of most of the stakeholders, with justifiable costs over a longer period.

  9. Current aproach to cancer pain management: Availability and implications of different treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Nersesyan, Hrachya; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2007-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in medicine during last couple of decades, cancer still remains the most horrifying diagnosis for anybody due to its almost inevitable futility. According to American Cancer Society Statistics, it is estimated that only in the United States more than half a million people will die from cancer in 2006. For those who survive, probably the most fearsome symptom regardless of cancer type will be the pain. Although most pain specialists and oncologists worldwide are well aware of the importance to adequately treat the pain, it was yet established that more than half of cancer patients have insufficient pain control, and about quarter of them actually die in pain. Therefore, in this review article we attempted to provide the comprehensive information about different options available nowadays for treating cancer pain focusing on most widely used pharmacologic agents, surgical modalities for intractable pain control, their potential for adverse effects, and ways to increase the effectiveness of treatment maximally optimizing analgesic regimen and improving compliance. PMID:18488078

  10. Basic concepts regarding fracture healing and the current options and future directions in managing bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Bigham-Sadegh, Amin; Oryan, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Fracture healing is a complex physiological process, which involves a well-orchestrated series of biological events. Repair of large bone defects resulting from trauma, tumours, osteitis, delayed unions, non-unions, osteotomies, arthrodesis and multifragmentary fractures is a current challenge of surgeons and investigators. Different therapeutic modalities have been developed to enhance the healing response and fill the bone defects. Different types of growth factors, stem cells, natural grafts (autografts, allografts or xenografts) and biologic- and synthetic-based tissue-engineered scaffolds are some of the examples. Nevertheless, these organic and synthetic materials and therapeutic agents have some significant limitations, and there are still no well-approved treatment modalities to meet all the expected requirements. Bone tissue engineering is a newer option than the traditional grafts and may overcome many limitations of the bone graft. To select an appropriate treatment strategy in achieving a successful and secure healing, more information concerning injuries of bones, their healing process and knowledge of the factors involved are required. The main goals of this work are to present different treatment modalities of the fractured bones and to explain how fractures normally heal and what factors interfere with fracture healing. This study provides an overview of the processes of fracture healing and discusses the current therapeutic strategies that have been claimed to be effective in accelerating fracture healing.

  11. Glyburide/metformin tablets: a new therapeutic option for the management of Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dailey, George E

    2003-08-01

    Oral antidiabetic combination therapy is a proven means of establishing glycaemic control in the hyperglycaemic, Type 2 diabetic patient, but co-administering two oral antidiabetic agents separately may hinder compliance with therapy. A new single-tablet of glyburide/metformin combination therapy (Glucovance), Bristol-Myers Squibb, Inc.) has recently been developed, which addresses the primary defects of Type 2 diabetes: beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. The glyburide/metformin tablet, taken with meals, is designed to optimise the absorption of glyburide and to address the postprandial glucose rise. Glyburide/metformin tablets are more effective in controlling fasting and postprandial glycaemia than its component monotherapies, at lower doses of metformin and glyburide compared with monotherapy because of the synergy between its glyburide and metformin components. Moreover, a double-blind study showed that glyburide/metformin tablets are more effective than a free combination of glyburide co-administered with metformin in controlling postprandial glucose. Retrospective analyses suggested that glyburide/metformin tablets control glycated haemoglobin (A1C) more effectively than a free combination of glyburide co-administered with metformin, at lower mean doses of glyburide and metformin. The incidence of side effects is lower than separate component therapy for any given A1C. Glyburide/metformin tablets are an effective option for optimising the control of blood glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients and appear to enhance adherence to therapy.

  12. Storage management influences greenhouse gas emissions from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-03-15

    Biosolids produced by wastewater treatment plants are often stored in stockpiles and can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Growing trees in shallow stockpiled biosolids may remove nutrients, keep the biosolids drier and offset GHG emissions through C sequestration. We directly measured methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from a large biosolid stockpile and two shallow stockpiles, one planted with Salix reichardtii (willow) trees, from December 2009 to January 2011. All stockpiles emitted large annual amounts of GHG ranging from 38 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) dry biosolid for the large stockpile, to 65 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) for the unplanted shallow stockpile, probably due to the greater surface area to volume ratio. GHG emissions were dominated by N2O and CO2 whilst CH4 emissions were negligible (<2%) from the large stockpile and the shallow stockpiles were actually a CH4 sink. Annual willow tree growth was 12 Mg dry biomass ha(-1), but this only offset 8% of the GHG emissions from the shallow planted stockpile. Our data highlight that biosolid stockpiles are significant sources for GHG emissions but alternate management options such as shallow stockpiles or planting for biomass production will not lead to GHG emission reductions.

  13. Promoting invasive species control and eradication in the sea: options for managing the tunicate invader Didemnum vexillum in Sitka, Alaska.

    PubMed

    McCann, Linda D; Holzer, Kimberly K; Davidson, Ian C; Ashton, Gail V; Chapman, Marnie D; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2013-12-15

    Bioinvasions are a significant force of change--and economic and ecological threat--in marine ecosystems. The threat now encroaches on Alaska, which has had relatively few invasions compared to other global regions, prompting need to develop new incursion response tools. We appraised five 'eco-friendly' immersion treatment options (dilute acetic acid, dilute bleach, freshwater, brine and hypoxia) at either minute- or hour-scale exposures to kill the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum. Data revealed 100% treatment efficacy after two minutes in acetic acid, ten minutes in bleach, four hours in freshwater and over four hours in brine solution. We also demonstrated the importance of monitoring D. vexillum recovery for at least three weeks, since seemingly destroyed colonies rebounded during this timeframe. Combined, these findings provide insights towards a bay-scale eradication and post-border management plan applicable to the recent D. vexillum incursion in Whiting Harbor, Alaska and other shallow, inshore invasion sites.

  14. Agricultural land management options after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents: The articulation of science, technology, and society.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2016-10-01

    The options adopted for recovery of agricultural land after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents are compared by examining their technical and socio-economic aspects. The analysis highlights commonalities such as the implementation of tillage and other types of countermeasures and differences in approach, such as preferences for topsoil removal in Fukushima and the application of K fertilizers in Chernobyl. This analysis shows that the recovery approach needs to be context-specific to best suit the physical, social, and political environment. The complex nature of the decision problem calls for a formal process for engaging stakeholders and the development of adequate decision support tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:662-666. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Committee opinion no. 606: Options for prevention and management of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescent patients undergoing cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents undergoing cancer treatment are at high risk of heavy menstrual bleeding, and gynecologists may be consulted either before the initiation of cancer treatment to request strategies for menstrual suppression or during an episode of severe heavy bleeding to stop the bleeding emergently. Therapy in both situations should be tailored to the patient, her cancer diagnosis and treatment plan, and her desires for contraception and fertility. Options for menstrual suppression include combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only therapy, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Adolescents presenting emergently with severe uterine bleeding may benefit from hormonal therapy, antifibrinolytics or, as a last resort, surgical management. In choosing appropriate treatment, considerations such as current platelet count, course of treatment, time to expected nadir, risk of thromboembolism, and need for contraception should be considered. Because of the complex nature of cancer care, collaboration with the adolescent's oncologist is highly recommended.

  16. Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

    2014-05-01

    A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

  17. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat.

  18. Monitoring Requirements and Methods for Greenhouse Gas Management and Climate Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Pan, Y.; Clark, K.; Hom, J.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change policy and management require monitoring data to support decision making. Availability of good data about past trends, and projections based on reasonable assumptions and models, can support debate about response options and avoid the pitfall of arguing about information quality. A hierarchical or multi-tier approach to environmental monitoring has been used efficiently for many decades, and can be linked with experiments and process modeling to improve natural resource assessments. Consideration of spatial and temporal scale can align data requirements with the information needed to facilitate separation of causal factors, e.g., factoring out natural effects from human-induced effects on the carbon cycle. Here we describe a 3-tier integrated monitoring hierarchy: intensive process-level monitoring, landscape-scale monitoring, and regional monitoring. Information at each tier may be used independently or integrated across tiers. Methods to integrate information include statistical techniques for diagnostic analysis, and ecosystem models for prognostic analysis. We illustrate the methods and results for each tier using data and analyses for the Pinelands Management Area of New Jersey, a reserved area of 360,000 ha. A cluster of flux towers and associated intensive-site measurements comprises the process monitoring. A network of biometric monitoring sites represents the landscape conditions, and forest inventory with remote sensing is used to characterize the region. This approach is capable of closing the regional carbon budget, i.e., accounting for all exchanges of carbon between the land, atmosphere, and ocean. It is also an excellent platform for monitoring the effects of climate change and factoring out different effects -- the system was designed to provide information about dangerous fire weather and identify needs to manage wildfire fuels. The New Jersey Pinelands site is part of a national network of multi-scale monitoring sites that can meet

  19. The Role of Topiramate in the Management of Cocaine Addiction: A Possible Therapeutic Option

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Bonci, Antonello Bonci; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Pirritano, Domenico; Squillace, Aida; Sarro, Giovambattista De; Gallelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an antiepileptic drug able to play a role in both neurological and psychiatric disorders. TPM facilitates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission and inhibits glutamatergic transmission (i.e. AMPA/kainate receptors). Several studies reported that the modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission may reduce cocaine reinforcement. Therefore, TPM could be used in the management of cocaine dependence. PMID:26630959

  20. A Review of the Capability Options Development and Analysis System and the Role of Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    DRMP Defence Risk Management Policy DRN Defence Restricted Network DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation FDG Force Development Group...It links together the present land force with future land force structures through backcasting as depicted for example in Figure 3. Here Army in Being...focuses on a 30-year timeframe∗. Backcasting is expected to have a major impact on the design of the OF based on emerging new warfighting concepts and

  1. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  2. Small-scale Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Canada's Nunavut: management challenges and options.

    PubMed

    Roux, M J; Tallman, R F; Lewis, C W

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is a diverse and abundant resource in Canada's Nunavut. The anadromous form is primarily targeted by exploitation in small-scale fisheries. The continued importance of subsistence fisheries and growing interest in further developing commercial fisheries underline the need for proper management of S. alpinus in northern Canada. This paper presents the current state of S. alpinus fisheries in Nunavut and related management challenges. An alternate framework for assessment using life-history information as it determines stock productivity and resilience to harvesting is presented. This framework combines (1) a risk assessment tool [productivity-susceptibility analysis (PSA)] to evaluate the relative vulnerability of S. alpinus stocks to harvest and (2) a conceptual model for quantitative assessment to determine sustainable harvest levels. Diversity in S. alpinus life history and contrast in vulnerability scores derived from PSA assessment are demonstrated for a sample of 86 anadromous stocks from throughout Nunavut. These data provide evidence in support of an alternate strategy for assessment permitting to integrate diversity in S. alpinus life history for improved generalization and representativeness. Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Arctic regions exemplify the need for stock assessment and management alternatives to ensure fish conservation in remote, sensitive ecosystems and in data-poor circumstances.

  3. Endocrine hypertension: An overview on the current etiopathogenesis and management options

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reena M; Ruel, Ewa; Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn Ch; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine causes of secondary hypertension include primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, cushing’s syndrome, hyperparathyroidism and hypo- and hyperthyroidism. They comprise of the 5%–10% of the causes of secondary hypertension. Primary hyperaldosteronism, the most common of the endocrine cause of hypertension often presents with resistant or difficult to control hypertension associated with either normo-or hypokalemia. Pheochromocytoma, the great mimicker of many conditions, is associated with high morbidity and mortality if left untreated. A complete history including pertinent family history, physical examination along with a high index of suspicion with focused biochemical and radiological evaluation is important to diagnose and effectively treat these conditions. The cost effective targeted genetic screening for current known mutations associated with pheochromocytoma are important for early diagnosis and management in family members. The current review focuses on the most recent evidence regarding causes, clinical features, methods of diagnosis, and management of these conditions. A multidisciplinary approach involving internists, endocrinologists and surgeons is recommended in optimal management of these conditions. PMID:26413481

  4. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from waste management--assessment of quantification methods.

    PubMed

    Mohareb, Eugene A; MacLean, Heather L; Kennedy, Christopher A

    2011-05-01

    Of the many sources of urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, solid waste is the only one for which management decisions are undertaken primarily by municipal governments themselves and is hence often the largest component of cities' corporate inventories. It is essential that decision-makers select an appropriate quantification methodology and have an appreciation of methodological strengths and shortcomings. This work compares four different waste emissions quantification methods, including Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1996 guidelines, IPCC 2006 guidelines, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Waste Reduction Model (WARM), and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities-Partners for Climate Protection (FCM-PCP) quantification tool. Waste disposal data for the greater Toronto area (GTA) in 2005 are used for all methodologies; treatment options (including landfill, incineration, compost, and anaerobic digestion) are examined where available in methodologies. Landfill was shown to be the greatest source of GHG emissions, contributing more than three-quarters of total emissions associated with waste management. Results from the different landfill gas (LFG) quantification approaches ranged from an emissions source of 557 kt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) (FCM-PCP) to a carbon sink of -53 kt CO2e (EPA WARM). Similar values were obtained between IPCC approaches. The IPCC 2006 method was found to be more appropriate for inventorying applications because it uses a waste-in-place (WIP) approach, rather than a methane commitment (MC) approach, despite perceived onerous data requirements for WIP. MC approaches were found to be useful from a planning standpoint; however, uncertainty associated with their projections of future parameter values limits their applicability for GHG inventorying. MC and WIP methods provided similar results in this case study; however, this is case specific because of similarity in assumptions of present and future landfill

  6. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  7. THE IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advancements in United States (U.S.) municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and a focus on the environmental advantages of integrated MSW management have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of MSW management, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study ...

  8. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim; ,

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  9. New treatment options in the management of fibromyalgia: role of pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Zareba, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, chronic pain disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, and accompanied by several other symptoms such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mood disorders. Pregabalin is the first drug approved for the treatment of FM. Pregabalin has analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity and has earlier demonstrated efficacy in the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjuvant therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures. Pregabalin, a lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, is α2δ-1 ligand that binds to, and modulates, voltage-gated calcium channels. This modulation is characterized by a reduction of the excessive neurotransmitter release that is observed in certain neurological and psychotic disorders. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that pregabalin has been effective in pain management, improving sleep quality and fatigue, as well as in several domains of health related quality of life. Because of mild to moderate adverse effects it can be considered a well-tolerated therapy for FM. PMID:19337459

  10. Monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies discordant for fetal anencephaly: a systematic review of prenatal management options.

    PubMed

    Lust, Annelies; De Catte, Luc; Lewi, Liesbeth; Deprest, Jan; Loquet, Philippe; Devlieger, Roland

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selective feticide (SF) compared to expectant management (EM) on perinatal outcome in dichorionic and monochorionic twins discordant for anencephaly. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic review of literature and added ten unpublished cases. As a result, we found that in dichorionic twins, mean gestational age (GA) at birth in the SF group was 38.0 weeks versus 34.9 weeks (P = 0.0002). Mean birth weight was 2922 g in the SF group versus 2474 g (P = 0.03). In monochorionic twins, mean GA at birth was 35.2 weeks versus 32.7 weeks (P = 0.1). Mean birth weight was 2711 g versus 1667 g (P = 0.0001). We conclude that while SF does not reduce perinatal mortality, it does result in significantly longer gestations and higher birth weight, and appears to be the management of choice in dichorionic twins discordant for anencephaly. In monochorionic twins, SF also increases birth weight, but in view of the complexity of this group, no clear recommendations can be made.

  11. Could hydroxyethyl starch be a therapeutic option in management of acute aluminum phosphide toxicity?

    PubMed

    Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Arefi, Mohammad; Behnoush, Behnam; Nasrabad, Mahdi Ghazanfari; Nasrabadi, Zeynab Nasri

    2011-04-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide poisoning is a serious toxicity and results in high mortality rate despite the progress of critical care. After ingestion, phosphine gas is released and absorbed quickly, causing systemic poisoning and cell hypoxia. Excessive thirst, severe hypotension, arrhythmias, tachypnea, and severe metabolic acidosis are the common clinical manifestations. We think acute metabolic response which characteristically occurs in severe injury also happens in aluminum phosphide poisoning. Necropsy examinations indicate congestion in almost all vital organs because of leakage of fluids from intravascular to extravascular space. The most favorable type of fluid for intravascular volume resuscitation persists and is disputed. Colloids remain in the intravascular space rather than crystalloids, and provide more rapid hemodynamic stabilization. Furthermore, hydroxyethyl starch solution may have other benefits e.g. it can reduce the extra vascular leak of albumin and fluids from an endothelial injury site. As refractory hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, because leakage of fluids from intravascular to extravascular space are common cause of death in this toxicity, we propose that hydroxyethyl starch can dominate this refractory hypotension and consequently acute metabolic response.

  12. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: case study of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; van der Voet, Ester; Zhang, Yufeng; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-02-15

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management have been highlighted in China, due to the continually increasing amount of MSW being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. Of particular interest is greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, aided by the Kyoto Mechanisms. China is an important case study for this global issue; however, an analysis of the entire life cycle of MSW management on GHG emissions is not available for China. This study evaluates the current and possible patterns of MSW management with regard to GHG emissions, using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on the Tianjin case. We assess the baseline scenario, reflecting the existing MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, five exploring waste treatment technology innovations and one exploring integrated MSW management, to quantitatively predict potentials of GHG mitigation for Tianjin. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the influence of landfill gas (LFG) collection efficiency, recycling rate and methodological choice, especially allocation, on the outcomes. The results show GHG emissions from Tianjin's MSW management system amount to 467.34 Mg CO2 eq. per year, based on the treatment of MSW collected in the central districts in 2006, and the key issue is LFG released. The integrated MSW management scenario, combining different improvement options, shows the highest GHG mitigation potential. Given the limited financial support and the current waste management practice in Tianjin, LFG utilization scenario would be the preferred choice. The sensitivity analysis of recycling rate shows an approximately linear relation of inverse proportion between recycling rate and total GHG emissions. Kitchen waste composting makes a considerable contribution to total GHG emissions reduction. Allocation choices result in differences in total quantitative outcomes, but preference orders and contributions analysis are found to be

  13. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mead, Loren B; Millhouse, Paul W; Krystal, Jonathan; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    The atlas is subject to fracture under axial load, often due to traumatic injuries such as shallow dives and automobile accidents. These fractures account for 2-13 % of injuries to the cervical spine [Marcon RM et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68(11):1455-61, 2013]. Fractures of the C1 vertebra are often difficult to diagnose, as there is often no neurological deficit or easily identifiable findings on radiographs. However, injuries to the atlas can be associated with vertebral artery injury and atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital instability, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. A detailed understanding of the anatomy, inherent stability, and common injury patterns is essential for any surgeon treating spinal trauma. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management of C1 fractures, as well as outcomes after treatment.

  14. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed Ganeshan, Arul; Nazir, Sheraz; Uberoi, Raman

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  15. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease patients and management options

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O; Kutscher, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor complaints of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and can have a great impact on quality of life. These disturbances manifest in a variety of ways; for instance, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep-related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements may share a common pathophysiology, and occurrence of rapid eye movement behavior disorder may predate the onset of PD or other synucleinopathies by several years. Medications for PD can have a significant impact on sleep, representing a great challenge to the treating physician. Awareness of the complex relationship between PD and sleep disorders, as well as the varied way in which sleep disturbances appear, is imperative for successful long-term management. PMID:23616723

  16. Operative Treatments for Reflux After Bariatric Surgery: Current and Emerging Management Options.

    PubMed

    Treitl, Daniela; Nieber, Derek; Ben-David, Kfir

    2017-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder that has a well-established connection with obesity. To ameliorate the morbidity associated with obesity, bariatric procedures have become an established pathway to accomplish sustained weight loss. In some procedures, such as with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, weight loss is also accompanied by the resolution of GERD symptoms. However, other popular bariatric surgeries, such as the sleeve gastrectomy, have a controversial impact on their effect on reflux. Consequently, increased attention has been given to the development of strategies for the management of de novo or recurrent reflux after bariatric surgery. This article aims to discuss medical and surgical strategies for reflux after bariatric surgery, and their outcomes.

  17. Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  18. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater in river systems: case studies and framework.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Kerry L; Kerr, Janice L; Mosley, Luke M; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  19. Threshold values and management options for nutrients in a catchment of a temperate estuary with poor ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, K.; Markager, S.; Kronvang, B.; Windolf, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Thorling, L.

    2012-02-01

    Intensive farming has severe impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological status of dependent ecosystems. Eutrophication is a widespread problem in lakes and marine waters. Common problems are hypoxia, algal blooms and fish kills, and loss of water clarity, underwater vegetation, biodiversity, and recreational value. In this paper we evaluate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) chemistry of groundwater and surface water in a coastal catchment, the loadings and sources of N and P and their effect on the ecological status of an estuary. We calculate the necessary reductions in N and P loadings to the estuary for obtaining a good ecological status, which we define based on the number of days with N and P limitation, and the equivalent stream and groundwater threshold values assuming two different management options. The calculations are performed by the combined use of empirical models and a physically based 3-D integrated hydrological model of the whole catchment. The assessment of the ecological status indicates that the N and P loads to the investigated estuary should be reduced by a factor of 0.52 and 0.56, respectively, to restore good ecological status. Model estimates show that threshold total N concentrations should be in the range of 2.9 to 3.1 mg l-1 in inlet freshwater to Horsens Estuary and 6.0 to 9.3 mg l-1 in shallow aerobic groundwater (∼27-41 mg l-1 of nitrate), depending on the management measures implemented in the catchment. The situation for total P is more complex but data indicate that groundwater threshold values are not needed. The inlet freshwater threshold value for total P to Horsens Estuary for the selected management options is 0.084 mg l-1. Regional climate models project increasing winter precipitation and runoff in the investigated region resulting in increasing runoff and nutrient loads to coastal waters if present land use and farming practices continue. Hence, lower threshold values

  20. Threshold values and management options for nutrients in a catchment of a temperate estuary with poor ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, K.; Markager, S.; Kronvang, B.; Windolf, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Thorling, L.

    2012-08-01

    Intensive farming has severe impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological status of dependent ecosystems. Eutrophication is a widespread problem in lakes and marine waters. Common problems are hypoxia, algal blooms, fish kills, and loss of water clarity, underwater vegetation, biodiversity and recreational value. In this paper we evaluate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of groundwater and surface water in a coastal catchment, the loadings and sources of N and P, and their effect on the ecological status of an estuary. We calculate the necessary reductions in N and P loadings to the estuary for obtaining a good ecological status, which we define based on the number of days with N and P limitation, and the corresponding stream and groundwater threshold values assuming two different management options. The calculations are performed by the combined use of empirical models and a physically based 3-D integrated hydrological model of the whole catchment. The assessment of the ecological status indicates that the N and P loads to the investigated estuary should be reduced to levels corresponding to 52 and 56% of the current loads, respectively, to restore good ecological status. Model estimates show that threshold total N (TN) concentrations should be in the range of 2.9 to 3.1 mg l-1 in inlet freshwater (streams) to Horsens estuary and 6.0 to 9.3 mg l-1 in shallow aerobic groundwater (∼ 27-41 mg l-1 of nitrate), depending on the management measures implemented in the catchment. The situation for total P (TP) is more complex, but data indicate that groundwater threshold values are not needed. The stream threshold value for TP to Horsens estuary for the selected management options is 0.084 mg l-1. Regional climate models project increasing winter precipitation and runoff in the investigated region resulting in increasing runoff and nutrient loads to the Horsens estuary and many other coastal waters if

  1. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos

    2013-08-01

    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  2. Accounting for water management issues within hydrological simulation: Alternative modelling options and a network optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Nalbantis, Ioannis; Rozos, Evangelos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    In mixed natural and artificialized river basins, many complexities arise due to anthropogenic interventions in the hydrological cycle, including abstractions from surface water bodies, groundwater pumping or recharge and water returns through drainage systems. Typical engineering approaches adopt a multi-stage modelling procedure, with the aim to handle the complexity of process interactions and the lack of measured abstractions. In such context, the entire hydrosystem is separated into natural and artificial sub-systems or components; the natural ones are modelled individually, and their predictions (i.e. hydrological fluxes) are transferred to the artificial components as inputs to a water management scheme. To account for the interactions between the various components, an iterative procedure is essential, whereby the outputs of the artificial sub-systems (i.e. abstractions) become inputs to the natural ones. However, this strategy suffers from multiple shortcomings, since it presupposes that pure natural sub-systems can be located and that sufficient information is available for each sub-system modelled, including suitable, i.e. "unmodified", data for calibrating the hydrological component. In addition, implementing such strategy is ineffective when the entire scheme runs in stochastic simulation mode. To cope with the above drawbacks, we developed a generalized modelling framework, following a network optimization approach. This originates from the graph theory, which has been successfully implemented within some advanced computer packages for water resource systems analysis. The user formulates a unified system which is comprised of the hydrographical network and the typical components of a water management network (aqueducts, pumps, junctions, demand nodes etc.). Input data for the later include hydraulic properties, constraints, targets, priorities and operation costs. The real-world system is described through a conceptual graph, whose dummy properties

  3. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Coastal Pacific Northwest Rivers: Biological Controls and Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Foster, E.; Michie, R.; Waltz, D.

    2014-12-01

    In Oregon's Central Coast Range (OCR), dissolved O2 concentrations in at least 10% of stream length frequently dip below state standards set to ensure survival and reproduction of native salmonids. We examined O2 dynamics on 12 OCR rivers during times of the year when standards had been violated. Continuous dissolved O2 data were collected 15 minutes apart over a 24-hour period during spring (May - June) or fall (September - November) 2008 on each river. We modeled O2 dynamics for each river with parameters describing O2 exchange with the atmosphere, production of O2 from gross primary production (GPP), and consumption of O2 by ecosystem respiration (ER) fit to observed data. Average nighttime atmospheric O2 exchange and ER were estimated by regressing interval changes in dissolved O2 concentrations between measurements with corresponding O2 saturation deficits. GPP for each daytime sampling interval was calculated as the difference between O2 saturation deficit and the sum of temperature-corrected reaeration and ecosystem respiration. All regression models developed for estimating night-time reaeration and ER were highly significant (p<0.03; adjusted r2=0.17 - 0.77). GPP ranged from 0.62 to 14.95 mg O2 L-1 d-1, ER ranged from -1.21 mg O2 L-1 d-1, and net daily metabolism (NDM; net O2 flux controlled by biological processes) ranged from -11.64 to 3.75 mg O2 L-1 d-1 across all rivers and seasons. Increased aquatic productivity resulting from adjacent and upstream human activities likely altered dissolved O2 dynamics in these rivers. Through scenario analysis, we found that at one river (Alsea), GPP and ER would need to be reduced by 85 and 73%, respectively, to meet the state standard (95% saturation). Our modeling approach can be connected with management actions across a variety of spatial and temporal scales, ranging from local, riparian-scale manipulations of shading and organic matter input to watershed and regional nutrient and temperature management.

  4. EU strategies and policies on soil and waste management to offset greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Marmo, L

    2008-01-01

    Climate change has become an important political priority in the environmental field, and beyond. To revert the increase in the Earth's temperature, developed country parties to the Kyoto Protocol committed to limit their greenhouse gas emissions. The 15 Member States that made up the European Community in 1997 have a combined reduction target of 8% in CO2-equivalent emissions in the period 2008-2012 compared to 1990. The role of soil, both as a source and a sink for carbon, is particularly important. How can soil organic matter be maintained or increased? There is no single answer, and a broad range of options need to be explored. Among the different measures proposed, the promotion of organic input on arable land (crop residues, cover crops, farm yard manure, compost, sewage sludge) has been mentioned. The challenge is to ensure that organic wastes of good quality are used to increase soil organic matter in carbon depleted soils and that appropriate monitoring is established. On the waste management front, the European Commission intends to produce guidance for Member States on the management of biowaste that will take into account all related environmental issues, including soil aspects. As for monitoring, the European Commission has put forward legislation according to which Member States would have to identify the areas at risk of soil organic matter decline in their national territory. Such legislation should be regarded as a major step forward for Europe, as it would ensure a high level of soil protection across the Community. This development will have the potential to enable the kind of estimation, measurement or modelling of crop or grazing land management needed for accounting under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol.

  5. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  6. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  7. Therapeutic options in the management of acromegaly: focus on lanreotide Autogel®

    PubMed Central

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Biermasz, Nienke R; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2008-01-01

    Background In acromegaly, expert surgery is curative in only about 60% of patients. Postoperative radiation therapy is associated with a high incidence of hypopituitarism and its effect on growth hormone (GH) production is slow, so that adjuvant medical treatment becomes of importance in the management of many patients. Objective To delineate the role of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly. Methods Search of Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases for clinical studies of lanreotide in acromegaly. Results Treatment with lanreotide slow release and lanreotide Autogel® normalized GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in about 50% of patients. The efficacy of 120 mg lanreotide Autogel® on GH and IGF-I levels was comparable with that of 20 mg octreotide LAR. There were no differences in improvement of cardiac function, decrease in pancreatic β-cell function, or occurrence of side effects, including cholelithiasis, between octreotide LAR and lanreotide Autogel®. When postoperative treatment with somatostatin analogs does not result in normalization of serum IGF-I and GH levels after noncurative surgery, pegvisomant alone or in combination with somatostatin analogs can control these levels in a substantial number of patients. PMID:19707377

  8. Therapeutic management options for stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Stephanie M; Shaikh, Talha; Hallman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Majority of newly diagnosed lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), of which up to half are considered locally advanced at the time of diagnosis. Patients with locally advanced stage III NSCLC consists of a heterogeneous population, making management for these patients complex. Surgery has long been the preferred local treatment for patients with resectable disease. For select patients, multi-modality therapy involving systemic and radiation therapies in addition to surgery improves treatment outcomes compared to surgery alone. For patients with unresectable disease, concurrent chemoradiation is the preferred treatment. More recently, research into different chemotherapy agents, targeted therapies, radiation fractionation schedules, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and proton therapy have shown promise to improve treatment outcomes and quality of life. The array of treatment approaches for locally advanced NSCLC is large and constantly evolving. An updated review of past and current literature for the roles of surgery, chemotherapeutic agents, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy for stage III NSCLC patients are presented. PMID:28246582

  9. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions.

  10. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City`s air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions.

  11. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per cubic feet of gas. (3) Starch solution. Rub into a thin paste about one teaspoonful of wheat starch with a little water; pour into about a pint of boiling water; stir; let cool and decant off clear solution. Make fresh solution every few days. (d) Procedure. Fill leveling bulb with starch solution....

  12. 40 CFR 60.5408 - What is an optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... solution is equivalent to 100 grains H2S per cubic feet of gas. (3) Starch solution. Rub into a thin paste about one teaspoonful of wheat starch with a little water; pour into about a pint of boiling water; stir... leveling bulb with starch solution. Raise (L), open cock (G), open (F) to (A), and close (F) when...

  13. 40 CFR 60.5408 - What is an optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... solution is equivalent to 100 grains H2S per cubic feet of gas. (3) Starch solution. Rub into a thin paste about one teaspoonful of wheat starch with a little water; pour into about a pint of boiling water; stir... leveling bulb with starch solution. Raise (L), open cock (G), open (F) to (A), and close (F) when...

  14. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per cubic feet of gas. (3) Starch solution. Rub into a thin paste about one teaspoonful of wheat starch with a little water; pour into about a pint of boiling water; stir; let cool and decant off clear solution. Make fresh solution every few days. (d) Procedure. Fill leveling bulb with starch solution....

  15. Simulating land management options to reduce nitrate pollution in an agricultural watershed dominated by an alluvial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Cerro, Itsasne; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Srinavasan, Raghavan; Sauvage, Sabine; Volk, Martin; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The study area (Alegria watershed, Basque Country, Northern Spain) considered here is influenced by an important alluvial aquifer that plays a significant role in nitrate pollution from agricultural land use and management practices. Nitrates are transported primarily from the soil to the river through the alluvial aquifer. The agricultural activity covers 75% of the watershed and is located in a nitrate-vulnerable zone. The main objective of the study was to find land management options for water pollution abatement by using model systems. In a first step, the SWAT model was applied to simulate discharge and nitrate load in stream flow at the outlet of the catchment for the period between October 2009 and June 2011. The LOADEST program was used to estimate the daily nitrate load from measured nitrate concentration. We achieved satisfactory simulation results for discharge and nitrate loads at monthly and daily time steps. The results revealed clear variations in the seasons: higher nitrate loads were achieved for winter (20,000 kg mo NO-N), and lower nitrate loads were simulated for the summer (<1000 kg mo NO-N) period. In a second step, the calibrated model was used to evaluate the long-term effects of best management practices (BMPs) for a 50-yr period by maintaining actual agricultural practices, reducing fertilizer application by 20%, splitting applications (same total N but applied over the growing period), and reducing 20% of the applied fertilizer amount and splitting the fertilizer doses. The BMPs were evaluated on the basis of local experience and farmer interaction. Results showed that reducing fertilizer amounts by 20% could lead to a reduction of 50% of the number of days exceeding the nitrate concentration limit value (50 mg L) set by the European Water Framework Directive.

  16. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    LoMauro, Antonella; D’Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  17. Housefly maggot-treated composting as sustainable option for pig manure management.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Wang, Su-Juan; Du, Rong-Guang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qi, Bing; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In traditional composting, large amounts of bulking agents must be added to reduce the moisture of pig manure, which increases the cost of composting and dilutes the N, P and K content in organic fertilizers. In this study, maggot treatment was used in composting instead of bulking agents. In experiment of selecting an optimal inoculum level for composting, the treatment of 0.5% maggot inoculum resulted in the maximum yield of late instar maggots, 11.6% (maggots weight/manure weight). The manure residue became noticeably granular by day 6 and its moisture content was below 60%, which was suitable for further composting without bulking agents. Moreover, in composting experiment with a natural compost without maggot inoculum and maggot-treated compost at 0.5% inoculum level, there were no significant differences in nutrient content between the two organic fertilizers from the two treatments (paired Student's t15=1.0032, P=0.3317). Therefore, maggot culturing did not affect the characteristics of the organic fertilizer. The content of TNPK (total nitrogen+total phosphorus+total potassium) in organic fertilizer from maggot treatment was 10.72% (dry weight), which was far more than that of organic fertilizer made by conventional composting with bulking agents (about 8.0%). Dried maggots as feed meet the national standard (GB/T19164-2003) for commercial fish meal in China, which contained 55.32 ± 1.09% protein; 1.34 ± 0.02% methionine; 4.15 ± 0.10% lysine. This study highlights housefly maggot-treated composting can be considered sustainable alternatives for pig manure management to achieve high-quality organic fertilizer and maggots as feed without bulking agents.

  18. Efficient management of municipal water: water scarcity in Taiz City, Yemen - issues and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noaman, A.; Al-Sharjabe, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    The city of Taiz is the third largest city in Yemen, located about 250 km south of Sana'a and about 90 km inland from the Red Sea. Taiz is situated on the foothills and slopes of the Jabal Saber Mountain at elevations between 1100 and 1600 m a.s.l. Its population is rapidly increasing and is expected to grow from about 580 000 in 2012 to over 1 000 000 in 2020. Water supply is the most pressing problem in the city of Taiz today due to the significant shortages of supply (the average consumption is 23 L/d) caused by the depletion of existing water resources and the lack of a clear direction in dealing with the problem. This forces frequent service interruptions (30-40 days) and the service is rarely extended to new users (only 57% of the population are covered). Sanitation is another daunting problem. The (poorly maintained) sewerage network covers only 44% of the population. In several unsewered areas to the north, east and west of the city, raw sewage is disposed of directly into wadis, which causes a health hazard and threatens to contaminate groundwater resources. The proper computation of demand and supply is based on the various fields. It was performed under this study with a particular model: the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). WEAP is supported by a geographical information system (GIS). The available and relevant data on poverty and social indicators, water use and sources, surface runoff, surface and groundwater availability, groundwater depletion and management, crop production areas, soil cover, maps, and meteorological information were gathered from a number of sources. There are only two ways to decrease the water deficit: by increasing water supply or decreasing the water demand. Any adaptation project aims at one of the two. Six projects are proposed, with three in each category (1, 2 and 3 to decrease demand, and 4, 5 and 6 to increase supply): - Project 1: Improvement of

  19. Climate change adaptation options for sustainable management of agriculture in the Eastern Lower Danube Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Elena-Ana; Sima, Mihaela; Balteanu, Dan; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Kucsicsa, Gheorghe

    2013-04-01

    well as calculated some of relevant climatic indicators (Standardized Precipitation Index, Climatic Water Deficit and Thornthwaite Aridity Index for the main crops). These indicators frame the region in a temperate-continental climate with excessive influences, imposing specific management practices in agriculture: rehabilitation of irrigation systems, drought resistant seeds, planting forest belts, etc.).

  20. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  1. Evaluation Report of the Presidential/Secretarial Objective -- School Management Options Available to Indian People. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 29.08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Training and Research Center, Tempe, AZ.

    Presenting evaluations of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) implementation of the School Management Option Project, a project designed to further American Indian control of schools and elevated to the status of Presidential/Secretarial Objective (P/SO) in 1974, this report includes separate evaluations by the National Indian Training and…

  2. Managed grasslands: A greenhouse gas sink or source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Paul; Kiely, Ger; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a unique, one year investigation of CO2 and N2O fluxes over a fertilized grassland in Ireland using two eddy covariance systems. As the global warming potential (GWP) of N2O is 296 (100 year time horizon), relatively small N2O emissions have a potentially large impact on overall radiative forcing. Therefore nitrogen fertilizer application practices may possibly turn a site with a net CO2 uptake into a net radiative forcing source. We observed a net annual uptake of 9.45 T CO2 ha-1. N2O emissions equivalent to 5.42 T ha-1 CO2 GWP counteracted 57% of the effect of the CO2 uptake. Estimated methane emissions from ruminants (3.74 T ha-1 CO2 GWP) further counteract the CO2 uptake, making the overall GWP nearly neutral. This delicate balance of the greenhouse gas fluxes underscores the significance of fertilizer application strategies in determining whether a managed grassland is a net GWP source or sink.

  3. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  4. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  5. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Erin N; Robinson, Allen L; Cohon, Jared L

    2017-03-18

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from $160M to $1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  6. Threshold values and management options for phosphorus in a catchment of an estuary in Denmark with poor ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Windolf, Jørgen; Hinsby, Klaus; Markager, Stiig

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the ecological status of an estuary in Denmark(Horsens estuary) indicate that beside reducing total N loads also total phosphorus (TP) loads should be reduced to a level corresponding to 56% of current TP loads to obtain a good ecological status as required by the EU Water Framework Directive (Hinsby et al., 2012). The estimated maximum acceptable TP load to the estuary amounting to 13 tonnes per year corresponds to a reduction of the current TP loadings (2000-2005) with an average of 10.4 tonnes P per year. The maximum allowed stream threshold TP concentration entering the estuary is then calculated to amount to 0.084 mg P L-1. A source apportionment of TP loads during the period 2000-2005 showed that point source emissions of TP contributed with 31% and diffuse sources including background loadings, agricultural losses and scattered dwellings contributed with the remaining 69% of the TP loadings to the estuary. The reduction targets for TP can be obtained by implementing different mitigation measures directed against diffuse losses in the catchment and introducing improved treatment of sewage water at point sources discharging either to freshwater or directly to the estuary. We developed a management option for the catchment and estuary that could be applied together with a reduction of the total nitrogen loadings in order to obtain a good ecological status in the Horsens estuary (Hinsby et al., 2012). The management scenario included a reduction of point source emissions of TP amounting to 4.14 tonnes P yr-1, restoration of 300 ha of riparian wetlands (3.0 tonnes P yr-1) and implementation of mandatory 10 m buffer strips with planting of trees along 300 km of watercourses (3.0 tonnes P yr-1). We find it impossible to calculate a threshold concentration for TP in groundwater within the catchment as the pathways of dissolved (leaching and groundwater discharges) and particulate (erosional) P forms are more complex than it is the case for nitrogen

  7. Evaluation of current pharmacological treatment options in the management of Rett syndrome: from the present to future therapeutic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Christopher A; Lane, Jane; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Percy, Alan K

    2013-11-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are a large family of conditions of genetic or environmental origin that are characterized by deficiencies in cognitive and behavioral functions. The therapeutic management of individuals with these disorders is typically complex and is limited to the treatment of specific symptoms that characterize each disorder. The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT) is the leading cause of severe intellectual disability in females. Mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), located on the X chromosome, have been confirmed in more than 95% of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for classical RTT. RTT is characterized by an uneventful early infancy followed by stagnation and regression of growth, motor, language, and social skills later in development. This review will discuss the genetics, pathology, and symptoms that distinguish RTT from other neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability. Because great progress has been made in the basic and clinical science of RTT, the goal of this review is to provide a thorough assessment of current pharmacotherapeutic options to treat the symptoms associated with this disorder. Furthermore, we will highlight recent discoveries made with novel pharmacological interventions in experimental preclinical phases, and which have reversed pathological phenotypes in mouse and cell culture models of RTT and may result in clinical trials.

  8. Evaluation of Current Pharmacological Treatment Options in the Management of Rett Syndrome: From the Present to Future Therapeutic Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Chapleau, Christopher A.; Lane, Jane; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Percy, Alan K.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are a large family of conditions of genetic or environmental origin that are characterized by deficiencies in cognitive and behavioral functions. The therapeutic management of individuals with these disorders is typically complex and is limited to the treatment of specific symptoms that characterize each disorder. The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT) is the leading cause of severe intellectual disability in females. Mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), located on the X chromosome, have been confirmed in more than 95% of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for classical RTT. RTT is characterized by an uneventful early infancy followed by stagnation and regression of growth, motor, language, and social skills later in development. This review will discuss the genetics, pathology, and symptoms that distinguish RTT from other neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability. Because great progress has been made in the basic and clinical science of RTT, the goal of this review is to provide a thorough assessment of current pharmacotherapeutic options to treat the symptoms associated with this disorder. Furthermore, we will highlight recent discoveries made with novel pharmacological interventions in experimental preclinical phases, and which have reversed pathological phenotypes in mouse and cell culture models of RTT and may result in clinical trials. PMID:24050745

  9. Management Options and Outcomes for Neonatal Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in the Early Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jason M; Canar, Jeff; Kalinowski, Valerie; Johnson, Tricia J; Hoehn, K Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Without surgical treatment, neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) mortality in the first year of life exceeds 90 % and, in spite of improved surgical outcomes, many families still opt for non-surgical management. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in neonatal HLHS management and to identify characteristics of patients who did not undergo surgical palliation. Neonates with HLHS were identified from a serial cross-sectional analysis using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. The primary analysis compared children undergoing surgical palliation to those discharged alive without surgery using a binary logistic regression model. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with treatment choice. A total of 1750 patients underwent analysis. Overall hospital mortality decreased from 35.3 % in 2000 to 22.9 % in 2012. The percentage of patients undergoing comfort care discharge without surgery also decreased from 21.2 to 14.8 %. After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, older patients at presentation were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.93, 0.91-0.96), and patients in 2012 were more likely to undergo surgery compared to those in prior years (OR 1.5, 1.1-2.1). Discharge without surgical intervention is decreasing with a 30 % reduction between 2000 and 2012. Given the improvement in surgical outcomes, further dialogue about ethical justification of non-operative comfort or palliative care is warranted. In the meantime, clinicians should present families with surgical outcome data and recommend intervention, while supporting their option to refuse.

  10. Global sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: regional trends, uncertainties and options for emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, J. G.; van Aardenne, J. A.; Peters, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    An overview will be presented of sources and trends of global emissions of direct non-CO2 greenhouse gases CH4, N2O and the fluorinated gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6, which are addressed in the Kyoto protocol. Special attention will be given to regional source trends, estimated uncertainties and most recent global emission trends. In addition, the most significant options for emission reductions will be discussed in view of medium term emission scenarios that were meant to illustrate future trends without the effects climate policy. For estimating the recent global emission trends a special approach was used to compile fast annual updates of the EDGAR global emission inventories, based on the more detailed previous version. We present an overview of the approaches used for this `Fast Track' for the different source sectors. Results are presented for 1995-2002 for various anthropogenic sources at regional scales including an estimate of the accuracies achieved. A similar overview will be provided for the emissions of the ozone precursors NOx, CO and NMVOC and of black carbon. Tropospheric ozone and black carbon are both greenhouse gases, which are not considered in the Kyoto protocol, but in industrialised countries the emissions that cause them are often part of environmental policy on local and regional air quality.

  11. [2008 Update of Standards, Options: recommendations for management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumours (excluding lymphoma, sarcoma and melanoma), summary report].

    PubMed

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Dassonville, Olivier; Rousmans, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    The < Standards, Options : Recommendations > (SOR) project has been undertaken by the French National Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC) is now part of the French National Cancer Institute. The project involves the development and updating of evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in oncology. This paper is a summary version of the full clinical practice guideline presenting the updated recommendations for management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumours. Recommendations on radiotherapy have been updated to underline new Options on more and more accessible emerging techniques including intensity-modulated radiotherapy, 3D conformational radiotherapy, Cyberknife, tomotherapy, protontherapy and particle accelerators producing carbon ions (e.g. last generation hadrontherapy).

  12. Screening regional management options for their impact on climate resilience: an approach and case study in the Venen-Vechtstreek wetlands in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wardekker, J A; Wildschut, D; Stemberger, S; van der Sluijs, J P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems provide various resources and services. These are often vulnerable to climate change and other pressures. Therefore, enhancing resilience to climate change is important for their long term viability. This paper explores how management options can be evaluated on their resilience implications. The approach included five steps: (1) characterizing the system, (2) characterizing the impacts of climate change and other disturbances, (3) inventorying management options, (4) assessing the impacts of these on climate resilience, and (5) follow-up analysis. For the resilience assessment, we used a set of 'resilience principles': homeostasis, omnivory, high flux, flatness, buffering, and redundancy. We applied the approach in a case study in a Dutch wetlands region. Many options in the region's management plan contribute to resilience, however, the plan underutilised several principles, particularly flatness, but also redundancy and omnivory for agriculture, and high flux for nature. Co-benefits was identified as an important additional criterion to obtain support for adaptation from local stakeholders, such as farmers. The approach provided a relatively quick and participatory way to screen options. It allowed us to consider multiple impacts and sectors, multiple dimensions of resilience, and stakeholder perspectives. The results can be used to identify gaps or pitfalls, and set priorities for follow-up analyses.

  13. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  14. Quantifying the value of investing in distributed natural gas and renewable electricity systems as complements: Applications of discounted cash flow and real options analysis with stochastic inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.; Logan, Jeffrey; Cochran, Jaquelin; Zinaman, Owen

    2016-10-01

    One energy policy objective in the United States is to promote the adoption of technologies that provide consumers with stable, secure, and clean energy. Recent work provides anecdotal evidence of natural gas (NG) and renewable electricity (RE) synergies in the power sector, however few studies quantify the value of investing in NG and RE systems together as complements. This paper uses discounted cash flow analysis and real options analysis to value hybrid NG-RE systems in distributed applications, focusing on residential and commercial projects assumed to be located in the states of New York and Texas. Technology performance and operational risk profiles are modeled at the hourly level to capture variable RE output and NG prices are modeled stochastically as geometric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) stochastic processes to capture NG price uncertainty. The findings consistently suggest that NG-RE hybrid distributed systems are more favorable investments in the applications studied relative to their single-technology alternatives when incentives for renewables are available. In some cases, NG-only systems are the favorable investments. Understanding the value of investing in NG-RE hybrid systems provides insights into one avenue towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, given the important role of NG and RE in the power sector.

  15. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  16. Electrochemical Cell with Improved Water or Gas Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William F. (Inventor); McElroy, James F. (Inventor); LaGrange, Jay W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a water/gas porous separator prepared from a polymeric material and one or more conductive cell components that pass through, or are located in close proximity to, the water/gas porous separator, is provided. The inventive cell provides a high level of in-cell electrical conductivity.

  17. Greenhouse gas flux from managed grasslands in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed grasslands are increasingly looked upon to serve as cost-effective sinks for mitigating climate change. Assurances of effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategies require detailed understanding of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide flux for rangelands and pasturelands. Summarizat...

  18. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines AGENCY: Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous...

  19. Management of gas gangrene in Wenchuan earthquake victims.

    PubMed

    Chen, Enqiang; Deng, Linyu; Liu, Zigui; Zhu, Xia; Chen, Xuebing; Tang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    Gas gangrene is an emergency condition, which usually develops after injuries or surgery. This study was designed to investigate clinical characteristics, appropriate therapy, and effective control of nosocomial cross-infection of gas gangrene in Wenchuan earthquake victims. Data on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of confirmed, suspected, or highly suspected gas gangrene were collected. Sixty-seven (2.41%) cases of suspected gas gangrene were found, in which 32 cases were highly suspected of gas gangrene and 5 cases were confirmed by culture of Clostridium perfringens. Thereof, injury sites were mainly located on the limbs, and typical indications, including crepitation, severe localized pain, swelling, wound discoloration, dark red or black necrotic muscle, foul smell as well as different degrees of systemic toxic performance were common among them. After hospitalization, all patients were isolated and had surgery quickly to remove dead, damaged or infected tissue. The wounds were also exposed for drainage and washed or padded with 3% liquid hydrogen peroxide for disinfection before all diagnostic test results were available. Additionally, high doses of antibiotics (mainly penicillin) were given for the prevention of infection, and supportive therapy was applied for corresponding symptoms control. Among those cases, no fatality was reported. In summary, in post-disaster emergency relief, the diagnosis of gas gangrene should be primarily based on clinical manifestations; while patient isolation, wound debridement and disinfection, as well as antibiotics treatment, is the main measures for proper treatment and control of nosocomial infection for gas gangrene.

  20. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION PARAMETERS DATABASE FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURE COMPOSITION MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composition management of mixed refrigerant systems is a challenging problem in the laboratory, manufacturing facilities, and large refrigeration machinery. Ths issue of composition management is especially critical for the maintenance of machinery that utilizes zeotropic mixture...

  1. Manipulations of soil microbiota for C sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in managed systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbes dominate processes that regulate soil trace gas emissions and soil C and N dynamics. Intensive management in agroecosystems provides unique opportunities to assess the effectiveness of microbial manipulations to enhance soil C retention and reduce trace gas emissions. While reduced til...

  2. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  3. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments: refuge manual

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1981-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the impacts of all aspects of oil and gas development upon coastal ecological systems and to assess the safeguards used in protecting refuge lands. Wildlife refuges along the coasts of Texas and Louisiana were selected for intensive study. These refuges were characterized by (1) a diversity of ecosystems, (2) oil exploration, extraction, and transport, and (3) oil and gas development periods of varying durations.

  4. The potential role for management of U.S. public lands in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy.

    PubMed

    Olander, Lydia P; Cooley, David M; Galik, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Management of forests, rangelands, and wetlands on public lands, including the restoration of degraded lands, has the potential to increase carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what is occurring today. In this paper we discuss several policy options for increasing GHG mitigation on public lands. These range from an extension of current policy by generating supplemental mitigation on public lands in an effort to meet national emissions reduction goals, to full participation in an offsets market by allowing GHG mitigation on public lands to be sold as offsets either by the overseeing agency or by private contractors. To help place these policy options in context, we briefly review the literature on GHG mitigation and public lands to examine the potential for enhanced mitigation on federal and state public lands in the United States. This potential will be tempered by consideration of the tradeoffs with other uses of public lands, the needs for climate change adaptation, and the effects on other ecosystem services.

  5. Gas-cooled reactor programs. Fuel-management positioning and accounting module: FUELMANG Version V1. 11, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, T.W.; Hill, K.L.; Johnson, G.L.; Jones, J.E.; Vondy, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the code module FUELMANG for fuel management of a reactor. This code may be used to position fuel during the calculation of a reactor history, maintain a mass balance history of the fuel movement, and calculate the unit fuel cycle component of the electrical generation cost. In addition to handling fixed feed fuel without recycle, provision has been made for fuel recycle with various options applied to the recycled fuel. A continuous fueling option is also available with the code. A major edit produced by the code is a detailed summary of the mass balance history of the reactor and a fuel cost analysis of that mass balance history. This code is incorporated in the system containing the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code for routine use. Fuel movement according to prescribed instructions is performed without the access of additional user input data during the calculation of a reactor operating history. Local application has been primarily for analysis of the performance of gas-cooled thermal reactor core concepts.

  6. DUV light source availability improvement via further enhancement of gas management technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Daniel J.; O'Brien, Kevin; Brown, Daniel J. W.

    2011-04-01

    The continuous evolution of the semiconductor market necessitates ever-increasing improvements in DUV light source uptime as defined in the SEMI E10 standard. Cymer is developing technologies to exceed current and projected light source availability requirements via significant reduction in light source downtime. As an example, consider discharge chamber gas management functions which comprise a sizable portion of DUV light source downtime. Cymer's recent introduction of Gas Lifetime Extension (GLXTM) as a productivity improvement technology for its DUV lithography light sources has demonstrated noteworthy reduction in downtime. This has been achieved by reducing the frequency of full gas replenishment events from once per 100 million pulses to as low as once per 2 billion pulses. Cymer has continued to develop relevant technologies that target further reduction in downtime associated with light source gas management functions. Cymer's current subject is the development of technologies to reduce downtime associated with gas state optimization (e.g. total chamber gas pressure) and gas life duration. Current gas state optimization involves execution of a manual procedure at regular intervals throughout the lifetime of light source core components. Cymer aims to introduce a product enhancement - iGLXTM - that eliminates the need for the manual procedure and, further, achieves 4 billion pulse gas lives. Projections of uptime on DUV light sources indicate that downtime associated with gas management will be reduced by 70% when compared with GLX2. In addition to reducing downtime, iGLX reduces DUV light source cost of operation by constraining gas usage. Usage of fluorine rich Halogen gas mix has been reduced by 20% over GLX2.

  7. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  8. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  9. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  10. Wastewater management and Marcellus Shale gas development: trends, drivers, and planning implications.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Brian G; Bates, Josephine T; Bertoia, Lara R; Galford, Amy E; Yoxtheimer, David A; Riha, Susan J

    2013-05-15

    Extraction of natural gas from tight shale formations has been made possible by recent technological advances, including hydraulic fracturing with horizontal drilling. Global shale gas development is seen as a potential energy and geopolitical "game-changer." However, widespread concern exists with respect to possible environmental consequences of this development, particularly impacts on water resources. In the United States, where the most shale gas extraction has occurred, the Marcellus Shale is now the largest natural gas producing play. To date, over 6,000,000 m(3) of wastewater has been generated in the process of extracting natural gas from this shale in the state of Pennsylvania (PA) alone. Here we examine wastewater management practices and trends for this shale play through analysis of industry-reported, publicly available data collected from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Oil and Gas Reporting Website. We also analyze the tracking and transport of shale gas liquid waste streams originating in PA using a combination of web-based and GIS approaches. From 2008 to 2011 wastewater reuse increased, POTW use decreased, and data tracking became more complete, while the average distance traveled by wastewater decreased by over 30%. Likely factors influencing these trends include state regulations and policies, along with low natural gas prices. Regional differences in wastewater management are influenced by industrial treatment capacity, as well as proximity to injection disposal capacity. Using lessons from the Marcellus Shale, we suggest that nations, states, and regulatory agencies facing new unconventional shale development recognize that pace and scale of well drilling leads to commensurate wastewater management challenges. We also suggest they implement wastewater reporting and tracking systems, articulate a policy for adapting management to evolving data and development patterns, assess local and regional wastewater treatment

  11. Peoples Gas System turns to electronic data management

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.T.

    1997-02-01

    Peoples Gas System, Inc. (PGS) is the largest natural gas distributor in Florida with 12 divisions that service most of the state`s major metropolitan areas. The company is a consolidation of various gas utilities with maps and records dating back to the early 1900s. As a result, these records are in various paper formats, map scales and condition. Distribution maps are drawn on large format medium: linen cloth, mylar or vellum. These maps are routinely copied and reduced to a size that is suitable for field use. Service records have been recorded on numerous types of paper that are stored in different file cabinets according to the card size. As these records are researched on a daily basis, the condition of the permanent records steadily deteriorate and are commonly misfiled. A major concern is the loss of records due to a natural disaster. Hurricanes, which are a constant threat in Florida, could physically affect many of PGS`s division offices. The distribution maps have been archived on microfilm on a continuing basis, but other irreplaceable records have not. Disaster recovery of the maps from the archives would be very time consuming and expensive.

  12. 76 FR 35009 - Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... designation of ``Special Management Areas'' to provide protection for areas where park resources and values... National Park Service Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement...

  13. Fundamental Technology Development for Gas-Turbine Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Arnold, Steven M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Anderson, Lynn M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated vehicle health management technologies promise to dramatically improve the safety of commercial aircraft by reducing system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents. To realize this promise, fundamental technology development is needed to produce reliable health management components. These components include diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, physics-based and data-driven lifing and failure models, sensors, and a sensor infrastructure including wireless communications, power scavenging, and electronics. In addition, system assessment methods are needed to effectively prioritize development efforts. Development work is needed throughout the vehicle, but particular challenges are presented by the hot, rotating environment of the propulsion system. This presentation describes current work in the field of health management technologies for propulsion systems for commercial aviation.

  14. Assessing the environmental burdens of anaerobic digestion in comparison to alternative options for managing the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Haight, M

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment processes including anaerobic digestion (biogasification) and composting are increasingly being considered by waste management officials and planners as alternatives for managing the mainly organic residues of municipal solid wastes (MSW). The integrated waste management model which is based upon the application of life-cycle analysis was employed to compare the environmental burdens of landfilling, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW at a mid-sized Canadian community. Energy consumption (or recovery), residue recoveries and emissions to air and water were quantified. Scenario comparisons were analyzed to demonstrate that the environmental burdens associated with anaerobic digestion are reduced in comparison with the alternative options. The major benefit occurs as a result of the electricity produced from burning the biogas and then supplying the 'green power' to the local electrical grid.

  15. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  16. The Evaluation System Design of GIS-Based Oil and Gas Resources Carbon Emission Database Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenju; Bi, Jiantao; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia; Pang, Wenqi

    2014-03-01

    Due to the importance of research on carbon budgets in natural processes, it is critical to be able to effectively manage and process all types of data in order to get measure carbon emissions. For this purpose, data produced in oil and gas exploration and natural processes are the focus of this research. Various tools are used including Oracle11g for data storage, Arc Engine combined with Microsoft Visual C# among others including C++ and the Database Storage Management Platform with GIS software functions. The IPCC algorithms are the most important reference, combine this with actual events, a new calculation model about oil and gas resources carbon emission was constructed. This model will analyze and predict the amount of carbon emissions in the oil and gas production in the future. Putting the new calculation model into the Database Storage Management Platform, an Intelligent Prediction Database Platform contained the new calculation model was established.

  17. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Crest, Marion; Barlaz, Morton A.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Akerman, Anna; Yuan, Lei

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of

  18. Shale Gas Development and Brook Trout: Scaling Best Management Practices to Anticipate Cumulative Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Shale gas development may involve trade-offs between energy development and benefits provided by natural ecosystems. However, current best management practices (BMPs) focus on mitigating localized ecological degradation. We review evidence for cumulative effects of natural gas development on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and conclude that BMPs should account for potential watershed-scale effects in addition to localized influences. The challenge is to develop BMPs in the face of uncertainty in the predicted response of brook trout to landscape-scale disturbance caused by gas extraction. We propose a decision-analysis approach to formulating BMPs in the specific case of relatively undisturbed watersheds where there is consensus to maintain brook trout populations during gas development. The decision analysis was informed by existing empirical models that describe brook trout occupancy responses to landscape disturbance and set bounds on the uncertainty in the predicted responses to shale gas development. The decision analysis showed that a high efficiency of gas development (e.g., 1 well pad per square mile and 7 acres per pad) was critical to achieving a win-win solution characterized by maintaining brook trout and maximizing extraction of available gas. This finding was invariant to uncertainty in predicted response of brook trout to watershed-level disturbance. However, as the efficiency of gas development decreased, the optimal BMP depended on the predicted response, and there was considerable potential value in discriminating among predictive models through adaptive management or research. The proposed decision-analysis framework provides an opportunity to anticipate the cumulative effects of shale gas development, account for uncertainty, and inform management decisions at the appropriate spatial scales.

  19. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with

  20. Thermal management of the adsorption-based vessel for hydrogeneous gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, L. L.; Kanonchik, L. E.; Babenko, V. A.

    2012-09-01

    Thermal management is a design bottleneck in the creation of rational gas storage sorption systems. Inefficient heat transfer in a sorption bed is connected with a relatively low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5 W/(mṡK)) and an appreciable sorption heat of activated gas storage materials. This work is devoted to the development of a thermally regulated onboard system of hydrogenous gas (methane and hydrogen) storage with the use of novel carbon sorbents. A hydrogenous gas storage system based on combined gas adsorption and compression at moderate pressures (3-6 MPa) and low temperatures (from the temperature of liquid nitrogen of about 77 K to a temperature of 273 K) is suggested.

  1. Blending as the best compliance option for the management of radioactivity in drinking water supplied from the deep sandstone aquifer in Southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Naser, Hazim K; Smith, Barry; Kilani, Susan; Abdeldin, Ismail; Howarth, Barry; Saleh, Bassam

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes management options and interventions taken by the Government of Jordan to ensure that the quality of drinking water supplied to consumers via the Disi Water Conveyance Project (DWCP) meets Jordanian drinking water standards and WHO guidelines for drinking water quality in respect of their radiological composition. Results from an initial survey of radioactivity present in water abstracted from each of the 55 wells (which comprise the operational well field) indicated an average radiological dose of 0.8 milliSieverts per year (mSv/y) would be accrued by members of the population if consuming water directly from the well head. During full scale operation, the estimated accrued dose from the well field as a whole decreased to an average of 0.7 mSv/y which was still approximately 1.4 times the Jordanian reference radiological limit for drinking water (0.5 mSv/y). Following assessment of treatment options by relevant health and water authorities, blending prior to distribution into the consumer network was identified as the most practicable remedial option. Results from monthly sampling undertaken after inline blending support the adoption of this approach, and indicate a reduction in the committed effective dose to 0.4 mSv/y, which is compliant with Jordanian standards.

  2. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  3. The impact of municipal solid waste management on greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Keith A; Thorneloe, Susan A; Nishtala, Subba R; Yarkosky, Sherry; Zannes, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Technological advancements, environmental regulations, and emphasis on resource conservation and recovery have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, including emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study was conducted using a life-cycle methodology to track changes in GHG emissions during the past 25 years from the management of MSW in the United States. For the baseline year of 1974, MSW management consisted of limited recycling, combustion without energy recovery, and landfilling without gas collection or control. This was compared with data for 1980, 1990, and 1997, accounting for changes in MSW quantity, composition, management practices, and technology. Over time, the United States has moved toward increased recycling, composting, combustion (with energy recovery) and landfilling with gas recovery, control, and utilization. These changes were accounted for with historical data on MSW composition, quantities, management practices, and technological changes. Included in the analysis were the benefits of materials recycling and energy recovery to the extent that these displace virgin raw materials and fossil fuel electricity production, respectively. Carbon sinks associated with MSW management also were addressed. The results indicate that the MSW management actions taken by U.S. communities have significantly reduced potential GHG emissions despite an almost 2-fold increase in waste generation. GHG emissions from MSW management were estimated to be 36 million metric tons carbon equivalents (MMTCE) in 1974 and 8 MMTCE in 1997. If MSW were being managed today as it was in 1974, GHG emissions would be approximately 60 MMTCE.

  4. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceptions, for improvement, consolidation, cancellation, or possible automation. The review must include... Act (GPEA) prescribes and all guidance issued by the Office of Management and Budget and...

  5. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exceptions, for improvement, consolidation, cancellation, or possible automation. The review must include... Act (GPEA) prescribes and all guidance issued by the Office of Management and Budget and...

  6. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exceptions, for improvement, consolidation, cancellation, or possible automation. The review must include... Act (GPEA) prescribes and all guidance issued by the Office of Management and Budget and...

  7. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exceptions, for improvement, consolidation, cancellation, or possible automation. The review must include... Act (GPEA) prescribes and all guidance issued by the Office of Management and Budget and...

  8. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing Watershed Management Options in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management de...

  9. TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS IN WOOD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN NORTHERN CANADA: A RENEWED NEED TO DEVELOP OPTIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Shury, Todd K; Nishi, John S; Elkin, Brett T; Wobeser, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Effective, long-term strategies to manage the threat of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis spillback from northern, diseased bison to the Canadian cattle herd and adjacent disease-free wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) herds have eluded policy makers in recent decades. A controversial plan to depopulate infected herds and repopulate them with disease-free wood bison was rejected in 1990 because of significant public concern. Since then, technical advances in vaccine technology, genetic salvage, selective culling, and diagnostic test development have occurred. Containment strategies to reduce further spread of these diseases are a necessary first step; recent progress has been made in this area, but challenges remain. This progress has produced more options for management of these herds in northern Canada, and it is time to consider wood bison conservation and long-term disease eradication as equally important goals that must satisfy concerns of conservation groups, agriculture sectors, aboriginal groups, and the general public. Management of wildlife disease reservoirs in other areas, including Yellowstone and Riding Mountain national parks, has demonstrated that effective disease management is possible. Although combinations of different strategies, including vaccination, genetic salvage techniques, and selective culling, that use sensitive and specific diagnostic tests may offer alternatives to depopulation/repopulation, they also have logistic constraints and cost implications that will need consideration in a multistakeholder, collaborative-management framework. We feel the time is right for this discussion, so a long-term solution to this problem can be applied.

  10. Soil Management Effects on Gas Fluxes from an Organic Soil Agricultural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, S. P.; Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Singh, M.; Daroub, S. H.; McCray, M.

    2015-12-01

    The role of soil management on gas flux isn't well understood for Histosols of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of southern Florida. The region is responsible for roughly half of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) production in the USA along with supplying winter vegetable crops to the eastern USA. Future productivity in the EAA is jeopardized by soil subsidence resulting from oxidation of organic matter. Establishing the role of tillage, water-table depth, nitrogen fertilizer, and soil depth on gas flux will help determine how effective various managements are on conserving soil. Ongoing lysimeter and field studies examined effects of management practices (water-table, tillage, and nitrogen fertilizer), and soil depth on, gas emission and microbial biomass. The trials were set in Belle Glade, FL, on Lauderhill muck (Lithic Haplosaprists). Results to be presented include soil microbial biomass and soil gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) flux. This study provides insight into management effectiveness and agriculture sustainability on shallow muck soils of the EAA and will help farmers mitigate problems associated with soil subsidence and seasonally high water-tables.

  11. Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

  12. Production, management, and environment symposium: Environmental footprint of livestock production - Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the introduction to the 2015 Production, Management, and Environment symposium titled “Environmental Footprint of Livestock Production – Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change” that was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the ASAS and ADSA at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort in...

  13. Management of chlorine gas-related injuries from the Graniteville, South Carolina, train derailment.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Emily; Svendsen, Erik; Grant, Stephen; Michels, Jill E; Richardson, William H

    2014-10-01

    A widely produced chemical, chlorine is used in various industries including automotive, electronics, disinfectants, metal production, and many others. Chlorine is usually produced and transported as a pressurized liquid; however, as a gas it is a significant pulmonary irritant. Thousands of people are exposed to chlorine gas every year, and while large-scale exposures are uncommon, they are not rare. Symptoms are usually related to the concentration and length of exposure, and although treatment is largely supportive, certain specific therapies have yet to be validated with randomized controlled trials. The majority of those exposed completely recover with supportive care; however, studies have shown the potential for persistent inflammation and chronic hyperreactivity. This case report describes an incident that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina, when a train derailment exposed hundreds of people to chlorine gas. This report reviews the events of January 6, 2005, and the current treatment options for chlorine gas exposure.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6).

  14. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  15. Answering to the domesticability of exotic options and strategies in managing Africa's urban landscapes for sustainability beyond 2015.

    PubMed

    Chirisa, Innocent Ew; Kawadza, Shingai T; Bandauko, Elmond

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at critically assessing the land management strategies that can be instrumental in bringing sound governance to urban landscapes in Africa with the view of mapping the potential, minimum conditions for success and constraints to doing so. This study is qualitative by approach and case study based by design, assesses practices in land management from a few cities (Nairobi, Abuja, Harare, Kigali, Johannesburg and Addis Ababa). Peculiarities and differences in the practices of land management in these cities is the basis for their purposeful selection. The evaluation of the land management practices in these cities is in terms of the current realities and the possibility for the acceptability of new, exotic but deemed sustainable urban land management styles. Noted strongly in this current discourse is that Africa is a region with varied of contexts requiring a critical assessment of issues before policy strategies are implemented in terms of land tenure, land administration corruption, political will and receptivity of the so-called foreign philosophies in urban land governance. The study recommends relevant training of the land and planning experts in Africa. In addition, there is general need to balance between 'place prosperity' with 'people prosperity' as they relate to land management noting that space and capital make the difference in sustainable human habitats' creation and management.

  16. 77 FR 66865 - Record of Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River... (ROD) for the Oil and Gas Management Plan (Plan) for Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area and Obed Wild and Scenic River. On September 5, 2012, the Southeast Regional Director, approved...

  17. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...

  18. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-08-12

    The calibrated groundwater-flow model was used with the Groundwater-Management Process for the 2005 version of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW–2005, to provide a tool for the NPNRD to better understand how water-management decisions could affect stream base flows of the North Platte River at Bridgeport, Nebr., streamgage in a future period from 2008 to 2019 under varying climatic conditions. The simulation-optimization model was constructed to analyze the maximum increase in simulated stream base flow that could be obtained with the minimum amount of reductions in groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. A second analysis extended the first to analyze the simulated base-flow benefit of groundwater withdrawals along with application of intentional recharge, that is, water from canals being released into rangeland areas with sandy soils. With optimized groundwater withdrawals and intentional recharge, the maximum simulated stream base flow was 15–23 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) greater than with no management at all, or 10–15 ft3/s larger than with managed groundwater withdrawals only. These results indicate not only the amount that simulated stream base flow can be increased by these management options, but also the locations where the management options provide the most or least benefit to the simulated stream base flow. For the analyses in this report, simulated base flow was best optimized by reductions in groundwater withdrawals north of the North Platte River and in the western half of the area. Intentional recharge sites selected by the optimization had a complex distribution but were more likely to be closer to the North Platte River or its tributaries. Future users of the simulation-optimization model will be able to modify the input files as to type, location, and timing of constraints, decision variables of groundwater withdrawals by zone, and other variables to explore other feasible management

  19. A Menu of Options for Developing Tribal Air Grant Work Plans and Managing Grants for Environmental Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tool to assist tribes that apply for Clean Air Act (CAA) funding to draft more effective work plans for projects that will develop tribal knowledge of air quality issues and build tribal expertise to manage air quality on tribal lands.

  20. Acoustic tumors: operation versus radiation--making sense of opposing viewpoints. Part II. Acoustic neuromas: sorting out management options.

    PubMed

    Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L Dade; Flickinger, John C

    2003-01-01

    Patients with acoustic neuromas have several options available to them. Large tumors with significant brain stem compression usually require surgical resection. For patients with small or medium-sized tumors, radiosurgery has become a common treatment, with excellent long-term results being reported. Patients must be comfortable with the concept of tumor control rather than tumor removal. Most seem to be satisfied with this concept if it allows them to avoid brain surgery. Surgeons should strive to educate their patients with information from the peer-reviewed literature. Confusion exists among patients, because the information from Internet sources, newsletters, support groups, and physicians has not always been validated and supported by outcomes data. Although we are asked to provide our opinions, our comments should not be based on myth, conjecture, training bias, or socioeconomic concerns.

  1. A Trans-disciplinary Hydrogeological Systems Analysis Approach for Identifying and Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Options: Example from the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, K.; Brodie, R. S.; Tan, K. P.; Halas, L.; Magee, J.; Gow, L.; Christensen, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water availability and quality generally limits managed aquifer recharge (MAR) opportunities in inland Australia's highly salinized landscapes and groundwater systems. Economic factors also commonly limit MAR investigations to shallow freshwater groundwater systems near existing infrastructure. Aquifer opportunities lie mainly in zones of fresh groundwater in relatively thin fluvial sedimentary aquifer systems with highly variable hydraulic properties. As part of a broader strategy to identify water savings in the Murray-Darling Basin, the Broken Hill Managed Aquifer Recharge (BHMAR) project was tasked with identifying and assessing MAR and/or groundwater extraction options to reduce evaporative losses from existing surface water storages, secure Broken Hill's water supply, protect the local environment and heritage, and return water to the river system. A trans-disciplinary research approach was used to identify and assess MAR options across a broad area of the Darling River floodplain. This methodology enabled the team to recognise fundamental problems in discipline approaches, helped identify critical data gaps, led to significant innovation across discipline boundaries, was critical in the development of a new hydrogeological conceptual model, facilitated development of new models of landscape, geological and tectonic evolution of the study area, and enabled completion of pre-commissioning maximal and residual MAR risk assessments. An airborne electromagnetics (AEM) survey, acquired over a large (>7,500 sq km) area of the Darling Floodplain, enabled rapid identification of a multi-layer sequence of aquifers and aquitards, while a phased assessment methodology was developed to rapidly identify and assess over 30 potential MAR targets (largely in fresh groundwater zones within palaeochannels and at palaeochannel confluences). Hydraulic properties were confirmed by a 7.5 km drilling program (100 sonic and rotary mud holes), and complementary field

  2. Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.

    2013-07-01

    Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

  3. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels From 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Potential Water-Supply Management Options in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; Watt, Martha K.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in four confined aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain within Water Supply Critical Area 1 have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated by the State in the late 1980s. The aquifers are the Wenonah-Mount Laurel, the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and Englishtown aquifer system. Because of increased water demand due to increased development in Monmouth, Ocean, and Middlesex Counties, five base and nine alternate management models were designed for the four aquifers to evaluate the effects resulting from potential reallocation of part of the Critical Area 1 reductions in withdrawals. The change in withdrawals and associated water-level changes in the aquifers for 1988-2003 are discussed. Generally, withdrawals decreased 25 to 30 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), and water levels increased 0 to 80 ft (feet). The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate ground-water flow and optimize withdrawals using the Ground-Water Management Process (GWM) for MODFLOW. Results of the model were used to evaluate the effects of several possible water-supply management options in order to provide the information to water managers. The optimization method, which provides a means to set constraints that support mandated hydrologic conditions, then determine the maximum withdrawals that meet the constraints, is a more cost-effective approach than simulating a range of withdrawals to determine the effects on the aquifer system. The optimization method is particularly beneficial for a regional-scale study of this kind because of the large number of wells to be evaluated. Before the model was run, a buffer analysis was done to define an area with no additional withdrawals that minimizes changes in simulated streamflow in aquifer outcrop areas and simulated movement of ground water toward the wells from areas of

  4. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    PubMed

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood.

  5. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  6. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Harris R.; Blink, James A.; Halsey, William G.; Sutton, Mark

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  8. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 2, part 2, Task 2: Information management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-04-01

    Missions to be performed, station operations and functions to be carried out, and technologies anticipated during the time frame of the space station were examined in order to determine the scope of the overall information management system for the space station. This system comprises: (1) the data management system which includes onboard computer related hardware and software required to assume and exercise control of all activities performed on the station; (2) the communication system for both internal and external communications; and (3) the ground segment. Techniques used to examine the information system from a functional and performance point of view are described as well as the analyses performed to derive the architecture of both the onboard data management system and the system for internal and external communications. These architectures are then used to generate a conceptual design of the onboard elements in order to determine the physical parameters (size/weight/power) of the hardware and software. The ground segment elements are summarized.

  9. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 2, part 2, Task 2: Information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Missions to be performed, station operations and functions to be carried out, and technologies anticipated during the time frame of the space station were examined in order to determine the scope of the overall information management system for the space station. This system comprises: (1) the data management system which includes onboard computer related hardware and software required to assume and exercise control of all activities performed on the station; (2) the communication system for both internal and external communications; and (3) the ground segment. Techniques used to examine the information system from a functional and performance point of view are described as well as the analyses performed to derive the architecture of both the onboard data management system and the system for internal and external communications. These architectures are then used to generate a conceptual design of the onboard elements in order to determine the physical parameters (size/weight/power) of the hardware and software. The ground segment elements are summarized.

  10. Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers’ investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngigi, Stephen N.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Rockström, Johan; Gachene, Charles K.

    Smallholder farmers in Laikipia district of Kenya, like their counterparts in water scarce semi-arid environments, are facing the challenge of improving agricultural productivity and livelihoods. A number of viable options are available, but high hydrological risks and low economic capability are discouraging the poor and risk-averse farmers. Rainwater harvesting and management (RHM) is one of the promising options, whose impacts are unfortunately also affected by hydrological risks related to unreliable rainfall. The paper presents a hydro-economic analysis of RHM systems with the aim of analyzing some of the factors that affect their adoption by smallholder farmers. Hydro-economic analysis included hydrological reliability of RHM systems, agro-hydrological risks and economic analysis. Agro-hydrological risk focused on dry spell and drought analysis, which affect soil moisture availability and hence crop production. Hydrological reliability assessed the ability of a RHM system to harvest and store adequate runoff to meet supplemental irrigation requirement to bridge dry spells and mitigate the impacts of persistent droughts. Economic analysis addressed benefit-cost analysis and profitability of RHM in terms of increasing crop production and stabilizing yields. The study was conducted in Kalalu and Matanya, which are in two different agro-climatic zones and represent land-use changes in the recently settled areas of Laikipia district. The results provide a basis for farmers to make informed decisions on agricultural investments under hydrologic risks and uncertain production systems. RHM systems for supplemental irrigation were found to be an economically viable option for improving agricultural production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in drought prone rural areas.

  11. Enterprise Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: An Analysis of Selected Fortune 500 Oil and Gas Companies' Reaction in 2009 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Violet C.; Ethridge, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, four of the top ten Fortune 500 companies were classified within the oil and gas industry. Organizations of this size typically have an advanced Enterprise Risk Management system in place to mitigate risk and to achieve their corporations' objectives. The companies and the article utilize the Enterprise Risk Management Integrated…

  12. Management Options During the 2011-2012 Drought on the Apalachicola River: A Systems Dynamic Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitman, S.; Pine, W. E.; Kiker, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin (ACF) is a large watershed in the southeastern United States. In 2012, the basin experienced the second year of a severe drought and the third multi-year drought in the last 15 years. During severe droughts, low reservoir and river levels can cause economic and ecological impacts to the reservoir, river, and estuarine ecosystems. During drought, augmenting Apalachicola River discharge through upstream reservoir releases and demand management are intuitive and often-suggested solutions to minimizing downstream effects. We assessed whether the existing reservoir system could be operated to minimize drought impacts on downstream water users and ecosystems through flow augmentation. Our analysis finds that in extreme drought such as observed during 2012, increases in water releases from reservoir storage are insufficient to even increase Apalachicola River discharge to levels observed in the 2007 drought. This suggests that there is simply not enough water available in managed storage to offset extreme drought events. Because drought frequency and intensity is predicted to increase under a variety of climate forecasts, our results demonstrate the need for a critical assessment of how water managers will meet increasing water demands in the ACF. Key uncertainties that should be addressed include (1) identifying the factors that led to extremely low Flint River discharge in 2012, and (2) determining how water "saved" via demand management is allocated to storage or passed to downstream ecosystem needs as part of the ongoing revisions to the ACF Water Control Manual by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  13. Multicriteria decision analysis to assess options for managing contaminated sediments: Application to Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbum; Kim, Suk Hyun; Hong, Gi Hoon; Suedel, Burton C; Clarke, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Many years of untreated effluent discharge from residential areas, a shipyard, a marina, and a large fish market resulted in substantial contamination of bottom sediment in Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea. Contaminants in these sediments include heavy metals and organic compounds. Newly introduced regulations for ocean disposal of dredged material in South Korea pose significant challenges, because the previous practice of offshore disposal of contaminated dredged material was no longer possible after August 2008. The South Korean government has mandated that such sediments be assessed in a way that identifies the most appropriate dredged material management alternative, addressing environmental, social, and cost objectives. An approach using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in combination with comparative risk assessment was used as a systematic and transparent framework for prioritizing several dredged sediment management alternatives. We illustrate how MCDA can recognize the multiple goals of contaminated sediment management. Values used in weighting decision criteria were derived from surveys of stakeholders who were sediment management professionals, business owners, or government decision makers. The results of the analysis showed that land reclamation was the preferred alternative among cement-lock, sediment washing, 3 contained aquatic disposal alternatives (one in combination with a hopper dredge), geotextile tubes, solidification, and land reclamation after solidification treatment. Land reclamation was the preferred alternative, which performed well across all MCDA objectives, because of the availability of a near-shore confined disposal facility within a reasonable distance from the dredging area.

  14. The challenge of extraabdominal desmoid tumour management in patients with Gardner's syndrome: radiofrequency ablation, a promising option.

    PubMed

    Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Ravetta, Valentina; Viera, Francesca Torello; Filisetti, Claudia; Siri, Barbara; Segalini, Edoardo; Maestri, Marcello; Dominioni, Tommaso; Alessiani, Mario; Rossi, Sandro; Dionigi, Paolo

    2014-11-27

    Desmoid tumours are benign, myofibroblastic stromal neoplasms common in Gardner's syndrome, which is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis characterized by colonic polyps, osteomas, thyroid cancer, epidermoid cysts, fibromas and sebaceous cysts. The primary treatment is surgery, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, but the local recurrence rate is high, and wide resection can result in debilitating loss of function. We report the case of a 39-year-old man with Gardner's syndrome who had already undergone a total prophylactic colectomy. He developed desmoid tumours localized in the mesenteric root, abdominal wall and dorsal region, which were treated from 2003 through 2013 with several surgical procedures and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. In 2008 and 2013, RFA was applied under ultrasonographic guidance to two desmoid tumours localized in the dorsal thoracic wall. The outcomes were low-grade pain and one case of superficial skin necrosis, but so far there has been no recurrence of desmoid tumours in these locations. Surgical resection remains the first-line therapy for patients with desmoid tumours, but wide resection may lead to a poor quality of life. Radiofrequency ablation is less invasive and expensive and is a possible therapeutic option for desmoid tumours in patients with Gardner's syndrome.

  15. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael; Elgowainy, Amgad; DiVita, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  16. A Review of the Tawny Crazy Ant, Nylanderia fulva, an Emergent Ant Invader in the Southern United States: Is Biological Control a Feasible Management Option?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zinan; Moshman, Lori; Kraus, Emily C.; Wilson, Blake E.; Acharya, Namoona; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), has invaded states of the U.S. including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Native to South America, N. fulva is considered a pest in the U.S. capable of annoying homeowners and farmers, as well as displacing native ant species. As it continues to expand its range, there is a growing need to develop novel management techniques to control the pest and prevent further spread. Current management efforts rely heavily on chemical control, but these methods have not been successful. A review of the biology, taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of N. fulva, including discussion of ecological and economic consequences of this invasive species, is presented. Options for future management are suggested focusing on biological control, including parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon, the microsporidian parasite Myrmecomorba nylanderiae, and a novel polynucleotide virus as potential biological control agents. We suggest further investigation of natural enemies present in the adventive range, as well as foreign exploration undertaken in the native range including Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina. We conclude that N. fulva may be a suitable candidate for biological control. PMID:27983690

  17. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  18. Management options for rare diseases in children and adolescents in Georgia (experience of the country with transitional economy).

    PubMed

    Pagava, K; Abesadze, G; Uberi, N; Korinteli, I; Paghava, I; Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Parulava, T; Korinteli, M; Kiseliova, T

    2011-04-01

    We present the results of our research and organizational work aimed at the management optimization for the rare diseases in Georgia (the Country with Transitional Economy). We compiled a list of the rare diseases actual for Georgia; elaborated algorythms and expert systems supporting the diagnosis making process for various clusters of the rare diseases; translated into Georgian and adapted textual materials regarding the management of various rare disorders; assessed the awareness level for the rare diseases of the pediatricians and general practioners in Georgia and attempted to raise it by organizing seminars and conferences, including international ones, in various regions of Georgia; elaborated a model of the expert system (based on the fuzzy logic principles) for unmasking the cases suspicious for the rare disease; laid the foundation for the national register of the rare diseases in children and adolescents; elaborated the module for post-graduate education regarding rare diseases; organized the center for the rare diseases.

  19. Management Options During the 2011-2012 Drought on the Apalachicola River: A Systems Dynamic Model Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leitman, S; Pine, W E; Kiker, G

    2016-08-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin (ACF) is a large watershed in the southeastern United States. In 2012, the basin experienced the second year of a severe drought and the third multi-year drought in the last 15 years. During severe droughts, low reservoir and river levels can cause economic and ecological impacts to the reservoir, river, and estuarine ecosystems. During drought, augmenting Apalachicola River discharge through upstream reservoir releases and demand management are intuitive and often-suggested solutions to minimizing downstream effects. We assessed whether the existing reservoir system could be operated to minimize drought impacts on downstream water users and ecosystems through flow augmentation. Our analysis finds that in extreme drought such as observed during 2012, increases in water releases from reservoir storage are insufficient to even increase Apalachicola River discharge to levels observed in the 2007 drought. This suggests that there is simply not enough water available in managed storage to offset extreme drought events. Because drought frequency and intensity is predicted to increase under a variety of climate forecasts, our results demonstrate the need for a critical assessment of how water managers will meet increasing water demands in the ACF. Key uncertainties that should be addressed include (1) identifying the factors that led to extremely low Flint River discharge in 2012, and (2) determining how water "saved" via demand management is allocated to storage or passed to downstream ecosystem needs as part of the ongoing revisions to the ACF Water Control Manual by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  20. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  1. A new Masters program in Greenhouse Gas Management and Accounting at Colorado State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, R. T.; Ogle, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Management guru Peter Drucker said that "what gets measured gets managed." But the unstated implication is that what doesn't get measured doesn't get managed. Accurate quantification of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is central to the clean technology sector. Very soon professionals of all kinds (business people, accountants, lawyers) will need to understand carbon accounting and crediting. Over the next few decades food production is expected to double and energy production must triple in order to meet growing global demands; sustainable management of land use and agricultural systems will be critical. The food and energy supply challenges are inextricably linked to the challenge of limiting anthropogenic impacts on climate by reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. To avoid serious disruption of the climate system and stabilize GHG concentrations, society must move aggressively to avoid emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O and to actively draw down CO2 already in the atmosphere. A new cadre of technically adept professionals is needed to meet these challenges. We describe a new professional Masters degree in greenhouse gas management and accounting at Colorado State University. This effort leverages existing, internationally-recognized expertise from across campus and partners from agencies and industry, enabling students from diverse backgrounds to develop the skills needed to fill this emerging demand.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions in a faba bean crop: incluence of management practices and cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of two cultivars of faba bean (Muchamiel and Palenca) with two different management practices (conventional and organic) on the direct emissions of N2O and CH4 during the crop cycle and their interaction with soil properties. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for crop cycle. The results showed that accumulated N2O was higher for both cultivars under conventional management practice with comparison to organic management, with an average increase of 18.27 mg m-2 in Muchamiel cultivar and 8.95 mg m-2 in Palenca cultivar. Accumulated CH4 was higher in Palenca cultivar under conventional management practice, with an average increase of 455.28 mg m-2 over this cultivar under organic management practice. We observed significant negative correlations between N2O emission and β-glucosaminidase activity, and between CH4 and sodium content in soil. In addition, CH4 emission showed a positive correlation with the enzyme activities arylesterase and cellulase. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  3. Designing management options to reduce surface runoff and sediment yield with farmers: an experiment in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Adriana; Poussin, Jean-Christophe; Mailhol, Jean-Claude; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Gumiere, Silvio J

    2012-04-15

    To preserve the quality of surface water, official French regulations require farmers to keep a minimum acreage of grassland, especially bordering rivers. These agro-environmental measures do not account for the circulation of water within the catchment. This paper examines whether it is possible to design with the farmers agri-environmental measures at field and catchment scale to prevent soil erosion and surface water pollution. To support this participatory approach, the hydrology and erosion model STREAM was used for assessing the impact of a spring stormy event on surface runoff and sediment yield with various management scenarios. The study was carried out in collaboration with an agricultural committee in an area of south-western France where erosive runoff has a major impact on the quality of surface water. Two sites (A and B) were chosen with farmers to discuss ways of reducing total surface runoff and sediment yield at each site. The STREAM model was used to assess surface runoff and sediment yield under current cropping pattern at each site and to evaluate management scenarios including grass strips implementation or changes in cropping patterns within the catchment. The results of STREAM simulations were analysed jointly by farmers and researchers. Moreover, the farmers discussed each scenario in terms of its technical and economical feasibility. STREAM simulations showed that a 40 mm spring rainfall with current cropping patterns led to 3116 m3 total water runoff and 335 metric tons of sediment yield at site A, and 3249 m3 and 241 metric tons at site B. Grass strips implementation could reduce runoff for about 40% and sediment yield for about 50% at site A. At site B, grass strips could reduce runoff and sediment yield for more than 50%, but changes in cropping pattern could reduce it almost totally. The simulations led to three main results: (i) grass strips along rivers and ditches prevented soil sediments from entering the surface water but did not

  4. The Cost of Information Systems Modernization: A Comparison of Options for Life-Cycle Project Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    PC, minicomputer, or mainframe computer), off-the-shelf project management/scheduling software (e.g., Open Plan, Primavera , etc.); and database for...linked to * CETAL * Screens, reports division 0 CWS 0 Open Plan e Open Plan functions Mobile * Sperry 0 Primavera 0 INFORMIX- e COEMIS F&A 0 INFORMIX...cost 5000/95 SQL o CETAL, PMRS query system * Harris * CWS 0 Data interfaces * Primavera o COBOL Sacramento 0 PC network 0 Custom C 0 COEMIS F&A

  5. Linking the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and health information system (HIS) classifications: issues and options.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A. K.; Hirnschall, G.; Lambrechts, T.; Bryce, J.

    1999-01-01

    Differences in the terms used to classify diseases in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines and for health information system (HIS) disease surveillance could easily create confusion among health care workers. If the equivalent terms in the two classifications are not clear to health workers who are following the guidelines, they may have problems in performing the dual activities of case management and disease surveillance. These difficulties could adversely affect an individual's performance as well as the overall effectiveness of the IMCI strategy or HIS surveillance, or both. We interviewed key informants to determine the effect of these differences between the IMCI and HIS classifications on the countries that were implementing the IMCI guidelines. Four general approaches for addressing the problem were identified: translating the IMCI classifications into HIS classifications; changing the HIS list to include the IMCI classifications; using both the IMCI and HIS classification systems at the time of consultations; and doing nothing. No single approach can satisfy the needs of all countries. However, if the short-term or medium-term goal of IMCI planners is to find a solution that will reduce the problem for health workers and is also easy to implement, the approach most likely to succeed is translation of IMCI classifications into HIS classifications. Where feasible, a modification of the health information system to include the IMCI classifications may also be considered. PMID:10680246

  6. Assessment of Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in Lebanon: Management Options to Protect Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, May A.; Chami, Ghida; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals comprise an extensive group of compounds whose release into the environment has potential adverse impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems. In many developing countries the extent of the problem and the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies are generally unknown. While thousands of tons of pharmaceutical substances are used annually, little information is known about their final fate after their intended use. This paper focuses on better understanding the management of human-use pharmaceutical wastes generated at the residential level within the Administrative Beirut Area. A survey encompassing 300 households was conducted. Results revealed that the majority of respondents were found to dispose of their unwanted medications, mainly through the domestic solid waste stream. Willingness to participate in a future collection program was found to be a function of age, medical expenditure, and the respondents' views towards awareness and the importance of establishing a collection system for pharmaceutical wastes. Respondents who stated a willingness to participate in a collection program and/or those who believed in the need for awareness programs on the dangers of improper medical waste disposal tended to favor more collection programs managed by the government as compared to a program run by pharmacies or to the act of re-gifting medication to people in need. Ultimately, collaboration and coordination between concerned stakeholders are essential for developing a successful national collection plan.

  7. Assessment of Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in Lebanon: Management Options to Protect Water Quality and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Chami, Ghida; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals comprise an extensive group of compounds whose release into the environment has potential adverse impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems. In many developing countries the extent of the problem and the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies are generally unknown. While thousands of tons of pharmaceutical substances are used annually, little information is known about their final fate after their intended use. This paper focuses on better understanding the management of human-use pharmaceutical wastes generated at the residential level within the Administrative Beirut Area. A survey encompassing 300 households was conducted. Results revealed that the majority of respondents were found to dispose of their unwanted medications, mainly through the domestic solid waste stream. Willingness to participate in a future collection program was found to be a function of age, medical expenditure, and the respondents' views towards awareness and the importance of establishing a collection system for pharmaceutical wastes. Respondents who stated a willingness to participate in a collection program and/or those who believed in the need for awareness programs on the dangers of improper medical waste disposal tended to favor more collection programs managed by the government as compared to a program run by pharmacies or to the act of re-gifting medication to people in need. Ultimately, collaboration and coordination between concerned stakeholders are essential for developing a successful national collection plan.

  8. Permitting program with best management practices for shale gas wells to safeguard public health.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Petetin, Ludivine

    2015-11-01

    The development of shale gas resources in the United States has been controversial as governments have been tardy in devising sufficient safeguards to protect both people and the environment. Alleged health and environmental damages suggest that other countries around the world that decide to develop their shale gas resources can learn from these problems and take further actions to prevent situations resulting in the release of harmful pollutants. Looking at U.S. federal regulations governing large animal operations under the permitting provisions of the Clean Water Act, the idea of a permitting program is proposed to respond to the risks of pollution by shale gas development activities. Governments can require permits before allowing the drilling of a new gas well. Each permit would include fluids and air emissions reduction plans containing best management practices to minimize risks and releases of pollutants. The public availability of permits and permit applications, as occurs for water pollution under various U.S. permitting programs, would assist governments in protecting public health. The permitting proposals provide governments a means for providing further assurances that shale gas development projects will not adversely affect people and the environment.

  9. Assessing the probability of carbon and greenhouse gas benefit from the management of peat soils.

    PubMed

    Worrall, F; Bell, M J; Bhogal, A

    2010-06-01

    This study proposes a method for assessing the probability that land management interventions will lead to an improvement in the carbon sink represented by peat soils. The method is able to: combine studies of different carbon uptake and release pathways in order to assess changes on the overall carbon or greenhouse gas budget; calculate the probability of the management or restoration leading to an improvement in the budget; calculate the uncertainty in that probability estimate; estimate the equivalent number of complete budgets available from the combination of the literature; test the difference in the outcome of different land management interventions; and provide a method for updating the predicted probabilities as new studies become available. Using this methodology, this study considered the impact of: afforestation, managed burning, drainage, drain-blocking, grazing removal; and revegetation, on the carbon budget of peat soils in the UK. The study showed that afforestation, drain-blocking, revegetation, grazing removal and cessation of managed burning would bring a carbon benefit, whereas deforestation, managed burning and drainage would bring a disbenefit. The predicted probabilities of a benefit are often equivocal as each management type or restoration often leads to increase in uptake in one pathway while increasing losses in another.

  10. The role of sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource management in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and increasing sinks in China and India.

    PubMed

    Pretty, J N; Ball, A S; Xiaoyun, Li; Ravindranath, N H

    2002-08-15

    This paper contains an analysis of the technical options in agriculture for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and increasing sinks, arising from three distinct mechanisms: (i) increasing carbon sinks in soil organic matter and above-ground biomass; (ii) avoiding carbon emissions from farms by reducing direct and indirect energy use; and (iii) increasing renewable-energy production from biomass that either substitutes for consumption of fossil fuels or replaces inefficient burning of fuelwood or crop residues, and so avoids carbon emissions, together with use of biogas digesters and improved cookstoves. We then review best-practice sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource-management projects and initiatives in China and India, and analyse the annual net sinks being created by these projects, and the potential market value of the carbon sequestered. We conclude with a summary of the policy and institutional conditions and reforms required for adoption of best sustainability practice in the agricultural sector to achieve the desired reductions in emissions and increases in sinks. A review of 40 sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource-management projects in China and India under the three mechanisms estimated a carbon mitigation potential of 64.8 MtC yr(-1) from 5.5 Mha. The potential income for carbon mitigation is $324 million at $5 per tonne of carbon. The potential exists to increase this by orders of magnitude, and so contribute significantly to greenhouse-gas abatement. Most agricultural mitigation options also provide several ancillary benefits. However, there are many technical, financial, policy, legal and institutional barriers to overcome.

  11. Environmental and economic analysis of end of life management options for an HDPE product using a life cycle thinking approach.

    PubMed

    Simões, Carla L; Pinto, Lígia M Costa; Bernardo, C A

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers have been increasingly considering the implication of materials used in commercial products and the management of such products at the end of their useful lives (as waste or as post-consumer secondary materials). The present work describes the application of the life cycle thinking approach to a plastic product, specifically an anti-glare lamellae (used for road safety applications) made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This study shows that optimal environmental and economic outcomes associated with this product can be realized by recovering the material at the end of its useful life (end of life, EoL) and by using the recycled HDPE as a raw material in the production of new similar products. The study confirmed the applicability of the life cycle thinking approach by industry in sustainable products development, supporting the development of robust environmental and economic guidelines.

  12. Neglected infections of poverty in Texas and the rest of the United States: management and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Barry, M A; Bezek, S; Serpa, J A; Hotez, P J; Woc-Colburn, L

    2012-08-01

    In the poorest regions of the United States, especially along the Gulf Coast and in South Texas, are a group of endemic parasitic and related infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Such infections are characterized by their chronicity, disabling features, and disproportionate impact on the estimated 46 million people who live below the U.S. poverty line. Today more Americans live in poverty than ever before in the half-century that the Census Bureau has been recording poverty rates. In association with that poverty, a group of major neglected infections of poverty have emerged in the United States. Here we describe the major neglected infections of poverty in the United States, with a brief overview of their significant epidemiological features, their links with poverty, and our approaches to their diagnosis, management, and treatment.

  13. Conservation management options and actions: putative decline of coral cover at Palmyra Atoll, Northern Line Islands, as a case study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Bartz, R John; Brainard, Russell E; Collen, John D; Dunbar, Robert B; Garton, David W; Powell, Sam

    2014-07-15

    Localised loss of live coral cover at Palmyra Atoll (central Pacific Ocean) has been attributed to increased temperature and/or sedimentation arising from alterations made to the lagoon system. It has been hypothesised that a causeway spanning the lagoon hinders water circulation, resulting in warmer and/or more turbid water flowing towards a site of high coral cover and diversity (Coral Gardens). Analyses of a multi-site and multi-year data set revealed no differences in mean temperature or turbidity values on either side of the causeway and provided no evidence of significantly warmer or more turbid water at Coral Gardens. We conclude that the putative decline in live coral cover cannot be attributed to the presence of the causeway and that proposed management actions involving modification to the causeway cannot achieve the conservation outcomes suggested of them.

  14. Stab wound to the intramedullary spinal cord: Presurgical and surgical management options for a retained blade to optimize neurological preservation

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prateek; Burke, John F.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Piazza, Matthew; Smith, Brian P.; Thawani, Jayesh P.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We present a rare case of an intraparenchymal nonmissile penetrating spinal injury (NMPSI) occurring at the T11 level in a patient presenting without neurological deficit. Case Description: The patient sustained a knife wound that penetrated the lamina without incurring bony injury and entered the spinal cord at the T11 level. During surgery, the intramedullary penetration of the cord was confirmed, and following surgical removal of the knife, the patient fully recovered without losing any neurological function. Conclusions: The surgical management of NMPSI in patients who are neurologically intact is controversial. Here, we report surgical excision of a knife that penetrated the spinal cord at the T11 level, without the patient incurring further neurological deterioration. PMID:28144493

  15. Material flows of mobile phones and accessories in Nigeria: Environmental implications and sound end-of-life management options

    SciTech Connect

    Osibanjo, Oladele Nnorom, Innocent Chidi

    2008-02-15

    Presently, Nigeria is one of the fastest growing Telecom markets in the world. The country's teledensity increased from a mere 0.4 in 1999 to 10 in 2005 following the liberalization of the Telecom sector in 2001. More than 25 million new digital mobile lines have been connected by June 2006. Large quantities of mobile phones and accessories including secondhand and remanufactured products are being imported to meet the pent-up demand. This improvement in mobile telecom services resulted in the preference of mobile telecom services to fixed lines. Consequently, the contribution of fixed lines decreased from about 95% in year 2000 to less than 10% in March 2005. This phenomenal progress in information technology has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) in the country. Abandoned fixed line telephone sets estimated at 120,000 units are either disposed or stockpiled. Increasing quantities of waste mobile phones estimated at 8 million units by 2007, and accessories will be generated. With no material recovery facility for e-waste and/or appropriate solid waste management infrastructure in place, these waste materials end up in open dumps and unlined landfills. These practices create the potential for the release of toxic metals and halocarbons from batteries, printed wiring boards, liquid crystal display and plastic housing units. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the Nigerian Telecom sector, the material in-flow of mobile phones, and the implications of the management practices for wastes from the Telecom sector in the country.

  16. The assessment of natural flood management measures as a climate change adaptation option through land use scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing civil society. Greater variability and more frequent extremes of temperature and precipitation will result in increased flood risk and corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. Complementing more traditional structurally-based engineering interventions an important additional adaptation strategy is through natural flood management (NFM) measures utilising natural soil, wetland and groundwater storage at the catchment scale to attenuate runoff generation and downstream flooding. Such schemes have multiple co-benefits including improved water quality, biodiversity and amenity and so contribute to greater resilience to uncertain climate futures. As a case-study of a more integrated approach to land use planning we here consider the policy target of the Scottish Government to expand woodland in Scotland by 100,000 ha by 2025 from the current 3 000 ha/year. In this paper we examine runoff response under different woodland expansion scenarios using climate projections obtained from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09). Woodland creation has recognised potential as a NFM measure, but locating this new planting is constrained by physical and cultural constraints. Land use choices in the future will also strongly reflect emergent socio-economic contexts, here assessed through scenario analysis. The distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH was utilised for the analysis using the case-study of the Tarland catchment, a tributary of the River Dee. Terrain data were obtained on a 50 m grid and the model calibrated using meteorological and river gauge data from 2005 to 2007 following a manual and an automatic calibration process. This novel approach highlights that land use change should be carefully managed for planned benefits and to avoid unintended consequences, such as changing the timing of tributary flood responses. Whilst woodland expansion may only provide modest gains in flood reductions the co

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006–2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24–49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2–0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso. PMID:20651250

  18. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southern California.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael I; Coleman, Tom W; Graves, Andrew D; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle has caused elevated levels of oak mortality since 2002. From 2009-2011, we tested several sanitation methods, applicable to large and small land parcels, to reduce or prevent goldspotted oak borer emergence from infested oak wood. In most experiments, emergence of goldspotted oak borer adults from the positive controls demonstrated that the beetle could complete development in firewood-sized pieces of cut oak wood. In 2009, adult emergence from sun-exposed oak wood began and peaked 2- to 4-wks earlier at a low elevation site than at a high elevation site (late May to late June). However, there were no significant effects of elevation or host species on the emergence response of goldspotted oak borer by solarization treatment in this study. Solarization of infested wood with thick (6 mil) and thin (1 mil) plastic tarpaulins (tarps) did not significantly reduce emergence of adults despite recordings of greater mean and maximum daily temperatures in both tarped treatments and greater relative humidity in the thick-tarped treatment (all compared with nontarped controls). Grinding wood with a 3"-minus screen (< or = 7.6 cm) significantly reduced goldspotted oak borer emergence compared with control treatments, and this was the best method for reducing adult emergence among those tested. In a separate grinding study, no adults emerged when wood was ground to 9"-minus (22.9 cm), 2"-minus (5.1 cm), or 1"-minus (2.5 cm) screen sizes, but a low level of adult emergence from the positive controls limited any inferences from this experiment. Debarking cut wood pieces eliminated goldspotted oak borer emergence from the wood fraction

  19. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2015-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  20. Traumeel – an emerging option to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the management of acute musculoskeletal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are on the rise. First-line management of such injuries usually employs the RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) approach to limit excessive inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also commonly used to limit inflammation and to control pain. Traumeel®, a preparation with bioregulatory effects is also used to treat the symptoms associated with acute musculoskeletal injuries, including pain and swelling. Traumeel is a fixed combination of biological and mineral extracts, which aims to apply stimuli to multiple targets to restore normal functioning of regulatory mechanisms. This paper presents the accumulating evidence of Traumeel’s action on the inflammatory process, and of its efficacy and tolerability in randomized trials, as well as observational and surveillance studies for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Traumeel has shown comparable effectiveness to NSAIDs in terms of reducing symptoms of inflammation, accelerating recovery, and improving mobility, with a favorable safety profile. While continued research and development is ongoing to broaden the clinical evidence of Traumeel in acute musculoskeletal injury and to further establish its benefits, current information suggests that Traumeel may be considered as an anti-inflammatory agent that is at least as effective and appears to be better tolerated than NSAIDs. PMID:21556350

  1. Sustainability of composting as an alternative waste management option for developing countries: a case study of the City of Tshwane.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Jacques; Vorster, Kobus

    2011-11-01

    Excessive MSW production is a growing management problem for cities in developing countries, such as South Africa. This study addresses these challenges with particular focus on the City of Tshwane. A major problem in Tshwane is that all the MSW generated in the city, including garden waste, is currently being landfilled. A waste stream analysis of Tshwane reveals the largest fraction of MSW is organic and biodegradable, and therefore suitable for compost production. The study proposes that Tshwane will have to address composting the biodegradable fraction of the MSW stream. This study attempts to understand the economics of composting practices in Tshwane, whether composting in Tshwane is financially viable. A comparative study, applying the dome aeration technology on a conventional static windrow, was conducted with the objective of investigating and proposing alternative improved composting technologies for green waste. Although the study focused on Tshwane, it can be argued that the findings could be implemented in any other South African municipality, and even implemented in other emerging countries.

  2. Pain management in children: Part 1 — Pain assessment tools and a brief review of nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Cecile; Lau, Elaine; Palozzi, Lori; Campbell, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    If pain is not treated quickly and effectively in children, it can cause long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Therefore, it is important for all health care providers to understand the importance of effective pain control in children. This article is divided into 2 parts: Part 1 reviews the pharmacotherapy of pain management in children and Part 2 will review the problems relating to the use of codeine in children, and the rationale for recommending morphine as the opioid of choice in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. There has been growing concern about codeine's lack of efficacy and increased safety concerns in its use in children. Due to the variability of codeine metabolism and unpredictable effects on efficacy and safety, The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, no longer includes codeine or codeine-containing products on the regular hospital formulary and now recommends oral morphine as the agent of choice for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in children. A knowledge translation (KT) strategy was developed and implemented by the hospital's Pain Task Force to support this practice change. PMID:23509570

  3. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao–Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R2 = 0.88–0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non–invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  4. Mechanism-based management for mucositis: option for treating side effects without compromising the efficacy of cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    Mucositis is a major side effect induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although mucositis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, management is largely limited to controlling symptoms, and few therapeutic agents are available for treatment. Since mucositis could be inhibited by the modulation of radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-induced pathways independently of cancer treatment, there is an opportunity for the development of more targeted therapies and interventions. This article examined potential therapeutic agents that have been investigated for the prevention and/or inhibition of mucositis induced by conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They can be classified according to their mechanisms of action: scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibition of specific cytokine production or inflammation, and inhibition of apoptosis. These early events may be good target pathways for preventing the pathogenesis of mucositis. Considering that both cancer therapy and therapeutic agents for mucositis act on both normal and cancer cells, agents that inhibit mucositis should act through mechanisms that selectively protect normal cells without compromising cancer treatment. Therefore, mechanism-based guidance for the treatment of mucositis is critical to prevent risky treatments for cancer patients and to relieve detrimental side effects effectively from cancer therapy. PMID:27103826

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.

    2014-12-01

    To reduce emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from landfills, the European Union (EU) Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC requires that there be a progressive decrease in the municipal biodegradable waste disposal. The main problem of waste management (WM) in Latvia is its heavy dependence on the waste disposal at landfills. The poorly developed system for the sorted municipal waste collection and the promotion of landfilling as a major treatment option led to the disposal of 84% of the total collected municipal waste in 2012, with a high biodegradable fraction. In Latvia, the volume of emissions due to activities of the WM branch was 5.23% (632.6 CO2 eq.) of the total GHG emissions produced in the National economy in 2010 (12 097 Gg CO2 eq., except the land use, land-use change and forestry). Having revised the current situation in the management of biodegradable waste in Latvia, the authors propose improvements in this area. In the work, analysis of environmental impact was carried out using Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) software in the WM modelling scenarios. The software computes the emissions, energy and turnover of waste streams for the processes within the WM system such as waste collection and transportation, composting, anaerobic digestion, and the final disposal (landfilling or incineration). The results of WAMPS modelling are presented in four categories associated with the environmental impact: acidification, global warming, eutrophication and photo-oxidant formation, each characterised by a particular emission. These categories cover an integrated WM system, starting with the point when products turn to waste which is then thrown into the bin for waste at its generation source, and ending with the point where the waste transforms either into useful material (recycled material, biogas or compost) or contributes to emissions into environment after the final disposal at a landfill or an incineration plant Rakstā veikts pašvaldības bioloģiski no

  6. Making real options really work.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets.

  7. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  8. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  9. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-03-15

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km(2)), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $ 124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1); Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range

  10. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-11-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links −2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1); Parkland − 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of −5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of −1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of

  11. Modeling the impact of development and management options on future water resource use in the Nyangores sub-catchment of the Mara Basin in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonge, Paul; Herrnegger, Mathew; Fürst, Josef; Olang, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing water insecurity consequent of competing uses, the Nyangores sub-catchment of Kenya is yet to develop an inclusive water use and allocation plan for its water resource systems. As a step towards achieving this, this contribution employed the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system to evaluate selected policy based water development and management options for future planning purposes. Major water resources of the region were mapped and quantified to establish the current demand versus supply status. To define a reference scenario for subsequent model projections, additional data on urban and rural water consumption, water demand for crop types, daily water use for existing factories and industries were also collated through a rigorous fieldwork procedure. The model was calibrated using the parameter estimation tool (PEST) and validated against observed streamflow data, and subsequently used to simulate feasible management options. Due to lack of up-to-date data for the current year, the year 2000 was selected as the base year for the scenario simulations up to the year 2030, which has been set by the country for realizing most flagship development projects. From the results obtained, the current annual water demand within the sub-catchment is estimated to be around 27.2 million m3 of which 24% is being met through improved and protected water sources including springs, wells and boreholes, while 76% is met through informal and unprotected sources which are insufficient to cater for future increases in demand. Under the reference scenario, the WEAP model predicted an annual total inadequate supply of 8.1 million m3 mostly in the dry season by the year 2030. The current annual unmet water demand is 1.3 million m3 and is noteworthy in the dry seasons of December through February at the irrigation demand site. The monthly unmet domestic demand under High Population Growth (HPG) was projected to be 1.06 million m3 by the year 2030. However

  12. Benefits of improved municipal solid waste management on greenhouse gas reduction in Luangprabang, Laos.

    PubMed

    Vilaysouk, Xaysackda; Babel, Sandhya

    2017-03-16

    Climate change is a consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the waste sector contribute to 3% of total anthropogenic emissions. In this study, applicable solutions for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Luangprabang (LPB) and Laos were examined. Material flow analysis of MSW was performed to estimate the amount of MSW generated in 2015. Approximately 29,419 tonnes of MSW is estimated for 2015. Unmanaged landfilling was the main disposal method, while MSW open burning was also practiced to some extent. The International Panel on Climate Change 2006 model and the Atmospheric Brown Clouds Emission Inventory Manual were used to estimate GHG emissions from existing MSW management, and total emissions are 33,889 tonnes/year carbon dioxide-equivalents (CO2-eq). Three scenarios were developed in order to reduce GHG emissions and environmental problems. Improvement of the MSW management by expanding MSW collection services, introducing composting and recycling, and avoiding open burning, can be considered as solutions to overcome the problems for LPB. The lowest GHG emissions are achieved in the scenario where composting and recycling are proposed, with the total GHG emissions reduction by 18,264 tonnes/year CO2-eq.

  13. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%.

  15. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    PubMed

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation.

  17. Evolving shale gas management: water resource risks, impacts, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Brian G; Riha, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Unconventional shale gas development promises to significantly alter energy portfolios and economies around the world. It also poses a variety of environmental risks, particularly with respect to the management of water resources. We review current scientific understanding of risks associated with the following: water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing; wastewater treatment, discharge and disposal; methane and fluid migration in the subsurface; and spills and erosion at the surface. Some of these risks are relatively unique to shale gas development, while others are variations of risks that we already face from a variety of industries and activities. All of these risks depend largely on the pace and scale of development that occurs within a particular region. We focus on the United States, where the shale gas boom has been on-going for several years, paying particular attention to the Marcellus Shale, where a majority of peer-reviewed study has taken place. Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, and other stakeholders are challenged with responding to these risks, and we discuss policies and practices that have been adopted or considered by these various groups. Adaptive Management, a structured framework for addressing complex environmental issues, is discussed as a way to reduce polarization of important discussions on risk, and to more formally engage science in policy-making, along with other economic, social and value considerations. Data suggests that some risks can be substantially reduced through policy and best practice, but also that significant uncertainty persists regarding other risks. We suggest that monitoring and data collection related to water resource risks be established as part of planning for shale gas development before activity begins, and that resources are allocated to provide for appropriate oversight at various levels of governance.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  19. Designing economic and legal mechanism of land management in oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    The article deals with the problem of economic and legal relationship in the sphere of land management provided by Russian government. The gas pipeline construction serves as an example to analyze the problems connected with leasing of both federal and privately owned lands. Comparative analysis of costs made by Gazprom to lease the lands at the stage of construction has been conducted. It has been concluded that the government should regulate relationships within the land sector to harmonize the interests of the Federation and private landowners.

  20. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  1. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities.

  2. Customized Tapered Stent-Grafts in the Endovascular Management of Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysms: A Useful Adjunct to Conventional Endovascular Options

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, J. Elizabeth Hardman, John; Horrocks, Michael; Fay, Dominic

    2009-01-15

    The endovascular exclusion of an isolated iliac artery aneurysm is recognized as a safe and favorable alternative to open surgical repair, with low associated morbidity and mortality. It has particular advantages in the treatment of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) given the technical difficulties associated with open surgical repair deep within the pelvis. We describe the use of customized tapered stent-grafts in the exclusion of wide-necked IIAA in five male patients considered high-risk for conventional surgical repair, in whom the common and external iliac artery morphology precluded the use of standard endovascular devices. In each case, IIAA outflow was selectively embolized and the aneurysm neck excluded by placement of a customized tapered stent-graft across the internal iliac artery origin. This technique was extremely effective, with 100% technical success, no serious associated morbidity, and zero mortality. In all five patients sac size was stable or reduced on computed tomography follow-up of up to 3 years (mean, 24.4 months), with a primary patency rate of 100%. We therefore advocate the use of customized tapered stent-grafts as a further endovascular option in the management of IIAA unsuitable for conventional endovascular repair.

  3. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-09-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring

  5. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management: A System Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-03-29

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs). The resultant emission factors and mitigation efficiencies allow GHG and NH3 emissions to be estimated, as well as mitigation potentials for different stages of swine operation. In particular, changing swine manure management from liquid systems to solid-liquid separation systems, coupled with mitigation measures, could simultaneously reduce GHG emissions by 65% and NH3 emissions by 78%. The resultant potential reduction in GHG emissions from China's pig production alone is greater than the entire GHG emissions from agricultural sector of France, Australia, or Germany, while the reduction in NH3 emissions is equivalent to 40% of the total NH3 emissions from the European Union. Thus, improved swine manure management could have a significant impact on global environment issues.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Management: A Review of Field-based Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Dairy manure is a large potential source of agriculturally-derived greenhouse gases, but few studies have compared source locations or management strategies, nor evaluated how well emissions factors capture actual emission rates. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 approach. Greenhouse gas emissions varied by several orders of magnitude from all sources due to the heterogeneity of surface conditions and manure composition, the length of sampling, and the measurement technique. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (1097 × 591 g hd-1 d-1), over twice that from enteric fermentation (~350 g hd-1 d-1). Corrals and manure piles were the largest sources of nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from hardstandings and barn floors were negligible. Predicted methane emissions underestimated measured fluxes for slurry tanks, barns, and whole dairies. Predicted nitrous oxide emissions underestimated anaerobic lagoon fluxes but overestimated emissions from slurry tanks and barn floors. Refining these calculations requires: 1) within-site comparisons of measurement techniques, 2) multiple year data sets, 3) within-site comparisons across measurement scales, and 4) better metadata to constrain greenhouse gas emission models.

  7. Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime.

    PubMed

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Syphard, Alexandra D; Franklin, Janet; Anderson, Kurt E; Akçakaya, H Resit; Mizerek, Toni; Winchell, Clark; Regan, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    Most species face multiple anthropogenic disruptions. Few studies have quantified the cumulative influence of multiple threats on species of conservation concern, and far fewer have quantified the potential relative value of multiple conservation interventions in light of these threats. We linked spatial distribution and population viability models to explore conservation interventions under projected climate change, urbanization, and changes in fire regime on a long-lived obligate seeding plant species sensitive to high fire frequencies, a dominant plant functional type in many fire-prone ecosystems, including the biodiversity hotspots of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. First, we investigated the relative risk of population decline for plant populations in landscapes with and without land protection under an existing habitat conservation plan. Second, we modeled the effectiveness of relocating both seedlings and seeds from a large patch with predicted declines in habitat area to 2 unoccupied recipient patches with increasing habitat area under 2 projected climate change scenarios. Finally, we modeled 8 fire return intervals (FRIs) approximating the outcomes of different management strategies that effectively control fire frequency. Invariably, long-lived obligate seeding populations remained viable only when FRIs were maintained at or above a minimum level. Land conservation and seedling relocation efforts lessened the impact of climate change and land-use change on obligate seeding populations to differing degrees depending on the climate change scenario, but neither of these efforts was as generally effective as frequent translocation of seeds. While none of the modeled strategies fully compensated for the effects of land-use and climate change, an integrative approach managing multiple threats may diminish population declines for species in complex landscapes. Conservation plans designed to mitigate the impacts of a single threat are likely to fail if additional

  8. Simulating N2O emissions from irrigated cotton wheat rotations in Australia using DAYCENT: Mitigation options by optimized fertilizer and irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; DelGrosso, Stephen; Parton, William; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation and fertilization do not only stimulate plant growth, but also accelerate microbial C- and N-turnover in the soil and thus can lead to enhanced emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. In Australia there are more than 2 million hectares of agricultural land under irrigation and research has now focused on a combination of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management to maintain crop yields, maximize nitrogen use efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Process-based models are now being used to estimate N2O emissions and assess mitigation options of N2O fluxes by improving management at field, regional and national scales. To insure that model predictions are reliable it is important to rigorously test the model so that uncertainty bounds for N2O emissions can be reduced and the impacts of different management practices on emissions can be better quantified. We used high temporal frequency dataset of N2O emissions to validate the performance of the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. Furthermore, we evaluated potential N2O mitigation strategies in irrigated cotton-wheat rotations in Australia by simulating different fertilizer and irrigation management scenarios over a climatically variable 25 year time span. DayCent accurately predicted soil moisture dynamics and the timing and magnitude of high fluxes associated with fertilizer additions and irrigation events. At the daily scale we found a good correlation of predicted vs. measured N2O fluxes (r2 = 0.52), confirming that DayCent can be used to test agricultural practices for mitigating N2O emission from irrigated cropping systems. The simulations of different fertilization and irrigation practices in cotton-wheat rotations over a 25 year time frame clearly showed that there is scope for reducing N2O emissions by modified fertilizer and irrigation management. For wheat and for cotton the model predicted that a

  9. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105 (a) and (b), a State may elect at any time not to implement any one or more of the management...

  10. Does manure management affect the latent greenhouse gas emitting potential of livestock manures?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    With livestock manures being increasingly sought as alternatives to costly synthetic fertilisers, it is imperative that we understand and manage their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we provide the first dedicated assessment into how the GHG emitting potential of various manures responds to the different stages of the manure management continuum (e.g., from feed pen surface vs stockpiled). The research is important from the perspective of manure application to agricultural soils. Manures studied included: manure from beef feedpen surfaces and stockpiles; poultry broiler litter (8-week batch); fresh and composted egg layer litter; and fresh and composted piggery litter. Gases assessed were methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the two principal agricultural GHGs. We employed proven protocols to determine the manures' ultimate CH4 producing potential. We also devised a novel incubation experiment to elucidate their N2O emitting potential; a measure for which no established methods exist. We found lower CH4 potentials in manures from later stages in their management sequence compared with earlier stages, but only by a factor of 0.65×. Moreover, for the beef manures this decrease was not significant (P<0.05). Nitrous oxide emission potential was significantly positively (P<0.05) correlated with C/N ratios yet showed no obvious relationship with manure management stage. Indeed, N2O emissions from the composted egg manure were considerably (13×) and significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the fresh egg manure. Our study demonstrates that manures from all stages of the manure management continuum potentially entail significant GHG risk when applied to arable landscapes. Efforts to harness manure resources need to account for this.

  11. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments. Volume I: comprehensive report. Report for 1977-81

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-03-01

    This report documents the management of oil and gas development on national wildlife refuges on the Louisiana and Texas coasts. It explains the nature of ownership, leasing rights, and legal considerations related to oil and gas extraction on refuges. The report describes five federal refuges selected for analysis and the different marsh and estuarine ecosystems found on the refuges and in the coastal zone. It explains oil and gas extraction and transport methods used in coastal systems, and examines how each habitat is affected by these activities. Existing regulations and guidelines are analyzed and new ones proposed. The report is a planning tool for refuge personnel to aid them in assessing impacts, issuing permits, and generally managing oil and gas activities.

  12. Crises Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Niger Delta Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemene, Glory C.

    The Niger Delta crises escalated beyond the borders of the Nigerian nation to become an issue that affected individuals and corporations around the world. This study led to the discovery of how the local crises escalated with international implications. This discovery was accomplished by addressing how the Niger Delta crises escalated from villages to international scenes, with notable impacts on the environment, health, safety, security, and financial segments of local, international, private, and corporate entities. Using Sweeny's crisis decision theory and Lazarus and Folkman's coping theory, the study considered the coping strategies of community members, the decisions, and actions they took in response to the management approaches of the government and the oil and gas companies (OGCs). This qualitative study utilized historical narrative to collect data by interviewing 4 participants who lived and worked in the region during the crises. NVivo was used for manual and automatic coding of data, as well as for categorization and connection of codes. Content analysis of identified codes and categories revealed the themes and trends in the experiences narrated by participants. Findings include the root causes, trend of escalation, and management strategies of the government and the OGCs that influenced the crises. These findings will help to influence policies and practices in the region and enhance effective management of current and emerging conflicts, with possibilities of restoring stability and security in the areas and in the nation at large.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are

  14. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Montes, F; Meinen, R; Dell, C; Rotz, A; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Waghorn, G; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Dijkstra, J

    2013-11-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production is an effective practice to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions. Most CH4 is produced during manure storage; therefore, reducing storage time, lowering manure temperature by storing it outside during colder seasons, and capturing and combusting the CH4 produced during storage are effective practices to reduce CH4 emission. Anaerobic digestion with combustion of the gas produced is effective in reducing CH4 emission and organic C content of manure; this increases readily available C and N for microbial processes creating little CH4 and increased N2O emissions following land application. Nitrous oxide emission occurs following land application as a byproduct of nitrification and dentrification processes in the soil, but these processes may also occur in compost, biofilter materials, and permeable storage covers. These microbial processes depend on temperature, moisture content, availability of easily degradable organic C, and oxidation status of the environment, which make N2O emissions and mitigation results highly variable. Managing the fate of ammoniacal N is essential to the success of N2O and CH4 mitigation because ammonia is an important component in the cycling of N through manure, soil, crops, and animal feeds. Manure application techniques such as subsurface injection reduce ammonia and CH4 emissions but can result in increased N2O emissions. Injection works well when combined with anaerobic digestion and solids separation by improving infiltration. Additives such as urease and nitrification inhibitors that inhibit microbial processes have mixed results but are generally effective in controlling N2O emission from intensive grazing systems. Matching plant nutrient

  15. Resource target for gas reserves to be developed by management of water-drive gas reservoirs. Topical report, June 1, 1991-December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ancell, K.L.; Fairchild, J.W.; Agnew, J.B.

    1993-02-01

    The study analyzed eleven documented projects that all showed incremental reserve potential from water-drive gas reservoirs through the use of management techniques. These projects were characterized by a factor called water-drive strength which was correlated with incremental recovery. The correlation confirmed earlier research that predicted the largest incremental potential in the moderate water-drive category. The parameters necessary to apply the correlation are initial gas in place and water-drive strength. Six hundred forty eight (648) reservoirs were analyzed in Texas, Louisiana Onshore and Louisiana Offshore production areas. Water-drive strength and initial gas-in-place were determined for each reservoir. Based on determinations for the 648 reservoirs, the entire production areas were estimated based on number of fields and reservoirs, number of wells, and cumulative production. The result of the calculation shows that the potential Resource Target is about 17 Tcf.

  16. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments. Volume II: comprehensive report. Report for 1977-81

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-03-01

    This report documents the management of oil and gas development on national wildlife refuges on the Louisiana and Texas coasts. It explains the nature of ownership, leasing rights, and legal considerations related to oil and gas extraction on refuges. The report describes five federal refuges selected for analysis and the different marsh and estuarine ecosystems found on the refuges and in the coastal zone. It explains oil and gas extraction and transport methods used in coastal systems, and examines how each habitat is affected by these activities.

  17. Evaluation of management options for disposal of salt and trace element laden agricultural drainage water from the Fallon Indian Reservation, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Benson, S.

    1991-03-01

    This is the final report describing work performed on the Fallon Indian Reservation by the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during FY90. These investigations were initiated at the request of the United States Bureau of Reclamation in response to recent concerns regarding disposal of agriculture drainage water from the Reservation. The Reservation is transected by numerous irrigation and drainage canals, including the TJ Drain. Recent investigations by the US Fish and Wildlife Service have demonstrated that water in the TJ Drain is toxic to several aquatic indicator organisms, including bluegills, fathead minnows and daphnids. This information, coupled with recent die-offs of fish and birds, has lead to concern about continued discharge of TJ Drain water into local surface waters. In late 1990, plans for closing the TJ Drain and providing for alternative drainage were initiated. We aim to provide information for assessing options fro disposal of agricultural drainage water from the Reservation. In particular, our studies focuses on irrigation and drainage of lands currently serviced by the TJ Drain. Options for continued irrigation and drainage of the Reservation fall broadly into two categories: options that provide an alternative to drain water disposal into the SWMA; and options that include continuing the current practice of drain water disposal into the SWMA. Other options include elements of both of these alternatives. Additional discussion of specific options will follow a brief summary of the technical work supporting our assessment of drainage related issues at the Reservation. 67 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-03-01

    Livestock agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with a substantial proportion of emissions derived from manure management. Accurate estimates of emissions related to management practices and climate are needed for identifying the best approaches to minimize, and potentially mitigate, GHG emissions. Current emissions models such as those of the IPCC, however, are based on emissions factors that have not been broadly tested against field-scale measurements, due to a lack of data. We used a diverse set of measurements over 22 months across a range of substrate conditions on a working dairy to determine patterns and controls on soil-based GHG fluxes. Although dairy soils and substrates differed by management unit, GHG fluxes were poorly predicted by these or climate variables. The manure pile had the greatest GHG emissions, and though temperature increased and O2 concentration decreased following mixing, we detected almost no change in GHG fluxes due to mixing. Corral fluxes were characterized by hotspots and hot moments driven by patterns in deposition. Annual scraping kept the soil and accumulated manure pack thin, producing drier conditions, particularly in the warm dry season. Summed over area, corral fluxes had the greatest non-CO2 global warming potential. The field had net CH4 consumption, but CH4 uptake was insufficient to offset N2 O emissions on an area basis. All sites emitted N2 O with a similar or greater climate impact than CH4 . Our results highlight the importance of N2 O emissions, a less commonly measured GHG, from manure management and present potential opportunities for GHG emissions reductions.

  19. CNMM: a Catchment Environmental Model for Managing Water Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating agricultural diffuse pollution and greenhouse gas emissions is a complicated task due to tempo-spatial lags between the field practices and the watershed responses. Spatially-distributed modeling is essential to the implementation of cost-effective and best management practices (BMPs) to optimize land uses and nutrient applications as well as to project the impact of climate change on the watershed service functions. CNMM (the Catchment Nutrients Management Model) is a 3D spatially-distributed, grid-based and process-oriented biophysical model comprehensively developed to simulate energy balance, hydrology, plant/crop growth, biogeochemistry of life elements (e.g., C, N and P), waste treatment, waterway vegetation/purification, stream water quality and land management in agricultural watersheds as affected by land utilization strategies such as BMPs and by climate change. The CNMM is driven by a number of spatially-distributed data such as weather, topography (including DEM and shading), stream network, stream water, soil, vegetation and land management (including waste treatments), and runs at an hourly time step. It represents a catchment as a matrix of square uniformly-sized cells, where each cell is defined as a homogeneous hydrological response unit with all the hydrologically-significant parameters the same but varied at soil depths in fine intervals. Therefore, spatial variability is represented by allowing parameters to vary horizontally and vertically in space. A four-direction flux routing algorithm is applied to route water and nutrients across soils of cells governed by the gradients of either water head or elevation. A linear channel reservoir scheme is deployed to route water and nutrients in stream networks. The model is capable of computing CO2, CH4, NH3, NO, N2O and N2 emissions from soils and stream waters. The CNMM can serve as an idea modelling tool to investigate the overwhelming critical zone research at various catchment scales.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  1. Applicability of NASA contract quality management and failure mode effect analysis procedures to the USGS Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, M. K.; Little, D. G.; Hoard, E. G.; Taylor, A. C.; Campbell, R.

    1972-01-01

    An approach that might be used for determining the applicability of NASA management techniques to benefit almost any type of down-to-earth enterprise is presented. A study was made to determine the following: (1) the practicality of adopting NASA contractual quality management techniques to the U.S. Geological Survey Outer Continental Shelf lease management function; (2) the applicability of failure mode effects analysis to the drilling, production, and delivery systems in use offshore; (3) the impact on industrial offshore operations and onshore management operations required to apply recommended NASA techniques; and (4) the probable changes required in laws or regulations in order to implement recommendations. Several management activities that have been applied to space programs are identified, and their institution for improved management of offshore and onshore oil and gas operations is recommended.

  2. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  3. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS), are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in whom medical therapy fails, and in those with acute coronary syndromes, PCI is indicated. Asymptomatic

  4. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L.; Ganie, Zahoor A.; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha−1) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30′ and 'Pusa 1121′) tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha−1) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha−1) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha−1 reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%). PMID

  5. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; p<0.001) in pairwise ranking indicated that the diseases were a common problem in selected districts. East Coast fever had the highest median score for incidence (18% [range: 2, 33]) in Moroto, followed by anaplasmosis (17.5% [8,32]) and CBPP (9% [1,21]). Most animals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed

  6. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L; Ganie, Zahoor A; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Gupta, Raj K

    2016-03-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha(-1)) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30' and 'Pusa 1121') tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha(-1)) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha(-1)) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha(-1) reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%).

  7. Evaluation of residue management practices effects on corn productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Jose German

    The removal of crop residues left after harvest is being considered as a potential feedstock source for bioethanol production which can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel use and net greenhouse gas (GHG). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine how tillage, N fertilization rates, residue removal, and their interactions affect crop productivity, (ii) SOC and soil physical properties, and (iii) GHG emissions, and (iv) calculated a soil C budget to determine how much crop residue can be sustainably be removed in Central and Southwest Iowa. After three years of residue removal under different management practices, the findings of this study suggest that a portion of the corn residue that is left on the soil surface after harvest can be removed, with no negative impacts in the short term continuous corn yield in sites at Central and Southwest Iowa. However, significant decreases in SOC sequestration rates, microbial biomass-C, bulk density, soil penetration resistance, wet aggregate stability, and infiltration rates were observed, but varied with soil type and management practices. Additionally, soil surface CO2 and N2O emissions were responsive to management practices; primarily by altering soil temperature, soil water content, soil mineral N, and crop growth. Results from soil C budget show that in 2010 when corn growth was not water stressed (lack of moisture), approximately 35 and 30% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively. In 2011, drier soil conditions resulted in approximately 2 and 49% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively.

  8. Characterization of industrial waste from a natural gas distribution company and management strategies: a case study of the East Azerbaijan Gas Company (Iran).

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Aslhashemi, Ahmad; Assadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Firoz; Mardangahi, Baharak; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Roshani, Babak

    2012-10-01

    Although a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate data, there are few available studies regarding the characterization and management of gas distribution company waste (GDCW). This study aimed to characterize the industrial waste generated by the East Azerbaijan Gas Distribution Company (EAGDC) and to present environmental management strategies. The EAGDC serves 57 cities and 821 villages with a total population of more than 2.5 million as well as numerous industrial units. The methodology of this study was based on a checklist of data collected from each zone of the company, site visits (observation), and quantity and quality analysis according to the formal data available from different zones. The results indicate that more than 35 different kinds of industrial solid waste are generated in different industrial installations. The most important types of generated waste include empty barrels (including mercaptans, diesel fuel, deionized waters and oil), faulty gas meters and regulators, a variety of industrial oils, sleeves, filter elements and faulty pipes, valves and fittings. The results indicated that, currently, GDCW is generally handled and disposed of with domestic waste, deposited in companies' installation yards and stores or, sometimes, recycled through non-scientific approaches that can create health risks to the public and the environment, even though most of the GDCW was determined to be recyclable or reusable materials. This study concludes that gas distribution companies must pay more attention to source reduction, recycling and reusing of waste to preserve natural resources, landfill space and the environment.

  9. Indications and options for endometrial ablation.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    Endometrial ablation is an effective therapeutic option for the management of menorrhagia in properly selected patients. Hysteroscopic and non-hysteroscopic techniques offer similar rates of symptom relief and patient satisfaction.

  10. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  11. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  12. Quantifying and managing regional greenhouse gas emissions: waste sector of Daejeon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yang, Heewon; Lee, Seung Hoon; An, Kyoung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    A credible accounting of national and regional inventories for the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction has emerged as one of the most significant current discussions. This article assessed the regional GHG emissions by three categories of the waste sector in Daejeon Metropolitan City (DMC), Korea, examined the potential for DMC to reduce GHG emission, and discussed the methodology modified from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Korea national guidelines. During the last five years, DMC's overall GHG emissions were 239 thousand tons CO2 eq./year from eleven public environmental infrastructure facilities, with a population of 1.52 million. Of the three categories, solid waste treatment/disposal contributes 68%, whilst wastewater treatment and others contribute 22% and 10% respectively. Among GHG unit emissions per ton of waste treatment, the biggest contributor was waste incineration of 694 kg CO2 eq./ton, followed by waste disposal of 483 kg CO2 eq./ton, biological treatment of solid waste of 209 kg CO2 eq./ton, wastewater treatment of 0.241 kg CO2 eq./m(3), and public water supplies of 0.067 kg CO2 eq./m(3). Furthermore, it is suggested that the potential in reducing GHG emissions from landfill process can be as high as 47.5% by increasing landfill gas recovery up to 50%. Therefore, it is apparent that reduction strategies for the main contributors of GHG emissions should take precedence over minor contributors and lead to the best practice for managing GHGs abatement.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management in Vientiane, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Babel, Sandhya; Vilaysouk, Xaysackda

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the major environmental problems throughout the world including in Lao PDR. In Vientiane, due to the lack of a collection service, open burning and illegal dumping are commonly practised. This study aims to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the current situation of MSW management (MSWM) in Vientiane and proposes an alternative solution to reduce the GHG emission and environmental impacts. The 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 2006 model) are used for the estimation of GHG emission from landfill and composting. For the estimation of GHG emission from open burning, the Atmospheric Brown Clouds Emission Inventory Manual (ABC EIM) is used. In Vientiane, a total of 232, 505 tonnes year(-1) of MSW was generated in 2011. Waste generation in Vientiane is 0.69 kg per capita per day, and about 31% of the total MSW generated was directly sent to landfill (71,162 tonnes year(-1)). The total potential GHG emission from the baseline scenario in 2011 was 110,182 tonnes year(-1) CO2-eq, which is 0.15 tonne year(-1) CO2-eq per capita. From the three MSWM scenarios proposed, scenario S3, which includes recycling, composting and landfilling, seems to be an effective solution for dealing with MSW in Vientiane with less air pollution, and is environmentally friendly. The total GHG emission in scenario S3 is reduced to 91,920 tonnes year(-1) CO2-eq (47% reduction), compared with the S1 scenario where all uncollected waste is diverted to landfill.

  14. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  15. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  16. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  17. 41 CFR 101-39.004 - Optional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Optional operations. 101...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.0-General Provisions § 101-39.004 Optional operations. Nothing in this part shall preclude the establishment or operation of interagency fleet management systems by GSA or...

  18. Geohydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater simulation (1992-2011) and analysis of potential water-supply management options, 2010-60, of the Langford Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voronin, Lois M.; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter; Brush, Charles F.; Carlson, Carl S.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    the NTC. Measured groundwater-level declines since the initiation of withdrawals (1992–2011) were used to calibrate the groundwater-flow model. The simulated recharge was about 46 acre-feet per year, including approximately 6 acre-feet per year of natural recharge derived from precipitation runoff and as much as 40 acre-feet per year of underflow from the Irwin Basin. Between April 1992 and December 2010, an average of about 650 acre-feet per year of water was withdrawn from the Langford Basin. Groundwater withdrawals in excess of natural recharge resulted in a net loss of 11,670 acre-feet of groundwater storage within the basin for the simulation period. The Fort Irwin NTC is considering various groundwater-management options to address the limited water resources in the Langford Basin. The calibrated Langford Basin groundwater-flow model was used to evaluate the hydrologic effects of four groundwater-withdrawal scenarios being considered by the Fort Irwin NTC over the next 50 years (January 2011 through December 2060). Continuation of the 2010 withdrawal rate in the three existing production wells will result in 70 feet of additional drawdown in the central part of the basin. Redistributing the 2010 withdrawal rate equally to the three existing wells and two proposed new wells in the northern and southern parts of the basin would result in about 10 feet less drawdown in the central part of the basin but about 100 feet of additional drawdown in the new well in the northern part of the basin and about 50 feet of additional drawdown in the new well in the southern part of the basin. Reducing the withdrawals from the three existing production wells in the central part of the basin from about 45,000 acre-feet to about 32,720 acre-feet would result in about 40 feet of additional drawdown in the central basin near the pumping wells, about 25 feet less than if withdrawals were not reduced. The combination of reducing and redistributing the cumulative withdrawals to the

  19. A Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Determine Travel Times at Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Noble Gas Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J. E.; Visser, A.; Singleton, M. J.; Esser, B. K.; Halliwell, M.; Hillegonds, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is a key component for the sustainable use of surface water and groundwater in the arid western U.S. When recycled water is a recharge water source, subsurface residence time, required for bacteria and virus deactivation, is best verified by application of an extrinsic tracer. Desirable tracer properties include: no real or perceived health risk, inexpensive even for a large volume of tagged water, large dynamic range, efficient introduction, convenient sampling methods, and rapid, low-cost analysis. We have developed and tested a dissolved noble gas tracer technique ideally suited for tracing large water volumes at managed aquifer recharge facilities. In an application of the method at a water district's facilities in the San Francisco Bay area, Xenon was introduced into a 106 m3 pond over a period of 7 days using a 300 m length of gas-permeable silicone tubing. Samples from the pond, near-field shallow monitoring wells, and production wells about 400 m from the recharge pond were analyzed for dissolved Xe by noble gas membrane inlet mass spectrometry (NGMIMS). The NGMIMS uses a syringe pump, gas-permeable membrane inlet, and quadrupole residual gas analyzer for measurement of noble gas concentrations. Samples are collected in VOA vials, and analysis can be carried out in real-time, with a measurement uncertainty of about 5% for Xe. Tracer first appeared in a production well 136 days after starting the tracer introduction at 0.7% (C/C0) of the peak pond xenon concentration. The cost of the tracer is about US650/106 m3 water, and the NGMIMS was assembled with parts totaling approximately US50,000, making application of the tracer method feasible for most managed aquifer recharge projects. This project is part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program.

  20. Effect of different agronomic management practices on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling in a long-term field trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, however, regarding in each case a different agricultural management system, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system where the effect of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, will be enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to organic and integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years are being examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for each experimental

  1. Production induced subsidence and seismicity in the Groningen gas field - can it be managed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, J. A.; Muntendam-Bos, A. G.; Roest, J. P. A.

    2015-11-01

    Reliable prediction of the induced subsidence resulting from gas production is important for a near sea level country like the Netherlands. Without the protection of dunes, dikes and pumping, large parts of the country would be flooded. The predicted sea-level rise from global warming increases the challenge to design proper mitigation measures. Water management problems from gas production induced subsidence can be prevented if measures to counter its adverse effects are taken timely. This requires reliable subsidence predictions, which is a major challenge. Since the 1960's a number of large, multi-decade gas production projects were started in the Netherlands. Extensive, well-documented subsidence prediction and monitoring technologies were applied. Nevertheless predicted subsidence at the end of the Groningen field production period (for the centre of the bowl) went from 100 cm in 1971 to 77 cm in 1973 and then to 30 cm in 1977. In 1984 the prediction went up again to 65 cm, down to 36 cm in 1990 and then via 38 cm (1995) and 42 cm (2005) to 47 cm in 2010 and 49 cm in 2013. Such changes can have large implications for the planning of water management measures. Until 1991, when the first event was registered, production induced seismicity was not observed nor expected for the Groningen field. Thereafter the number of observed events rose from 5 to 10 per year during the 1990's to well over a hundred in 2013. The anticipated maximum likely magnitude rose from an initial value of less than 3.0 to a value of 3.3 in 1993 and then to 3.9 in 2006. The strongest tremor to date occurred near the village of Huizinge in August 2012. It had a magnitude of 3.6, caused significant damage and triggered the regulator into an independent investigation. Late 2012 it became clear that significantly larger magnitudes cannot be excluded and that values up to magnitude 5.0 cannot be ruled out. As a consequence the regulator advised early 2013 to lower Groningen gas production by as

  2. Environment, health & safety management systems for upstream oil & gas projects in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Gossen, R.G.; Mann, G.J.

    1996-11-01

    The international oil and gas exploration and production industry faces a vast array of environmental issues that are global in nature but play an increasingly prominent role in individual project decision making. When placed against a backdrop of socio-political and cultural challenges presented in developing countries, project planners require an enlightened approach to ensure the environmental, economic and social components are appropriately balanced to ensure sustainable business success. Although a relatively new player in the international E & P industry, Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. has developed such an approach to EMS management for projects in developing countries. Drawing from recent experience with a major project in Yemen, and others in the planning stages in several other developing countries, this paper presents a number of positive strategies and actions which are being applied in the many countries in which the company is active. Lessons learned and opportunities for improvement are presented for consideration by responsible operators working internationally toward the goal of environmentally sustainable energy development.

  3. A Gas Management System for an Ultra Long Duration Titan Blimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. L.; Jones, J. A.; Brooke, L.; Hennings, B.; Van Boeyen, R.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Mennella, J.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents analyses, designs and experimental results for the gas management system of a hydrogen-filled blimp capable of flying in the lower atmosphere of Titan for a period of one year or more. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to minimize leakage rates from the blimp envelope and ballonets; and second, to provide auxiliary subsystems to mitigate the life-limiting effects resulting from those leaks. Leak minimization is achieved through use of cryogenically compatible balloon materials and adhesives, and selection of ballonet geometries that minimize pinhole generation via folding and material fatigue. Hydrogen loss to the environment through leaks in the blimp envelope is compensated for by producing new hydrogen through chemical processing of atmospheric methane. Nitrogen leaked into the blimp from the ballonets is removed by a carbon absorption system and periodically vented to the atmosphere. Data is presented on the measured leak rate from a full scale (13 m long) prototype blimp envelope and on the performance of a low mass, low power prototype device that generates hydrogen from methane. These results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies the mass and power requirements for a minimum one year operational lifetime.

  4. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Predisposal Stage of Municipal Solid Waste Management.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Jiang, Daqian; Zhao, Zhilan

    2017-01-03

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal represents one of the largest sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the biogenic GHG emissions in the predisposal stage of MSW management (i.e., the time from waste being dropped off in community or household garbage bins to being transported to disposal sites) are excluded from the IPCC inventory methodology and rarely discussed in academic literature. Herein, we quantify the effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from garbage bins in five communities along the urban-rural gradient in Beijing in four seasons. We find that the annual average CO2, CH4, and N2O effluxes in the predisposal stage were (1.6 ± 0.9)10(3), 0.049 ± 0.016, and 0.94 ± 0.54 mg kg(-1)h(-1) (dry matter basis) and had significant seasonal differences (24- to 159-fold) that were strongly correlated with temperature. According to our estimate, the N2O emission in the MSW predisposal stage amounts to 20% of that in the disposal stage in Beijing, making the predisposal stage a nontrivial source of waste-induced N2O emissions. Furthermore, the CO2 and CH4 emissions in the MSW predisposal account for 5% (maximum 10% in summer) of the total carbon contents in a Beijing's household food waste stream, which has significance in the assessment of MSW-related renewable energy potential and urban carbon cycles.

  5. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  6. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    Grasslands occupy some 40% of the terrestrial land surface. They are generally categorised as natural (occurring mainly in those regions where the rainfall is too low to support forest ecosystems), semi-natural (where management, mainly by grazing, has changed the vegetation composition), and artificial (where forests have been cleared to create new pasture land). The soils of the natural and semi-natural grasslands constitute a large reservoir of carbon, and make a substantial contribution to the soil sink for atmospheric CH_4. The conversion of much of the natural temperate grassland to arable agriculture, e.g. in North America and Europe, resulted in a considerable decrease in soil organic carbon, and its release to the atmosphere as CO_2 has made a substantial contribution to the total atmospheric concentration of this gas. The associated increase in cycling of soil N (released from the organic matter) will have contributed to N_2O emissions, and land disturbance and fertilisation has resulted in a depletion of the soil CH_4 sink. Conversion of tropical forests to pastures has also been a major source of CO_2, and these pastures show elevated emissions of N_2O for some years after conversion. Seasonally flooded tropical grasslands are a significant source of CH_4 emissions. Consideration of grassland ecosystems in their entirety, in relation to GHG exchange, necessitates the inclusion of CH_4 production by fauna - domesticated livestock and wild herbivores, as well as some species of termites - in the overall assessment. Stocking rates on pasture land have increased, and the total CH_4 emissions likewise. The relationship between animal production and CH_4 emissions is dependent on the nutritional quality of the vegetation, as well as on animal numbers. In both temperate and tropical regions, increased N inputs as synthetic fertilisers and manures (and increased N deposition) are producing possibly a more-than-linear response in terms of emissions of N_2O. In

  7. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality, and crop productivity from a mono-rice cultivation system as influenced by fallow season straw management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hussain, Saddam; Wu, Lishu; Qin, Ziguo; Li, Xiaokun; Lu, Jianwei; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Straw management during fallow season may influence crop productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice field. A 3-year field experiment was carried out in central China to examine the influence of different fallow season straw management practices on rice yield, soil properties, and emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a mono-rice cultivation system. The treatments comprised an unfertilized control (CK), inorganic fertilization (NPK), rice straw burning in situ (NPK + RSB), rice straw mulching (NPK + RSM), and rice straw strip mulching with green manuring (NPK + RSM + GM). The maximum rice yield, soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and available potassium were observed in NPK + RSM + GM treatment. Compared with NPK, the NPK + RSM + GM recorded 9% higher grain yield averaged across 3 years. However, NPK + RSM and NPK + RSB were statistically similar with NPK regarding grain yield. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM recorded significantly higher CH4 emission during rice growing season as well as winter fallow; however, the response of N2O emissions was variable. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM were statistically similar for annual cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions. The NPK + RSM + GM recorded 103 and 72% higher straw-induced net economic benefits and soil organic carbon sequestration rate, and reduced net global warming potential by 27% as compared with NPK + RSM. Considering the benefits of soil fertility, higher crop productivity, and environmental safety, the NPK + RSM + GM could be the most feasible and sustainable option for mono-rice cultivation system in central China.

  9. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  10. Greenhouse gas footprint and the carbon flow associated with different solid waste management strategy for urban metabolism in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M Nazmul

    2017-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and associated climate change consequences are gripping attention globally, while MSW management as a vital subsystem of urban metabolism significantly influences the urban carbon cycles. This study evaluates the GHG emissions and carbon flow of existing and proposed MSW management in Bangladesh through scenario analysis, including landfill with landfill gas (LFG) recovery, waste to energy (WtE), and material recovery facility (MRF). The analysis indicates that, scenario H2 and H5 emitted net GHGs -152.20kg CO2 eq. and -140.32kg CO2 eq., respectively, in comparison with 420.88kg CO2 eq. of scenario H1 for managing per ton of wastes during the reference year 2015. The annual horizontal carbon flux of the waste input was 319Gg and 158Gg during 2015 in Dhaka and Chittagong, respectively. An integrated strategy of managing the wastes in the urban areas of Bangladesh involving WtE incineration plant and LFG recovery to generate electricity as well as MRF could reverse back 209.46Gg carbon and 422.29Gg carbon to the Chittagong and Dhaka urban system, respectively. This study provides valuable insights for the MSW policy framework and revamp of existing MSW management practices with regards to reduction of GHGs emissions from the waste sector in Bangladesh.

  11. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection.

  12. Review of disaster management implementation for the community safety in the vicinity of oil and gas field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, R. Abdullah; Harjanto, Meddy; Heni, Siti

    2015-04-01

    Sukowati site which is operated by Production Sharing Contract (PSC) Joint Operating Body Pertamina Petrochina East Java (JOB P-PEJ) located at Bojonegoro regency East Java Province. This site is close to densely populated settlements with approximately 6,010 people within a radius less than 600 m. The fluid produced have a dangerous potential to the above mention community, due to accompanying of hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) with a concentration about 0.6% - 2% from the total gas produced. In 2006, there was incident of gas leak from drilling development well of Sukowati # 5. The incident made the surrounding community panic due to lack of preparedness and awareness. Learning from the incident, the company together with the government and local communities initiated to make improvements through the disaster management system approach. The efforts are carried out in accordance with the 4 (four) periods in a continuous cycle consist of (1) mitigation; (2) preparation; (3) response and (4) recovery. Emergency response drills conducted regularly at least once a year, its main purpose is to find out the results of the implementation of the existing disaster management. The results of the drills showed an increase in public awareness and responsiveness to emergency situations caused by the operational failures of oil and gas exploration and production activities near their settlement.

  13. Review of disaster management implementation for the community safety in the vicinity of oil and gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Musa, R. Abdullah; Heni, Siti; Harjanto, Meddy

    2015-04-24

    Sukowati site which is operated by Production Sharing Contract (PSC) Joint Operating Body Pertamina Petrochina East Java (JOB P-PEJ) located at Bojonegoro regency East Java Province. This site is close to densely populated settlements with approximately 6,010 people within a radius less than 600 m. The fluid produced have a dangerous potential to the above mention community, due to accompanying of hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) with a concentration about 0.6% – 2% from the total gas produced. In 2006, there was incident of gas leak from drilling development well of Suko