Science.gov

Sample records for gas molecular ionization

  1. Ionized gas at the edge of the central molecular zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.; Velusamy, T.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The edge of the central molecular zone (CMZ) is the location where massive dense molecular clouds with large internal velocity dispersions transition to the surrounding more quiescent and lower CO emissivity region of the Galaxy. Little is known about the ionized gas surrounding the molecular clouds and in the transition region. Aims: We determine the properties of the ionized gas at the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E using observations of N+ and C+. Methods: We observed a small portion of the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E with spectrally resolved [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine structure lines at six positions with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA and in [C ii] using Herschel HIFI on-the-fly strip maps. We use the [N ii] spectra along with a radiative transfer model to calculate the electron density of the gas and the [C ii] maps to illuminate the morphology of the ionized gas and model the column density of CO-dark H2. Results: We detect two [C ii] and [N ii] velocity components, one along the line of sight to a CO molecular cloud at - 207 km s-1 associated with Sgr E and the other at -174 km s-1 outside the edge of another CO cloud. From the [N ii] emission we find that the average electron density is in the range of ~5 to 21 cm-3 for these features. This electron density is much higher than that of the disk's warm ionized medium, but is consistent with densities determined for bright diffuse H ii nebula. The column density of the CO-dark H2 layer in the -207 km s-1 cloud is ~1-2 × 1021 cm-2 in agreement with theoretical models. The CMZ extends further out in Galactic radius by ~7 to 14 pc in ionized gas than it does in molecular gas traced by CO. Conclusions: The edge of the CMZ likely contains dense hot ionized gas surrounding the neutral molecular material. The high fractional abundance of N+ and high electron density require an intense EUV field with a photon flux of order 106 to 107 photons cm-2 s-1, and/or efficient proton charge exchange with

  2. Molecular and ionized gas kinematics in the GC Radio Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, N.; Lang, C. C.; Mills, E. A. C.; Ludovici, D.; Ott, J.; Morris, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    We present NH3 and H64α+H63α VLA observations of the Radio Arc region, including the M0.20 - 0.033 and G0.10 - 0.08 molecular clouds. These observations suggest the two velocity components of M0.20 - 0.033 are physically connected in the south. Additional ATCA observations suggest this connection is due to an expanding shell in the molecular gas, with the centroid located near the Quintuplet cluster. The G0.10 - 0.08 molecular cloud has little radio continuum, strong molecular emission, and abundant CH3OH masers, similar to a nearby molecular cloud with no star formation: M0.25+0.01. These features detected in G0.10 - 0.08 suggest dense molecular gas with no signs of current star formation.

  3. Kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas in nearby luminous infrared interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Beckman, John; Font, Joan; Rosado, Margarita; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Borlaff, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have observed three luminous infrared galaxy systems which are pairs of interacting galaxies, with the Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, and combined the observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of these systems in CO emission to compare the physical properties of the star formation regions and the molecular gas clouds, and specifically the internal kinematics of the star-forming regions. We identified 88 star-forming regions in the Hα emission data cubes, and 27 molecular cloud complexes in the CO emission data cubes. The surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas are significantly higher in these systems than in non-interacting galaxies and the Galaxy, and are closer to the surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas of extreme star-forming galaxies at higher redshifts. The large values of the velocity dispersion also show the enhanced gas surface density. The H II regions are situated on the SFR - σv envelope, and so are also in virial equilibrium. Since the virial parameter decreases with the surface densities of both the star formation rate and the molecular gas, we claim that the clouds presented here are gravitationally dominated rather than being in equilibrium with the external pressure.

  4. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-06-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3-2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10‧ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  5. H ii REGION G46.5-0.2: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN IONIZING RADIATION, MOLECULAR GAS, AND STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju; Wu, Yuefang

    2015-06-15

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey ({sup 13}CO J = 1–0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive ({sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O J = 3–2, HCO{sup +}, and HCN J = 4–3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10′ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  6. A Desorbed Gas Molecular Ionization Mechanism for Arcing Onset in Solar Arrays Immersed in a Low-Density Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.; Degroot, W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have hypothesized that the onset of Solar Array Arc (SAA) initiation in low-density space plasmas is caused by a desorbed gas molecular ionization mechanism. Indeed past investigations performed at the NASA Glenn Plasma Interaction Facility tend to not only support the desorbed gas molecular ionization mechanism, but have gone as far as identifying the crucial molecular species that must be present for molecular ion dominated process to occur. When electrical breakdown occurs at a triple junction site on a solar array panel, a quasi-neutral plasma cloud is ejected. Assuming the main component of the expelled plasma cloud by weight is due to water vapor, the fastest process available is due to HO molecules and OH(+) ions, or more succinctly, dissociative molecular-ion dominated recombination processes: H2O(+) + e(-) yields H* + OH*. Recently published spectroscopic observations of solar array arc spectra in ground tests have revealed the well-known molecular OH band (302 to 309nm), as well as the molecular SiH band (387nm peak), and the molecular CH band (432nm peak). Note that the OH band is observed in emission arcs where water vapor is present. Strong atomic lines were also observed for H(sub beta) at 486nm and H(sub alpha) at 656.3nm in prior ground testing. Independent supporting evidence of desorbed gas molecular ionization mechanisms also come from measurements of arc current pulse widths at different capacitances. We will revisit an earlier first order approximation demonstrating the dependence of arc current pulse widths on the square root of the capacitance. The simple arc current pulse width model will be then be used to estimate the temperature of the arc plasma (currently believed to be somewhere in the range of 3 to 5 eV). The current paper then seeks to extend the outlined work by including numerous vacuum chamber measurements obtained with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A small solar array was mounted inside the vacuum

  7. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  8. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas off Fueling Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; Revalski, M.; Pope, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in a ∼700 × 2100 pc2 circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  9. Gas-Phase Stability of G-quadruplex DNA Determined by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Mazzitelli, Carolyn L.; Wang, Junmei; Smith, Suncerae I.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    The relative gas-phase stabilities of seven quadruplex DNA structures, [d(TG4T)]4, [d(T2G3T)]4, [d(G4T4G4)]2, [d(T2AG3)2]2, d(T2AG3)4, d(T2G4)4, and d(G2T4)4, were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). MD simulations revealed that the G-quadruplexes maintained their structures in the gas phase although the G-quartets were distorted to some degree and ammonium ions, retained by [d(TG4T)]4 and [d(T2G3T)]4, played a key role in stabilizing the tetrad structure. Energy-variable collisional activated dissociation was used to assess the relative stabilities of each quadruplex based on E1/2 values, and the resulting order of relative stabilities was found to be [d(TG4T)]4 ≫ d(T2AG3)4 ∼ d(T2G4)4 > [d(T2G3T)]4 > [d(T2AG3)2]2 ∼ d(G2T4)4 ∼ [d(G4T4G4)]2. The stabilities from the E1/2 values generally paralleled the RMSD and relative free energies of the quadruplexes based on the MD energy analysis. One exception to the general agreement is [d(G4T4G4)]2 which had the lowest E1/2 value, but was determined to be the most stable quadruplex according to the free energy analysis and ranked fourth based on the RMSD comparison. This discrepancy is attributed to differences in the fragmentation pathway of the quadruplex. PMID:17719795

  10. Ionization-based detectors for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    The gas phase ionization detectors are the most widely used detectors for gas chromatography. The column and makeup gases commonly used in gas chromatography are near perfect insulators. This facilitates the detection of a minute number of charge carriers facilitating the use of ionization mechanisms of low efficiency while providing high sensitivity. The main ionization mechanism discussed in this report are combustion in a hydrogen diffusion flame (flame ionization detector), surface ionization in a plasma (thermionic ionization detector), photon ionization (photoionization detector and pulsed discharge helium ionization detector), attachment of thermal electrons (electron-capture detector), and ionization by collision with metastable helium species (helium ionization detector). The design, response characteristics, response mechanism, and suitability for fast gas chromatography are the main features summarized in this report. Mass spectrometric detection and atomic emission detection, which could be considered as ionization detectors of a more sophisticated and complex design, are not discussed in this report.

  11. Quantification of Triacylglycerol Molecular Species in Edible Fats and Oils by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector Using Correction Factors.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Obi, Junji; Nagai, Toshiharu; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard. The capillary column was Ultra ALLOY(+)-65 (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.10 μm thickness) and the column temperature was programmed to rise from 250°C to 360°C at 4°C/min and then hold for 25 min. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the TAG standards were > 0.10 mg and > 0.32 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively, except for LnLnLn, and the LOD and LOQ values of LnLnLn were 0.55 mg and 1.84 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively. The CFs of TAG standards decreased with increasing total acyl carbon number and degree of desaturation of TAG molecules. Also, there were no remarkable differences in the CFs between TAG positional isomers such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol, 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, and 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, which cannot be separated by GC-FID. Furthermore, this method was able to predict the CFs of heterogeneous (AAB- and ABC-type) TAGs from the CFs of homogenous (AAA-, BBB-, and CCC-type) TAGs. In addition, the TAG composition in cocoa butter, palm oil, and canola oil was determined using CFs, and the results were found to be in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Therefore, the GC-FID method using CFs can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils.

  12. Single ionization of molecular iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dale L.; Tagliamonti, Vincent; Dragan, James; Gibson, George N.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a study of the single ionization of iodine, I2 over a range of wavelengths. Single ionization of I2 is unexpectedly found to have a contribution from inner molecular orbitals involving the 5 s electrons. The I+I+ dissociation channel was recorded through velocity map imaging, and the kinetic-energy release of each channel was determined with two-dimensional fitting of the images. Most of the measured kinetic-energy data were inconsistent with ionization to the X , A , and B states of I2 + , implying ionization from deeper orbitals. A pump-probe Fourier transform technique was used to look for modulation at the X - and A -state vibrational frequencies to see if they were intermediate states in a two-step process. X - and A -state modulation was seen only for kinetic-energy releases below 0.2 eV, consistent with dissociation through the B state. From these results and intensity-, polarization-, and wavelength-dependent experiments we found no evidence of bond softening, electron rescattering, or photon mediation through the X or A states to higher-energy single-ionization channels.

  13. Propagation of intense and short circularly polarized pulses in a molecular gas: From multiphoton ionization to nonlinear macroscopic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytova, M.; Lorin, E.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the propagation dynamics of short and intense circularly polarized pulses in an aligned diatomic gas. Compared to linearly polarized intense pulses, high harmonic generation (HHG) and the coherent generation of attosecond pulses in the intense-circular-polarization case are a new research area. More specifically, we numerically study the propagation of intense and short circularly polarized pulses in the one-electron H2+ molecular gas, using a micro-macro Maxwell-Schrödinger model. In this model, the macroscopic polarization is computed from the solution of a large number of time-dependent Schrödinger equations, the source of dipole moments, and using a trace operator. We focus on the intensity and the phase of harmonics generated in the H2+ gas as a function of the pulse-propagation distance. We show that short coherent circularly polarized pulses of same helicity can be generated in the molecular gas as a result of cooperative phase-matching effects.

  14. Ionization in nearby interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.; Fowler, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Due to dielectric recombination, neutral magnesium represents an important tracer for the warm low-density gas around the solar system. New Mg I 2852 absorption-line data from IUE are presented, including detections in a few stars within 40 pc of the sun. The absence of detectable Mg I in Alpha CMa and other stars sets limits on the combined size and electron density of the interstellar cloud which gives rise to the local interstellar wind. For a cloud radius greater than 1 pc and density of 0.1/cu cm, the local cloud has a low fractional ionization, n(e)/n(tot) less than 0.05, if magnesium is undepleted, equilibrium conditions prevail, the cloud temperature is 11,750 K, and 80 percent of the magnesium in the sightline is Mg II.

  15. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    We propose to continue our successful investigations into simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in planetary nebulae using primarily far-IR broadband images and spatially-resolved spectroscopic data cubes obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory to enhance our understanding of the circumstellar environments. This research originally started as the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) - an open time 1 program of the Herschel Space Observatory - in which 11 high-excitation PNs were observed to study the nebular energetics that involves very hot X-ray emitting plasma to very cold dust grains, whose density ranges over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and temperature ranges over 7 orders of magnitude. The HerPlaNS data include broadband maps, IFU spectral data cubes, and bolometer array spectral data cubes covering 50 to 670 microns. Because of the sheer volume and complexity of the data set, the original funding was exhausted almost exclusively to the initial data reduction and not much to the subsequent science analysis. However, we managed to perform a nearly full science analysis for one target, NGC 6781, for which the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbonrich dust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. We also demonstrated that spatially resolved far-IR line diagnostics would yield the (Te, ne) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allowed to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195 with a standard deviation of 110. The analysis also yielded estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M_sun, consisting of 0.54 M_sun of ionized gas, 0.12 M_sun of atomic gas, 0.2 M_sun of molecular gas, and 0.004 M_sun of dust grains. These estimates

  16. Laboratory simulation of cometary neutral gas ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tsuey-Fen; Rahman, H. U.; White, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The laboratory simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with a comet is used to study the cometary neural gas ionization. The experiment is carried out in the UCR T-1 facility with an ice ball as the comet model. Photographs and data are taken with a variety of values of the solar wind velocity, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and comet configurations. The results show that the cometary neutral gas ionization depends on both the velocity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. The plasma cloud surrounding the comet is visible only when the solar wind velocity and IMF are both above certain minimum values. This velocity dependent phenomena is explained by Alfven's critical ionization velocity effect. The critical magnetic field may be explained by assuming two stream lower hybrid instability as a triggering mechanism for the ionization of the neutral gas by plasma flow. Critical upper and lower limits for the magnetic field, required by anomalous ionization, are also derived that satisfy the experimental observations.

  17. Miniaturized gas ionization sensors using carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Modi, Ashish; Koratkar, Nikhil; Lass, Eric; Wei, Bingqing; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2003-07-10

    Gas sensors operate by a variety of fundamentally different mechanisms. Ionization sensors work by fingerprinting the ionization characteristics of distinct gases, but they are limited by their huge, bulky architecture, high power consumption and risky high-voltage operation. Here we report the fabrication and successful testing of ionization microsensors featuring the electrical breakdown of a range of gases and gas mixtures at carbon nanotube tips. The sharp tips of nanotubes generate very high electric fields at relatively low voltages, lowering breakdown voltages several-fold in comparison to traditional electrodes, and thereby enabling compact, battery-powered and safe operation of such sensors. The sensors show good sensitivity and selectivity, and are unaffected by extraneous factors such as temperature, humidity, and gas flow. As such, the devices offer several practical advantages over previously reported nanotube sensor systems. The simple, low-cost, sensors described here could be deployed for a variety of applications, such as environmental monitoring, sensing in chemical processing plants, and gas detection for counter-terrorism.

  18. Gas-Liquid Correlation of Ionization Energies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    ions and water. The threshold and reorganization energies of the hydrated electron are calculated from threshold energies of anions and their absorption...hydroxide ions and water. The threshold and reorganization energies of the hydrated electron are calculated from threshold energies of anions and their...threshold energy of the hydrated electron. 2. Free energy of emission and gas-phase ionization Consider the photoelectron emission by an aqueous

  19. The PRIME Lab gas ionization detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knies, David L.; Elmore, David

    1994-06-01

    A gas ionization detection system was built for optimal identification of AMS radionuclides, in particular 10Be and 36Cl. For 36Cl, a combination of 1) the difference in arrival times for electrons at two anode plates and 2) a novel split anode plate has led to a reduction in misidentified 36S. A peak-stabilizing routine incorporated in the data acquisition system has allowed us to run at higher counting rates. Changing to propane gas has reduced random signal amplitude shifts.

  20. Dust and Ionized Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul

    1995-05-01

    The thesis presents results of a study of the optical and far-infrared properties of dust and ionized gas in a complete, blue magnitude-limited (B_T^0 < 12) sample of 56 luminous elliptical (E) galaxies. The main aim is to investigate the origin and fate of this interstellar material and possible implications for scenarios of galaxy formation and evolution. To ensure consistency in the assignment of morphological types, the galaxy sample was drawn exclusively from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies. A deep, systematic optical survey has been performed, including CCD imaging through both broad-band filters and narrow-band filters. For each galaxy we have constructed colour index (B-V, B-I) images and images of the H-alpha+ [N II]-emitting gas to derive the distributions of dust features and ionized gas. Long-slit spectra have also been obtained in two resolutions. Low-resolution spectra (covering the whole optical region) are used to study the properties of the underlying stellar populations (e.g., metallicity gradients), and to study the excitation mechanism of the ionized gas. Additional medium-resolution (~2A) spectra in the wavelength region around H-alpha have been obtained for all sample elliptical galaxies containing ionized gas to study the kinematics of the gas, and derive pure H-alpha luminosities. In this thesis, analysis of the extensive imaging data and of the medium-resolution spectra is reported. In Chapter 1 we report an early result of our survey: The galaxy IC 1459 is found to exhibit a large (15 Kpc diameter) H-alpha+[N II] emission-line region, showing spiral structure. Patchy dust absorption is also found in the inner part of the emission-line region. This galaxy was already shown to contain a massive stellar core which counter-rotates rapidly with respect to the stellar body of the galaxy. Interestingly, the sense of rotation of the spiral "arms" of the ionized gas distribution is the same as that of the rapidly rotating

  1. Highly ionized atoms in cooling gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, R. J.; Chevalier, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The ionization of low density gas cooling from a high temperature was calculated. The evolution during the cooling is assumed to be isochoric, isobaric, or a combination of these cases. The calculations are used to predict the column densities and ultraviolet line luminosities of highly ionized atoms in cooling gas. In a model for cooling of a hot galactic corona, it is shown that the observed value of N(N V) can be produced in the cooling gas, while the predicted value of N(Si IV) falls short of the observed value by a factor of about 5. The same model predicts fluxes of ultraviolet emission lines that are a factor of 10 lower than the claimed detections of Feldman, Brune, and Henry. Predictions are made for ultraviolet lines in cooling flows in early-type galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It is shown that the column densities of interest vary over a fairly narrow range, while the emission line luminosities are simply proportional to the mass inflow rate.

  2. Ambipolar Diffusion Effects on Weakly Ionized Turbulence Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pak Shing; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2011-04-01

    Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is a key process in molecular clouds (MCs). Non-ideal MHD turbulence simulations are technically very challenging because of the large Alfvén speed of ions in weakly ionized clouds. Using the Heavy-Ion Approximation method (Li, McKee & Klein 2006), we have carried out two-fluid simulations of AD in isothermal, turbulent boxes at a resolution of 5123, to investigate the effect of AD on the weakly ionized turbulence in MCs. Our simulation results show that the neutral gas component of the two-fluid system gradually transforms from an ideal MHD turbulence system to near a pure hydrodynamic turbulence system within the standard AD regime, in which the neutrals and ions are coupled over a flow time. The change of the turbulent state has a profound effect on the weakly ionized MCs.

  3. X-ray ionization and the chemistry of the Orion molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.; Kallman, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    The collection of unusually strong stellar X-ray sources in the vicinity of the Orion molecular cloud together bathe the gas with such an intensity of X-rays that they, rather than cosmic rays, dominate the ionization and heating of the gas. Estimates of the ionization rate and the elevation in temperature are presented, and the consequences for the gas chemistry are discussed. Strong small-scale inhomogeneities in molecular abundances and temperature are a distinguishing feature of ionization by stellar X-rays.

  4. Turbulence in the ionized gas of the Orion nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, S. J.; Medina, S.-N. X.; Henney, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the nature, origin, and impact of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the ionized gas of the Orion nebula, we apply a variety of statistical techniques to observed velocity cubes. The cubes are derived from high resolving power (R ≈ 40 000) longslit spectroscopy of optical emission lines that span a range of ionizations. From velocity channel analysis (VCA), we find that the slope of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with predictions of Kolmogorov theory between scales of 8 and 22 arcsec (0.02 to 0.05 pc). The outer scale, which is the dominant scale of density fluctuations in the nebula, approximately coincides with the autocorrelation length of the velocity fluctuations that we determine from the second-order velocity structure function. We propose that this is the principal driving scale of the turbulence, which originates in the autocorrelation length of dense cores in the Orion molecular filament. By combining analysis of the non-thermal linewidths with the systematic trends of velocity centroid versus ionization, we find that the global champagne flow and smaller scale turbulence each contribute in equal measure to the total velocity dispersion, with respective root-mean-square widths of 4-5 km s-1. The turbulence is subsonic and can account for only one half of the derived variance in ionized density, with the remaining variance provided by density gradients in photoevaporation flows from globules and filaments. Intercomparison with results from simulations implies that the ionized gas is confined to a thick shell and does not fill the interior of the nebula.

  5. Characterization of low-molecular weight iodine-terminated polyethylenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the use of derivatization.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Vladimir G; Borisov, Roman S; Polovkov, Nikolai Yu; Zhilyaev, Dmitry I; Vinogradov, Aleksei A; Ivanyuk, Aleksei V

    2013-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry, in conjunction with various derivatization approaches, have been applied to structure determination of individual oligomers and molecular-mass distributions (MMD) in low-molecular mass polyethylene having an iodine terminus. Direct GC/MS analysis has shown that the samples under investigation composed of polyethyelene-iodides (major components) and n-alkanes. Exchange reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH gave rise to methoxy-derivatives and n-alkenes. Electron ionization mass spectra have shown that the former contained terminal methoxy groups indicating the terminal position of the iodine atom in the initial oligomers. MMD parameters have been determined with the aid of MALDI mass spectrometry followed by preliminary derivatization-formation of covalently bonded charge through the reaction of iodides with triphenylphosphine, trialkylamines, pyridine or quinoline. The mass spectra revealed well-resolved peaks for cationic parts of derivatized oligomers allowing the determination of MMD. The latter values have been compared with those calculated from GC/MS data.

  6. Enhanced Stability of Electrohydrodynamic Jets through Gas Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Sibel; Saville, Dudley A.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the nonaxisymmetric instability growth rate of an electrohydrodynamic jet based on the measured total current overestimate experimental values. We show that this apparent discrepancy is the result of gas ionization in the surrounding gas and its effect on the surface charge density of the jet. As a result of gas ionization, a sudden drop in the instability growth rate occurs below a critical electrode separation, yielding highly stable jets that can be used for nano- to microscale printing.

  7. Enhanced stability of electrohydrodynamic jets through gas ionization.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Sibel; Saville, Dudley A; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2008-01-25

    Theoretical predictions of the nonaxisymmetric instability growth rate of an electrohydrodynamic jet based on the measured total current overestimate experimental values. We show that this apparent discrepancy is the result of gas ionization in the surrounding gas and its effect on the surface charge density of the jet. As a result of gas ionization, a sudden drop in the instability growth rate occurs below a critical electrode separation, yielding highly stable jets that can be used for nano- to microscale printing.

  8. Simultaneous resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization and electron avalanche ionization in gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2008-07-15

    Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI) are measured simultaneously in Ar:Xe mixtures at different partial pressures of mixture components. A simple theory for combined REMPI+EAI in gas mixture is developed. It is shown that the REMPI electrons seed the avalanche process, and thus the avalanche process amplifies the REMPI signal. Possible applications are discussed.

  9. An advanced oxidation process using ionized gas for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Chung, Paul Gene; Kwak, Dong Heui; Kim, Lee Hyung; Kim, Min Jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study on removing non-degradable materials in wastewater focused primarily on advanced oxidation methods such as ozone, ozone/UV and ozone/H2O2. Wastewater treatment using an ionized gas from plasma has been actively progressing. The ionized gas involves reactive species such as O2+, O2- cluster, O radical and OH radical. Since the ionized gas method has such outstanding characteristics as relatively simple structures, non-calorification, non-toxicity and low electricity consumption, it evidently of interest as a new process. A series of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of ionized gas as a useful element for the diminution of nondegradable organic matters. On the other hand, a large amount of organic matters were changed to hydrophilic and the compounds containing aromatic functional group gradually decreased. The results implied that the ionized gas has been able to degrade the non-biodegradable organic matters. Therefore, the oxidation process by using an ionized gas process could be considered as an effective alternative unit in water and wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Ionized gas in the Irr galaxy IC 10: The emission spectrum and ionization sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Egorov, O. V.; Lozinskaya, T. A.; Moiseev, A. V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the observations of the Irr galaxy IC 10 at the 6-m SAO telescope with the panoramic Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS). Based on the results of these observations and our long-slit spectroscopy performed previously, we have investigated the ionized-gas emission spectrum in the region of intense star formation and refined the gas metallicity estimates. We show that the “diagnostic diagrams” constructed from our observations agree best with the new improved ionization models by Martin-Manjon et al. Using these models, we have determined the electron density and gas ionization parameter and ionizing-cluster characteristics, the age and mass, from the spectra of the investigated HII regions. The cluster ages and masses are shown to be within the ranges 2.5-5 Myr and (0.2-1) × 105 M ⊗, respectively.

  11. Laser induced avalanche ionization in gases or gas mixtures with resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization or femtosecond laser pulse pre-ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B.

    2012-08-15

    The paper discusses the requirements for avalanche ionization in gas or gas mixtures initiated by REMPI or femtosecond-laser pre-ionization. Numerical examples of dependencies on partial composition for Ar:Xe gas mixture with REMPI of argon and subsequent classic avalanche ionization of Xe are presented.

  12. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  13. The rise of ionized gas in the Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Michael; Barger, Kathleen; Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The Small and Large Magellanic Clouds are a pair of interacting galaxies near the Milky Way. Tidal interactions have stripped gas from these galaxies, leaving behind gaseous debris such as the Magellanic Stream. We explore the morphology and kinematics of the neutral and ionized hydrogen gas in the trailing stream traveling toward the Milky Way. This comparison provides us with insight into the physical processes that are affecting the gas flowing through the Galactic halo. This is done using mapped H-alpha emission-line spectroscopy, obtained with the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM), and archival 21-cm HI observations of the Stream near the Magellanic Clouds. We found that the neutral and ionized gas spatially and kinematically trace each other. With a map of the ionized gas in hand, we will continue to study the survival of this tidal relic.

  14. MOLECULAR AND IONIZED HYDROGEN IN 30 DORADUS. I. IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2015-07-10

    We present the first fully calibrated H{sub 2} 1–0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H{sub 2}-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H{sub 2}, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H{sub 2} to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H{sub 2} emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2–3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H{sub 2} emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  15. Helium Ionization in the Diffuse Ionized Gas Surrounding UCH ii Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anish Roshi, D.; Churchwell, E.; Anderson, L. D.

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of the singly ionized helium-to-hydrogen ratio ({n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+}) toward diffuse gas surrounding three ultracompact H ii (UCH ii) regions: G10.15-0.34, G23.46-0.20, and G29.96-0.02. We observe radio recombination lines of hydrogen and helium near 5 GHz using the GBT to measure the {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} ratio. The measurements are motivated by the low helium ionization observed in the warm ionized medium and in the inner Galaxy diffuse ionized regions. Our data indicate that the helium is not uniformly ionized in the three observed sources. Helium lines are not detected toward a few observed positions in sources G10.15-0.34 and G23.46-0.20, and the upper limits of the {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} ratio obtained are 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. The selected sources harbor stars of type O6 or hotter as indicated by helium line detection toward the bright radio continuum emission from the sources with mean {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} value 0.06 ± 0.02. Our data thus show that helium in diffuse gas located a few parsecs away from the young massive stars embedded in the observed regions is not fully ionized. We investigate the origin of the nonuniform helium ionization and rule out the possibilities (a) that the helium is doubly ionized in the observed regions and (b) that the low {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} values are due to additional hydrogen ionizing radiation produced by accreting low-mass stars. We find that selective absorption of ionizing photons by dust can result in low helium ionization but needs further investigation to develop a self-consistent model for dust in H ii regions.

  16. Ionization probes of molecular structure and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Various photoionization processes provide very sensitive probes for the detection and understanding of the spectra of molecules relevant to combustion processes. The detection of ionization can be selective by using resonant multiphoton ionization or by exploiting the fact that different molecules have different sets of ionization potentials. Therefore, the structure and dynamics of individual molecules can be studied even in a mixed sample. The authors are continuing to develop methods for the selective spectroscopic detection of molecules by ionization, and to use these methods for the study of some molecules of combustion interest.

  17. The Kinematics of the Ionized Gas in IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Joshua C.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2005-02-01

    We present the results of a WIYN integral field unit study of the kinematics of the ionized gas in IC 10, a dwarf irregular starburst galaxy in the Local Group. Though the velocity field of the ionized gas closely matches that of the H I, there are several kinematically interesting features in the galaxy. The diffuse ionized gas in the galaxy exhibits larger Hα line widths than the bright complexes. In one case this is due to an infusion of energy into the gas associated with the radio superbubble discovered by Yang & Skillman. We find that the amount of energy in this region is consistent with their hypothesis that the region contains 10 supernova remnants. We also detect a high-velocity (70 km s-1) expanding shell in the ionized gas, which is likely driven by three confirmed Wolf-Rayet stars that are located within the shell. Extrapolating from Hunter's initial mass function, we find that the central starburst region contains approximately equal energy contributions from stellar winds and supernovae (SNe), suggesting that SNe are just beginning to play a significant role in shaping the kinematics of the ionized gas. However, all of this energy cannot be easily accounted for in the kinematics of the gas. We detect an energetic flow of gas (3×1052 ergs), which we believe originates from the starburst region. We also detect a high-velocity (70 km s-1) feature not coincident with any structure in our Hα image. This feature, along with the flow and shell, can account for the energy produced by stellar wind and SNe. The flow resembles one discovered by Wilcots & Thurow in NGC 4214; together they suggest that the porosity of the interstellar medium contributes significantly to the high velocity of some portion of the ionized gas in irregular galaxies.

  18. Determination of Hexachlorocyclohexane by Gas Chromatography Combined with Femtosecond Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xixiang; Imasaka, Tomoko; Li, Adan; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-12-01

    Structural isomers and enantiomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were separated using a chiral column by gas chromatography and quantitatively determined by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser (200 and 267 nm) as the ionization source. The order of elution of the enantiomers (i.e., (+)-α-HCH and (-)-α-HCH) was predicted from stabilization energies calculated for the complexes using permethylated γ-cyclodextrin as the stationary phase of the column, and the results were compared with the experimental data. The molecular ions observed for HCH were weak, even though they can be ionized through a process of resonance enhanced two-photon ionization at 200 nm. This unfavorable result can be attributed to the dissociation of the molecular ion, as predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  19. The distribution of ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, L. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Bertin, G.; Bertola, F.; Danzinger, J.; Dejonghe, H.; Saglia, R. P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    1993-12-01

    We present and discuss H-alpha+(N II) imaging observations of fifteen nearby elliptical and SO galaxies with extended optical emission lines. The morphology of the emitting regions suggests that the ionized gas usually lies in a disk which is often geometrically decoupled from the stellar body, as expected in a triaxial galaxy. The presence of a gaseous disk makes these galaxies suitable for testing their gravitational field in a straightforward way. The presence of dust in many of the disks, together with the observed morphological properties, suggests that the ionized gas in most of these galaxies is more closely associated with the cold Interstellar Medium (ISM) than with the hot X-ray component. The mass of ionized gas in the galaxies studied here is typically 10-100 times that in a 'normal' early-type galaxy of similar optical luminosity. These appear to be galaxies where an unusually high fraction of the cold gas has been ionized, rather than unusually gas-rich systems in an overall sense. The extra ionizing source may be related to an active nucleus, since the continuum radio emission from these galaxies is typically 10-15 times more powerful than in 'normal' ellipticals of the smae optical luminosity.

  20. Axisymmetric model of the ionized gas in the Orion Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, R. H.; Simpson, J. P.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.

    1991-01-01

    New ionization and thermal equilibrium models for the ionized gas in the Orion Nebula with an axisymmetric two-dimensional 'blister' geometry/density distribution are presented. The HII region is represented more realistically than in previous models, while the physical detail of the microphysics and radiative transfer of the earlier spherical modeling is maintained. The predicted surface brightnesses are compared with observations for a large set of lines at different positions to determine the best-fitting physical parameters. The model explains the strong singly ionized line emission along the lines of sight near the Trapezium.

  1. Shock-wave structure in a partially ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a steady plane shock in a partially ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with a kinetic model as the governing equation and the discrete ordinate method as a tool. The effects of the electric field induced by the charge separation on the shock structure have also been studied. Although the three species of an ionized gas travel with approximately the same macroscopic velocity, the individual distribution functions are found to be very different. In a strong shock the atom distribution function may have double peaks, while the ion distribution function has only one peak. Electrons are heated up much earlier than ions and atoms in a partially ionized gas. Because the interactions of electrons with atoms and with ions are different, the ion temperature can be different from the atom temperature.

  2. Plasma induced by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in inert gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2007-12-15

    We present a detailed model for the evolution of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) produced plasma during and after the ionizing laser pulse in inert gas (argon, as an example) at arbitrary pressures. Our theory includes the complete process of the REMPI plasma generation and losses, together with the changing gas thermodynamic parameters. The model shows that the plasma expansion follows a classical ambipolar diffusion and that gas heating results in a weak shock or acoustic wave. The gas becomes involved in the motion not only from the pressure gradient due to the heating, but also from the momentum transfer from the charged particles to gas atoms. The time dependence of the total number of electrons computed in theory matches closely with the results of coherent microwave scattering experiments.

  3. Qualitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses Using Amines as Chemical Ionization Reagent Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, James L.; Howard, Adam S.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia is a very useful chemical ionization (CI) reagent gas for the qualitative analyses of compounds by positive ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The gas is readily available, inexpensive, and leaves no carbon contamination in the MS source. Compounds of interest to our laboratory typically yield abundant protonated or ammoniated species, which are indicative of a compound's molecular weight. Nevertheless, some labile compounds fragment extensively by substitution and elimination reactions and yield no molecular weight information. In these cases, a CI reagent gas mixture of methylamine in methane prepared dynamically was found to be very useful in obtaining molecular weight data. Likewise, deuterated ammonia and deuterated methylamine are useful CI reagent gases for determining the exchangeable protons in organic compounds. Deuterated methylamine CI reagent gas is conveniently prepared by dynamically mixing small amounts of methylamine with excess deuterated ammonia.

  4. Studying Simple Molecular Ionization using Radiation Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Christopher; Lemmer, Kristina; Western Michigan University Aerospace LaboratoryPlasma Experiments Team

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on radiation emission from the formation of simple molecular plasma using a DC glow discharge. The purpose is to measure the emission from argon and molecular nitrogen gas as a function of time with an optical emission spectroscopy system operating in kinetic mode as the gases go from their neutral state to ionized state. The end goal of the research is to develop a diagnostic tool that will be used to study the formation of plasma discharges from complex molecules. The kinetic mode of the CCD camera allows for fast data acquisition so that the species present and their relative concentrations as a function of time can be measured as the plasma is forming. The primary difficulty in the development of this diagnostic tool is designing a device and data analysis technique to allow for kinetic mode operation of the CCD camera. Experimental devices have been designed and built to enable the CCD to operate in kinetic mode, including a fiber optic adapter, camera mount, and twin razor blade system. The twin blades allow for the reduction of exposed pixels on the CCD camera and thereby allow the camera to store data on rows of pixels, rather than imaging the entire camera, allowing for faster data transfer. PhD in Aerospace Engineering.

  5. Highly ionized gas in the Galactic halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Slavin, Jonathan D.

    1994-01-01

    We reexamine the values of electron density n(sub e) and gas pressure P/k in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galactic halo, as inferred from C IV emission and absorption lines and using current C IV atomic data. In a homogeneous model with 4.7 less than or equal to log T less than or equal to 5.3, the data are consistent with 0.01 less than or equal to n(sub e) less than or equal to 0.02/cu cm and 2200 less than or equal to P/k less than or equal to 3700/cu cm K, a factor of 2-3 higher than advocated by Martin & Bowyer (1990) and comparable to the thermal pressure in the disk. If some of the C IV absorption arises from nonemitting, photoionized gas, then the inferred density and pressure will increase accordingly. The volume filling factor for homogeneous models ranges from 0.5% to 5%. Because of the constraints arising from filling factor and radiated power, most of the C IV must arise from gas near the peak of the cooling curve, at log t less than or equal to 5.6. We relate both emission-line and absorption-line observations to recent models in which turbulent mixing layers and isobarically cooling supernova remnants (SNRs) provide significant amounts of halo gas at approximately 10(exp 5.3) K and process 20-40 solar mass/yr with a power of approximately 10(exp 41) ergs/sec. Since the observed C IV and N V absorption scale heights have been reported to differ, at 4.9 kpc and 1.6 kpc, respectively, we examine inhomogeneous models with different exponential scale heights of T, P, and SN energy input. The ISM may change its character with distance above the Galactic plane, as superbubbles and mixing layers dominate over isolated SNRs as the source of the C IV. For appropiate scale heights, the midplane pressure is twice the homogeneous values quoted above. The O IV lambda 1034 diffuse emission line, which can be used as a temperature diagnostic of the hot gas, is predicted to be comparable in strength to that of C IV lambda 1549 (approximately 6000 photons

  6. Field-dressed orbitals in strong-field molecular ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemering, Robert; Njoya, Oumarou; Weinacht, Thomas; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the importance of considering the shape of field-dressed molecular orbitals in interpreting angle-dependent measures of strong-field ionization from excited states. Our calculations of angle-dependent ionization for three homologous polyatomic molecules with very similar valence orbitals show that one has to take into account the shape of the field-dressed orbitals rather than the field-free orbitals in order to rationalize the experimental measurements.

  7. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, R.J.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Hester, J.J. Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-03-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals. 19 refs.

  8. Viscosity Coefficient Curve Fits for Ionized Gas Species Grant Palmer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viscosity coefficient curve fits for neutral gas species are available from many sources. Many do a good job of reproducing experimental and computational chemistry data. The curve fits are usually expressed as a function of temperature only. This is consistent with the governing equations used to derive an expression for the neutral species viscosity coefficient. Ionized species pose a more complicated problem. They are subject to electrostatic as well as intermolecular forces. The electrostatic forces are affected by a shielding phenomenon where electrons shield the electrostatic forces of positively charged ions beyond a certain distance. The viscosity coefficient for an ionized gas species is a function of both temperature and local electron number density. Currently available curve fits for ionized gas species, such as those presented by Gupta/Yos, are a function of temperature only. What they did was to assume an electron number density. The problem is that the electron number density they assumed was unrealistically high. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, the proper expression for determining the viscosity coefficient of an ionized species as a function of both temperature and electron number density will be presented. Then curve fit coefficients will be developed using the more realistic assumption of an equilibrium electron number density. The results will be compared against previous curve fits and against highly accurate computational chemistry data.

  9. Highly Ionized Gas as a Diagnostic of the Inner NLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. J.; Mullaney, J.; Jin, C.; Davies, R.

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of AGN, from the ultraviolet to the near infrared, exhibit emission lines covering a wide range of ionization states, from neutral species such as [O i] λ 6300, up to [Fe iv] λ 5303. Here we report on some recent studies of the properties of highly ionized lines (HILs), plus two case studies of individual objects. Future IFU observations at high spatial and good spectral resolution will probe the excitation and kinematics of the gas in the zone between the extended NLR and unresolved BLR. Multi-component SED fitting can be used to link the source of photoionization with the strengths and ratios of the HILs.

  10. Extracting Structure Parameters of Dimers for Molecular Tunneling Ionization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song-Feng, Zhao; Fang, Huang; Guo-Li, Wang; Xiao-Xin, Zhou

    2016-03-01

    We determine structure parameters of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 27 dimers for the molecular tunneling ionization (so called MO-ADK) model of Tong et al. [Phys. Rev. A 66 (2002) 033402]. The molecular wave functions with correct asymptotic behavior are obtained by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with B-spline functions and molecular potentials which are numerically created using the density functional theory. We examine the alignment-dependent tunneling ionization probabilities from MO-ADK model for several molecules by comparing with the molecular strong-field approximation (MO-SFA) calculations. We show the molecular Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (MO-PPT) can successfully give the laser wavelength dependence of ionization rates (or probabilities). Based on the MO-PPT model, two diatomic molecules having valence orbital with antibonding systems (i.e., Cl2, Ne2) show strong ionization suppression when compared with their corresponding closest companion atoms. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11164025, 11264036, 11465016, 11364038, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20116203120001, and the Basic Scientific Research Foundation for Institution of Higher Learning of Gansu Province

  11. The Vertical Structure of Diffuse Ionized Gas in Galactic Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnarao, Dhanesh; Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper provides the most sensitive velocity resolved observations of diffuse Hα, [S II] λ6716, and [N II] λ6584 emission in the Galaxy, tracing the warm (~8000K) ionized component of the interstellar medium. The vertical extent of this diffuse gas can directly impact the midplane pressure, influencing cold molecular clouds and star formation in the disk. Here, we analyze the vertical structure of the warm ionized medium around multiple spiral arm components of the Galaxy. Diffuse halo emission is isolated using longitude varying velocity channels guided by CO emission tracing cold molecular gas in the disk. We find exponential electron density squared (or emission measure) scale heights and analyze its behavior as a function of Galactocentric radius and the presence of cold molecular clouds and star forming regions in the disk. Statistical analysis of the behavior of [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα line ratios along some of these spiral arms disentangle the complex physical conditions of the warm ionized gas as a function of height and in-situ electron density. Some spiral arm sections, in particular the far Carina arm, have significantly larger (>3x) scale heights than previously studied arms that tend to increase as a function of Galactocentric radius.

  12. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  13. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  14. X-ray FEL induced multiphton ionization and molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li

    2014-05-01

    X-ray Free electron lasers (FELs) enable multiphoton absorption at the core levels which is not possible with conventional light sources. Multiphoton ionization and the subsequent core-hole states relaxation lead to dramatic dynamics of the molecules. We present our experimental as well as theoretical results on multiphoton ionization and molecular fragmentation dynamics with the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Laboratory. We investigated simple diatomic system, N2 molecules, where we used multiphoton ionization as an internal clock for imaging the dynamics in time and the internuclear separation domain. We observed the modification of the ionization dynamic by varying the x-ray beam parameters and the effect of the spatial distribution on the ionization. We also investigated a complex system, C60, where we developed a full model to simulate the multiphoton ionization that results in various molecular ions and atomic carbon ions up to charge 6+. The calculation agrees well with our experimental results in ion kinetic energy distribution and charge state distribution. Moreover, our model provides further insights into the photoionization and dissociation dynamics as a function of time and molecular size. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Thank T. Osipov, B. Murphy, Z. Jurek, S.-K. Son, R. Santra, and N. Berrah, M. Hoener, O. Gessner, F. Tarantelli, S.T. Pratt, O. Kornilov, C. Buth, M. Güehr, E. Kanter, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Kukk, S.R. Leone, L. Avaldi, P. Bolognesi, J. Eland, J. Farrell, R. Feifel, L. Frasinski, D.T. Ha, K. Hoffmann, B. McFarland, C. Miron, M. Mucke, R. Squibb, K. Ueda for their contributions to this work.

  15. GAS PHASE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    SEARS,T.J.; HALL,G.E.; PRESES,J.M.; WESTON,R.E.,JR.

    1999-06-09

    The goal of this research is the understanding of elementary chemical and physical processes important in the combustion of fossil fuels. Interest centers on reactions involving short-lived chemical intermediates and their properties. High-resolution, high-sensitivity, laser absorption methods are augmented by high temperature flow-tube reaction kinetics studies with mass-spectrometric sampling. These experiments provide information on the energy levels, structures and reactivity of molecular free radical species and, in turn, provide new tools for the study of energy flow and chemical bond cleavage in the radicals in chemical systems. The experimental work is supported by theoretical and computational work using time-dependent quantum wavepacket calculations that provide insights into energy flow between the vibrational modes of the molecule. The work of group members Fockenberg and Muckerman is described in separate abstracts of this volume.

  16. Equation of state for a partially ionized gas. II.

    PubMed

    Baker, George A

    2003-11-01

    The derivation of equations of state for fluid phases of a partially ionized gas or plasma is addressed from a fundamental point of view. A spherical cellular model is deduced for the hot curve limit (or ideal Fermi gas). Next the Coulomb interactions are added to the spherical cellular model for general ionic charge Z. Then an independent electron model within a Z electron cell plus several many-body effects are employed. Numerical examples of the theory for several elements (H, Li, N, Na, K, Ni, Rb, Pd, Cs, and Er) are reported. These results reduce in various limits of temperature and density to the expected behavior. They display electron, localization-delocalization phase transitions of liquid-gas character. In the higher Z elements, a second possible critical point has been found. The critical pressure, electron density and temperature for the lower-density critical points seem to obey power laws as a function of Z.

  17. Residual-gas-ionization beam profile monitors in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Fite, J.; Jao, S.; Trabocchi, C.

    2010-05-02

    Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are in RHIC to measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings. These work by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last two years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

  18. ECC study in positron impact ionization in molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campeanu, R. I.; Zohouri Haghian, N.

    2012-12-01

    The electron capture to the continuum phenomenon in positron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen is studied with the distorted wave Born approximation. Our theoretical model produces results which are in better agreement with the experiment than the more elaborate models of [J. Fiol, V.D. Rodriguez, R.O. Barrachina, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 933 (2001)] and [A. Benedek, R.I. Campeanu, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 1589 (2007)] previously employed in this study.

  19. Accurate Structure Parameters for Tunneling Ionization Rates of Gas-Phase Linear Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Song-Feng; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Guo-Li; Li, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2017-03-01

    In the molecular Ammosov–Delone–Krainov (MO-ADK) model of Tong et al. [Phys. Rev. A 66 (2002) 033402], the ionization rate depends on the structure parameters of the molecular orbital from which the electron is removed. We determine systematically and tabulate accurate structure parameters of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) for 123 gas-phase linear molecules by solving time-independent Schrödinger equation with B-spline functions and molecular potentials which are constructed numerically using the modified Leeuwen–Baerends (LBα) model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11664035, 11674268, 11465016, 11364038, 11364039, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20116203120001 and the Basic Scientific Research Foundation for Institution of Higher Learning of Gansu Province

  20. A Hot Molecular Outflow Driven by the Ionized Jet Associated with IRAS 16562-3959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Brooks, Kate J.; Rathborne, Jill; Güsten, Rolf

    2011-08-01

    We report molecular line observations in the CO J = 3 → 2, 6 → 5, and 7 → 6 transitions, made using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope, toward the massive and dense core IRAS 16562-3959. This core harbors a string of radio sources thought to be powered by a central collimated jet of ionized gas. The molecular observations show the presence of high-velocity gas exhibiting a quadrupolar morphology, most likely produced by the presence of two collimated outflows. The southeast-northwest (SE-NW) molecular outflow is aligned with the string of radio continuum sources, suggesting it is driven by the jet. We find that the excitation temperature of the gas in the SE-NW outflow is high, with values of 145 and 120 K for the blueshifted and redshifted lobes, respectively. This outflow has a total mass of 1.92 M sun, a total momentum of ~89 M sun km s-1, and an averaged momentum rate of ~3.0 × 10-2 M sun km s-1 yr-1, values characteristic of flows driven by young massive stellar objects with high luminosities (L bol ~ 2 × 104 L sun). Complementary data taken with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in high density and shock tracers support the picture that IRAS 16562-3959 is an accreting young massive star associated with an ionized jet, which is the energy source of a molecular outflow.

  1. Hydration of Gas-Phase Ions Formed by Electrospray Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cruz, Sandra E.; Klassen, John S.; Williams, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The hydration of gas-phase ions produced by electrospray ionization was investigated. Evidence that the hydrated ions are formed by two mechanisms is presented. First, solvent condensation during the expansion inside the electrospray source clearly occurs. Second, some solvent evaporation from more extensively solvated ions or droplets is apparent. To the extent that these highly solvated ions have solution-phase structures, then the final isolated gas-phase structure of the ion will be determined by the solvent evaporation process. This process was investigated for hydrated gramicidin S in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Unimolecular dissociation rate constants of isolated gramicidin S ions with between 2 and 14 associated water molecules were measured. These rate constants increased from 16 to 230 s−1 with increasing hydration, with smaller values corresponding to magic numbers. PMID:10497808

  2. Gentle protein ionization assisted by high-velocity gas flow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengxiang; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng; Hawkridge, Adam M; Muddiman, David C

    2005-10-01

    Gentle protein electrospray ionization is achieved using the high-velocity gas flow of an air amplifier to improve desolvation in conventional ESI and generate intact folded protein ions in the gas phase. Comparisons are made between the ESI spectra of a number of model proteins, including ubiquitin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and myoglobin, over a range of pH values under optimized conditions, with and without using an air amplifier to achieve high-velocity gas flow. Previously reported increased ion signals are confirmed. In addition, the peaks recorded using the air amplifier are shown to be narrower, corresponding to more complete desolvation. Significant changes in the charge-state distribution also are observed, with a shift to lower charge state at high-velocity flow. The relationship between the observed charge-state distribution and protein conformation was explored by comparing the charge-state shifts and the distributions of charge states for proteins that are or are not stable in their native conformations in low pH solutions. The data suggest retention of native or nativelike protein conformations using the air amplifier in all cases examined. This is explained by a mechanism in which the air amplifier rapidly creates small droplets from the original large ESI droplets and these microdroplets then desolvate without a significant decrease in pH, resulting in retention of the folded protein conformations. Furthermore, the holoform of ionized myoglobin is visible at pH 3.5, a much lower value than the minimum needed to see this form in conventional ESI. These results provide evidence for the importance of the conditions used in the desolvation process for the preservation of the protein conformation and suggest that the conditions achieved when using high-velocity gas flows to assist droplet evaporation and ion desolvation are much gentler than those in conventional ESI experiments.

  3. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-05

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.

  4. Ionization impact on molecular clouds and star formation. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.

    2012-11-01

    At all the scales of Astrophysics, the impact of the ionization from massive stars is a crucial issue. At the galactic scale, the ionization can regulate star formation by supporting molecular clouds against gravitational collapse and at the stellar scale, indications point toward a possible birth place of the Solar System close to massive stars. At the molecular cloud scale, it is clear that the hot ionized gas compresses the surrounding cold gas, leading to the formation of pillars, globules, and shells of dense gas in which some young stellar objects are observed. What are the formation mechanisms of these structures? Are the formation of these young stellar objects triggered or would have they formed anyway? Do massive stars have an impact on the distribution of the surrounding gas? Do they have an impact on the mass distribution of stars (the initial mass function, IMF)? This thesis aims at shedding some light on these questions, by focusing especially on the formation of the structures between the cold and the ionized gas. We present the state of the art of the theoretical and observational works on ionized regions (H ii regions) and we introduce the numerical tools that have been developed to model the ionization in the hydrodynamic simulations with turbulence performed with the HERACLES code. Thanks to the simulations, we present a new model for the formation of pillars based on the curvature and collapse of the dense shell on itself and a new model for the formations of cometary globules based on the turbulence of the cold gas. Several diagnostics have been developed to test these new models in the observations. If pillars are formed by the collapse of the dense shell on itself, the velocity spectrum of a nascent pillar presents a large spectra with a red-shifted and a blue-shifted components that are caused by the foreground and background parts of the shell that collapse along the line of sight. If cometary globules emerge because of the turbulence of

  5. Electron Impact Ionization and Fragmentation Dynamics of Small Atomic and Molecular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    New ionization and fragmentation reactions emerge if target atoms or molecules are embedded in an environment as it is the case in small clusters or in the condensed phase. These can be intermolecular energy and charge transfer processes or a completely modified fragmentation behavior of the molecular ions. Here we study low energy electron impact induced ionization with a multi-electron and ion imaging spectrometer (reaction microscope) and a supersonic gas jet target which can produce small clusters of various target species. Interatomic reactions are studied for the model system of weakly bound Ar2 dimers. Here, the coincident detection of three electrons and two ions gives detailed insight in interatomic Coulombic decay and radiative charge transfer processes. Such processes were also found in bio-relevant systems like water clusters. We studied pure and water-mixed clusters of tetrahydrofuran (C4H8O, THF) which is the simplest analog of deoxyribose in the DNA backbone. One observation is that ionization of the outermost valence orbital for the monomer leads to stable THF ions. In contrast if THF is bound to another THF or a water molecule the molecular ring breaks. In addition we identify intermolecular Coulombic decay induced by energy transfer from a water molecule ionized in the inner valence shell to the neighboring THF molecule.

  6. Molecular Strong Field Ionization viewed with Photoelectron Velocity Map Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Peter

    In this thesis, work is presented on molecular strong-field ionization, during which an electron is removed from polyatomic molecules in the presence of strong laser fields. This is a process which is the basis of a number of experimental techniques to uncover electronic dynamics in atoms and molecules on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale. 'Strong' refers to an electric field strength which leads to a response from the system which can not be modeled perturbatively. These fields can be easily produced in the focus of femtosecond laser radiation, as is done in this work. With the use of velocity map imaging of the photoelectron in coincidence with the fragment ion, multiple ionization--dissociation pathways can be distinguished. It is shown that as opposed to early attempts to model the process, multiple low-lying states are populated in the ion, and also the signatures of multielectron dynamics are revealed. By changing the laser pulse duration from 30 fs to below 10 fs, control is demonstrated over which quantum states of the ion are populated. It is also shown that for pulses shorter than 10 fs (which is a timescale below the shortest vibrational period in molecules), ionization pathways that involve motion of the nuclei are almost completely shut off. Finally, the origin of electrons with <1 meV kinetic energy is discussed. A two-step model is proposed for creating the electrons: the first step is population transfer to high-lying excited states of the neutral molecule by the laser field; the second step is ionization. Different ionization mechanisms are examined and their viability is checked against available data.

  7. Ionized carbon in side-illuminated molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1990-01-01

    The C II fine-structure line has been observed in five sources for which the ionization front/molecular cloud interface is viewed approximately edge-on. The LSR velocity of the C II emission is generally in good agreement with that observed for molecular species such as CO. However, the observed linewidths of 3-14 km/s are typically wider than those of molecular lines and often show rapid spatial variations in the observed regions. The C II brightness temperature are typically equal to or slightly higher than the dust temperature at all locations observed. In the optically thin approximation, C II excitation temperatures are 100 K or more and column densities are 10 to the 18th/sq cm for all sources except M17, which has a more intense and complicated line profile with a larger spatial extent than any other source observed.

  8. The 30 Doradus Nebula: An Imaging Study of Molecular and Ionized Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry; Seaquist, E. R.; Matzner, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the very first, fully calibrated H2 1--0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were carried out using the NOAO Extremely Wide Field Infrared Imager on the CTIO 4-meter telescope. Together with a Brγ image of 30 Dor taken by NEWFIRM, our images reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. Based on the morphologies of H2 and Brγ, line ratio H2 to Brγ, and Cloudy models, we found that the H2 emission is formed inside the photodissociation regions of 30 Doradus, very close to the surface in association with the ionization front of the HII region. We also suggest that the bright H2-emitting area, which expands from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region viewed face-on, while many clumps and elephant trunk features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are also photodissociation regions viewed edge-on. The characteristic radiation to gas pressure ratio is evaluated at selected regions in 30 Doradus, and we conclude that radiation pressure is not the dominating force at the current phase of 30 Doradus, while the pressurization of stellar winds and the injection of photoevaporative flows are likely the major feedback mechanisms acting to reduce the observed ionization parameter in 30 Doradus.

  9. Revisiting molecular ionization: Does a molecule like to share?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Esry, B. D.

    2012-06-01

    The ever-increasing detail obtained in strong-field experiments calls for a deeper understanding of the laser-molecule interaction. For instance, recent measurements reported in PRL 107, 143004 (2011) reveal a limitation in understanding strong-field ionization dynamics in terms of the strong-field approximation. We have addressed the question of how the electron and the nuclei share the energy when H2^+ breaks up in the presence of an intense IR field via the process: H2^++nφ->p+p+e^-. Solving the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation and calculating the ionization probability resolved as a function of the asymptotic electron energy and the nuclear kinetic energy release (KER) allow us to give an answer. The energy sharing is non-trivial and plays an important role in the prediction of, for instance, the KER. We also address the limitations of current understanding of molecular ionization by comparing to models like the strong-field approximation and the Floquet picture. Such benchmarking may be facilitated by XUV+IR pump-probe schemes and carrier-envelope-phase control that allow for time-resolved and spatial probing of the dynamics.

  10. The ionization fraction gradient across the Horsehead edge: an archetype for molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Gerin, M.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Bourlot, J.

    2009-05-01

    Context: The ionization fraction (i.e., the electron abundance) plays a key role in the chemistry and dynamics of molecular clouds. Aims: We study the H13CO^+, DCO+ and HOC+ line emission towards the Horsehead, from the shielded core to the UV irradiated cloud edge, i.e., the photodissociation region (PDR), as a template to investigate the ionization fraction gradient in molecular clouds. Methods: We analyze an IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer map of the H13CO+ J=1-0 line at a 6.8''× 4.7'' resolution, complemented with IRAM-30 m H13CO+ and DCO+ higher-J line maps and new HOC+ and CO+ observations. We compare self-consistently the observed spatial distribution and line intensities with detailed depth-dependent predictions of a PDR model coupled with a nonlocal radiative transfer calculation. The chemical network includes deuterated species, 13C fractionation reactions and HCO^+/HOC+ isomerization reactions. The role of neutral and charged PAHs in the cloud chemistry and ionization balance is investigated. Results: The detection of the HOC+ reactive ion towards the Horsehead PDR proves the high ionization fraction of the outer UV irradiated regions, where we derive a low [ HCO^+] /[ HOC^+] ≃ 75-200 abundance ratio. In the absence of PAHs, we reproduce the observations with gas-phase metal abundances, [Fe+Mg+...], lower than 4 × 10 -9 (with respect to H), and a cosmic-ray ionization rate of ζ=(5± 3)× 10 -17 s-1. The inclusion of PAHs modifies the ionization fraction gradient and increases the required metal abundance. Conclusions: The ionization fraction in the Horsehead edge follows a steep gradient, with a scale length of ~0.05 pc (or ~25''), from [ e^-] ≃ 10-4 (or n_e~˜ 1-5 cm-3) in the PDR to a few times ~10-9 in the core. PAH- anions play a role in the charge balance of the cold and neutral gas if substantial amounts of free PAHs are present ([PAH] > 10-8). Based on observations obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and 30 m telescope

  11. Nonadiabatic molecular alignment of linear molecules probed by strong-field ionization yields of photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, G.; Kaya, N.; Strohaber, J.; Hart, N. A.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of rotational wave packets of laser-aligned linear molecules were studied with femtosecond laser-driven strong-field ionization (SFI). The dynamics were observed as a function of the delay between a femtosecond probe pulse and a linearly polarized aligning pump pulse. The induced nonadiabatic molecular alignment was directly monitored by the total SFI yield. The measured revival signatures were compared to the calculated degree of molecular alignment taking into account the effects of electronic structure and symmetry of the molecules. By fitting the calculated alignment parameter to the measured experimental data, we also determined the molecular rotational constants of N2, CO, O2, and C2H2 gas molecules.

  12. Combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry of sphingolipids. I. Glucosyl sphingosine, ceramides and cerebrosides of the spleen in Gaucher's disease.

    PubMed

    Oshima, M; Ariga, T; Murata, T

    1977-08-01

    Trimethylsilylated glucosyl sphingosine, ceramides and glucocerebrosides were analysed by combined gas chromatography (GC)-chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry. Isobutane, methane and ammonia were used as reactant gasses for chemical ionization. Essentially the same fragment ions were detected in the spectra with the different reactant gases. Purified glucocerebrosides isolated from the spleen of a patient with Gaucher's disease were clearly separated into their 8 molecular species by gas chromatography. Three other minor components were detected by spectrometry, and these 11 molecular species of glucocerbrosides from the spleen of the patient with Gaucher's disease have been analysed. The ceramides obtained by periodate oxidation and then alkaline reduction of the glucocerebrosides were also separated into 11 molecular species by GC-CI mass spectrometry. Molecular weight could be determined using the major fragment ion of m/e (M+-90) in the spectra of ceramides and cerebrosides. The chemical ionization method is useful for structural analysis and determination of the molecular species of sphingoglycolipids.

  13. Cluster chemical ionization for improved confidence level in sample identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    Upon the supersonic expansion of helium mixed with vapor from an organic solvent (e.g. methanol), various clusters of the solvent with the sample molecules can be formed. As a result of 70 eV electron ionization of these clusters, cluster chemical ionization (cluster CI) mass spectra are obtained. These spectra are characterized by the combination of EI mass spectra of vibrationally cold molecules in the supersonic molecular beam (cold EI) with CI-like appearance of abundant protonated molecules, together with satellite peaks corresponding to protonated or non-protonated clusters of sample compounds with 1-3 solvent molecules. Like CI, cluster CI preferably occurs for polar compounds with high proton affinity. However, in contrast to conventional CI, for non-polar compounds or those with reduced proton affinity the cluster CI mass spectrum converges to that of cold EI. The appearance of a protonated molecule and its solvent cluster peaks, plus the lack of protonation and cluster satellites for prominent EI fragments, enable the unambiguous identification of the molecular ion. In turn, the insertion of the proper molecular ion into the NIST library search of the cold EI mass spectra eliminates those candidates with incorrect molecular mass and thus significantly increases the confidence level in sample identification. Furthermore, molecular mass identification is of prime importance for the analysis of unknown compounds that are absent in the library. Examples are given with emphasis on the cluster CI analysis of carbamate pesticides, high explosives and unknown samples, to demonstrate the usefulness of Supersonic GC/MS (GC/MS with supersonic molecular beam) in the analysis of these thermally labile compounds. Cluster CI is shown to be a practical ionization method, due to its ease-of-use and fast instrumental conversion between EI and cluster CI, which involves the opening of only one valve located at the make-up gas path. The ease-of-use of cluster CI is analogous

  14. Plasma channel created by ionization of gas by a surface wave

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, V. N.; Kuz’min, G. P.; Minaev, I. M. Rukhadze, A. A.; Tikhonevich, O. V.

    2015-09-15

    Conditions for gas ionization in the field of a slow surface wave excited by a microwave source are considered. The gas ionization rate and the plasma density distribution over the radius of the discharge tube were studied by the optical method. The experiments were conducted in a dielectric tube with a radius much smaller than the tube length, the gas pressure being ∼1–3 Torr. It is shown that the stationary distribution of the plasma density is determined by diffusion processes.

  15. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Svetozar

    2006-10-01

    Successful application of gas discharges in aerodynamics requires their efficient generation, sustaining and control at supersonic or hypersonic flow conditions. Wall-free plasma formations that meet the requirements may then act as time-controlled and space-localized actuators to modify the flow. Potential candidates for this challenging task are plasmas contained in open or linear-cavity microwave field structures. We present and discuss direct observations of aerodynamic effects activated or modified by wall-free discharges. Further, we compare two generic types of wall-free discharges. First group, applicable for inlet-type structures, consists of a periodic series of microwave-induced plasmoids generated in a linear cavity, using the outgoing wave from a microwave antenna and the reflected wave from a nearby on-axis concave reflector. The plasmoids are spaced at half-wavelength separations according to the standing-wave pattern. The plasmoids are enhanced by an ``effective focusing'' in the near field of the antenna (Fresnel region) as a result of diffraction effects and mode structure. Second group, applicable to supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, are the surface microwave discharges enhanced by a structure of Hertz dipoles. Standard microwave discharge phenomenology, such as microwave breakdown, mode structure and plasma parameters, is revisited to present a quantitative interpretation of the observed effects. Special attention is given to complex phenomena specific to flow-plasma interaction (double electric layers, ionization waves, instabilities), which provide the physical basis for localized heating in the aerodynamic flow.

  16. Molecular gas in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming

    2001-10-01

    A systematic study of the molecular gas properties in strongly interacting galaxies (SIGs) has been undertaken, which includes two parts: (1)a statistical study of a large, optically-selected, complete sample of SIGs; (2)a case study of the nearest colliding pair NGC 4038/9 (``the Antennae'') with multi-transition data of both 12CO and 13CO. Consisting of 126 galaxies in 92 systems, our complete sample of SIGs includes all the SIGs in the northern sky with optical magnitude BT < 14.5. CO data have been collected for 95 SIGs (59 of which were observed by us) as well as for comparison samples of 59 weakly interacting and 69 isolated spiral galaxies. The statistical analysis of the samples shows that the SIGs, especially the colliding and merging systems, have a higher CO luminosity than isolated spiral galaxies. However, there is no significant difference in the atomic gas contents between the samples. This indicates that the excess CO emission is not due to the conversion of atomic gas to molecular gas, but may be more plausibly accounted for by a lower CO-to- H2 conversion factor X. For the Antennae galaxies, we have obtained high quality, fully sampled, single dish maps at 12CO J = 1-0 and 32 transitions with an angular resolution of 15' (1.5 kpc), together with 12CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1 and 3-2 data at selected regions with similar resolutions. Our Nobeyama 45m map recovers twice as much 12CO J = 1-0 flux as was reported by Wilson et al. (2000). The 12CO J = 1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 emission all peak in an off-nucleus region adjacent to where the two disks overlap. The 12CO/13 CO J = 2-1 and 3-2 integrated intensity ratios are remarkably high in the overlap region. Detailed LVG modeling indicates that the 12 CO and 13CO emission come from different spatial components. The 12CO emission originates from a nonvirialized low density gas component with a large velocity gradient. Such a large velocity gradient can produce ``over luminous'' CO emission, and the derived X

  17. Gas ionization induced by a high speed plasma injection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kuriki, K.; Yanagisawa, M.; Obayashi, T.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Gas ionization induced by a fast plasma injection has been observed with the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) Experiment on Spacelab-1. When an impulsive high-density plasma was injected from the orbiter, waves near the lower-hybrid frequency were enhanced, and the surrounding gas drifting with the orbiter was ionized for several tens of milliseconds after the plasma injection. The long-duration gas ionization was observed only when the plasma flux incoming to the orbiter cargo bay and the orbital velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field were relatively large. This effect has been explained by the concept of critical velocity ionization (CVI) for the gas drifting with the orbiter, although the gas velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field was less than the Alfven critical velocity.

  18. Electron impact ionization of the gas-phase sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Irina; Markush, Pavlo; Zavilopulo, Anatoly; Shpenik, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociative ionization of the sorbitol molecule by electron impact have been studied using two different experimental methods. In the mass range of m/ z = 10-190, the mass spectra of sorbitol were recorded at the ionizing electron energies of 70 and 30 eV. The ion yield curves for the fragment ions have been analyzed and the appearance energies of these ions have been determined. The relative total ionization cross section of the sorbitol molecule was measured using monoenergetic electron beam. Possible fragmentation pathways for the sorbitol molecule were proposed.

  19. Alfvén ionization in an MHD-gas interactions code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. D.; Diver, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical model of partially ionized plasmas is developed in order to capture their evolving ionization fractions as a result of Alfvén ionization (AI). The mechanism of, and the parameter regime necessary for, AI is discussed and an expression for the AI rate based on fluid parameters, from a gas-MHD model, is derived. This AI term is added to an existing MHD-gas interactions' code, and the result is a linear, 2D, two-fluid model that includes momentum transfer between charged and neutral species as well as an ionization rate that depends on the velocity fields of both fluids. The dynamics of waves propagating through such a partially ionized plasma are investigated, and it is found that AI has a significant influence on the fluid dynamics as well as both the local and global ionization fraction.

  20. The Molecular Gas Outflow of NGC 1068 Imaged by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have used the ALMA array to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) in the central r˜2 kpc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ˜0.3″-0.5″ (˜20-35 pc). The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give a detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas. The gas kinematics from r˜50 pc out to r˜400 pc reveal a massive outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, M/dt˜63+21-37 M⊙ yr-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii. The molecular outflow could quench star formation in the inner r˜400 pc of the galaxy on short timescales of ≤1 Myr and regulate gas accretion in the CND.

  1. Ionization processes in combined high-voltage nanosecond - laser discharges in inert gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Shneider, Mikhail; PU Team

    2016-09-01

    Remote control of plasmas induced by laser radiation in the atmosphere is one of the challenging issues of free space communication, long-distance energy transmission, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and standoff detection of trace gases and bio-threat species. Sequences of laser pulses, as demonstrated by an extensive earlier work, offer an advantageous tool providing access to the control of air-plasma dynamics and optical interactions. The avalanche ionization induced in a pre-ionized region by infrared laser pulses where investigated. Pre-ionization was created by an ionization wave, initiated by high-voltage nanosecond pulse. Then, behind the front of ionization wave extra avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused infrared laser pulse. The experiment was carried out in argon. It is shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation under low pressure conditions.

  2. Evaluation of Gas-filled Ionization Chamber Method for Radon Measurement at Two Reference Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2008-08-07

    For quality assurance, gas-filled ionization chamber method was tested at two reference facilities for radon calibration: EML (USA) and PTB (Germany). Consequently, the radon concentrations estimated by the ionization chamber method were in good agreement with the reference radon concentrations provided by EML as well as PTB.

  3. A Three Dimensional Beam Profile Monitor Based on Residual Gas Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.A.; Shapira, D.

    1998-11-04

    A three-dimensional beam profile monitor based on tracking the ionization of the residual gas molecules in the evacuated beam pipe is described. Tracking in position and time of the ions and electrons produced in the ionization enables simultaneous position sampling in three dimensions. Special features which make it possible to sample very low beam currents were employed.

  4. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.; McGrail, B. Peter; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2009-07-06

    We show that molecular organic compounds with large accessible internal cavities, as part of their rigid molecular structure, display exceptional ability for gas storage and separation in the amorphous solid state. This finding suggests for the first time that long-range molecular order is not a prerequisite for organic molecules to be engineered as porous materials

  5. Influence of ionization on ultrafast gas-based nonlinear fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Chang, W; Nazarkin, A; Travers, J C; Nold, J; Hölzer, P; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J

    2011-10-10

    We numerically investigate the effect of ionization on ultrashort high-energy pulses propagating in gas-filled kagomé-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers by solving an established uni-directional field equation. We consider the dynamics of two distinct regimes: ionization induced blue-shift and resonant dispersive wave emission in the deep-UV. We illustrate how the system evolves between these regimes and the changing influence of ionization. Finally, we consider the effect of higher ionization stages.

  6. Structured Molecular Gas Reveals Galactic Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Koda, Jin

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 13CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  7. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Koda, Jin

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  8. Observations of extended and counterrotating disks of ionized gas in S0 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Jullien-Dettmar, Marlies; Barteldrees, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    While many E/S0 galaxies have been found to show emission line spectra in their nuclear regions, the question of the presence and nature of extended disks of ionized gas in these galaxies has been addressed only in recent years. Typically the ionized gas is detected in the inner region on a scale of approx. 1 kpc (e.g., Phillips et al. 1986, Caldwell 1984). Here researchers present evidence that the disks of ionized gas of at least some S0 galaxies are much more extended than previously believed. In addition, with the detection of the counterrotation of gas and stars in NGC 7007 they strengthen the basis for arguments that the source of gas in S0 galaxies is external

  9. Cosmic ray studies with a gas Cherenkov counter in association with an ionization spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Arens, J. F.; Siohan, F.; Yodh, G. B.; Simon, M.; Spiegelhauer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a balloon-borne gas Cherenkov counter (threshold 16.5 GeV/nucleon) and an ionization spectrometer are presented. The gas Cherenkov counter provides an absolute energy distribution for the response of the calorimeter for 5 or = Z 26 nuclei of cosmic rays. The contribution of scintillation to the gas Cherenkov pulse height was obtained by independently selecting particles below the gas Cherenkov threshold using the ionization spectrometer. Energy spectra were derived by minimizing the chi squared between Monte Carlo simulted data and flight data. Best fit power laws, dN/dE = AE-gamma, were determined for C, N, O, Ne, Mg, and Si. The power laws, all consistent with E (-2.7) are not good fits to the data. A better fit is obtained using the spectrum derived from the spectrometer. The data from the ionization calorimeter and the gas Cherenkov are thus completely self-consistent.

  10. The ionization conditions in the Milky Way halo - Infalling gas toward the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Observations of gas in the Milky Way halo are studied with an eye toward the theoretical predictions of the Galactic Fountain model for the production of halo gas. Data are shown that indicate significant variations in the ionization conditions in infalling halo gas in the northern galactic hemisphere. Understanding the nature of Milky Way halo gas plays a critical role in interpreting QSO absorption lines in the investigation of galaxies at high redshift.

  11. Ionization heating in rare-gas clusters under intense XUV laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeiter, Mathias; Fennel, Thomas

    2010-07-15

    The interaction of intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses ({lambda}=32 nm, I=10{sup 11}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) with small rare-gas clusters (Ar{sub 147}) is studied by quasiclassical molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis supports a very general picture of the charging and heating dynamics in finite samples under short-wavelength radiation that is of relevance for several applications of free-electron lasers. First, up to a certain photon flux, ionization proceeds as a series of direct photoemission events producing a jellium-like cluster potential and a characteristic plateau in the photoelectron spectrum as observed in Bostedt et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133401 (2008)]. Second, beyond the onset of photoelectron trapping, nanoplasma formation leads to evaporative electron emission with a characteristic thermal tail in the electron spectrum. A detailed analysis of this transition is presented. Third, in contrast to the behavior in the infrared or low vacuum ultraviolet range, the nanoplasma energy capture proceeds via ionization heating, i.e., inner photoionization of localized electrons, whereas collisional heating of conduction electrons is negligible up to high laser intensities. A direct consequence of the latter is a surprising evolution of the mean energy of emitted electrons as function of laser intensity.

  12. Measurements of ultrafast laser-driven ionization and extreme gas nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedpour, Sina; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wahlstrand, Jared; Milchberg, Howard

    2013-10-01

    A 2D spectral interferometry method for measuring high laser field phenomena such as laser-driven ionization and high field nonlinearity is introduced. The method is based on Single-shot Supercontinuum Spectral Interferometry, in which a chirped supercontinuum is used to probe the time-dependent refractive index induced by a pump pulse. A thin gas target ensures uniform intensity and minimizes refraction of the probe beam due to refractive index gradients. An imaging spectrometer allows measurement of the spatial dependence of the response along one direction. To measure in 2D, a motorized mirror scans the probe beam across the spectrometer slit. The technique has 3 micron spatial and 5 fs temporal resolution. The effective interaction length is measured interferometrically, allowing absolute calibration of the refractive index change. We present measurements of the absolute ionization rates of noble and molecular gases and their high field nonlinear response. Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, and the Dept. of Energy.

  13. Femtosecond interferometry of propagation of a laminar ionization front in a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gizzi, L. A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Labate, L.; Tomassini, P.; Galimberti, M.; Koester, P.; Martin, Ph.; Ceccotti, T.; De Oliveira, P.; Monot, P.

    2006-09-15

    We use optical interferometry to investigate ultrafast ionization induced by an intense, ultrashort laser pulse propagating in a helium gas. Besides standard phase shift information, our interferograms show a localized region of fringe visibility depletion (FVD) that moves along the laser propagation axis at luminal velocity. We find that such a loss of visibility can be quantitatively explained by the ultrafast change of refractive index due to the field ionization of the gas in the laser pulse width. We demonstrate that by combining the post facto phase shift distribution with the probe pulse transit effect in the ionizing region, the analysis of the observed FVD yields significant information on the ultrafast dynamics of propagation of the ionization front in the gas.

  14. Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.

  15. [Determination of acetanilide herbicide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques].

    PubMed

    Shen, Weijian; Xu, Jinzhong; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Ding, Tao; Wu, Bin

    2007-09-01

    An analytical method of solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques was established for simultaneous determination of 12 acetanilide herbicide residues in tea-leaves. Herbicides were extracted from tea-leaf samples with ethyl acetate. The extract was cleaned-up on an active carbon SPE column connected to a Florisil SPE column. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with either electron impact ionization (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI). It is reliable and stable that the recoveries of all herbicides were in the range from 50% to 110% at three spiked levels, 10 microg/kg, 20 microg/kg and 40 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 10.9%. The two different ionization techniques are complementary as more ion fragmentation information can be obtained from the EI mode while more molecular ion information from the NCI mode. By comparison of the two techniques, the selectivity of NCI-SIM was much better than that of EI-SIM method. The sensitivities of the both techniques were high, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) for each herbicide was no more than 2.0 microg/kg, and the limit of detection (LOD) with NCI-SIM technique was much lower than that of EI-SIM when analyzing herbicides with several halogen atoms in the molecule.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymers as analyte sequesters and selective surfaces for easy ambient sonic-spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Sanvido, Gustavo Braga; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2010-04-01

    The use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a selective surface for ambient mass spectrometry is demonstrated. The MIP is used to sequester target analytes from urine and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to be able to efficiently desorb the analytes from the MIP surface and then transfer them in protonated forms to the gas phase for MS analysis. A set of five phenothiazines (chlorpromazine, perphenazine, triflupromazine, thioridazine and prochlorperazine) were chosen from a proof-of-principle class of drug samples. A chlorpromazine-imprinted methacrylic polymer was synthesized and used to prepare a MIP probe. The MIP-EASI-MS technique using acidified methanol as solvent has been shown to allow quantification of all five drugs in urine with LOQ of ca. 1 micromol L(-1).

  17. The kinematics of Milky Way halo gas. I - Observations of low-ionization species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet interstellar line day observed with the IUE toward 70 halo stars and four extragalactic sight lines are analyzed in a study of the large-scale kinematic properties of the Milky Way halo gas. The motions of the low-ionization gas is focused on. Large systematic velocities are found, and a pronounced asymmetry in the absorption characteristics of halo gas toward the Galactic poles is indicated. In the north, substantial amounts of material are falling toward the disk at velocities up to about 120 km/s in the most extreme case. Toward the south, low-ionization material shows no extreme or systematic motions.

  18. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rondo, L; Ehrhart, S; Kürten, A; Adamov, A; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Keskinen, H; Kim, J; Jokinen, T; Lehtipalo, K; Leiminger, M; Praplan, A; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Smith, J N; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Vaattovaara, P; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2016-03-27

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  19. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  20. Microplume model of spatial-yield spectra. [applying to electron gas degradation in molecular nitrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Singhal, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    An analytic representation for the spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra is developed in terms of a model containing three simple 'microplumes'. The model is applied to electron energy degradation in molecular nitrogen gas for 0.1 to 5 keV incident electrons. From the nature of the cross section input to this model it is expected that the scaled spatial yield spectra for other gases will be quite similar. The model indicates that each excitation, ionization, etc. plume should have its individual spatial and energy dependence. Extensions and aeronomical and radiological applications of the model are discussed.

  1. Investigating the Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Magellanic Stream with Mapped WHAM Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Hernandez, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We present early stages of an Hα survey of the Magellanic Stream using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM). While the neutral component of the Stream may extend 200° across the sky (Nidever et al. 2010), its ionized gas has not yet been studied in detail. Fox et al. 2014 find that the tidal debris in the Magellanic System contains twice as much ionized gas as neutral and may extend 30° away from the H I emission. However, such absorption-line studies are not sensitive to the overall morphology of the ionized gas. Using targeted Hα emission observations of the Magellanic Stream, Barger et al. 2015 find that although the warm ionized gas tracks the neutral gas, it often spans a few degrees away from the H I emission at slightly offset velocities. Using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to diffuse emission (~ 10s of mR) and its velocity resolution (12 km/s) to isolate Stream emission, we are now conducting the first full Hα survey of its ionized component. Here we present early results, including spatial and kinematic comparisons to the well-established neutral profile of the Stream. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  2. Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.

  3. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Glassgold, A. E.; Najita, J. R.

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Capabilities of MHD Technology to Control Gas Flow with Non-Equilibrium Ionization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    experimental research of capabilities of using of MHD technology to control gas flow with non-equilibrium ionization. Cold gas flows will be considered, where...and MHD generator will be developed. Requirements to ionizer, MHD generator and flow parameters at which self- sustained operational mode of ionizer and...MHD generator is realized will be formulated. Possibilities of using of MHD control in gas-dynamical systems will be considered. Traditional use of

  5. Gas-phase chemiluminescence and chemi-ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijn, A.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of chemiluminescence (or more broadly chemi-excitation) and chemi-ionization have major similarities from a fundamental kinetic and dynamic point of view. However, since the former has primarily been investigated using optical spectroscopic techniques and the latter largely by mass spectroscopic (and other gaseous electronic) methods, the two phenomena have apparently never, explicitly been discussed together in one volume. In addition to a number of review articles on each individual subject, several meetings and books have had chemiluminescence and bioluminescence as their theme and those have been dominated by condensed phase work. On the other hand, chemi-ionization is often discussed in the contest of gaseous electronics, plasma chemistry and combustion. It is the goal of this book to present a more unified understanding of the two phenomena.

  6. The Contribution of Field OB Stars to the Ionization of the Diffuse Ionized Gas in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, René A. M.

    2000-10-01

    We present a study of the ionizing stars associated with the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) and H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We compare our Schmidt Hα image to the far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1520 Å) image from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). The Hα/FUV ratio is higher in H II regions than in the DIG, suggesting an older population of ionizing stars in the DIG. Assuming ionization equilibrium, we convert the Hα flux to the number of Lyman continuum photons NLyc. When compared to models of evolving stellar populations, the NLyc/FUV ratio in H II regions is consistent with a young burst, while the DIG ratio resembles an older burst population, or a steady state population built up by constant star formation, which is probably a more accurate description of the stellar population in the field. The UIT data is complemented with archival FUV and optical images of a small portion of the disk of M33 obtained with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These images overlap low- and mid-luminosity H II regions as well as DIG, so we can investigate the stellar population in these environments. Using the HST FUV and optical photometry, we assign spectral types to the stars observed in DIG and H II regions. The photometry indicates that ionizing stars are present in the DIG. We compare the predicted ionizing flux with the amount required to produce the observed Hα emission, and we find that field OB stars in the HST images can account for 40%+/-12% of the ionization of the DIG, while the stars in H II regions can provide 107%+/-26% of the Hα luminosity of the H II regions. Due to the limited coverage of the HST data, we cannot determine if stars outside the HST fields ionize some of the DIG located in the HST fields, nor can we determine if photons from stars inside the HST fields leak out of the area covered by the HST fields. We do not find any correlation between leakage of ionizing photons and Hα luminosity for the H II regions in our HST

  7. The Massive Stellar Population in the Diffuse Ionized Gas of M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

    1995-01-01

    We compare Far-UV, H alpha, and optical broadband images of the nearby spiral galaxy M33, to investigate the massive stars associated with the diffuse ionized gas. The H-alpha/FUV ratio is higher in HII regions than in the DIG, possibly indicating that an older population ionizes the DIG. The broad-band colors support this conclusion. The HII region population is consistent with a young burst, while the DIG colors resemble an older population with constant star formation. Our results indicate that there may be enough massive field stars to ionize the DIG, without the need for photon leakage from HII regions.

  8. Miniature triaxial metastable ionization detector for gas chromatographic trace analysis of extraterrestrial volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a miniature metastable ionization detector featuring an unconventional electrode configuration, whose performance characteristics parallel those of traditional design. The ionization detector is to be incorporated in a flight gas chromatograph (GC) for use in the Space Shuttle. The design of the detector is discussed, taking into account studies which verified the sensitivity of the detector. The triaxial design of the detector is compared with a flat-plate style. The obtained results show that the principal goal of developing a miniature, highly sensitive ionization detector for flight applications was achieved. Improved fabrication techniques will utilize glass-to-metal seals and brazing procedures.

  9. Molecular above-threshold-ionization angular distributions with attosecond bichromatic intense XUV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2012-01-01

    Angular distributions of molecular above-threshold ionization (MATI) in bichromatic attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) linear polarization laser pulses have been theoretically investigated. Multiphoton ionization in a prealigned molecular ion H2+ produces clear MATI spectra which show a forward-backward asymmetry in angular and momentum distributions which is critically sensitive to the carrier envelope phase (CEP) φ, the time delay Δτ between the two laser pulses, and the photoelectron kinetic energies Ee. The features of the asymmetry in MATI angular distributions are described well by multiphoton perturbative ionization models. Phase differences of continuum electron wave functions can be extracted from the CEP φ and time delay Δτ dependent ionization asymmetry ratio created by interfering multiphoton ionization pathways. At large internuclear distances MATI angular distributions exhibit more complex features due to laser-induced electron diffraction where continuum electron wavelengths are less than the internuclear distance.

  10. The Townsend coefficient of ionization in atmospheric pressure rare gas plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvereva, G.

    2015-12-01

    In the work the influence of the processes characteristic for atmospheric pressure heavy inert gases discharge plasma on the value of the first Townsend ionization coefficient were investigated. Krypton plasma was considered. Calculations have shown that the greatest impact on the value of the first Townsend ionization coefficient has dissociative recombination of molecular ions, followed by descending influence processes occur: stepwise ionization, the electron-electron collisions and superelastic ones. The effect of these processes begins to appear at concentrations of electrons and excited particles higher than 1012 cm-3. At times shorter than the time of molecular ions formation, when dissociative recombination is absent, should expect a significant increase of the ionization coefficient.

  11. Probing ionization conditions of Galactic halo gas using H-alpha observations of the Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kat; Madsen, Gregory J.; Fox, Andrew; Wakker, Bart P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Nidever, David L.; Lehner, Nicolas; Haffner, L. Matthew; Hill, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy interactions have greatly disturbed and redistributed the gas in the Magellanic System throughout the halos of the Milky Way. Using the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM) telescope, we have completed the highest sensitivity and kinematically resolved emission-line survey of the entire Magellanic Stream. These observations enable us to determine how the ionization conditions change over 100-degrees across the sky, including the region below the South Galactic Pole. We explore the sources of that ionization and find that photoionization from the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds is insufficient to explain the observed H-alpha emission. We further investigate whether energetic processes associated with the Milky Way's center or interactions with the halo could provide the remaining ionization. The gas in the Magellanic Steam could supply enough gas to maintain or even boost the star formation in the Milky Way, but only if it can survive the journey to the Galaxy's disk.

  12. Molecular Gas in Young Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, Attila; Kóspál, Ágnes; Ábrahám, Péter; Juhász, Attila; Apai, Dániel; Csengeri, Timea; Grady, Carol; Henning, Thomas; Kiss, Csaba; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2013-07-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. So far only a very few debris disks with measurable gas component have been known. We carried out a survey with the APEX radio telescope to detect molecular gas at millimeter wavelengths in 28 infrared-luminous young debris disks, and discovered two new systems with substantial amount of CO. Motivated to understand the origin, physics, and evolutionary status of the gas in these systems we observed one of them, HD 21997, with ALMA and Herschel. Our results suggest that HD 21997 may be a hybrid system where secondary debris dust and residual primordial gas coexist. This poses a serious question to the current paradigm, since the age of the system (30 Myr) significantly exceeds model predictions for disk clearing and the ages of the oldest transitional disks.

  13. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    PubMed

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  14. Dust and Molecular Gas in the Winds of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Alexander N.

    Galactic winds provide a fundamental mechanism for galaxy evolution. The outflow of material in winds remains the most likely culprit responsible for a host of galaxy observations, plus mounting evidence for galactic winds at times in the past points to their importance in understanding the history of the universe. Therefore, detailed observations of galactic winds are critical to fleshing out the narrative of galaxy evolution. In particular, the dust and molecular gas of a galaxy's interstellar medium (ISM) play crucial roles in the absorption, scattering, and reemission of starlight, the heating of the ISM, and provide critical materials for star formation. We present results from archival Spitzer Space Telescope ata and exceptionally deep Herschel Space Observatory data of the dust and molecular gas found in and around 20 nearby galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. Selecting nearby galaxies has allowed us the resolution and sensitivity to differentiate dust and molecular gas outside the galaxies and observe their typically faint emission. These are the most detailed surveys currently available of the faint dust and molecular gas components in galactic winds, and we have utilized them to address the following questions: i) What are the location and morphology of dust and molecular gas, and how do these components compare with better known neutral and ionized gas features? ii) How much do dust and molecular gas contribute to the mass and energy of galactic winds? iii) Do the properties of the dust and molecular gas correlate with the properties of the wind-hosting galaxy? Spitzer archival data has revealed kiloparsec-scale polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) structures in the extraplanar regions of nearly all the wind-hosting galaxies we investigated. We found a nearly linear correlation between the extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation. Our results also suggest a correlation between the height of extraplanar

  15. An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt.

  16. The highly ionized, high-velocity gas in NGC 6231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Derck

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that clusters of massive stars are influenced by the presence of strong winds, that they are sources of diffuse X-rays from shocked gas, and that this gas can be vented into the surrounding region or the halo through the champagne effect. However, the details of how these different environments interact and evolve are far from complete. This paper attributes the broad C IVλλ1500 absorption features (extending to -1900 km s-1) that are seen in the spectra of main sequence B stars in NGC 6231 to gas in the cluster environment and not the B stars themselves. It is shown that the presence of a WC star, WR 79, in the cluster makes this gas detectable because its wind enriches the cluster gas with carbon. Given the available data, it is not clear whether the absorbing gas is simply the far wind of WR 79 or a collective cluster wind enriched by carbon from the wind of WR 79. If it is simply due to the wind, then this wind must flow, unimpeded for more than 2 pc, suggesting that the inner region of the cluster is nearly devoid of obstructing material. If it is actually a collective wind from the cluster, then we could be witnessing an important stage of galactic feedback. In either case, the observations provide a unique and significant piece to the puzzle of how massive, open clusters evolve.

  17. Formation and Fragmentation of Protonated Molecules after Ionization of Amino Acid and Lactic Acid Clusters by Collision with Ions in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Poully, Jean-Christophe; Vizcaino, Violaine; Schwob, Lucas; Delaunay, Rudy; Kocisek, Jaroslav; Eden, Samuel; Chesnel, Jean-Yves; Méry, Alain; Rangama, Jimmy; Adoui, Lamri; Huber, Bernd

    2015-08-03

    Collisions between O(3+) ions and neutral clusters of amino acids (alanine, valine and glycine) as well as lactic acid are performed in the gas phase, in order to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on these biologically relevant molecular systems. All monomers and dimers are found to be predominantly protonated, and ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on model systems indicate that for amino acids, this is due to proton transfer within the clusters after ionization. For lactic acid, which has a lower proton affinity than amino acids, a significant non-negligible amount of the radical cation monomer is observed. New fragment-ion channels observed from clusters, as opposed to isolated molecules, are assigned to the statistical dissociation of protonated molecules formed upon ionization of the clusters. These new dissociation channels exhibit strong delayed fragmentation on the microsecond time scale, especially after multiple ionization.

  18. Cosmic ray studies with a gas Cerenkov counter in association with an ionization spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Arens, J. F.; Siohan, F.; Simon, M.; Spiegelhauer, H.; Yodh, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a balloon-borne gas Cerenkov counter (threshold 16.5 GeV/nuc) and an ionization spectrometer are presented. The gas Cerenkov counter provides an absolute energy calibration for the response of the calorimeter for the Z range of 5-26 nuclei of cosmic rays. The contribution of scintillation to the gas Cerenkov pulse height has been obtained by independently selecting particles below the gas Cerenkov threshold using the ionization spectrometer. Energy spectra were derived by minimizing the chi-squared between a Monte Carlo simulated data and flight data. Best fit power laws were determined for C, N, O, Ne, Mg, and Si. The power laws, all consistent with E exp-2.7, are not good fits to the data. A better fit is obtained using the spectrum derived from the spectrometer.

  19. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  20. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1065.267 Section 1065.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1065.267 Section 1065.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1065.267 Section 1065.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon...

  3. Kinematics of the ionized gas in the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez-Gutiérrez, M.; Rosado, M.; Georgiev, L.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Hα and [S Ii] observations for the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 using the PUMA scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. Our goal is to analyze the kinematics of the ionized gas in the complex sample of superbubbles located in the whole extension of our field (10\\arcmin ), which includes most of the optical emission of this galaxy, and to study the inter-relationship between young stellar associations and nebulae based on a previous study that we have made on the stellar associations of the central region of this galaxy. The ionized gas in this galaxy is distributed in classical H Ii regions and in a series of superbubbles (also called giant shells) covering a large fraction of the optical extent of the galaxy. We present a catalog of kinematical properties of both the H Ii regions of this galaxy and the superbubbles. We have also compared the kinematics of the ionized gas in H Ii regions to search for possible dynamic differences between neutral and ionized gas.

  4. Limitations of a residual gas ionization beam profile monitor for the SSC Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, R.; Nexsen, W.; Tsyganov, E.; Zinchenko, A.

    1992-11-01

    A residual gas ionization beam profile monitor for the superconducting Super Collider is considered in detail using the Monte Carlo simulation code. It is shown that a good spatial resolution could be obtained using a combination of strong electrical and magnetic fields.

  5. Automated quantum chemistry based molecular dynamics simulations of electron ionization induced fragmentations of the nucleobases Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Stefan; Bauer, Christopher Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase decomposition pathways of electron ionization (EI)-induced radical cations of the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine, and guanine are investigated by means of mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics. No preconceived fragmentation channels are used in the calculations. The results compare well to a plethora of experimental and theoretical data for these important biomolecules. With our combined stochastic and dynamic approach, one can access in an unbiased way the energetically available decomposition mechanisms. Additionally, we are able to separate the EI mass spectra of different tautomers of cytosine and guanine. Our method (previously termed quantum chemistry electron ionization mass spectra) reproduces free nucleobase experimental mass spectra well and provides detailed mechanistic in-sight into high-energy unimolecular decomposition processes.

  6. Ionization of H_2 by X-Rays in the Central Molecular Zone of the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notani, Masahiro; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies of the Galactic center using the infrared spectrum of H_3^+ have revealed a high ionization rate of H_2 on the order of ζ ˜ 3×10^{-15} s^{-1} in wide regions of the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), a region with a radius of ˜ 150 pc at the Galactic center. So far we have ascribed this ionization rate, which is an order of magnitude higher than in the Galactic disk, to cosmic rays because of a high density of supernova remnants in the CMZ. In view of the abundant intense X-ray sources from 1 keV to several 10 keV in the region, however, there may be a significant ionization by X-rays also. We estimate the ionization rate due to X-rays based on the large scale ART-P X-ray map of the Galactic center region. The calculations proceed in two steps. First we allow for the attenuation of the observed X-rays by the foreground gas to obtain the original intensities of the X-ray sources. We then use the corrected X-ray flux to calculate ionization rates of H_2 in the CMZ. The calculation is also related to the heating of the gas by X-rays. Discussion of the details of calculations and the results will be presented. Oka, T., Geballe, T. R., Goto, M., Usuda, T., and McCall, B. J. 2005, ApJ, 632 882 Geballe, T. R., and Oka, T. 2010, ApJ, 709 L70. Pavlinskii, M. N., Grebenev, S. A., and Syunyaev, R. A. 1992, Sov. Astron. Lett., 18 116. Morrison, R. and McCammon, D. 1983, ApJ, 270 119.

  7. Properties of the highly ionized disk and halo gas toward two distant high-latitude stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) intermediate -resolution observations of S III, Si III, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption along the sight lines to HD 18100 (l = 217.9 deg, b = -62.7, d = 3.1 kpc, z = -2.8 kpc) and HD 100340 (l = 258.9 deg, b = +61.2 deg, d = 5.3 kpc, z = 4.6 kpc) are presented. These small science aperture spectra have resolutions ranging from 11 to 20 km/s full width at half maximum (FWHM) and S/N from 30 to 65 per diode substep. Strong absorption by moderately and highly ionized gas is seen in each direction. The absorption in the direction of the south Galactic polar region (HD 18100) is kinematically simple, while the absorption in the direction of north Galactic polar region (HD 100304) is kinematically complex. In each case the absorption by the highly ionized gas lies within the velocity range of absorption by neutral and weakly ionized gas. Along each sight line, the velocity dispersion determined from the unsaturated absorption lines increases with the energy required to create each ion. The logarithmic column densities for Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V are log N(atoms/sq cm = 12.71, 13.10, 13.58, and 12.75 toward HD 18100 and log N = 12.88, 13.31, 13.83, and 13.04 toward HD 100340. Average ionic ratios among these species are very similar along the two sight lines. Differences in profile shape between the absorption for AL II, Si IV, C IV, and N V provide additional support for the claim of Savage, Sembach, & Cardelli (1994) that there exists two types of highly ionized gas in the interstellar medium. One type of highly ionized gas is responsible for the structured Si IV absorption and part of the C IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(Si IV) approximately 3.0 and N(C IV)/N(N V) greater than 6. The absorption by this gas seems to be associated with some type of self-regulating interface or mixing layer between the warm and hot interstellar medium. The other type of highly ionized gas is responsible for most of the N V

  8. Strong Field Molecular Ionization in the Impulsive Limit: Freezing Vibrations with Short Pulses.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Péter; Tagliamonti, Vincent; Zhao, Arthur; Rozgonyi, Tamás; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Marquetand, Philipp; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-02-12

    We study strong-field molecular ionization as a function of pulse duration. Experimental measurements of the photoelectron yield for a number of molecules reveal competition between different ionization continua (cationic states) which depends strongly on pulse duration. Surprisingly, in the limit of short pulse duration, we find that a single ionic continuum dominates the yield, whereas multiple continua are produced for longer pulses. Using calculations which take vibrational dynamics into account, we interpret our results in terms of nuclear motion and nonadiabatic dynamics during the ionization process.

  9. The cage fragmentation of doubly ionized norbornane: A Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippenberg, S.; Hajgató, B.

    2013-10-01

    Results are reported of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics calculations performed on the singlet dication of norbornane, starting from the neutral ground state geometry. Intramolecular rearrangements and charge dissociation processes, which probably take place in the innermost valence ionization spectrum, are discussed and an analysis by means of natural bond orders and Wiberg bond indices has been performed. The outcome of these simulations and the observed cage fragmentation might explain a tremendous rise of electron-impact (e, 2e) ionization cross sections of norbornane at electron binding energies around the double-ionization threshold.

  10. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  11. Miniaturized ionization gas sensors from single metal oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Juan Daniel; Hackner, Angelika; Fischer, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard; Mathur, Sanjay; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2011-02-01

    Gas detection experiments were performed with individual tin dioxide (SnO2) nanowires specifically configured to observe surface ion (SI) emission response towards representative analyte species. These devices were found to work at much lower temperatures (T≈280 °C) and bias voltages (V≈2 V) than their micro-counterparts, thereby demonstrating the inherent potential of individual nanostructures in building functional nanodevices. High selectivity of our miniaturized sensors emerges from the dissimilar sensing mechanisms of those typical of standard resistive-type sensors (RES). Therefore, by employing this detection principle (SI) together with RES measurements, better selectivity than that observed in standard metal oxide sensors could be demonstrated. Simplicity and specificity of the gas detection as well as low-power consumption make these single nanowire devices promising technological alternatives to overcome the major drawbacks of solid-state sensor technologies.

  12. Positron Impact Ionization in Noble Gas Atoms and Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marler, J. P.

    2005-05-01

    Results are presented for absolute positronium formation and direct ionization by positron impact on Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, CO and O2 at energies from threshold up to 90 eV. The experiments use a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam and exploit the properties of positron orbits in a magnetic field [1]. Results for the noble gases are compared with theoretical predictions and with measurements obtained using a significantly different method [2]. Results for diatomic molecules are compared to other available measurements and theoretical calculations where available. There is generally good agreement between the experimental measurements, providing an important benchmark for theoretical calculations. Intriguing features in Ar and O2 will be discussed. [1] J.P. Sullivan, S.J. Gilbert, J.P. Marler, R.G. Greaves, S.J. Buckman and C.M. Surko., Phys. Rev. A. 66, 042708 (2002) [2] J.P. Marler, J.P. Sullivan and C.M. Surko, Phys. Rev. A (2005), in press.

  13. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI‐APi‐TOF (Chemical Ionization‐Atmospheric Pressure interface‐Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI‐APi‐TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4‐H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self‐contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit. PMID:27610289

  14. Kinematics and ionization of extended gas in active galaxies. III. The extranuclear properties of NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.A.; Wilson, A.S.; Whittle, M.

    1987-08-01

    The kinematic and ionization structure of the extranuclear gas of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been investigated using a grid of 28 high- and seven low-dispersion long-slit spectra. The velocity field of most of the gas more than 15 arcsec from the nucleus is well described by a rotating disk with an approximately flat rotation curve. The kinematic line of nodes coincides with the major axis of the outermost continuum light, and the disk inclination derived from the axial ratio of the outer isophotes and the kinematic fit are broadly consistent. The progressive change of the position angle of the major axes of the brighter isophotes are evidently due to a superposition of oval or barlike distortions in the galactic plane. The observed ionization structure of the gas can be understood as a mixture of two disk components projected on top of each other. Much of the ionization pattern in the other disk may result from partial beaming of the ionizing continuum radiation as it escapes from the nucleus. 60 references.

  15. Stellar and ionized gas kinematics of the interacting Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Arribas, S.; Mediavilla, E.

    2001-11-01

    Integral field spectroscopy in the central 16''x 12'' (2.4 kpc x 1.8 kpc, if H0 = 75 km s-1 Mpc-1) of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992 has been obtained using the fibre system INTEGRAL. The data are mainly used to study the stellar and ionized gas kinematics. In spite of the photometric disruptions in the outer parts (r > 6 kpc) produced by the interaction with its close companion (NGC 2993), the present stellar velocity field shows regular rotation. The ionized gas presents several kinematically distinct components. Apart from the outflowing component already reported by other authors, we found an additional (high ionization) kinematic component which seems to be associated with the boundaries of the figure-of-eight-shaped emission detected in the 6 cm radio map. We locate the hidden nucleus in the apex of the biconical structure defined by the [O iii] emission, coincident with the outflow origin and with the center of the dust lane. We do not find any clear evidence of direct influence of the interaction in the kinematics of the stars or the ionized gas in the circumnuclear region of NGC 2992.

  16. Molecular gas in the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieten, Ch.; Neininger, N.; Guélin, M.; Ungerechts, H.; Lucas, R.; Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Beck, R.; Wielebinski, R.

    2006-07-01

    Aims.We study the distribution of the molecular gas in the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) and compare this with the distributions of the atomic gas and the emission from cold dust at λ 175 μm.Methods.We obtained a new 12CO(J = 1-0)-line survey of the Andromeda galaxy with the highest resolution to date (23 arcsec, or 85 pc along the major axis), observed On-the-Fly with the IRAM 30-m telescope. We fully sampled an area of 2°× 0.5 ° with a velocity resolution of 2.6{ km s-1}. In several selected regions we also observed the 12CO(2-1)-line.Results.Emission from the 12CO(1-0) line was detected from galactocentric radius R=3 kpc to R=16 kpc with a maximum in intensity at R˜ 10 kpc. The molecular gas traced by the (velocity-integrated) (1-0)-line intensity is concentrated in narrow arm-like filaments, which often coincide with the dark dust lanes visible at optical wavelengths. Between R=4 kpc and R=12 kpc the brightest CO filaments define a two-armed spiral pattern that is described well by two logarithmic spirals with a pitch angle of 7°-8°. The arm-interarm brightness ratio averaged over a length of 15 kpc along the western arms reaches about 20 compared to 4 for H I at an angular resolution of 45 arcsec. For a constant conversion factor X_CO, the molecular fraction of the neutral gas is enhanced in the spiral arms and decreases radially from 0.6 on the inner arms to 0.3 on the arms at R≃ 10 kpc. The apparent gas-to-dust ratios N(H I)/I175 and (N(H I)+2N(H_2))/I175 increase by a factor of 20 between the centre and R≃ 14{ kpc}, whereas the ratio 2N(H_2)/I175 only increases by a factor of 4.Conclusions.Either the atomic and total gas-to-dust ratios increase by a factor of 20 or the dust becomes colder towards larger radii. A strong variation of X_CO with radius seems unlikely. The observed gradients affect the cross-correlations between gas and dust. In the radial range R=8-14 kpc total gas and cold dust are well correlated; molecular gas correlates better with

  17. Characterization of molecular recognition in gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.; Bodenhoefer, K.; Goepel, W.

    1998-08-01

    Molecular recognition is an important topic when searching for new, selective coating materials for chemical sensing. Recently, the general idea of molecular recognition in the gas phase was challenged by Grate et al. However, in earlier thickness-shear mode resonator (TSMR) investigations, convincing evidence was presented for specific recognition of particular analyte target molecules. In this study, the authors systematically investigated coatings previously shown to be highly selective, such as the bucket-like cyclodextrins for chiral recognition, Ni-camphorates for the specific detection of the bases pyridine and DMMP (dimethylmethylphosphonate), and phthalocyanines to specifically detect benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX).

  18. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yajiang; Inhester, Ludger; Hanasaki, Kota; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging. PMID:26798806

  19. Isobutane Made Practical as a Reagent Gas for Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, G. Asher; Steinkamp, F. Lucus; Giordano, Braden C.

    2016-11-01

    As a reagent gas for positive- and negative-mode chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS), isobutane ( i-C4H10) produces superior analyte signal abundance to methane. Isobutane has never been widely adopted for CI-MS because it fouls the ion source more rapidly and produces positive CI spectra that are more strongly dependent on reagent gas pressure compared with methane. Isobutane was diluted to various concentrations in argon for use as a reagent gas with an unmodified commercial gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Analyte spectra were directly compared using methane, isobutane, and isobutane/argon mixtures. A mixture of 10% i-C4H10 in argon produced twice the positive-mode analyte signal of methane, equal to pure isobutane, and reduced spectral dependence on reagent gas pressure. Electron capture negative chemical ionization using 1% i-C4H10 in argon tripled analyte signal compared with methane and was reproducible, unlike pure isobutane. The operative lifetime of the ion source using isobutane/argon mixtures was extended exponentially compared with pure isobutane, producing stable and reproducible CI signal throughout. By diluting the reagent gas in an inert buffer gas, isobutane CI-MS experiments were made as practical to use as methane CI-MS experiments but with superior analytical performance.

  20. The molecular gas mass of M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, P.; Braine, J.; Schuster, K.; Rosolowsky, E.; Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Combes, F.; Kramer, C.; Henkel, C.; Herpin, F.; Israel, F.; Koribalski, B. S.; Mookerjea, B.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Röllig, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; van der Werf, P.; Wiedner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Do some environments favor efficient conversion of molecular gas into stars? To answer this, we need to be able to estimate the H2 mass. Traditionally, this is done using CO observations and a few assumptions but the Herschel observations which cover the far-IR dust spectrum make it possible to estimate the molecular gas mass independently of CO and thus to investigate whether and how the CO traces H2. Previous attempts to derive gas masses from dust emission suffered from biases. Generally, dust surface densities, H i column densities, and CO intensities are used to derive a gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) and the local CO intensity to H2 column density ratio (XCO), sometimes allowing for an additional CO-dark gas component (Kdark). We tested earlier methods, revealing degeneracies among the parameters, and then used a sophisticated Bayesian formalism to derive the most likely values for each of the parameters mentioned above as a function of position in the nearby prototypical low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) 8.4) spiral galaxy M 33. The data are from the IRAM Large Program mapping in the CO(2-1) line along with high-resolution H i and Herschel dust continuum observations. Solving for GDR, XCO, and Kdark in macropixels 500 pc in size, each containing many individual measurements of the CO, H i, and dust emission, we find that (i) allowing for CO dark gas (Kdark) significantly improves fits; (ii) Kdark decreases with galactocentric distance; (iii) GDR is slightly higher than initially expected and increases with galactocentric distance; (iv) the total amount of dark gas closely follows the radially decreasing CO emission, as might be expected if the dark gas is H2 where CO is photodissociated. The total amount of H2, including dark gas, yields an average XCO of twice the galactic value of 2 × 1020 cm-2/ K km s-1, with about 55% of this traced directly through CO. The rather constant fraction of dark gas suggests that there is no large population of diffuse H2 clouds

  1. Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Joanna F.; Knapp, G. R.; Rupen, Michael P.; Phillips, T. G.

    1992-09-01

    In the paper "Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies" by Joanna F. Lees, G. R. Knapp, Michael P. Rupen, and T. G. Phillips (ApJ, 379,177 [1991]), an error appeared on page 208. Two numbers which were quoted from Young and Knezek (1989) were inadvertently not converted from their CO-H_2_ conversion factor to ours (a difference of 40%). Page 208, column (1), lines 6-7 should read:

  2. Generation of naphthoquinone radical anions by electrospray ionization: solution, gas-phase, and computational chemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Vessecchi, Ricardo; Naal, Zeki; Lopes, José N C; Galembeck, Sérgio E; Lopes, Norberto P

    2011-06-02

    Radical anions are present in several chemical processes, and understanding the reactivity of these species may be described by their thermodynamic properties. Over the last years, the formation of radical ions in the gas phase has been an important issue concerning electrospray ionization mass spectrometry studies. In this work, we report on the generation of radical anions of quinonoid compounds (Q) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The balance between radical anion formation and the deprotonated molecule is also analyzed by influence of the experimental parameters (gas-phase acidity, electron affinity, and reduction potential) and solvent system employed. The gas-phase parameters for formation of radical species and deprotonated species were achieved on the basis of computational thermochemistry. The solution effects on the formation of radical anion (Q(•-)) and dianion (Q(2-)) were evaluated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry analysis and the reduction potentials compared with calculated electron affinities. The occurrence of unexpected ions [Q+15](-) was described as being a reaction between the solvent system and the radical anion, Q(•-). The gas-phase chemistry of the electrosprayed radical anions was obtained by collisional-induced dissociation and compared to the relative energy calculations. These results are important for understanding the formation and reactivity of radical anions and to establish their correlation with the reducing properties by electrospray ionization analyses.

  3. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjalainen, I.; Moore, I. D.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H.; Trautmann, N.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of 238-240,242Pu and 244Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  4. Seeded optically driven avalanche ionization in molecular and noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polynkin, Pavel; Pasenhow, Bernard; Driscoll, Nicholas; Scheller, Maik; Wright, Ewan M.; Moloney, Jerome V.

    2012-10-01

    We report experimental and numerical results on the dual laser-pulse plasma excitation in molecular and noble gases at atmospheric pressure. Dilute plasma channels generated through filamentation of ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses in air, argon, and helium are densified through the application of multijoule nanosecond heater pulses. Plasma densification in molecular gases is always accompanied by the fragmentation of the plasma channels into discrete bubbles, while in atomic gases, under certain conditions, the densified channels remain smooth and continuous. The densification effect in atomic gases persists through considerably longer delays between the femtosecond and nanosecond pulses compared to that in molecular gases. Using rate equations we trace this difference in the temporal dynamics of densification to the different cooling mechanisms operative in atomic and molecular cases.

  5. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  6. STS-39 Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) gas release from OV-103 payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A plume of nitrous oxide gas is released from a compressed gas canister mounted on the increased capacity adaptive payload carrier 1 (ICAPC-1) on the forward port side of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB). The gas release is part of the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiment conducted during STS-39. The Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) 'parked' about two kilometers (km) away, is taking infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometric spatial, spectral, and temporal measurements of the gas plumes. Surrounding the CIV ICAPC-1 are: the ICAPC-2 payload support subsystem, radiometer, and Langmuir probe also mounted on the port side; the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) (just beyond gas beam); and the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support structure (ESS).

  7. Probing the molecular weight distributions of non-boiling petroleum fractions by Ag+ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roussis, Stilianos G; Proulx, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of Ag+ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to determine the molecular weight distributions of non-boiling petroleum fractions. Information about the molecular weight distributions is needed for fundamental studies on the nature of heavy crude oils and bitumens and for the development of novel recovery and processing methods. The method does not depend on thermal processes for the introduction of the fractions into the gas phase of the mass spectrometer, which is a considerable advantage over most other ionization methods. The Ag+ electrospray mass spectra of the fractions analyzed by using a toluene/methanol/cyclohexane (60:28:12%) solvent system display bimodal distributions in the ranges m/z approximately 300 to approximately 3000 and m/z 3000 to approximately 20,000. The abundances of the high molecular weight peak distributions can be reduced by in-source collisional activation experiments. Comparisons with the results obtained for model heteroatom-containing compounds (molecular weight < 600 Da) and high molecular weight polystyrene standards (up to one million Da) indicate that the majority of the structures in the saturate, naphthenoaromatic and polar aromatic fractions, and a significant portion of the asphaltenes, are small molecules. However, a considerable portion of the asphaltenes and some portion of the other fractions contain high molecular weight structures bound by covalent or strong non-covalent bonds. The results obtained by the Ag+ ESI method in this study for the saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions in a bitumen are in qualitative agreement with published molecular weight average results obtained for Cold Lake bitumen fractions analyzed by conventional gel permeation chromatography and field desorption mass spectrometry. Further work is needed to study the nature of the bonds and the interactions of the molecules in the asphaltene fractions by Ag+ ESI-MS.

  8. Ultralow-voltage field-ionization discharge on whiskered silicon nanowires for gas-sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Islam, M Saif; Saif Islam, M

    2011-02-01

    Several hundred million volts per centimetre of electric-field strength are required to field-ionize gas species. Such fields are produced on sharp metallic tips under a bias of a few kilovolts. Here, we show that field ionization is possible at dramatically lower fields on semiconductor nanomaterials containing surface states, particularly with metal-catalysed whiskers grown on silicon nanowires. The low-voltage field-ionization phenomena observed here cannot be explained solely on the basis of the large field-amplification effect of suspended gold nanoparticles present on the whisker tips. We postulate that field penetration causes upward band-bending at the surface of exposed silicon containing surface states in the vicinity of the catalyst. Band-bending enables the valence electron to tunnel into the surface states at reduced fields. This work provides a basis for development of low-voltage ionization sensors. Although demonstrated on silicon, low-voltage field ionization can be detected on any sharp semiconductor tip containing proper surface states.

  9. Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Tissandier, Laurent

    2015-06-09

    In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)-CO-N2-noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system.

  10. Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula

    PubMed Central

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Tissandier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)−CO−N2−noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system. PMID:26039983

  11. Gas Chromatography Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry for Improvement of Data Reliability.

    PubMed

    Schwemer, Theo; Rüger, Christopher P; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) offers the advantage of molecular ion information with low fragmentation. Hyphenating APCI to gas chromatography (GC) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) enables an improved characterization of complex mixtures. Data amounts acquired by this system are very huge, and existing peak picking algorithms are usually extremely time-consuming, if both gas chromatographic and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric data are concerned. Therefore, automatic routines are developed that are capable of handling these data sets and further allow the identification and removal of known ionization artifacts (e.g., water- and oxygen-adducts, demethylation, dehydrogenation, and decarboxylation). Furthermore, the data quality is enhanced by the prediction of an estimated retention index, which is calculated simply from exact mass data combined with a double bond equivalent correction. This retention index is used to identify mismatched elemental compositions. The approach was successfully tested for analysis of semivolatile components in heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel as well as primary combustion particles emitted by a ship diesel research engine. As a result, 10-28% of the detected compounds, mainly low abundant species, classically assigned by using only the mass spectrometric information, were identified as not valid and removed. Although GC separation is limited by the slow acquisition rate of the FT-ICR MS (<1 Hz), a database driven retention time comparison, as commonly used for low resolution GC/MS, can be applied for revealing isomeric information.

  12. Validity boundary of orbital-free molecular dynamics method corresponding to thermal ionization of shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chang; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-11-01

    With 6LiD as an example, we show that the applicable region of the orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) method in a large temperature range is determined by the thermal ionization process of bound electrons in shell structures. The validity boundary of the OFMD method is defined roughly by the balance point of the average thermal energy of an electron and the ionization energy of the lowest localized electronic state. This theoretical proposition is based on the observation that the deviation of the OFMD method originates from its less accurate description to the charge density in partially ionized shells, as compared with the results of the extended first-principles molecular dynamics method, which well reproduces the charge density of shell structures.

  13. ARE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS AROUND HIGH-MASS STARS DRIVEN BY IONIZATION FEEDBACK?

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-11-20

    The formation of massive stars exceeding 10 M {sub Sun} usually results in large-scale molecular outflows. Numerical simulations, including ionization, of the formation of such stars show evidence for ionization-driven molecular outflows. Here we examine whether the outflows seen in these models reproduce the observations. We compute synthetic ALMA and CARMA maps of CO emission lines of the outflows, and compare their signatures to existing single-dish and interferometric data. We find that the ionization-driven models can only reproduce weak outflows around high-mass star-forming regions. We argue that expanding H II regions probably do not represent the dominant mechanism for driving observed outflows. We suggest instead that observed outflows are driven by the collective action of the outflows from the many lower-mass stars that inevitably form around young massive stars in a cluster.

  14. Studies of Flow in Ionized Gas: Historical Perspective, Contemporary Experiments, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2007-04-23

    Since the first observations that a very small ionized fraction (order of 1 ppm) could strongly affect the gas flow, numerous experiments with partially or fully wall-free discharges have demonstrated the dispersion of shock waves, the enhancement of lateral forces in the flow, the prospects of levitation, and other aerodynamic effects with vast potential of application. A review of physical effects and observations are given along with current status of their interpretation. Special attention will be given to the physical problems of energy efficiency in generating wall-free discharges and the phenomenology of filamentary discharges. Comments and case examples are given on the current status of availability of necessary data for modelling and simulation of the aerodynamic phenomena in weakly ionized gas.

  15. Circumnuclear molecular gas in megamaser disk galaxies NGC 4388 and NGC 1194

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; Lyubenova, Mariya; Van de Ven, Glenn; Läsker, Ronald; Walsh, Jonelle

    2014-06-20

    We explore the warm molecular and ionized gas in the centers of two megamaser disk galaxies using K-band spectroscopy. Our ultimate goal is to determine how gas is funneled onto the accretion disk, here traced by megamaser spots on sub-parsec scales. We present NIR IFU data with a resolution of ∼50 pc for two galaxies: NGC 4388 with VLT/SINFONI and NGC 1194 with Keck/OSIRIS+AO. The high spatial resolution and rich spectral diagnostics allow us to study both the stellar and gas kinematics as well as gas excitation on scales only an order of magnitude larger than the maser disk. We find a drop in the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner ∼100 pc of NGC 4388, a common signature of a dynamically cold central component seen in many active nuclei. We also see evidence for noncircular gas motions in the molecular hydrogen on similar scales, with the gas kinematics on 100 parsec scales aligned with the megamaser disk. In contrast, the high ionization lines and Brγ trace outflow along the 100 parsec-scale jet. In NGC 1194, the continuum from the accreting black hole is very strong, making it difficult to measure robust two-dimensional kinematics, but the spatial distribution and line ratios of the molecular hydrogen and Brγ have consistent properties between the two galaxies.

  16. Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bingbing; Fu Panming; Guo Yingchun; Zhang Bin; Zhao Zengxiu; Yan Zongchao

    2010-10-15

    Using a triatomic molecular model, we show that the interference pattern in the high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) spectrum depends dramatically on the charge distribution of the molecular ion. Therefore the charge distribution can be considered a crucial factor for imaging a molecular geometric structure. Based on this study, a general destructive interference formula for each above-threshold ionization channel is obtained for a polyatomic molecule concerning the positions and charge values of each nuclei. Comparisons are made for the HATI spectra of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}. These results may shed light on imaging complex molecular structure by the HATI spectrum.

  17. LC-MS with electron ionization of cold molecules in supersonic molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Ori; Amirav, Aviv

    2005-06-01

    A new approach is described for the combination of electron ionization and LC-MS based on sample ionization as vibrationally cold molecules in a supersonic molecular beam (Cold EI). Cold EI of sample compounds in liquid solutions (methanol, acetonitrile, water, etc.) is achieved through spray formation, followed by soft thermal vaporization of the sample particles prior to their supersonic expansion and direct electron ionization of the sample compounds while they are contained in a supersonic molecular beam (SMB). Cold EI mass spectra were demonstrated to combine an enhanced molecular ion and improved mass spectral information (in comparison with standard EI), plus all the library searchable fragments. Cold EI enables the ionization of a broad range of compounds, including the full range of non-polar samples. Four orders of magnitude linear dynamic range is demonstrated and a detection limit of 2 pg was achieved for a 774 amu compound in single ion monitoring mode at m/z = 774. The method and apparatus are under continuous development and we feel that it can excel particularly in the analysis of unknown samples, while enabling fast LC-MS analysis through automated mass spectral deconvolution of coeluting LC peaks. In addition, the same MS system can also serve as an advanced GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams.

  18. Relating polarizability to volume, ionization energy, electronegativity, hardness, moments of momentum, and other molecular properties

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Shamus A.; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2014-08-21

    Semiquantitative relationships between the mean static dipole polarizability and other molecular properties such as the volume, ionization energy, electronegativity, hardness, and moments of momentum are explored. The relationships are tested using density functional theory computations on the 1641 neutral, ground-state, organic molecules in the TABS database. The best polarizability approximations have median errors under 5%.

  19. Molecular gas in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurlo, Anna

    2015-08-01

    In the central parsec of the Galaxy the environment of the black hole presents two different gas structures: the neutral Circumnuclear Disc (CND) and the ionized Minispiral. In order to study the transition between the two structures we have investigated the presence of neutral gas in the inner part of the CND, where the ionized Minispiral lies. Such study is carried out through spectro-imaging data of the central cavity observed with VLT/SPIFFI. Such data cover several H2 lines and the Brγ line. In order to preserve the spatial resolution and avoid edge effects we applied a new line fitting method, which consists on a regularized three- dimensional fit. Thank to the new method we present the highest resolution maps of the H2 emission in the Central parsec, together with velocity and width maps. The analysis of the H2 1-0 S(1) line leads to the detection of three components of the emission: one in the background of the Minispiral, one in the CND, and one in the Minispiral northern arm. This finding is confirmed by others ortho lines 1-0 S(3) and Q(3). Some para lines are detectable, but no complete map can be achieved. However some portion of the field have been studied for all detectable lines and in particular a strong emission at the entrance of the Minicavity is detected. Lines fluxes allow to trace excitation diagrams which lead to excitation temperature of 1200 K in the CND and T>1500 K in the central cavity. The clear higher temperature of the gas in the central cavity is related to the higher density of UV photons and cosmic rays and this means that H2 molecules have thus a shorter mean life during which thermalization cannot fully occur, it is possible for molecular hydrogen to be formed in a state where peculiar state are favoured. The hypothesis is that we are observing not all the H2 but just the one which is situated at the border of the clouds, a mince shell of gas, heated by the UV central field, which gives a new and interesting picture not only of

  20. A Pre-ionization System to Limit Neutral Gas in a Compact Toroid Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allfrey, Ian; Roche, Thomas; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Garate, Eusebio; Gota, Hiroshi; Asai, Tomohiko; the TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    Fusion plasmas require long lifetimes and high temperatures, both of which are limited by particle loss, among other factors. Therefore, refueling a long-lived advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma in C-2U is necessary, and injecting a supersonic compact toroid (CT) is an effective means of introducing particles into the FRC core. However, neutral gas that trails the CT into the target chamber cools the FRC. Pre-ionization (PI) system assists the break down between electrodes of the CT injector (CTI), so the amount of introduced gas can be lowered by up to a factor of two, effectively increasing the ionization fraction; thus, reducing the amount of neutral gas in the system. Additionally, the PI decreases the delay in CTI breakdown so a highly reproducible operation is achievable. The PI system consists of a fast, high voltage, pulse discharge circuit coupled to a Teflon insulated semi-rigid coaxial cable inserted into the CTI. System details and experimental data will be presented, in addition to issues such as the introduction of impurities and pre-ionizer lifetime.

  1. Fluctuations in microwave background radiation due to secondary ionization of the intergalactic gas in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunyayev, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Secondary heating and ionization of the intergalactic gas at redshifts z approximately 10-30 could lead to the large optical depth of the Universe for Thomson scattering and could smooth the primordial fluctuations formed at z approximately 1500. It is shown that the gas motions connected with the large scale density perturbations at z approximately 10-15 must lead to the generation of secondary fluctuations of microwave background. The contribution of the rich clusters of galaxies and young galaxies to the fluctuations of microwave background is also estimated.

  2. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  3. Direct detection of atomic ions from molecular photofragmentation during nonresonant multiphoton ionization of sputtered species

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Burnett, J.W.; White, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    The photoionization of sputtered Cu, Al, and Ru atoms and dimers was investigated by measuring velocity distributions using both resonant and nonresonant photoionization. Nonresonant ionization produced an atomic distribution that peaked at the same velocity as the respective dimer distribution, indicating that virtually all the nonresonant atomic ion signal is from photofragmented dimers. Various mechanisms of dimer photofragmentation are discussed. Domination of the atomic photoion channel by molecule fragmentation appears to be a general phenomenon that must be accounted for in all gas-phase multiphoton nonresonant ionization experiments at easily achievable laser power densities ({le} 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}).

  4. Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L E

    2007-02-26

    With the advent of coupled chemical/hydrodynamic reactive flow models for high explosives, understanding detonation chemistry is of increasing importance to DNT. The accuracy of first principles detonation codes, such as CHEETAH, are dependent on an accurate representation of the species present under detonation conditions. Ionic species and non-molecular phases are not currently included coupled chemistry/hydrodynamic simulations. This LDRD will determine the prevalence of such species during high explosive detonations, by carrying out experimental and computational investigation of common detonation products under extreme conditions. We are studying the phase diagram of detonation products such as H{sub 2}O, or NH{sub 3} and mixtures under conditions of extreme pressure (P > 1 GPa) and temperature (T > 1000K). Under these conditions, the neutral molecular form of matter transforms to a phase dominated by ions. The phase boundaries of such a region are unknown.

  5. Molecular Gas in Young Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Juhasz, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pascucci, I.; Kospal, A.; Apai, D.; Henning, T.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J = 3-2 survey with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities of HD21997 and 49 Ceti are not particularly high, these objects seem to harbor the most extended disks within our sample. The double-peaked profiles of HD21997 were reproduced by a Keplerian disk model combined with the LIME radiative transfer code. Based on their similarities, 49 Ceti and HD21997 may be the first representatives of a so far undefined new class of relatively old > or approx.8 Myr), gaseous dust disks. From our results, neither primordia1 origin nor steady secondary production from icy planetesima1s can unequivocally explain the presence of CO gas in the disk ofHD21997.

  6. COLD MOLECULAR GAS IN MERGER REMNANTS. I. FORMATION OF MOLECULAR GAS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Komugi, Shinya; Espada, Daniel; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Matsuda, Yuichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yun, Min S.; Crocker, Alison F.; Narayanan, Desika; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Wilner, David J.; Pan, Hsi-An

    2014-09-01

    We present the ≲1 kpc resolution {sup 12}CO imaging study of 37 optically selected local merger remnants using new and archival interferometric maps obtained with ALMA, CARMA, the Submillimeter Array, and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We supplement a sub-sample with single-dish measurements obtained at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope for estimating the molecular gas mass (10{sup 7} {sup –} {sup 11} M {sub ☉}) and evaluating the missing flux of the interferometric measurements. Among the sources with robust CO detections, we find that 80% (24/30) of the sample show kinematical signatures of rotating molecular gas disks (including nuclear rings) in their velocity fields, and the sizes of these disks vary significantly from 1.1 kpc to 9.3 kpc. The size of the molecular gas disks in 54% of the sources is more compact than the K-band effective radius. These small gas disks may have formed from a past gas inflow that was triggered by a dynamical instability during a potential merging event. On the other hand, the rest (46%) of the sources have gas disks that are extended relative to the stellar component, possibly forming a late-type galaxy with a central stellar bulge. Our new compilation of observational data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. This finding is consistent with recent major-merger simulations of gas-rich progenitor disks. Finally, we suggest that some of the rotation-supported turbulent disks observed at high redshifts may result from galaxies that have experienced a recent major merger.

  7. Coupling of gas chromatography and electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of anabolic steroids as trimethylsilyl derivatives in human urine.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eunju; Jeong, Eun Sook; Cha, Sangwon; Lee, Jaeick

    2017-04-29

    In this study, gas chromatography (GC) was interfaced with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with electrospray ionization source (ESI) and the relevant parameters were investigated to enhance the ionization efficiency. In GC-ESI, the distances (x-, y- and z) and angle between the ESI needle, GC capillary column and MS orifice were set to 7 (x-distance), 4 (y-distance), and 1 mm (z-distance). The ESI spray solvent, acid modifier and nebulizer gas flow were methanol, 0.1% formic acid and 5 arbitrary units, respectively. Based on these results, analytical conditions for GC-ESI/HRMS were established. In particular, the results of spray solvent flow indicated a concentration-dependent mechanism (peak dilution effect), and other parameters also greatly influenced the ionization performance. The developed GC-ESI/HRMS was then applied to the analysis of anabolic steroids as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives in human urine to demonstrate its application. The ionization profiles of TMS-derivatized steroids were investigated and compared with those of underivatized steroids obtained from gas chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (GC-ESI/MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS). The steroids exhibited ionization profiles based on their structural characteristics, regardless of the analyte phase or derivatization. Groups I and II with conjugated or unconjugated keto functional groups at C3 generated the [M+H](+) and [M+H-TMS](+) ions, respectively. On the other hand, Groups III and IV gave rise to the characteristic fragment ions [M+H-TMS-H2O](+) and [M+H-2TMS-H2O](+), corresponding to loss of a neutral TMS·H2O moiety from the protonated molecular ion by in-source dissociation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to successfully ionize and analyze steroids as TMS derivatives using ESI coupled with GC. The present system has enabled the ionization of TMS derivatives under ESI conditions and

  8. Double ionization effect in electron accelerations by high-intensity laser pulse interaction with a neutral gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan Gupta, Devki

    2013-11-01

    We study the effect of laser-induced double-ionization of a helium gas (with inhomogeneous density profile) on vacuum electron acceleration. For enough laser intensity, helium gas can be found doubly ionized and it strengthens the divergence of the pulse. The double ionization of helium gas can defocus the laser pulse significantly, and electrons are accelerated by the front of the laser pulse in vacuum and then decelerated by the defocused trail part of the laser pulse. It is observed that the electrons experience a very low laser-intensity at the trailing part of the laser pulse. Hence, there is not much electron deceleration at the trailing part of the pulse. We found that the inhomogeneity of the neutral gas reduced the rate of tunnel ionization causing less defocusing of the laser pulse and thus the electron energy gain is reduced.

  9. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  10. Reactions of metal ions and their clusters in the gas phase using laser ionization: Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freiser, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    This report focuses on progress in seven areas: (1) Gas-Phase Reactions of Fe(Benzyne){sup +} with Simple Alkyl Halides; (2) Photodissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Molecular Ions From Methylphenol and Chloromethylphenol; (3) Isotopomer Differentiation Using Metal Ion Chemical Ionization Reagents; (4) Multiple Excitation Collisional Activation (MECA) in Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry; (5) Chemistry of Fe{sup +}-Arene Ions with Halobenzenes; (6) Gas-Phase Photodissociaton Study of Ag(Benzene){sup +} and Ag(Toluene){sup +}; and (7) Reactivity of Ti{sup 2+} and V{sup 2+} with Small Alkanes.

  11. High-Ionization Gas Associated with a Supershell Surrounding the Perseus OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, D. C.; Howk, J. C.; Sembach, K. R.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Meyer, D. M.

    2002-05-01

    We present Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of high-ionization interstellar absorption toward HD 14434, an O5.5 V star in the Per OB1 Association. This star lies in the direction of the H I supershell GS139-03-69 (Heiles 1979, ApJ, 229, 533). In addition, a supershell-like bubble is detected from WHAM maps of the Perseus arm (Madsen, Haffner, & Reynolds astro-ph/0112232). We detect intermediate velocity interstellar Si IV and C IV absorption centered at VLSR = -73 km s-1, while low-ionization Perseus arm gas is detected at approximately -50 km s-1. Neither N V nor O VI is detected at these velocities, although Fe III, a tracer of warm ionized gas, is seen. The column densities in the -73 km s-1 component are log N(C IV}) = 13.93 +/- 0.02, log N(Si IV}) = 13.35 +/- 0.02, log N(N V}) <= 12.65, and log N(O VI}) <= 13.32. The observed C IV/Si IV ratio of 3.8 +/- 0.3 is similar to the Galactic average. Analysis of the C IV and Si IV line widths yields a temperature of T ~ 12,000 K for this component. No C IV or Si IV is produced via collisions at such low temperatures. We explore two models for the origins of the intermediate velocity C IV and Si IV absorption: photoionization or non-equilibrium collisional processes. Either of these could be related to the origins of the high-ionization gas with a supershell. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission. Financial support has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  12. Multiple Ionization of Free Ubiquitin Molecular Ions in Extreme Ultraviolet Free-Electron Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Schlathölter, Thomas; Reitsma, Geert; Egorov, Dmitrii; Gonzalez-Magaña, Olmo; Bari, Sadia; Boschman, Leon; Bodewits, Erwin; Schnorr, Kirsten; Schmid, Georg; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Moshammer, Robert; Hoekstra, Ronnie

    2016-08-26

    The fragmentation of free tenfold protonated ubiquitin in intense 70 femtosecond pulses of 90 eV photons from the FLASH facility was investigated. Mass spectrometric investigation of the fragment cations produced after removal of many electrons revealed fragmentation predominantly into immonium ions and related ions, with yields increasing linearly with intensity. Ionization clearly triggers a localized molecular response that occurs before the excitation energy equilibrates. Consistent with this interpretation, the effect is almost unaffected by the charge state, as fragmentation of sixfold deprotonated ubiquitin leads to a very similar fragmentation pattern. Ubiquitin responds to EUV multiphoton ionization as an ensemble of small peptides.

  13. Molecular ionization of cyclohexanone in femtosecond laser fields: An application of ADK theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Q.; Mineo, H.; Wu, D.; Jin, M. X.; Chin, C. H.; Teranishi, Y.; Chao, S. D.; Ding, D.; Lin, S. H.

    2009-08-01

    The mechanisms of ionization and dissociation of cyclohexanone (C6H10O) in a 90 fs, 788 nm linearly polarized laser field ranging from 1013 to 1014 W/cm2 by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) have been investigated. The ion yields as a function of laser intensity have been measured experimentally. By comparison with the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) theory based on a hydrogen-like model, the ionization mechanism of cyclohexanone in this intense femtosecond laser field has been understood. Considering the importance of molecular nuclear motions, we propose that the Franck-Condon (F-C) factor can provide the excess vibrational energy in the molecular ion. This energy is required for the decomposition of the molecular ion which finally results in the observed mass spectrum.

  14. Spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of the ionized gas in IZw18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Hernández-Fernández, J. D.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Brinchmann, J.; Durret, F.; Kunth, D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed 2D study of the ionized ionized interstellar medium (ISM) of IZw18 using new Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer-integral field unit (PMAS-IFU) optical observations. IZw18 is a high-ionization galaxy which is among the most metal-poor starbursts in the local Universe. This makes IZw18 a local benchmark for understanding the properties most closely resembling those prevailing at distant starbursts. Our IFU aperture (˜1.4 × 1.4 kpc2) samples the entire IZw18 main body and an extended region of its ionized gas. Maps of relevant emission lines and emission line ratios show that higher-excitation gas is preferentially located close to the north-west knot and thereabouts. We detect a Wolf-Rayet feature near the north-west knot. We derive spatially resolved and integrated physical-chemical properties for the ionized gas in IZw18. We find no dependence between the metallicity indicator R23 and the ionization parameter (as traced by [O III]/[O II]) across IZw18. Over ˜0.30 kpc2, using the [O III] λ4363 line, we compute Te[O III] values (˜15 000-25 000 K), and oxygen abundances are derived from the direct determinations of Te[O III]. More than 70 per cent of the higher-Te[O III] (≳22 000 K) spaxels are He IIλ4686-emitting spaxels too. From a statistical analysis, we study the presence of variations in the ISM physical-chemical properties. A galaxy-wide homogeneity, across hundreds of parsecs, is seen in O/H. Based on spaxel-by-spaxel measurements, the error-weighted mean of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.11 ± 0.01 is taken as the representative O/H for IZw18. Aperture effects on the derivation of O/H are discussed. Using our IFU data we obtain, for the first time, the IZw18 integrated spectrum.

  15. Ionized gas pressure correlates with star formation intensity in nearby starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tianxing; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Yang, Huan

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the electron density of the ionized gas and thus the thermal pressure in HII regions; and compare that to the SFR (star formation rate) surface density for a combined sample of about 40 green peas and Lyman Break Analogs at z < 0.30. The electron density of the ionized gas is measured from sulfur line ratio ([SII] 6716 / 6731). We find that the SFR surface density is correlated with the electron density and the thermal pressure in HII regions for the star-forming galaxies with SFR surface density above a certain threshold. This work shows quantitatively the correlation between SFR surface density and electron density and that between SFR surface density and the thermal pressure in HII regions for the nearby starburst galaxies. This is consistent with theoretical models of disks (e.g. Kim et al. (2011) if we assume that the thermal pressure in HII regions is comparable to the total diffuse gas pressure at the midplane of the diffuse neutral gas. It is also in agreement with the results from star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2.5. We might infer that the starburst galaxies at low-redshift (z < 0.3) share similar physical properties to the galaxies at high redshift (z ~ 2.5).

  16. Modeling of gas ionization and plasma flow in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tiankun; Wu, Zhiwen; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei; Cheng, Yue

    2016-12-01

    A one-dimensional model to study the gas ionization and plasma flow in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters(APPTs) is established in this paper. The discharge process of the APPT used in the LES-6 satellite is simulated to validate the model. The simulation results for the impulse bit and propellant utilization give values of 29.05 μN s and 9.56%, respectively, which are in good agreement with experimental results. To test the new ionization sub-model, the discharge process of a particular APPT, XPPT-1, is simulated, and a numerical result for the propellant utilization of 62.8% is obtained, which also agrees well with experiment. The gas ionization simulation results indicate that an APPT with a lower average propellant ablation rate and higher average electric field intensity between electrodes should have higher propellant utilization. The plasma density distribution between the electrodes of APPTs can also be obtained using the new model, and the numerical results show that the plasma generation and flow are discontinuous, which is in good agreement with past experimental results of high-speed photography. This model provides a new tool with which to study the physical mechanisms of APPTs and a reference for the design of high-performance APPTs.

  17. Ionized Gas in E/S0 Galaxies with Dust Lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funes, Jose G.; J., S.; Finkelman, I.; Borsch, N.; Vaisanen, P.; Kniazev, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing program to study the properties of dust and ionized gas in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes. Our observational program comprises of H-alpha and broad-band images obtained with the SAAO 1.9m, the VATT 1.8m and the 1m telescope on WO. A detailed analysis of 30 galaxies shows the presence of a diffusely distributed ionized gas component in most objects. The extended gas morphology is typically smooth and closely follows the dust structure, with a clear correlation between the mass of both components. The dust content in each galaxy is estimated by measuring the extinction by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes. The derived extinction law is used to correct the measured colors for intrinsic dust extinction and the data are fitted with a stellar population synthesis model. We find that the line-emission and colors of most objects are consistent with the presence of an “old” stellar population ( 10 Gyr) and a small fraction of a “young” population ( 10- 100 Myr). The younger stellar population may have formed at a later stage of the evolution of the galaxy through either a merger event or a secondary star-formation burst. Strong evidence for the external origin of the ISM is provided by the apparent inclination of the dust and ionized gas disks with respect to the galactic plane in a large fraction of our sample galaxies. Further spectroscopic observations will be obtained to study the gaseous disks dynamics and to characterize the underlying stellar populations for evidence of multiple phases of star formation and assembly history.

  18. High performance mini-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector system based on micro gas chromatography column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jianhai; Ning, Zhanwu; Zhang, Yanni; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was a very important measure for preventing environmental pollution, therefore, a mini gas chromatography (GC) flame ionization detector (FID) system integrated with a mini H2 generator and a micro GC column was developed for environmental VOC monitoring. In addition, the mini H2 generator was able to make the system explode from far away due to the abandoned use of a high pressure H2 source. The experimental result indicates that the fabricated mini GC FID system demonstrated high repeatability and very good linear response, and was able to rapidly monitor complicated environmental VOC samples.

  19. Imaging spectrophotometry of ionized gas in NGC 1068. I - Kinematics of the narrow-line region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Gerald; Bland, Jonathan; Tully, R. Brent

    1990-01-01

    The kinematics of collisionally excited forbidden N II 6548, 6583 across the inner 1 arcmin diameter of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 is mapped using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer and low-noise CCD. The stack of monochromatic images, which spatially resolved the high-velocity gas, was analyzed for kinematic and photometric content. Profiles agree well with previous long-slit work, and their complete spatial coverage makes it possible to constrain the gas volume distribution. It is found that the narrow-line region is distributed in a thick center-darkened, line-emitting cylinder that envelopes the collimated radio jet. Three distinct kinematic subsystems, of which the cylinder is composed, are discussed in detail. Detailed behavior of the emission-line profiles, at the few points in the NE quadrant with simple kinematics, argues that the ionized gas develops a significant component of motion perpendicular to the jet axis.

  20. Towards high-resolution laser ionization spectroscopy of the heaviest elements in supersonic gas jet expansion

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, R.; Barzakh, A.; Bastin, B.; Beerwerth, R.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Grawe, H.; de Groote, R.; Delahaye, P.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaffney, L. P.; Ghys, L.; Gins, W.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Loiselet, M.; Lutton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martínez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Raeder, S.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Thomas, J-C; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2017-01-01

    Resonant laser ionization and spectroscopy are widely used techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities to produce pure beams of exotic nuclei and measure the shape, size, spin and electromagnetic multipole moments of these nuclei. However, in such measurements it is difficult to combine a high efficiency with a high spectral resolution. Here we demonstrate the on-line application of atomic laser ionization spectroscopy in a supersonic gas jet, a technique suited for high-precision studies of the ground- and isomeric-state properties of nuclei located at the extremes of stability. The technique is characterized in a measurement on actinium isotopes around the N=126 neutron shell closure. A significant improvement in the spectral resolution by more than one order of magnitude is achieved in these experiments without loss in efficiency. PMID:28224987

  1. Multiple ionization of rare gas atoms irradiated with intense VUV radiation.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, H; de Castro, A R B; Gürtler, P; Laarmann, T; Laasch, W; Schulz, J; Möller, T

    2005-01-21

    The interaction of intense vacuum-ultraviolet radiation from a free-electron laser with rare gas atoms is investigated. The ionization products of xenon and argon atomic beams are analyzed with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. At 98 nm wavelength and approximately 10(13) W/cm(2) multiple charged ions up to Xe6+ (Ar4+) are detected. From the intensity dependence of multiple charged ion yields the mechanisms of multiphoton processes were derived. In the range of approximately 10(12)-10(13) W/cm(2) the ionization is attributed to sequential multiphoton processes. The production of multiple charged ions saturates at 5-30 times lower power densities than at 193 and 564 nm wavelength, respectively.

  2. Towards high-resolution laser ionization spectroscopy of the heaviest elements in supersonic gas jet expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, R.; Barzakh, A.; Bastin, B.; Beerwerth, R.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Grawe, H.; de Groote, R.; Delahaye, P.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaffney, L. P.; Ghys, L.; Gins, W.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Loiselet, M.; Lutton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martínez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Raeder, S.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Thomas, J.-C.; Traykov, E.; van Beveren, C.; van den Bergh, P.; van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2017-02-01

    Resonant laser ionization and spectroscopy are widely used techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities to produce pure beams of exotic nuclei and measure the shape, size, spin and electromagnetic multipole moments of these nuclei. However, in such measurements it is difficult to combine a high efficiency with a high spectral resolution. Here we demonstrate the on-line application of atomic laser ionization spectroscopy in a supersonic gas jet, a technique suited for high-precision studies of the ground- and isomeric-state properties of nuclei located at the extremes of stability. The technique is characterized in a measurement on actinium isotopes around the N=126 neutron shell closure. A significant improvement in the spectral resolution by more than one order of magnitude is achieved in these experiments without loss in efficiency.

  3. Quantum control of a molecular ionization process by using Fourier-synthesized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Hideki; Saito, Naoaki

    2015-11-01

    In photoexcitation processes, if the motion of excited electrons can be precisely steered by the instantaneous electric field of an arbitrary waveform of a Fourier-synthesized laser field, the resultant matter response can be achieved within one optical cycle, usually within the attosecond (1 as =10-18s) regime. Fourier synthesis of laser fields has been achieved in various ways. However, the general use of Fourier-synthesized laser fields for the control of matter is extremely limited. Here, we report the quantum control of a nonlinear response of a molecular ionization process by using Fourier-synthesized laser fields. The directionally asymmetric molecular tunneling ionization induced by intense (5.0 ×1012W /c m2) Fourier-synthesized laser fields consisting of fundamental, second-, third-, and fourth-harmonic light achieves the orientation-selective ionization; we utilized the orientation-selective ionization for measurement of the relative phase differences between the fundamental and each harmonic light. Our findings impact not only light-wave engineering but also the control of matter, possibly triggering the creation and establishment of a new methodology that uses Fourier-synthesized laser fields.

  4. Ionized gas outflow in the isolated S0 galaxy NGC 4460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei; Karachentsev, Igor; Kaisin, Serafim

    2010-04-01

    We used integral-field and long-slit spectroscopy to study a bright extended nebulosity recently discovered in the isolated lenticular galaxy NGC 4460 during an Hα survey of nearby galaxies. An analysis of archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX and Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that current star formation is entirely concentrated in the central kiloparsec of the galaxy disc. The observed ionized gas parameters (morphology, kinematics and ionization state) can be explained by a gas outflow above the plane of the galaxy, caused by star formation in the circumnuclear region. Galactic wind parameters in NGC 4460 (outflow velocity, total kinetic energy) are several times smaller, compared with the known galactic wind in NGC 253, which is explained by the substantially lower total star formation rate. We discuss the cause of the star formation processes in NGC 4460 and in two other known isolated lenticular (S0) and elliptical (E) galaxies of the Local Volume: NGC 404 and 855. We provide evidence suggesting that the feeding of isolated galaxies by intergalactic gas on a cosmological time-scale is a steady process without significant variations. Based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is operated under the financial support of the Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43). E-mail: moisav@gmail.com

  5. Highly ionized atoms in cooling gas. [in model for cooling of hot Galactic corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Richard J.; Chevalier, Roger A.

    1986-01-01

    The ionization of low density gas cooling from a high temperature was calculated. The evolution during the cooling is assumed to be isochoric, isobaric, or a combination of these cases. The calculations are used to predict the column densities and ultraviolet line luminosities of highly ionized atoms in cooling gas. In a model for cooling of a hot galactic corona, it is shown that the observed value of N(N V) can be produced in the cooling gas, while the predicted value of N(Si IV) falls short of the observed value by a factor of about 5. The same model predicts fluxes of ultraviolet emission lines that are a factor of 10 lower than the claimed detections of Feldman, Bruna, and Henry. Predictions are made for ultraviolet lines in cooling flows in early-type galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It is shown that the column densities of interest vary over a fairly narrow range, while the emission line luminosities are simply proportional to the mass inflow rate.

  6. WARM IONIZED GAS REVEALED IN THE MAGELLANIC BRIDGE TIDAL REMNANT: CONSTRAINING THE BARYON CONTENT AND THE ESCAPING IONIZING PHOTONS AROUND DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J. E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-07-10

    The Magellanic System includes some of the nearest examples of galaxies disturbed by galaxy interactions. These interactions have redistributed much of their gas into the halos of the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of the warm ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge over the velocity range of +100 to +300 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map and the corresponding intensity-weighted mean velocity map of the Magellanic Bridge across (l, b) = (281 Degree-Sign .5, -30 Degree-Sign .0) to (302. Degree-Sign 5, -46. Degree-Sign 7). Using the H{alpha} emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-Tail and the Bridge, we estimate that the mass of the ionized material is between (0.7-1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, compared to 3.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the neutral mass over the same region. The diffuse Bridge is significantly more ionized than the SMC-Tail, with an ionization fraction of 36%-52% compared to 5%-24% for the Tail. The H{alpha} emission has a complex multiple-component structure with a velocity distribution that could trace the sources of ionization or distinct ionized structures. We find that incident radiation from the extragalactic background and the MW alone are insufficient to produced the observed ionization in the Magellanic Bridge and present a model for the escape fraction of the ionizing photons from both the SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With this model, we place an upper limit of 4.0% for the average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the LMC and an upper limit of 5.5% for the SMC. These results, combined with the findings of a half a dozen other studies for dwarf galaxies in different environments, provide compelling evidence that only a small percentage of the ionizing photons escape from dwarf galaxies in the present epoch to

  7. The influence of molecular pre-orientation on the resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Miao; Li, Jing-Lun; Yu, Jie; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2017-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the influence of molecular pre-orientation on the resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) dynamics, taking the LiH molecule for example. The LiH molecule is first pre-oriented by a single-cycle pulse (SCP) in terahertz (THz) region, and then excited by the femtosecond pump pulse, and finally ionized by the femtosecond probe pulse. We focus on the impact of the pre-orientation on the ionization probability, energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distribution (PAD). It is found that the ionization probability and peak intensity of energy-resolved photoelectron spectra are significantly affected by molecular orientation. The angle-resolved photoelectron spectra are related to the molecular orientation. The PAD can be changed by varying the delay time between the THz SCP and pump pulse. We also investigate the effect of temperature on excitation and ionization dynamics.

  8. Ultraintense X-Ray Induced Ionization, Dissociation, and Frustrated Absorption in Molecular Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hoener, M.; Fang, L.; Murphy, B.; Berrah, N.; Kornilov, O.; Gessner, O.; Pratt, S. T.; Kanter, E. P.; Guehr, M.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Cryan, J.; Glownia, M.; McFarland, B.; Petrovic, V.; Blaga, C.; DiMauro, L.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Coffee, R.; Messerschmidt, M.

    2010-06-25

    Sequential multiple photoionization of the prototypical molecule N{sub 2} is studied with femtosecond time resolution using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). A detailed picture of intense x-ray induced ionization and dissociation dynamics is revealed, including a molecular mechanism of frustrated absorption that suppresses the formation of high charge states at short pulse durations. The inverse scaling of the average target charge state with x-ray peak brightness has possible implications for single-pulse imaging applications.

  9. Ultraintense x-ray induced ionization, dissociation and frustrated absorption in molecular nitrogen.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoener, M.; Fang, L.; Kornilov, O.; Gessner, O.; Pratt, S. T.; Guhr, M.; Kanter, E. P.; Blaga, C.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Buth, C.; Chen, M.; Coffee, R.; Cryan, J.; DiMauro, L.; Glownia, M.; Hosler, E.; Kukk, E.; Leone, S. R.; McFarland, B.; Messerschmidt, M.; Murphy, B.; Petrovic, V.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Western Michigan Univ.; LBNL; Ohio State Univ.; Louisiana State Univ.; LLNL; Univ. of Turku; Univ. of California at Berkeley; Max Planck Advanced Study Group, CFEL; LCLS

    2010-06-23

    Sequential multiple photoionization of the prototypical molecule N2 is studied with femtosecond time resolution using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). A detailed picture of intense x-ray induced ionization and dissociation dynamics is revealed, including a molecular mechanism of frustrated absorption that suppresses the formation of high charge states at short pulse durations. The inverse scaling of the average target charge state with x-ray peak brightness has possible implications for single-pulse imaging applications.

  10. Jet-driven outflows of ionized gas in the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, E. K.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C.; Bessiere, P.; Short, P.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fast outflows of gas, driven by the interaction between the radio jets and interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy, are being observed in an increasing number of galaxies. One such example is the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293. In this paper we present integral field unit observations taken with OASIS on the William Herschel Telescope, enabling us to map the spatial extent of the ionized gas outflows across the central regions of the galaxy. The jet-driven outflow in 3C 293 is detected along the inner radio lobes with a mass outflow rate ranging from ˜0.05 to 0.17 M⊙ yr-1 (in ionized gas) and corresponding kinetic power of ˜0.5-3.5 × 1040 erg s-1. Investigating the kinematics of the gas surrounding the radio jets (i.e. not directly associated with the outflow), we find linewidths broader than 300 km s-1 up to 5 kpc in the radial direction from the nucleus (corresponding to 3.5 kpc in the direction perpendicular to the radio axis at maximum extent). Along the axis of the radio jet linewidths >400 km s-1 are detected out to 7 kpc from the nucleus and linewidths of >500 km s-1 at a distance of 12 kpc from the nucleus, indicating that the disturbed kinematics clearly extend well beyond the high surface brightness radio structures of the jets. This is suggestive of the cocoon structure seen in simulations of jet-ISM interaction and implies that the radio jets are capable of disturbing the gas throughout the central regions of the host galaxy in all directions.

  11. Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Bellocchi, E.; Maiolino, R.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2014-08-01

    We study the kinematic properties of the ionised gas outflows and ambient interstellar medium (ISM) in a large and representative sample of local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) (58 systems, 75 galaxies) at galactic and sub-galactic (i.e., star-forming clumps) scales, thanks to integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high signal-to-noise integrated spectra. The velocity dispersion of the ionized ISM in U/LIRGs (⟨ σ ⟩ ~ 70 km s-1) is larger than in lower luminosity local star-forming galaxies (⟨ σ ⟩ ~ 25 km s-1). While for isolated disc LIRGs star formation appears to sustain turbulence, gravitational energy release associated with interactions and mergers plays an important role in driving σ in the U/LIRG range. We find that σ has a dependency on the star formation rate density (ΣSFR), which is weaker than expected if it were driven by the energy released by the starburst. The relatively small role of star formation (SF) driving the σ in U/LIRGs is reinforced by the lack of an increase in σ associated with high luminosity SF clumps. We also find that the impact of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in ULIRGs is strong, increasing on average σ by a factor 1.5. Low-z U/LIRGs cover a range of velocity dispersion (σ ~ 30 to 100 km s-1) and star formation rate density (ΣSFR ~ 0.1 to 20 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) similar to those of high-z SFGs. Moreover, the observed weak dependency of σ on ΣSFR for local U/LIRGs (σ ∝ ΣSFR+0.06) is in very good agreement with that measured in some high-z samples. The presence of ionized gas outflows in U/LIRGs seems universal based on the detection of a broad, usually blueshifted, Hα line. The observed dependency of the maximum velocity of the outflow (Vmax) on the star formation rate (SFR) is of the type Vmax(non - AGN) ∝ SFR(LIR)+ 0.24. We find that AGNs in U/LIRGs are able to generate faster (~×2) and more massive (~× 1.4) ionized gas outflows than pure starbursts. The derived ionized mass

  12. The energy and momentum input of supernova explosions in structured and ionized molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walch, Stefanie; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the early impact of single and binary supernova (SN) explosions on dense gas clouds with three-dimensional, high-resolution, hydrodynamic simulations. The effect of cloud structure, radiative cooling and ionizing radiation from the progenitor stars on the net input of kinetic energy, fkin = Ekin/ESN, thermal energy, ftherm = Etherm/ESN, and gas momentum, fP = P/PSN, to the interstellar medium (ISM) is tested. For clouds with bar{n} = 100cm^{-3}, the momentum generating Sedov and pressure-driven snowplough phases are terminated early (∝0.01 Myr) and radiative cooling limits the coupling to ftherm ˜ 0.01, fkin ˜ 0.05, and fP ˜ 9, significantly lower than for the case without cooling. For pre-ionized clouds, these numbers are only increased by ˜50 per cent, independent of the cloud structure. This only suffices to accelerate ˜5 per cent of the cloud to radial velocities ≳30 km s-1. A second SN might enhance the coupling efficiencies if delayed past the Sedov phase of the first explosion. Such very low coupling efficiencies cast doubts on many subresolution models for SN feedback, which are, in general, validated a posteriori. Ionizing radiation appears not to significantly enhance the coupling of SNe to the surrounding gas as it drives the ISM into inert dense shells and cold clumps, a process which is unresolved in galaxy-scale simulations. Our results indicate that the momentum input of SNe in ionized, structured clouds is larger (more than a factor of 10) than the corresponding momentum yield of the progenitor's stellar winds.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, EXPLOSIVES DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, SRI INSTRUMENTS, MODEL 8610C, GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/THERMIONIC IONIZATION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SRI Model 86 1 OC gas chromatograph (GC) is a transportable instrument that can provide on-site analysis of soils for explosives. Coupling this transportable gas chromatograph with a thermionic ionization detector (TID) allows for the determination of explosives in soil matri...

  14. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kelly L.; Mostaghim, Anahita; Cuomo, Christina A.; Soto, Carissa M.; Lebedev, Nikolai; Bailey, Robert F.; Wang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Observations of enhanced growth of melanized fungi under low-dose ionizing radiation in the laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism of fungal responses to such radiation remains poorly understood. Using the black yeast Wangiella dermatitidis as a model, we confirmed that ionizing radiation enhanced cell growth by increasing cell division and cell size. Using RNA-seq technology, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the wild type and the melanin-deficient wdpks1 mutant under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. It was found that more than 3000 genes were differentially expressed when these two strains were constantly exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and that half were regulated at least two fold in either direction. Functional analysis indicated that many genes for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism and cell cycle progression were down-regulated and that a number of antioxidant genes and genes affecting membrane fluidity were up-regulated in both irradiated strains. However, the expression of ribosomal biogenesis genes was significantly up-regulated in the irradiated wild-type strain but not in the irradiated wdpks1 mutant, implying that melanin might help to contribute radiation energy for protein translation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to low doses of radiation significantly increased survivability of both the wild-type and the wdpks1 mutant, which was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased production of carotenoid and induced expression of genes encoding translesion DNA synthesis. Our results represent the first functional genomic study of how melanized fungal cells respond to low dose ionizing radiation and provide clues for the identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and individual genes

  15. Observations of molecular and atomic gas in photodissociation regions. [interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Howe, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Dense gas at the ionized/neutral boundaries of molecular clouds illuminated by far-UV photons plays an important role in the appearance of the neutral interstellar medium. It also is a laboratory for the study of UV-photochemistry and of a number of heating and cooling phenomena not seen elsewhere. Fine structure lines of neutral and low ionization potential species dominate the cooling in the outer part of the photodissociation regions. Observations of these lines show that the regions are dense and highly clumped. Observations of H2 and CO show that heating by UV photons plays a significant role in the excitation of molecular lines near the H II/neutral boundary. Warm CO is more abundant in these regions than predicted by the standard theoretical models. Optical reflection nebulas provide an ideal laboratory for the study of photodissocciation region phenomena.

  16. Quantitative analysis of molecular surfaces: areas, volumes, electrostatic potentials and average local ionization energies.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Felipe A; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Brinck, Tore; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2010-11-01

    We describe a procedure for performing quantitative analyses of fields f(r) on molecular surfaces, including statistical quantities and locating and evaluating their local extrema. Our approach avoids the need for explicit mathematical representation of the surface and can be implemented easily in existing graphical software, as it is based on the very popular representation of a surface as collection of polygons. We discuss applications involving the volumes, surface areas and molecular surface electrostatic potentials, and local ionization energies of a group of 11 molecules.

  17. Molecular resolution and fragmentation of fulvic acid by electrospray ionization/multistage tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Gates, Paul M.; Furlong, E.T.; Ferrer, I.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular weight distributions of fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia, were investigated by electrospray ionization/quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI/QMS), and fragmentation pathways of specific fulvic acid masses were investigated by electrospray ionization/ion trap multistage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MST/MS). ESI/QMS studies of the free acid form of low molecular weight poly(carboxylic acid) standards in 75% methanol/25% water mobile phase found that negative ion detection gave the optimum generation of parent ions that can be used for molecular weight determinations. However, experiments with poly(acrylic acid) mixtures and specific high molecular weight standards found multiply charged negative ions that gave a low bias to molecular mass distributions. The number of negative charges on a molecule is dependent on the distance between charges. ESI/MST/MS of model compounds found characteristic water loss from alcohol dehydration and anhydride formation, as well as CO2 loss from decarboxylation, and CO loss from ester structures. Application of these fragmentation pathways to specific masses of fulvic acid isolated and fragmented by ESI/MST/MS is indicative of specific structures that can serve as a basis for future structural confirmation after these hypothesized structures are synthesized.

  18. Determination of nitrogen monoxide in high purity nitrogen gas with an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, K.

    1985-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric (API-MS) method was studied for the determination of residual NO in high purity N2 gas. The API-MS is very sensitive to NO, but the presence of O2 interferes with the NO measurement. Nitrogen gas in cylinders as sample gas was mixed with NO standard gas and/or O2 standard gas, and then introduced into the API-MS. The calibration curves of NO and O2 has linearity in the region of 0 - 2 ppm, but the slopes changed with every cylinder. The effect of O2 on NO+ peak was additive and proportional to O2 concentration in the range of 0 - 0.5 ppm. The increase in NO+ intensity due to O2 was (0.07 - 0.13)%/O2, 1 ppm. Determination of NO and O2 was carried out by the standard addition method to eliminate the influence of variation of slopes. The interference due to O2 was estimated from the product of the O2 concentration and the ratio of slope A to Slope B. Slope A is the change in the NO+ intensity with the O2 concentration. Slope B is the intensity with O2 concentration.

  19. High-ionization Gas in Active Galactic Nuclei: Line Profiles and Physical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodíguez-Ardila, A.; Riffel, R.; Mazzalay, X.; Portilla, J. G.

    2012-08-01

    SOAR/Goodman spectroscopy is employed to detect the coronal lines [Fe VII] 3759, 5159, and 6087 Å, [Ne V] 3423 Å and [Fe X] 6083 Å, the former three suitable to determine the temperature and density of the high-ionization gas. The spectra allow us to fully characterize the profiles of the most conspicuous lines (asymmetries, shifts from the centroid position and line width). The combined results allow us to detect signatures of outflows in the coronal gas and thus set up constrains on the origin of the CLs in AGNs. In addition, AO GEMINI/NIFS IFU spectroscopy is used to study the coronal gas morphology at spatial scales of a few parsecs in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. We found that the gas distribution is rather inhomogeneous and asymmetric. From the comparison of the CL [Mg VIII] with the VLA 6 cm radio emission we found evidence that the CL gas kinematics and morphology is strongly related to the radio jet morphology. All above results allow us to confirm the role that coronal lines have to trace outflows at the inner tens of parsecs of AGNs.

  20. STRONG MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION AND KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPHASE GAS IN RADIO GALAXIES WITH FAST JET-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, P.; Ogle, P. M.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Appleton, P. N.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tadhunter, C.; Evans, D. A.; Evans, A. S.

    2012-03-10

    Observations of ionized and neutral gas outflows in radio galaxies (RGs) suggest that active galactic nucleus (AGN) radio jet feedback has a galaxy-scale impact on the host interstellar medium, but it is still unclear how the molecular gas is affected. Thus, it is crucial to determine the physical conditions of the molecular gas in powerful RGs to understand how radio sources may regulate the star formation in their host galaxies. We present deep Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) high-resolution spectroscopy of eight nearby RGs that show fast H I outflows. Strikingly, all of these H I-outflow RGs have bright H{sub 2} mid-IR lines that cannot be accounted for by UV or X-ray heating. This strongly suggests that the radio jet, which drives the H I outflow, is also responsible for the shock excitation of the warm H{sub 2} gas. In addition, the warm H{sub 2} gas does not share the kinematics of the ionized/neutral gas. The mid-IR-ionized gas lines (with FWHM up to 1250 km s{sup -1} for [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m) are systematically broader than the H{sub 2} lines, which are resolved by the IRS in Almost-Equal-To 60% of the detected lines (with FWHM up to 900 km s{sup -1}). In five sources, 3C 236, 3C 293, 3C 459, 4C 12.50, and PKS 1549-79, the [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m line, and to a lesser extent the [Ne III] 15.5 {mu}m and [Ne V] 14.3 {mu}m lines, clearly exhibits blueshifted wings (up to -900 km s{sup -1} with respect to the systemic velocity) that match well the kinematics of the outflowing H I or ionized gas. The H{sub 2} lines do not show these broad wings, except tentative detections in 4C 12.50, 3C 459, and PKS 1549-79. This shows that, contrary to the H I gas, the H{sub 2} gas is inefficiently coupled to the AGN jet-driven outflow of ionized gas. While the dissipation of a small fraction (<10%) of the jet kinetic power can explain the turbulent heating of the molecular gas, our data show that the bulk of the warm molecular gas is not expelled from these galaxies.

  1. A sensitive gas chromatography detector based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ansgar T; Last, Torben; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we present a novel concept for a gas chromatography detector utilizing an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization which is initialized by a dielectric barrier discharge. In general, such a detector can be simple and low-cost, while achieving extremely good limits of detection. However, it is non-selective apart from the use of chemical dopants. Here, a demonstrator manufactured entirely from fused silica capillaries and printed circuit boards is shown. It has a size of 75×60×25mm(3) and utilizes only 2W of power in total. Unlike other known discharge detectors, which require high-purity helium, this detector can theoretically be operated using any gas able to form stable ion species. Here, purified air is used. With this setup, limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range have been obtained for acetone.

  2. Interrelated structures of the transport shock and collisional relaxation layer in a multitemperature, multilevel ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. Three electronic levels are accounted for in the microscopic model of the atom. Nonequilibrium processes with respect to population of levels and species plus temperature are considered. By using an asymptotic technique the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. The asymptotic procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer in which the gas reaches local equilibrium. A family of numerical examples is displayed for different flow regimes. Argon and helium models are used in these examples.

  3. Turbulent Dynamo in a Conducting Fluid and a Partially Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Siyao; Lazarian, A.

    2016-12-01

    By following the Kazantsev theory and taking into account both microscopic and turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields, we develop a unified treatment of the kinematic and nonlinear stages of a turbulent dynamo process, and we study the dynamo process for a full range of magnetic Prandtl number P m and ionization fractions. We find a striking similarity between the dependence of dynamo behavior on P m in a conducting fluid and { R } (a function of ionization fraction) in a partially ionized gas. In a weakly ionized medium, the kinematic stage is largely extended, including not only exponential growth but a new regime of dynamo characterized by a linear-in-time growth of magnetic field strength, and the resulting magnetic energy is much higher than the kinetic energy carried by viscous-scale eddies. Unlike the kinematic stage, the subsequent nonlinear stage is unaffected by microscopic diffusion processes and has a universal linear-in-time growth of magnetic energy with the growth rate as a constant fraction 3/38 of the turbulent energy transfer rate, showing good agreement with earlier numerical results. Applying the analysis to the first stars and galaxies, we find that the kinematic stage is able to generate a field strength only an order of magnitude smaller than the final saturation value. But the generation of large-scale magnetic fields can only be accounted for by the relatively inefficient nonlinear stage and requires longer time than the free-fall time. It suggests that magnetic fields may not have played a dynamically important role during the formation of the first stars.

  4. Strong molecular alignment dependence of H2 electron impact ionization dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Pflüger, T; Xu, S; Colgan, J; Pindzola, M S; Senftleben, A; Ullrich, J; Dorn, A

    2012-09-21

    Low-energy (E(0) = 54 eV) electron impact single ionization of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) has been investigated as a function of molecular alignment in order to benchmark recent theoretical predictions [Colgan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233201 (2008) and Al-Hagan et al., Nature Phys. 5, 59 (2009)]. In contrast to any previous work, we observe distinct alignment dependence of the (e,2e) cross sections in the perpendicular plane in good overall agreement with results from time-dependent close-coupling calculations. The cross section behavior can be consistently explained by a rescattering of the ejected electron in the molecular potential resulting in an effective focusing along the molecular axis.

  5. Strong Molecular Alignment Dependence of H2 Electron Impact Ionization Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X.; Pflüger, T.; Xu, S.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Senftleben, A.; Ullrich, J.; Dorn, A.

    2012-09-01

    Low-energy (E0=54eV) electron impact single ionization of molecular hydrogen (H2) has been investigated as a function of molecular alignment in order to benchmark recent theoretical predictions [Colgan , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 101, 233201 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.233201 and Al-Hagan , Nature Phys.NPAHAX1745-2473 5, 59 (2009)10.1038/nphys1135]. In contrast to any previous work, we observe distinct alignment dependence of the (e,2e) cross sections in the perpendicular plane in good overall agreement with results from time-dependent close-coupling calculations. The cross section behavior can be consistently explained by a rescattering of the ejected electron in the molecular potential resulting in an effective focusing along the molecular axis.

  6. Molecular typing of Meningiomas by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Surgical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Norton, Isaiah; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Dunn, Ian F.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2014-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most frequent intracranial tumors. The majority is benign slow-growing tumors but they can be difficult to treat depending on their location and size. While meningiomas are well delineated on magnetic resonance imaging by their uptake of contrast, surgical limitations still present themselves from not knowing the extent of invasion of the dura matter by meningioma cells. The development of tools to characterize tumor tissue in real or near real time could prevent recurrence after tumor resection by allowing for more precise surgery, i.e. removal of tumor with preservation of healthy tissue. The development of ambient ionization mass spectrometry for molecular characterization of tissue and its implementation in the surgical decision-making workflow carry the potential to fulfill this need. Here, we present the characterization of meningioma and dura mater by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to validate the technique for the molecular assessment of surgical margins and diagnosis of meningioma from surgical tissue in real-time. Nine stereotactically resected surgical samples and three autopsy samples were analyzed by standard histopathology and mass spectrometry imaging. All samples indicated a strong correlation between results from both techniques. We then highlight the value of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the molecular subtyping/subgrouping of meningiomas from a series of forty genetically characterized specimens. The minimal sample preparation required for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry offers a distinct advantage for applications relying on real-time information such as surgical decision-making. The technology here was tested to distinguish meningioma from dura mater as an approach to precisely define surgical margins. In addition we classify meningiomas into fibroblastic and meningothelial subtypes and more notably recognize meningiomas with NF2 genetic aberrations. PMID

  7. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    SciTech Connect

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Clausse, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-06-17

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. In our research, we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by up to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ~150 GV m-1, over ~20 cm. Lastly, the results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources.

  8. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    DOE PAGES

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; ...

    2016-06-17

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. In our research, we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by upmore » to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ~150 GV m-1, over ~20 cm. Lastly, the results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources.« less

  9. Collisions of fast multicharged ions in gas targets: Charge transfer and ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1981-05-01

    Measurements of cross sections for charge transfer and ionization of H2 and rare-gas targets were made with fast, highly stripped projectiles in charge states as high as 59+. An empirical scaling rule for electron-capture cross section in H2 valid at energies above 275 keV/amu was found. Similar scaling might exist for other target gases. Cross sections are generally in good agreement with theory. A scaling rule was found for electron loss from H in collisions with a fast highly stripped projectile, based on Olson's classical-trajectory Monte-Carlo calculations, and confirmed by measurements in an H2 target. A similar scaling rule was for net ionization of rare-gas targets, based on Olson's CTMC calculations and the independent-electron model. Measurements are essentially consistent with the scaled cross sections. Calculations and measurements of recoil-ion charge-state spectra show large cross sections for the production of highly charged slow recoil ions.

  10. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    PubMed Central

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Clausse, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. Here we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by up to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ∼150 GV m−1, over ∼20 cm. The results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources. PMID:27312720

  11. Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

  12. Gas kinematics and ionization along the extended sight line to HD 116852

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph intermediate observations of the interstellar medium toward HD 116852, a low halo star at a distance of 4.8 kpc (z = -1.3 kpc) in the direction l = 304. deg 9, b = 16.deg 1. The small science aperture observations have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 30 to 90 and resolutions of 11 to 18 km/s (FWHM). We confirm the optical MK classification of this star through an analysis of its ultraviolet photosperic and stellar wind profiles. We detect interstellar lines of Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V together with lines of C I, C I*, C I**, Si II, Ge II, P II, and Ni II. We convert the Mg II, P II, S II, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V profiles into measure of apparent column density as a function of LSR velocity. Gas scale height, velocity dispersion, and differential Galactic rotation effects govern the profile shapes. A simple computer model of the expected sight line column density profiles for the low and high ion species indicates that the gas velocity dispersions and scale heights increase as the ionization level of the gas increases. We find scale heigts H greater than or = 1 kpc for the high ions, which are comparable to the z-distance of the star, whereas we find H approximatley = 0.6 to 0.7 kpc for A1 III and H approximatley 0.1 kpc for P II and Ge II. An enhancement in the Al II profile near -15 km/s accounts for approximately 25% of the A1 III column along the sight line and probably arises within gas located approximately 500 pc below the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm link. Portions of the broad underlying A1 III distribution are associated with the higher ionization lines, perhaps in conductive interfaces. The presence of N V and the column density ratios of Si IV, C IV, and N V favor the interpretation that much of the high ion absorption is produced by collisional ionization in gas with T = 1-3 x 10(exp 5) K. An enhancement near -35 km/s in both the Si IV and C IV profiles may be due to an outflow from the Norma

  13. Silver nanoparticles on zeolite surface for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengrui; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles loaded on NH4+-type zeolite, AgNPs-NH4ZSM5, was developed as an inorganic matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds. It was found that AgNPs-NH4ZSM5 could work as an efficient Ag+ donor to ionize analytes and that zeolite worked as a heat bath to prevent the destruction of AgNPs after the photoexcitation. The AgNPs-NH4ZSM5 was applied to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of biologically active substances with low molecular weights including acetylsalicylic acid, L-histidine, glucose, urea, cholesterol, and those in human serum.

  14. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry: In Situ Molecular Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Peggi M.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a relatively new imaging modality that allows mapping of a wide range of biomolecules within a thin tissue section. The technology uses a laser beam to directly desorb and ionize molecules from discrete locations on the tissue that are subsequently recorded in a mass spectrometer. IMS is distinguished by the ability to directly measure molecules in situ ranging from small metabolites to proteins, reporting hundreds to thousands of expression patterns from a single imaging experiment. This article reviews recent advances in IMS technology, applications, and experimental strategies that allow it to significantly aid in the discovery and understanding of molecular processes in biological and clinical samples. PMID:23259809

  15. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - II. Kinematics of ionized gas nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and energetics of quasar feedback is a major unresolved problem in galaxy formation theory. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of ionized gas around 11 luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5 out to ˜15 kpc from the quasar; specifically, we measure the kinematics and morphology of [O III] λ5007 Å emission. The round morphologies of the nebulae and the large line-of-sight velocity widths (with velocities containing 80 per cent of the emission as high as 103 km s-1) combined with relatively small velocity difference across them (from 90 to 520 km s-1) point towards wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows. We use the observed velocity widths to estimate a median outflow velocity of 760 km s-1, similar to or above the escape velocities from the host galaxies. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion declines slightly towards outer parts of the nebulae (by 3 per cent kpc-1 on average). The majority of nebulae show blueshifted excesses in their line profiles across most of their extents, signifying gas outflows. For the median outflow velocity, we find dot{E}_kin between 4 × 1044 and 3 × 1045 erg s-1 and dot{M} between 2 × 103 and 2 × 104 M⊙ yr-1. These values are large enough for the observed quasar winds to have a significant impact on their host galaxies. The median rate of converting bolometric luminosity to kinetic energy of ionized gas clouds is ˜2 per cent. We report four new candidates for `superbubbles' - outflows that may have broken out of the denser regions of the host galaxy.

  16. Rapid comprehensive characterization of crude oils by thermogravimetry coupled to fast modulated gas chromatography-single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, S; Fischer, M; Saraji-Bozorgzad, M; Matuschek, G; Streibel, T; Post, E; Denner, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    Comprehensive multi-dimensional hyphenation of a thermogravimetry device (i.e. a thermobalance) to gas chromatography and single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TG-GC×SPI-MS) has been used to investigate two crude oil samples of different geographical origin. The source of the applied vacuum ultraviolet radiation is an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp (EBEL). The soft photoionization favors the formation of molecular ions. Introduction of a fast, rapidly modulated gas chromatographic separation step in comparison with solely TG-SPI-MS enables strongly enhanced detection especially with such highly complex organic matrices as crude oil. In contrast with former TG-SPI-MS measurements, separation and identification of overlying substances is possible because of different GC retention times. The specific contribution of isobaric compounds to one mass signal is determined for alkanes, naphthalenes, alkylated benzenes, and other compounds.

  17. Flame temperature measurements by radar resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang, Zhili; Adams, Steven F

    2012-10-01

    Here we report nonintrusive local rotational temperature measurements of molecular oxygen, based on coherent microwave scattering (radar) from resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) in room air and hydrogen/air flames. Analyses of the rotational line strengths of the two-photon molecular oxygen C(3)Π(v=2)←X(3)Σ(v'=0) transition have been used to determine the hyperfine rotational state distribution of the ground X(3)Σ(v'=0) state. Rotationally resolved 2+1 REMPI spectra of the molecular oxygen C(3)Π(v=2)←X(3)Σ(v'=0) transition at different temperatures were obtained experimentally by radar REMPI. Rotational temperatures have been determined from the resulting Boltzmann plots. The measurements in general had an accuracy of ~±60 K in the hydrogen/air flames at various equivalence ratios. Discussions about the decreased accuracy for the temperature measurement at elevated temperatures have been presented.

  18. Analysis of pesticide residues by fast gas chromatography in combination with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Húsková, Renáta; Matisová, Eva; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Svorc, Lubomír

    2009-08-28

    A combination of fast GC with narrow-bore column and bench top quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) detector in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode (with methane as reagent gas) is set up and utilized for the ultratrace analysis of 25 selected pesticides. The observed pesticides, belonging to the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), were from different chemical classes. A comparative study with electron impact (EI) ionization was also carried out (both techniques in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode). The programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector in solvent vent mode and narrow-bore column (15mx0.15mm I.D.x0.15microm film of 5% diphenyl 95% dimethylsiloxane stationary phase) were used for effective and fast separation. Heptachlor (HPT) as internal standard (I.S.) was applied for the comparison of results obtained from absolute and normalized peak areas. Non-fatty food matrices were investigated. Fruit (apple - matrix-matched standards; orange, strawberry, plum - real samples) and vegetable (lettuce - real sample) extracts were prepared by a quick and effective QuEChERS sample preparation technique. Very good results were obtained for the characterization of fast GC-NCI-MS method analysing EDCs pesticides. Analyte response was linear from 0.01 to 150microgkg(-1) with the R(2) values in the range from 0.9936 to 1.0000 (calculated from absolute peak areas) and from 0.9956 to 1.0000 (calculated from peak areas normalized to HPT). Instrument limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were found at pgmL(-1) level and for the majority of analytes were up to three orders of magnitude lower for NCI compared to EI mode. In both ionization modes, repeatability of measurements expressed as relative standard deviation (RSDs) was less than 10% which is in very good agreement with the criterion of European Union.

  19. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  20. Determination of residual epichlorohydrin in sevelamer hydrochloride by static headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal; Arularasu, Govindasamy T; Devaraj, Perumalsamy; Pillai, Karnam Chandrasekara

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive static headspace gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of residual epichlorohydrin (ECH) in sevelamer hydrochloride (SVH) drug substance. This method utilized a Phenomenex Zebron ZB-WAX GC column, helium as carrier gas with flame ionization detection. The critical experimental parameters, such as, headspace vial incubation time and incubation temperature were studied and optimized. The method was validated as per United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of detection limit (DL), quantitation limit (QL), linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness. A linear range from 0.30 to 10 Îg/mL was obtained with the coefficient of determination (r(2)) 0.999. The DL and QL of ECH were 0.09 Îg/mL and 0.30 Îg/mL, respectively. The recovery obtained for ECH was between 91.7 and 96.6%. Also, the specificity of the method was proved through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method was applied successfully to determine the content of residual ECH in SVH bulk drug.

  1. Identifying Extraplanar Diffuse Ionized Gas in a Sample of MaNGA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Ryan J.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency with which galaxies convert gas into stars is driven by the continuous cycle of accretion and feedback processes within the circumgalactic medium. Extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) can provide insights into the tumultuous processes that govern the evolution of galactic disks because eDIG emission traces both inflowing and outflowing gas. With the help of state-of-the-art, spatially-resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we developed a computational method to identify eDIG based on the strength of and spatial extent of optical emission lines for a diverse sample of 550 nearby galaxies. This sample includes roughly half of the MaNGA galaxies that will become publicly available in summer 2016 as part of the Thirteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identified signatures of eDIG in 8% of the galaxies in this sample, and we found that these signatures are particularly common among galaxies with active star formation and inclination angles >45 degrees. Our analysis of the morphology, incidence, and kinematics of eDIG has important implications for current models of accretion and feedback processes that regulate star formation in galaxies. We acknowledge support from the Astrophysics REU program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the National Astronomy Consortium, and The Grainger Foundation.

  2. Signatures of Molecular Orbital Structure in Lateral Electron Momentum Distributions from Strong-Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Ingo; Henkel, Jost; Lein, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Strong-field ionization of aligned diatomic and polyatomic molecules such as O2, N2, C2H4, and others in circularly polarized laser fields is investigated theoretically. By calculating the emission-angle-resolved lateral width of the momentum distribution perpendicular to the polarization plane, we show that nodal planes in molecular orbitals are directly imprinted on the angular dependence of the width. We demonstrate that orbital symmetries can be distinguished with the information obtained by observing the lateral width in addition to the angular distributions.

  3. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  4. Measurement of the first Townsend ionization coefficient in a methane-based tissue-equivalent gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, A. R.; Gonçalves, J. A. C.; Mangiarotti, A.; Botelho, S.; Bueno, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    Tissue-equivalent gases (TEGs), often made of a hydrocarbon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, have been employed in microdosimetry for decades. However, data on the first Townsend ionization coefficient (α) in such mixtures are scarce, regardless of the chosen hydrocarbon. In this context, measurements of α in a methane-based tissue-equivalent gas (CH4 - 64.4%, CO2 - 32.4%, and N2 - 3.2%) were performed in a uniform field configuration for density-normalized electric fields (E/N) up to 290 Td. The setup adopted in our previous works was improved for operating at low pressures. The modifications introduced in the apparatus and the experimental technique were validated by comparing our results of the first Townsend ionization coefficient in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane with those from the literature and Magboltz simulations. The behavior of α in the methane-based TEG was consistent with that observed for pure methane. All the experimental results are included in tabular form in the Supplementary material.

  5. Interrelated structures of the transport shock and collisional relaxation layer in a multitemperature, multilevel ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. In the microscopic model of the atom, three electronic levels are accounted for. By using an asymptotic technique, the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. This procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer. The results show four main interesting points: (1) on structuring the transport shock, ionization and excitation rates must be included in the formulation, since the flow is not frozen with respect to the population of the different electronic levels; (2) an electron temperature precursor appears at the beginning of the transport shock; (3) the collisional layer is rationally reduced to quadrature for special initial conditions, which (4) are obtained from new Rankine-Hugoniot relations for the inner shock.

  6. Determination of ibogaine in plasma by gas chromatography--chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ley, F R; Jeffcoat, A R; Thomas, B F

    1996-02-02

    Ibogaine is naturally occurring indole alkaloid that is currently being considered as a treatment medication for drug dependence. Although there have been a variety of investigations regarding the mechanisms of action and pharmacology of ibogaine, relatively little has been reported regarding quantitative methods. Because of the paucity of analytical methodologies, studies involving the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ibogaine have also been limited. A method is described for the determination of ibogaine levels in plasma by gas chromatography -- methane chemical ionization mass spectrometry. [13C2H3]Ibogaine was synthesized and used as an internal standard to control for recovery during sample preparation. The assay requires one ml of plasma and is shown to be a selective and sensitive means of ibogaine quantitation.

  7. Rapid measurement of phytosterols in fortified food using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Duong, Samantha; Strobel, Norbert; Buddhadasa, Saman; Stockham, Katherine; Auldist, Martin; Wales, Bill; Orbell, John; Cran, Marlene

    2016-11-15

    A novel method for the measurement of total phytosterols in fortified food was developed and tested using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Unlike existing methods, this technique is capable of simultaneously extracting sterols during saponification thus significantly reducing extraction time and cost. The rapid method is suitable for sterol determination in a range of complex fortified foods including milk, cheese, fat spreads, oils and meat. The main enhancements of this new method include accuracy and precision, robustness, cost effectiveness and labour/time efficiencies. To achieve these advantages, quantification and the critical aspects of saponification were investigated and optimised. The final method demonstrated spiked recoveries in multiple matrices at 85-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% and measurement uncertainty value of 10%.

  8. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-07-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  9. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  10. Determination of selected fatty acids in dried sweat spot using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Kanďár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Andrlová, Lenka; Kostelník, Adam; Čegan, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for the determination of fatty acids in dried sweat spot and plasma samples using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Plasma and dried sweat spot samples were obtained from a group of blood donors. The sweat was collected from each volunteer during exercise. Sweat was spotted onto collection paper containing butylated hydroxytoluene. Fatty acids were derivatized with acetyl chloride in methanol to form methyl esters of fatty acids. The fatty acids in dried sweat spot samples treated with butylated hydroxytoluene and stored at -20°C were stable for 3 months. Our results indicate that sweat contains, among fatty acids with short chain, also fatty acids with long chain and unsaturated fatty acids. Linear relationships between percentage content of selected fatty acids in dried sweat spot and plasma were observed.

  11. Self-detection of x-ray Fresnel transmissivity using photoelectron-induced gas ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Stoupin, Stanislav

    2016-01-25

    Electric response of an x-ray mirror enclosed in a gas flow ionization chamber was studied under the conditions of total external reflection for hard x-rays. It is shown that the electric response of the system as a function of the incidence angle is defined by x-ray Fresnel transmissivity and photon-electron attenuation properties of the mirror material. A simple interpretation of quantum yield of the system is presented. The approach could serve as a basis for non-invasive in situ diagnostics of hard x-ray optics, easy access to complementary x-ray transmissivity data in x-ray reflectivity experiments, and might also pave the way to advanced schemes for angle and energy resolving x-ray detectors.

  12. Identification of volatiles by headspace gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin; Kahl, Joseph H

    2013-10-01

    Volatiles are frequently abused as inhalants. The methods used for identification are generally nonspecific if analyzed concurrently with ethanol or require an additional analytical procedure that employs mass spectrometry. A previously published technique utilizing a capillary flow technology splitter to simultaneously quantitate and confirm ethyl alcohol by flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection after headspace sampling and gas chromatographic separation was evaluated for the detection of inhalants. Methanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (Norflurane, HFC-134a), chloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-12), dichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-21), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-22) and 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon®-114) were validated for qualitative identification by this method. The validation for qualitative identification included evaluation of matrix effects, sensitivity, carryover, specificity, repeatability and ruggedness/robustness.

  13. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.; Bouillard, J. X.

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance, and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  14. Self-detection of x-ray Fresnel transmissivity using photoelectron-induced gas ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupin, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Electric response of an x-ray mirror enclosed in a gas flow ionization chamber was studied under the conditions of total external reflection for hard x-rays. It is shown that the electric response of the system as a function of the incidence angle is defined by x-ray Fresnel transmissivity and photon-electron attenuation properties of the mirror material. A simple interpretation of quantum yield of the system is presented. The approach could serve as a basis for non-invasive in situ diagnostics of hard x-ray optics, easy access to complementary x-ray transmissivity data in x-ray reflectivity experiments, and might also pave the way to advanced schemes for angle and energy resolving x-ray detectors.

  15. Properties of a weakly ionized NO gas sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Yong Pan, Zhigang; Yang, Shuang; Shi, Jinghui; Li, Shengtao; Min, Daomin; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Dingxin; Yang, Aijun; Li, Xin

    2015-08-31

    Nitric oxide NO is one of the major targets for environmental monitoring, but the existing NO sensors are limited by their low sensitivity and narrow test range. Here, a NO gas sensor employing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was fabricated, and its properties in NO–N{sub 2} mixture were investigated from both emission and ionization. The current I{sub e} passing through the nanotubes cathode was found to decrease with increasing NO concentration and increase linearly in different slopes with the extracting voltage U{sub e}. It is shown that the Schottky barrier of the MWCNTs calculated by I{sub e} increased with NO concentration due to the adsorption of NO gas, which restrained the electron emission and consequently weakened the ionization. The positive ion currents I{sub c} passing through the collecting electrode at different voltages of U{sub e} were found to monotonically decrease with increasing NO concentration, which was induced by both of the reduced electron emission and the consumption of the two excited metastable states N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}∑{sub u}{sup +}) and N{sub 2}(a′{sup 1}∑{sub u}{sup −}) by NO. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity at the low temperature of 30 °C. The calculated conductivity was found to be able to take place of I{sub c} for NO detection in a wide voltage range of 80–150 V U{sub e}.

  16. Factors that affect molecular weight distribution of Suwannee river fulvic acid as determined by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of methylation, molar response, multiple charging, solvents, and positive and negative ionization on molecular weight distributions of aquatic fulvic acid were investigated by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. After preliminary analysis by positive and negative modes, samples and mixtures of standards were derivatized by methylation to minimize ionization sites and reanalyzed.Positive ionization was less effective and produced more complex spectra than negative ionization. Ionization in methanol/water produced greater response than in acetonitrile/water. Molar response varied widely for the selected free acid standards when analyzed individually and in a mixture, but after methylation this range decreased. After methylation, the number average molecular weight of the Suwannee River fulvic acid remained the same while the weight average molecular weight decreased. These differences are probably indicative of disaggregation of large aggregated ions during methylation. Since the weight average molecular weight decreased, it is likely that aggregate formation in the fulvic acid was present prior to derivatization, rather than multiple charging in the mass spectra. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Connection Between Reddening, Gas Covering Fraction, and the Escape of Ionizing Radiation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.

    2016-09-01

    Using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed z∼ 3 galaxies, we establish an empirical relationship between reddening (E(B-V)), neutral gas covering fraction ({f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}})), and the escape of ionizing (Lyman continuum, LyC) photons. Our sample includes 933 galaxies at z∼ 3,121 of which have deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at 850≲ {λ }{{rest}}≲ 1300 Å with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on Keck. The high covering fraction of outflowing optically thick {{H}} {{I}} indicated by the composite spectra of these galaxies implies that photoelectric absorption, rather than dust attenuation, dominates the depletion of LyC photons. By modeling the composite spectra as the combination of an unattenuated stellar spectrum including nebular continuum emission with one that is absorbed by {{H}} {{I}} and reddened by a line-of-sight extinction, we derive an empirical relationship between E(B-V) and {f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}}). Galaxies with redder UV continua have larger covering fractions of {{H}} {{I}} characterized by higher line-of-sight extinctions. We develop a model which connects the ionizing escape fraction with E(B-V), and which may be used to estimate the ionizing escape fraction for an ensemble of galaxies. Alternatively, direct measurements of the escape fraction for our sample allow us to constrain the intrinsic LyC-to-UV flux density ratio to be < S(900 \\mathring{{A}} )/S(1500 \\mathring{{A}} ){> }{{int}}≳ 0.20, a value that favors stellar population models that include weaker stellar winds, a flatter initial mass function, and/or binary evolution. Last, we demonstrate how the framework discussed here may be used to assess the pathways by which ionizing radiation escapes from high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous

  18. Pulsed field ionization electron spectroscopy and molecular structure of aluminum uracil.

    PubMed

    Krasnokutski, Serge A; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2007-10-25

    Al-uracil (Al-C4H4N2O2) was synthesized in a laser-vaporization supersonic molecular beam source and studied with pulsed field ionization-zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT calculations predicted several low-energy Al-uracil isomers with Al binding to the diketo, keto-enol, and dienol tautomers of uracil. The ZEKE spectroscopic measurements of Al-uracil determined the ionization energy of 43 064(5) cm-1 [or 5.340(6) eV] and a vibrational mode of 51 cm-1 for the neutral complex and several vibrational modes of 51, 303, 614, and 739 cm-1 for the ionized species. Combination of the ZEEK spectrum with the DFT and Franck-Condon factor calculations determined the preferred isomeric structure and electronic states of the Al-uracil complex. This isomer is formed by Al binding to the O4 atom of the diketo tautomer of uracil and has a planar Cs symmetry. The ground electronic states of the neutral and ionized species are 2A' ' and 1A', respectively. The 2A' ' neutral state has a slightly shorter Al-O4 distance than the 1A' ion state. However, the 1A' ion state has stronger metal-ligand binding compared to the 2A' ' state. The increased Al-O4 distance from the 2A' ' state to the 1A' state is attributed to the loss of the pi binding interaction between Al and O4 in the singlet ion state, whereas the increased metal-ligand binding strength is due to the additional charge-dipole interaction in the ion that surpasses the loss of the pi orbital interaction.

  19. Detection of a noble gas molecular ion, 36ArH+, in the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Barlow, M J; Swinyard, B M; Owen, P J; Cernicharo, J; Gomez, H L; Ivison, R J; Krause, O; Lim, T L; Matsuura, M; Miller, S; Olofsson, G; Polehampton, E T

    2013-12-13

    Noble gas molecules have not hitherto been detected in space. From spectra obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the detection of emission in the 617.5- and 1234.6-gigahertz J = 1-0 and 2-1 rotational lines of (36)ArH(+) at several positions in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant known to contain both molecular hydrogen and regions of enhanced ionized argon emission. Argon-36 is believed to have originated from explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars during core-collapse supernova events. Its detection in the Crab Nebula, the product of such a supernova event, confirms this expectation. The likely excitation mechanism for the observed (36)ArH(+) emission lines is electron collisions in partially ionized regions with electron densities of a few hundred per centimeter cubed.

  20. Detection of a Noble Gas Molecular Ion, 36ArH+, in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Cernicharo, J.; Gomez, H. L.; Ivison, R. J.; Krause, O.; Lim, T. L.; Matsuura, M.; Miller, S.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.

    2013-12-01

    Noble gas molecules have not hitherto been detected in space. From spectra obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the detection of emission in the 617.5- and 1234.6-gigahertz J = 1-0 and 2-1 rotational lines of 36ArH+ at several positions in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant known to contain both molecular hydrogen and regions of enhanced ionized argon emission. Argon-36 is believed to have originated from explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars during core-collapse supernova events. Its detection in the Crab Nebula, the product of such a supernova event, confirms this expectation. The likely excitation mechanism for the observed 36ArH+ emission lines is electron collisions in partially ionized regions with electron densities of a few hundred per centimeter cubed.

  1. Mapping the gas kinematics and ionization structure of four ultraluminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, R. J.; Crawford, C. S.; Abraham, R. G.

    1999-10-01

    We present a study of the morphology, kinematics and ionization structure of the extended emission-line regions in four intermediate-redshift (0.118gas kinematics in the hyperluminous system IRAS F20460+1925 lack coherent structure, with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) >1000kms-1 within 1arcsec of the nucleus, suggesting that any merger is well-advanced. Emission-line intensity ratios point to active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization for the excitation of this gas at the systemic velocity. An isolated blob ~8kpc from the nucleus with a much smaller velocity dispersion may lie in a structure similar to the photoionization cones seen in lower-luminosity objects. A second, spatially unresolved, narrow-line component is also present on nucleus, blueshifted by ~=990kms-1 from the systemic and plausibly powered by photoionizing shocks. IRAS F23060+0505 has more ordered kinematics, with a region of increased FWHM coincident with the blue half of a dipolar velocity field. The systemic velocity rotation curve is asymmetric in appearance, as a result either of the on-going merger or of nuclear dust obscuration. From a higher-resolution ISIS spectrum, we attribute the blue asymmetry in the narrow-line profiles to a spatially resolved nuclear outflow. Emission-line intensity ratios suggest shock+precursor ionization for the systemic component, consistent with the X-ray view of a heavily obscured AGN. The lower-luminosity objects IRAS F01217+0122 and F01003-2238 complete the sample. The former has a featureless velocity field with a high FWHM, a high-ionization AGN spectrum and a ~1Gyr old starburst continuum. IRAS F01003-2238 has a dipolar velocity field and an Hii region emission-line spectrum with a strong blue continuum. After correction for intrinsic extinction, the latter can be reproduced with ~107 O5 stars, sufficient to power the bolometric luminosity of the

  2. A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J Christopher

    2011-11-18

    Without a source of new gas, our Galaxy would exhaust its supply of gas through the formation of stars. Ionized gas clouds observed at high velocity may be a reservoir of such gas, but their distances are key for placing them in the galactic halo and unraveling their role. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to blindly search for ionized high-velocity clouds (iHVCs) in the foreground of galactic stars. We show that iHVCs with 90 ≤ |v(LSR)| ≲ 170 kilometers per second (where v(LSR) is the velocity in the local standard of rest frame) are within one galactic radius of the Sun and have enough mass to maintain star formation, whereas iHVCs with |v(LSR)| ≳ 170 kilometers per second are at larger distances. These may be the next wave of infalling material.

  3. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA. I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Aalto, S.; Krips, M.; Viti, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Schinnerer, E.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Casasola, V.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Labiano, A.; Martín, S.; Márquez, I.; Muller, S.; Planesas, P.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Spaans, M.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self-regulate. Methods: We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas (n(H2) ≃ 105 - 6 cm-3) tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ~ 2 kpc of NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ~0.3″ - 0.5″ (~20-35 pc for the assumed distance of D = 14 Mpc). Results: The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give an unprecedented detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas (n(H2) ≥ 105 - 6cm-3) in NGC 1068. Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ~ 200 pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6 kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ~ 1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN, and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), betraying ongoing feedback. We used the dust continuum fluxes measured by ALMA together with NIR/MIR data to constrain the properties of the putative torus using CLUMPY models and found a torus radius of 20+6-10pc. The Fourier decomposition of the gas velocity field indicates that rotation is perturbed by an inward radial flow in the SB ring and the bar region. However, the gas kinematics from r ~ 50 pc out to r ~ 400 pc reveal a massive (Mmol~ 2.7+0.9-1.2 × 107 M⊙) outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. Conclusions: The molecular outflow is likely

  4. Circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 detected with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas residing within 100 pc of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the galaxy M87 (3C 274), using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to image the gas on spatial scales from 100 to 10 pc. The proximity of M87, the archetypical giant elliptical radio galaxy at the centre of the Virgo galaxy cluster, presents a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the circumnuclear molecular gas revealed first by single-dish observations and recently imaged for the first time with ALMA (Vlahakis et al., in prep). ALMA's unique long baseline capability now allows us to make the first detailed investigation of the properties of the interstellar medium around the galaxy's SMBH on scales down to 10 pc (0.1 arcsec). Here, we present results of ALMA Band 3 CO J=1-0 observations obtained at different angular resolutions. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas as well as the continuum emission, providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution images yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy. The highest resolution data allow us to unambiguously resolve the molecular gas structures for the first time and investigate, in unprecedented detail, the nature and origin of molecular gas that resides within the sphere of influence of the SMBH.

  5. Plasma ionization frequency, edge-to-axis density ratio, and density on axis of a cylindrical gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H.

    2014-06-15

    A rigorous derivation of expressions, starting from the governing equations, for the ionization frequency, edge-to-axis ratio of plasma density, plasma density at the axis, and radially averaged plasma density in a cylindrical gas discharge has been obtained. The derived expressions are simple and involve the relevant parameters of the discharge: Cylinder radius, axial current, and neutral gas pressure. The found expressions account for ion inertia, ion temperature, and changes in plasma ion collisionality.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Cyanide and Thiocyanate in Plasma by Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (CI-GC-MS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-04

    ORIGINAL PAPER Simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in plasma by chemical ionization gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (CI-GC-MS...chemical ioniza- tion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocya- nate in plasma...Sample preparation for this analysis required essentially one-step by combining the reaction of cyanide and thiocyanate with pentafluorobenzyl bromide

  7. Nanostructured solid substrates for efficient laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-12-07

    Analytical applications often require rapid measurement of compounds from complex sample mixtures. High-speed mass spectrometry approaches frequently utilize techniques based on direct ionization of the sample by laser irradiation, mostly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Compounds of low molecular weight are difficult to analyze by MALDI, however, because of severe interferences in the low m/z range from the organic matrix used for desorption/ionization. In recent years, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) techniques have shown promise for small molecule analysis, due to the unique properties of nanostructured surfaces, in particular, the lack of a chemical background in the low m/z range and enhanced production of analyte ions by SALDI. This short review article presents a summary of the most promising recent developments in SALDI materials for MS analysis of low molecular weight analytes, with emphasis on nanostructured materials based on metals and semiconductors.

  8. Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. VI. The Spitzer-IRS view. Basic data set analysis and empirical spectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuzzo, P.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Vega, O.; Annibali, F.; Buson, L. M.; Clemens, M. S.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    Context. A large fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) shows emission lines in their optical spectra, mostly with LINER characteristics. Despite the number of studies, the nature of the ionization mechanisms is still debated. Many ETGs also show several signs of rejuvenation episodes. Aims: We aim to investigate the ionization mechanisms and the physical processes of a sample of ETGs using mid-infrared spectra. Methods: We present here low resolution Spitzer-IRS spectra of 40 ETGs, 18 of which from our proposed Cycle 3 observations, selected from a sample of 65 ETGs showing emission lines in their optical spectra. We homogeneously extract the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, and after the proper subtraction of a "passive" ETG template, we derive the intensity of the ionic and molecular lines and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. We use MIR diagnostic diagrams to investigate the powering mechanisms of the ionized gas. Results: The mid-infrared spectra of early-type galaxies show a variety of spectral characteristics. We empirically sub-divide the sample into five classes of spectra with common characteristics. Class-0, accounting for 20% of the sample, are purely passive ETGs with neither emission lines nor PAH features. Class-1 show emission lines but no PAH features, and account for 17.5% of the sample. Class-2, in which 50% of the ETGs are found, as well as having emission lines, show PAH features with unusual ratios, e.g. 7.7 μm/11.3 μm ≤ 2.3. Class-3 objects (7.5% of the sample) have emission lines and PAH features with ratios typical of star-forming galaxies. Class-4, containing only 5% of the ETGs, is dominated by a hot dust continuum. The diagnostic diagram [Ne iii]15.55 μm/[Ne ii]12.8 μm vs. [S iii]33.48 μm/[Si ii]34.82 μm, is used to investigate the different mechanisms ionizing the gas. According to the above diagram most of our ETGs contain gas ionized via either AGN-like or shock phenomena, or both. Conclusions: Most of

  9. Determination of BROMATE AT PARTS-PER-TRILLION LEVELS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ozonation of bromide-containing source waters produces bromate as a class 2B carcinogenic disinfection by-product. The present work describes the determination of bromate by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCIMS) following a bromate react...

  10. Photoelectron angular distributions in molecular above threshold ionization by two colour circularly polarized ultrashort UV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2013-10-01

    Photoionization of an aligned molecular ion H? has been investigated with two colour circularly polarized ultrashort UV laser pulses by numerically solving the corresponding time dependent Schrödinger equation. Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in molecular above threshold ionization (MATI) exhibit: (i) asymmetry resulting from interference of coherent electron wave packets from multiple pathway ionization, which depends critically on the relative carrier envelope phase (CEP) ? between the two colour laser pulses and photoelectron kinetic energies; (ii) rotation with respect to the molecular symmetry axes due to effects of the nonspherical two center Coulomb potential. Such features are described by multi-photon perturbative theoretical ionization models. The ionization probability is functions of both the CEP ? and the angle ? between the electron emission and the molecular axis. The influence of pulse intensity and ellipticity on PADs in MATI is also investigated. It is found that the asymmetry depends on the pulse intensity whereas the rotation angle is shown to be sensitive to the pulse ellipticity, both reflecting the orientation dependence of molecular ionization probabilities.

  11. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. V. [Ne ii], MULTIPLE CLUSTERS, HIGH EFFICIENCY STAR FORMATION, AND BLUE FLOWS IN HE 2–10

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2015-11-20

    We measured the 12.8 μm [Ne ii] line in the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 with the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF. The data cube has a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of ∼1″ and a total velocity resolution, including thermal broadening, of ∼5 km s{sup −1}. This makes it possible to compare the kinematics of individual star-forming clumps and molecular clouds in the three dimensions of space and velocity, and allows us to determine star formation efficiencies. The kinematics of the ionized gas confirm that the starburst contains multiple dense clusters. From the M/R of the clusters and the ≃30%–40% star formation efficiencies, the clusters are likely to be bound and long lived, like globulars. Non-gravitational features in the line profiles show how the ionized gas flows through the ambient molecular material, as well as a narrow velocity feature, which we identify with the interface of the H ii region and a cold dense clump. These data offer an unprecedented view of the interaction of embedded H ii regions with their environment.

  12. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  13. Molecular Gas In Young Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, Attila

    2016-07-01

    Debris disks are generally thought to be the gas poor descendants of protoplanetary disks. While this characteristic may be true for most debris systems, recent surveys in rotational transitions of carbon monoxide led to a growing sample of debris disks where gas has been detected. The origin of gas in these disks is unclear yet. It may be secondary, i.e., similarly to dust grains it is continuously replenished via erosion of larger bodies. However, because of their youth, one cannot exclude that some disks may be hybrid in the sense that they retain their residual primordial gas, while the dust component may predominantly be second generation. The first observations of gaseous debris disks with ALMA provided examples of both types. This talk will review the currently known CO-rich debris disks with special emphasis on the origin of gas and on the commonly shared disk/host star properties.

  14. TANGO I: Interstellar medium in nearby radio galaxies. Molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Leon, S.; Combes, F.; Lim, J.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Powerful radio-AGN are hosted by massive elliptical galaxies that are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless, gas is needed at their very center to feed the nuclear activity. Aims: We study the molecular gas properties (i.e., mass, kinematics, distribution, origin) of these objects, and compare them with results for other known samples. Methods: At the IRAM-30m telescope, we performed a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio continuum fluxes. Results: The main result of our survey is that the molecular gas content of these galaxies is very low compared to spiral or FIR-selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, including detections and upper limits, is 2.2 × 108 M⊙. When separated into FR-I and FR-II types, a difference in their H2 masses is found. The median value of FR-I galaxies is about 1.9 × 108 M⊙ and higher for FR-II galaxies, at about 4.5 × 108 M⊙. Which is probably entirely because of a Malmquist bias. Our results contrast with those of previous surveys, whose targets were mainly selected by means of their FIR emission, implying that we measure higher observed masses of molecular gas. Moreover, the shape of CO spectra suggest that a central molecular gas disk exists in 30% of these radio galaxies, a lower rate than in other active galaxy samples. Conclusions: We find a low level of molecular gas in our sample of radio-selected AGNs, indicating that galaxies do not need much molecular gas to host an AGN. The presence of a molecular gas disk in some galaxies and the wide range of molecular gas masses may be indicative of different origins for the gas, which we can not exclude at present (e.g., minor/major mergers, stellar mass loss, or accretion). Appendices and Figure 15 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Dust trap formation in a non-self-sustained discharge with external gas ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A. V. Babichev, V. N.; Pal’, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Cherkovets, V. E.; Rerikh, V. K.; Taran, M. D.

    2015-11-15

    Results from numerical studies of a non-self-sustained gas discharge containing micrometer dust grains are presented. The non-self-sustained discharge (NSSD) was controlled by a stationary fast electron beam. The numerical model of an NSSD is based on the diffusion drift approximation for electrons and ions and self-consistently takes into account the influence of the dust component on the electron and ion densities. The dust component is described by the balance equation for the number of dust grains and the equation of motion for dust grains with allowance for the Stokes force, gravity force, and electric force in the cathode sheath. The interaction between dust grains is described in the self-consistent field approximation. The height of dust grain levitation over the cathode is determined and compared with experimental results. It is established that, at a given gas ionization rate and given applied voltage, there is a critical dust grain size above which the levitation condition in the cathode sheath cannot be satisfied. Simulations performed for the dust component consisting of dust grains of two different sizes shows that such grains levitate at different heights, i.e., size separation of dust drains levitating in the cathode sheath of an NSSD takes place.

  16. Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Magellanic System: Early Results from WHAM-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Madsen, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    From its new vantage point at CTIO, the Wisconsin Hα Mapper is poised to explore the full distribution and kinematics of diffuse plasma in extended gaseous structures near the Magellanic Clouds. Shaped by the interaction between the Clouds and the Milky Way, the Bridge, Stream, and Leading Arm gas complexes have been studied extensively in 21 cm emission and optical/UV absorption. With spectral resolution of 12 km/s, WHAM is able to separate optical emission from these structures and brighter local gas near vLSR 0 km/s. Combined with its unprecedented sensitivity to the limit of atmospheric line confusion ( 10s of mR), we are embarking on a survey of the ionized component of the Magellanic System with WHAM. With observations of the southern component of our all-sky survey nearly completed, we have begun to examine some emission features toward the Magellanic System. Here we present a sample of several regions observed recently with WHAM in Hα. WHAM was built and continues to operate with ongoing support from NSF. The research presented here is currently funded by award AST-0607512 and an International Program Development Fund from the University of Sydney.

  17. Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guihua; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Yao et al. demonstrated the creation of coherent emissions in nitrogen gas with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) ultrafast laser pulses [J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, New J. Phys. 15, 023046 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/2/023046]. Based on this two-color scheme, here we report on systematic investigation of temporal characteristics of the radiation emitted at 391 nm [N2+: B2Σu+(ν =0) -X2Σg+(ν =0)] by experimentally examining its temporal profiles with the increase of the plasma channel induced by the intense 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses at a nitrogen-gas pressure of ˜25 mbar. We reveal unexpected temporal profiles of the coherent emissions, which show significant superradiance signatures owing to the cooperation of an ensemble of excited N2+ molecules that are coherently radiating in phase. Our findings shed more light on the mechanisms behind the coherent laserlike emissions induced by strong-field ionization of molecules.

  18. Ionized gas diagnostics from protoplanetary discs in the Orion nebula and the abundance discrepancy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa-Delgado, A.; Núñez-Díaz, M.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Flores-Fajardo, N.; López-Martín, L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Henney, W. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy of a field located near the Trapezium Cluster using the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS). The observed field contains a variety of morphological structures: five externally ionized protoplanetary discs (also known as proplyds), the high-velocity jet HH 514 and a bowshock. Spatial distribution maps are obtained for different emission line fluxes, the c(Hβ) extinction coefficient, electron densities and temperatures, ionic abundances of different ions from collisionally excited lines (CELs), C2 + and O2 + abundances from recombination lines (RLs) and the abundance discrepancy factor of O2 +, ADF(O2 +). We distinguish the three most prominent proplyds (177-341, 170-337 and 170-334) and analyse their impact on the spatial distributions of the above mentioned quantities. We find that collisional de-excitation has a major influence on the line fluxes in the proplyds. If this is not properly accounted for then physical conditions deduced from commonly used line ratios will be in error, leading to unreliable chemical abundances for these objects. We obtain the intrinsic emission of the proplyds 177-341, 170-337 and 170-334 by a direct subtraction of the background emission, though the last two present some background contamination due to their small sizes. A detailed analysis of 177-341 spectra making use of suitable density diagnostics reveals the presence of high-density gas (3.8 × 105 cm-3) in contrast to the typical values observed in the background gas of the nebula (3800 cm-3). We also explore how the background subtraction could be affected by the possible opacity of the proplyd and its effect on the derivation of physical conditions and chemical abundances of the proplyd 177-341. We construct a physical model for the proplyd 177-341 finding a good agreement between the predicted and observed line ratios. Finally, we find that the use of reliable physical conditions returns an ADF(O2 +) about zero

  19. The Properties and the Evolution of the Highly Ionized Gas in MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, hagai; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Nandra, Kirpal; Turner, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first XMM-Newton observations of the radio-quiet quasar MR 2251-178 obtained in 2000 and 2002. The EPIC-pn spectra show a power-law continuum with a slope of Gamma = 1.6 at high energies absorbed by at least two warm absorbers (WAs) intrinsic to the source. The underlying continuum in the earlier observation shows a soft excess at low X-ray energies which can be modeled as an additional power-law with Gamma = 2.9. The spectra also show a weak narrow iron K alpha emission line. The high-resolution grating spectrum obtained in 2002 shows emission lines from N VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X, as well as absorption lines from the low-ionization ions of O III, O IV, and O V, and other confirmed and suspected weaker absorption lines. The O III - O V lines are consistent with the properties of the emission line gas observed as extended optical (O III) emission in this source. The signal-to-noise of the 2000 grating data is too low to detect any lines. We suggest a model for the high-resolution spectrum which consist of two or three warm-absorber (WA) components. The two-components model has a high-ionization WA with a column density of 10(exp 21.5)-10 (exp 21.8) sq cm and a low-ionization absorber with a column density of 10(exp 20.3) sq cm. In the three-components model we add a lower ionization component that produces the observed iron M-shell absorption lines. We investigate the spectral variations in MR 2251-178 over a period of 8.5 years using data from ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton. All X-ray observations can be fitted with the above two power laws and the two absorbers. The observed luminosity variations seems to correlate with variations in the soft X-ray continuum. The 8.5 year history of the source suggests a changing X-ray absorber due to material that enters and disappears from the line-of-sight on timescales of several months. We also present, for the first time, the entire FUSE spectrum of MR 2251-178. We detect emission from N III, C III

  20. Characterization of B- and C-type low molecular weight glutenin subunits by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muccilli, Vera; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore; Masci, Stefania; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are typically subdivided into three groups, according to their molecular weights and isoelectric points, namely the B-, C-, and D groups. Enriched B- and C-type LMW-GS fractions extracted from the bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly interfaced with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and HPLC coupled off-line with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, in order to ascertain the number and relative molecular masses of the components present in each fraction and determine the number of cysteine residues. About 70 components were detected in each of the fractions examined by the combined use of these two techniques, with 18 components common to both fractions. Analysis of the fractions after alkylation with 4-vinylpyridine allowed determination of the number of the cysteines present in about 40 subunits. The proteins detected were tentatively classified based on the relative molecular masses and number of cysteine residues. Cross-contamination was found in both B- and C- fractions, along with the presence of D-type LMW-GS. The two fractions also contained unexpected components, probably lipid transfer proteins and omega-gliadins. The presence of extensive microheterogeneity was suggested by the detection of several co-eluting proteins with minor differences in their molecular masses.

  1. Molecular-weight distributions of coal and petroleum asphaltenes from laser desorption/ionization experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ana R. Hortal; Paola Hurtado; Bruno Martinez-Haya; Oliver C. Mullins

    2007-09-15

    Molecular-weight distributions (MWDs) of asphaltenes extracted from coal and petroleum have been measured in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric experiments. The dried-droplet and solvent-free sample preparation methods are compared. The coal asphaltenes have a relatively narrow MWD (full width 150 amu) with an average molecular weight of 340 amu. The petroleum asphaltenes display a broader MWD (full width 300 amu) and are heavier on average (680 amu). The LDI spectra also provide evidence for the formation of noncovalent clusters of the two types of asphaltenes during the desorption process. Petroleum and coal asphaltenes exhibit aggregation as do large model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with five or more fused rings also included in the study. Smaller PAHs (pyrene) exhibit less aggregation, especially when alkane-chain substituents are incorporated to the molecular structure. This indicates that asphaltenes possess large PAHs and, according to the relatively small molecular weights observed, that there is a preponderance of asphaltene molecules with only a single fused ring system. The coal asphaltenes present a significantly smaller propensity toward aggregation than their crude oil counterparts. This finding, coupled with the fact that (1) alkanes inhibit aggregation in LDI and (2) petroleum asphaltenes possess much more alkane carbon, indicates that coal asphaltenes have smaller PAHs on average than petroleum asphaltenes. This is further corroborated by the stronger ultraviolet absorbance of the coal asphaltenes at wavelengths shorter than 400 nm. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2010-07-01

    The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12 + log(O/H) < 7.65, or ) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allows us the robust detection of non-circular gas motions. These data, in turn, indicate the important role of current/recent interactions and mergers in the observed enhanced SF. As a by-product of our observations, we obtained data for two Low Surface Brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies: Anon J012544+075957 that is a companion of the merger system UGC 993, and SAO 0822+3545 which shows off-centre, asymmetric, low star formation rate star-forming regions, likely induced by the interaction with the companion XMD dwarf HS 0822+3542. Based on observations obtained with the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS 6-m telescope. E-mail: moisav@gmail.com (AVM); sap@sao.ru (SAP); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK)

  3. FUSE and STIS Observations of Highly Ionized Gas along the Line of Sight towards HD 116852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, A. J.; Savage, B. D.; Fabian, D.; Richter, P.; Sembach, K. R.; Meyer, D. M.; Lauroesch, J.; Howk, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of high ion interstellar ultraviolet absorption along the sight line to HD 116852. At a distance of 4.8 kpc, HD 116852 is an O9 III star lying in the low Galactic halo, -1.3 kpc from the plane of the Galaxy in the direction l = 304.9o, b = -6.1o. The sight line passes underneath the Sagittarius-Carina and the Norma-Centaurus spiral arms. The STIS E140H grating observations provide high-resolution (FWHM ≈ 2.7 km s-1) spectra of the resonance doublets of Si 4, C 4 and N 5. These data are complemented by medium-resolution (FWHM ≈ 20 km s-1) FUSE spectra of O 6. We find evidence for three distinct types of absorbing gas present in the data. First, two narrow absorption components are resolved in the Si 4 and \\ion {C}{4} profiles, at approximate LSR velocities of -36 and -10 km s-1. These narrow components appear to be produced in gas associated with the Norma and Sagittarius spiral arms, at approximate z-distances of -1.0 and -0.5 kpc respectively. The temperature of the gas in in these narrow components, as implied by their b-values, suggests that the gas is photoionized. The ratio of C 4 to Si 4 in these narrow components is low compared to the Galactic average. Second, we detect an intermediate-width component in C 4 and Si 4, at +17 km s-1, which we propose could arise at the conductive interface at the boundary between a dense cloud and the surrounding medium. Finally, a broad collisionally ionized component of gas responsible for producing the smooth N 5 and O 6 profiles is observed; such absorption is also present to a lesser degree in the profiles of Si 4 and \\ion {C}{4}. The broad O 6 absorption is observed at a velocity displaced from the C 4 profile by almost 20 km s-1, an amount large enough to suggest that the two ions may not co-exist in the same physical location. If these two ions do exist together, then the ratio N(C 4)/N(O 6) is

  4. Detection of trace levels of triclopyr using capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Begley, P; Foulger, B E

    1988-04-01

    Triclopyr, after esterification, is shown to be a suitable candidate for detection by gas chromatography-electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry forming a characteristic carboxylate anion which offers a high detection sensitivity. A detection limit of 70 fg reaching the ionizer is indicated. Low backgrounds and an absence of chemical interferences are shown for vegetation extracts, using a simple method of extraction and derivatisation. A similar behaviour is demonstrated for 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

  5. Numerical models of steady-state and pulsating flows of self-ionizing gas in plasma accelerator channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brushlinskii, K. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Konovalov, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper continues the series of numerical investigations of self-ionizing gas flows in plasma accelerator channels with an azimuthal magnetic field. The mathematical model is based on the equations of dynamics of a three-component continuous medium consisting of atoms, ions, and electrons; the model is supplemented with the equation of ionization and recombination kinetics within the diffusion approximation with account for photoionization and photorecombination. It also takes into account heat exchange, which in this case is caused by radiative heat conductance. Upon a short history of the issue, the proposed model, numerical methods, and results for steady-state and pulsating flows are described.

  6. HST/COS Observations of Ionized Gas Accretion at the Disk–Halo Interface of M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Peek, J. E. G.; Werk, J. K.; Putman, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of accreting ionized gas at the disk–halo interface of the nearby galaxy M33. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph absorption-line spectra of seven ultraviolet-bright stars evenly distributed across the disk of M33. We find Si iv absorption components consistently redshifted relative to the bulk M33's ISM absorption along all the sightlines. The Si iv detection indicates an enriched, disk-wide, ionized gas inflow toward the disk. This inflow is most likely multi-phase as the redshifted components can also be observed in ions with lower ionization states (e.g., S ii, P ii, Fe ii, Si ii). Kinematic modeling of the inflow is consistent with an accreting layer at the disk–halo interface of M33, which has an accretion velocity of {110}-20+15 {km} {{{s}}}-1 at a distance of {1.5}-1.0+1.0 kpc above the disk. The modeling indicates a total mass of ∼3.9 × 107 M⊙ for the accreting material at the disk–halo interface on the near side of the M33 disk, with an accretion rate of ∼2.9 M⊙ yr‑1. The high accretion rate and the level of metal enrichment suggest the inflow is likely to be the fallback of M33 gas from a galactic fountain and/or the gas pulled loosed during a close interaction between M31 and M33. Our study of M33 is the first to unambiguously reveal the existence of a disk-wide, ionized gas inflow beyond the Milky Way, providing a better understanding of gas accretion in the vicinity of a galaxy disk.

  7. Molecular above-threshold ionization spectra as an evidence of the three-point interference of electron wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasović, Elvedin; Milošević, Dejan B.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, Azra; Čerkić, Aner; Busuladžić, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    We consider high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of polyatomic molecules ionized by a strong linearly polarized laser field. Improved molecular strong-field approximation by which the HATI process on polyatomic molecular species can be described is developed. Using this theory we calculate photoelectron angular-energy spectra for different triatomic molecules. Special attention is devoted to the minima that are observed in the calculated high-energy electron spectra of the ozone and carbon dioxide molecules. A key difference between these minima and minima that are observed in the corresponding spectra of diatomic molecules are presented.

  8. An ALMA detection of circumnuclear molecular gas in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.; Leon, Stephane; Martin, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).M87 (3C 274) is an archetypal giant elliptical galaxy at the centre of the Virgo cluster and is a unique object in which to study the origin and properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a radio galaxy located in a dense environment. While a very well-known object across most of the electromagnetic spectrum, M87 has long lacked a detailed study in the (sub)millimeter range, requiring the advance in both sensitivity and angular resolution only now made possible by ALMA.Molecular gas in the inner part of M87 has previously been detected in single-dish observations, suggesting that the molecular gas likely resides in a circumnuclear disk-like structure. However, the unique ALMA capabilities now allow us to make the first detailed, interferometric, investigation of the properties of the ISM around the galaxy's supermassive black hole.Here, we present results of ALMA band 3 and 7 data which we have used to map the CO J=1-0 and CO J=3-2 lines, respectively. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas, the warmer denser gas, and the continuum emission, at an angular resolution of 1 arcsecond (~80 pc), providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution image yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy.

  9. IZI: INFERRING THE GAS PHASE METALLICITY (Z) AND IONIZATION PARAMETER (q) OF IONIZED NEBULAE USING BAYESIAN STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Kewley, Lisa; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.

    2015-01-10

    We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of H II regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SELs). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photoionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics, the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photoionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extragalactic H II regions, we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local H II regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photoionization models in the literature can be in good (∼30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically ∼0.2 dex lower than both RL and photoionization-model-based abundances.

  10. Molecular Ionization-Desorption Analysis Source (MIDAS) for Mass Spectrometry: Thin-Layer Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Gregory T.; Wilhide, Joshua A.; LaCourse, William R.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular ionization-desorption analysis source (MIDAS), which is a desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) type source, for mass spectrometry has been developed as a multi-functional platform for the direct sampling of surfaces. In this article, its utility for the analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is highlighted. Amino acids, which are difficult to visualize without staining reagents or charring, were detected and identified directly from a TLC plate. To demonstrate the full potential of MIDAS, all active ingredients from an analgesic tablet, separated on a TLC plate, were successfully detected using both positive and negative ion modes. The identity of each of the compounds was confirmed from their mass spectra and compared against standards. Post separation, the chemical signal (blue permanent marker) as reference marks placed at the origin and solvent front were used to calculate retention factor (Rf) values from the resulting ion chromatogram. The quantitative capabilities of the device were exhibited by scanning caffeine spots on a TLC plate of increasing sample amount. A linear curve based on peak are, R2 = 0.994, was generated for seven spots ranging from 50 to 1000 ng of caffeine per spot.

  11. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Technique to Access the Information beyond the Molecular Weight of the Analyte

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-01-01

    The Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique extensively used for production of gas phase ions (without fragmentation) of thermally labile large supramolecules. In the present review we have described the development of Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) during the last 25 years in the study of various properties of different types of biological molecules. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism of formation of charged gaseous species by the ESI. Several groups have investigated the origin and implications of the multiple charge states of proteins observed in the ESI-mass spectra of the proteins. The charged analytes produced by ESI can be fragmented by activating them in the gas-phase, and thus tandem mass spectrometry has been developed, which provides very important insights on the structural properties of the molecule. The review will highlight recent developments and emerging directions in this fascinating area of research. PMID:22611397

  12. Molecular identification of Mucorales in human tissues: contribution of PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alanio, A; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Mercier-Delarue, S; Lanternier, F; Gits-Muselli, M; Menotti, J; Denis, B; Bergeron, A; Legrand, M; Lortholary, O; Bretagne, S

    2015-06-01

    Molecular methods are crucial for mucormycosis diagnosis because cultures are frequently negative, even if microscopy suggests the presence of hyphae in tissues. We assessed PCR/electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) for Mucorales identification in 19 unfixed tissue samples from 13 patients with proven or probable mucormycosis and compared the results with culture, quantitative real-time PCR, 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region (ITS PCR) and 18S PCR sequencing. Concordance with culture identification to both genus and species levels was higher for PCR/ESI-MS than for the other techniques. Thus, PCR/ESI-MS is suitable for Mucorales identification, within 6 hours, for tissue samples for which microscopy results suggest the presence of hyphae.

  13. A combined electron-ion spectrometer for studying complete kinematics of molecular dissociation upon shell selective ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, K.; Banerjee, S. B.; Bapat, B.

    2013-07-15

    A combined electron-ion spectrometer has been built to study dissociation kinematics of molecular ions upon various electronic decay processes ensuing from ionization of neutral molecules. The apparatus can be used with various ionization agents. Ion time-of-flight (ToF) spectra arising from various electronic decay processes are acquired by triggering the ToF measurement in coincidence with energy analyzed electrons. The design and the performance of the spectrometer in a photoionization experiment is presented in detail. Electron spectra and ion time of flight spectra resulting from valence and 2p{sub 1/2} ionization of Argon and those from valence ionization of CO are presented to demonstrate the capability of the instrument. The fragment ion spectra show remarkable differences (both kinematic and cross sectional) dependent on the energy of the ejected electron, corresponding to various electron loss and decay mechanisms in dissociative photoionization of molecules.

  14. Towards More Accurate Measurements of the Ionization Energy of Molecular Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprecher, D.; Beyer, M.; Liu, J.; Merkt, F.; Salumbides, E.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.; Jungen, Ch.

    2013-06-01

    With two electrons and two protons, molecular hydrogen is the simplest molecule displaying all features of a chemical bond. H_2 is therefore a fundamental system for testing molecular quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics in molecules. The test can be performed by comparing measured and calculated intervals between different rovibronic states of H_2. Two further quantities that can be used for this test are the dissociation and ionization energies of H_2, and considerable efforts have been invested over more than 80 years to improve the precision and accuracy of experimental and theoretical determination of these two quantities. The current status of the comparison is that the theoretical and experimental values of the ionization and dissociation energies of H_2 agree within the combined uncertainty of 30 MHz (see also). The factors currently limiting the precision of the experimental determination will be discussed and the strategies that are being implemented towards overcoming these limitations will be presented. A long-term goal is to achieve a precision of better than 15 kHz, which is the ultimate limit imposed on the accuracy of the theoretical determination by the current uncertainty of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov and W. Ubachs, {Phys. Rev. Lett.} 107 (4), 043005 (2011). K. Piszczatowski, G. Lach, M. Przybytek, J. Komasa, K. Pachuckiand and B. Jeziorski, {J. Chem. Theory Comput.} 5 (11), 3039 (2009). J. Liu, E. J. Salumbides, U. Hollenstein, J. C. J. Koelemeij, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs and F. Merkt, {J. Chem. Phys.} 130 (17), 174306 (2009). D. Sprecher, Ch. Jungen, W. Ubachs and F. Merkt, {Faraday Discuss.} 150, 51 (2011).

  15. Self-injection and acceleration of electrons during ionization of gas atoms by a short laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.P.

    2006-04-15

    Using a relativistic three-dimensional single-particle code, acceleration of electrons created during the ionization of nitrogen and oxygen gas atoms by a laser pulse has been studied. Barrier suppression ionization model has been used to calculate ionization time of the bound electrons. The energy gained by the electrons peaks for an optimum value of laser spot size. The electrons created near the tail do not gain sufficient energy for a long duration laser pulse. The electrons created at the tail of pulse escape before fully interacting with the trailing part of the pulse for a short duration laser pulse, which causes electrons to retain sufficient energy. If a suitable frequency chirp is introduced then energy of the electrons created at the tail of the pulse further increases.

  16. Observations of columnal recombination in the ionization tracks of energetic heavy nuclei in an argon-methane gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of ionization signals resulting from the passage of energetic heavy nuclei through a gas mixture consisting of 95 mol percent Ar plus 5 mol percent CH4, at an absolute pressure of 3 atm are presented. The measurements take place under a uniform electric field perpendicular to the ionization track. The signals were compared to the calculated energy losses, with an assumption of proportionality between energy loss rate and ionization rate. Significant deviations from proportionality are found for energy loss rate grater than about 3000 MeV sq cm/g, while fractional deviations are found to be proportional to the energy loss rate (dE/dx) exp m, where m is equal to about two. These results are attributed to the columnal recombination.

  17. High S/N Observations of Low-Ionization Gas Through the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. M.; Roth, K. C.; Savage, B. D.; Lu, L.

    1993-12-01

    Optical absorption-line studies of extragalactic objects can now provide a sensitive probe of low-ionization gas over the full extent of the Galactic halo. Such work is particularly pertinent to a better understanding of the distances, metallicities, and sky coverage of the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) primarily observed in H I 21 cm emission. We have recently obtained high S/N, high resolution (20 km s(-1) ) KPNO 4-m echelle observations of the Ca II absorption toward the QSO 1821+643, the Seyfert galaxy Mkn 231, and SN 1993J in the galaxy M81. We detect a weak (W_lambda ~30 m Angstroms) Ca II component at an LSR velocity of -140 km s(-1) toward 1821+643 that corresponds to the Outer Arm H I HVC Complex. In the case of Mkn 231, we find no evidence of high-velocity Ca II absorption despite the location of this sightline near H I HVC Complex C. Our Ca II observations toward SN 1993J are especially exceptional in quality (S/N~500) and reveal absorption due to the Galactic halo, the disk of M81, and intergalactic material in the M81 group. Although the M81 disk gas dominates the absorption in the velocity region encompassing HVC Complex C, we do find a high-velocity component at +228 km s(-1) in Ca II that has also been seen in Mg II absorption with HST (Bowen et al. 1994, Ap. J. (Letters), in press). Our echelle spectra of SN 1993J also reveal detections of other interstellar atoms and molecules such as Ti II, Ca I, and CH(+) \\@. The Ti II measurement is particularly interesting in that it represents the first detection of Ti II toward an extragalactic object and indicates a Ti II scale height of about 1200 pc which is somewhat less than expected from observations of Ti II toward halo stars.

  18. Diffuse gas in retired galaxies: nebular emission templates and constraints on the sources of ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Jonas; Woods, Tyrone E.; Gilfanov, Marat; Sarzi, Marc; Chen, Yan-Mei; Oh, Kyuseok

    2016-10-01

    We present emission-line templates for passively-evolving (`retired') galaxies, useful for investigation of the evolution of the interstellar medium in these galaxies, and characterization of their high-temperature source populations. The templates are based on high signal-to-noise (>800) co-added spectra (3700-6800 Å) of ˜11 500 gas-rich Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies devoid of star formation and active galactic nuclei. Stacked spectra are provided for the entire sample and sub-samples binned by mean stellar age. In our previous paper, Johansson et al., these spectra provided the first measurements of the He II 4686 Å line in passively-evolving galaxies, and the observed He II/Hβ ratio constrained the contribution of accreting white dwarfs (the `single-degenerate' scenario) to the Type Ia supernova rate. In this paper, the full range of unambiguously detected emission lines are presented. Comparison of the observed [O I] 6300 Å/Hα ratio with photoionization models further constrains any high-temperature single-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae (with 1.5 ≲ T/105 K ≲ 10) to ≲3-6 per cent of the observed rate in the youngest age bin (i.e. highest SN Ia rate). Hence, for the same temperatures, in the presence of an ambient population of post-asymptotic giant branch stars, we exclude additional high-temperature sources with a combined ionizing luminosity of ≈1.35 × 1030 L⊙/M⊙,* for stellar populations with mean ages of 1-4 Gyr. Furthermore, we investigate the extinction affecting both the stellar and nebular continuum. The latter shows about five times higher values. This contradicts isotropically distributed dust and gas that renders similar extinction values for both cases.

  19. Testing a Dynamical Equilibrium Model of the Extraplanar Diffuse Ionized Gas in NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Erin; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    The observed scale heights of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) layers exceed their thermal scale heights by a factor of a few in the Milky Way and other nearby edge-on disk galaxies. Here, we test a dynamical equilibrium model of the eDIG layer in NGC 891, where we ask whether the thermal, turbulent, magnetic field, and cosmic-ray pressure gradients are sufficient to support the layer. In optical emission-line spectroscopy from the SparsePak integral field unit on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope, the Hα emission in position-velocity space suggests that the eDIG is found in a ring between galactocentric radii of {R}\\min ≤slant R≤slant 8 {kpc}, where {R}\\min ≥slant 2 {kpc}. We find that the thermal ({σ }{th}=11 km s-1) and turbulent ({σ }{turb}=25 km s-1) velocity dispersions are insufficient to satisfy the hydrostatic equilibrium equation given an exponential electron scale height of {h}z=1.0 {kpc}. Using a literature analysis of radio continuum observations from the CHANG-ES survey, we demonstrate that the magnetic field and cosmic-ray pressure gradients are sufficient to stably support the gas at R≥slant 8 kpc if the cosmic rays are sufficiently coupled to the system ({γ }{cr}=1.45). Thus, a stable dynamical equilibrium model is viable only if the eDIG is found in a thin ring around R = 8 kpc, and nonequilibrium models such as a galactic fountain flow are of interest for further study.

  20. Serum total testosterone: immunoassay compared with negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R L; Herold, D A

    1996-05-01

    We have developed an electron capture negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure to quantify serum testosterone in the clinically relevant range 0.69-69.3 nmol/L and used this procedure to assess Ciba Corning Diagnostics ACS:180 testosterone immunoassay. The GC-MS method involves liquid-liquid extraction of serum samples and synthesis of a pentafluorobenzyloxime/silyl ether derivative of testosterone with excellent chromatographic and electron capturing properties. The ACS testosterone assay is the first fully automated nonradioactive testosterone immunoassay approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Patients' specimens (101, 57 males, 44 females) were analyzed by both techniques. A plot of the GC-MS (x) vs ACS (y) testosterone concentrations for men was linear (y = 1.07x + 0.19 nmol/L), showing excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between the two assays. Agreement of the two assays for female specimens was poor (y = 0.72x + 1.2 nmol/L), with a poor correlation (r2 = 0.31).

  1. Hα and [SII] Emission from Warm Ionized Gas in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alex S.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Gostisha, Martin C.; Barger, Kathleen A.

    2014-06-01

    We present Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper [SII] λ6716 and Hα spectroscopic maps of the warm ionized medium (WIM) in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm at Galactic longitudes 310° < l < 345°. Using extinction-corrected Hα intensities (I_{{H} \\alpha }^c), we measure an exponential scale height of electron density squared in the arm of H_{n_e^2}= 0.30 \\, {kpc} (assuming a distance of 3.5 kpc), intermediate between that observed in the inner Galaxy and in the Perseus Arm. The [S II]/Hα line ratio is enhanced at large |z| and in sightlines with faint I_{{H} \\alpha }^c. We find that the [S II]/Hα line ratio has a power-law relationship with I_{{H} \\alpha }^c from a value of ≈1.0 at I_{{H} \\alpha }^c< 0.2 \\, {R} (Rayleighs) to a value of ≈0.08 at I_{{H} \\alpha }^c\\gtrsim 100 \\, {R}. The line ratio is better correlated with Hα intensity than with height above the plane, indicating that the physical conditions within the WIM vary systematically with electron density. We argue that the variation of the line ratio with height is a consequence of the decrease of electron density with height. Our results reinforce the well-established picture in which the diffuse Hα emission is due primarily to emission from in situ photoionized gas, with scattered light only a minor contributor.

  2. Ethanol analysis by headspace gas chromatography with simultaneous flame-ionization and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Alford, Ilene; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin

    2011-09-01

    Ethanol is the most frequently identified compound in forensic toxicology. Although confirmation involving mass spectrometry is desirable, relatively few methods have been published to date. A novel technique utilizing a Dean's Switch to simultaneously quantitate and confirm ethyl alcohol by flame-ionization (FID) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection after headspace sampling and gas chromatographic separation is presented. Using 100 μL of sample, the limits of detection and quantitation were 0.005 and 0.010 g/dL, respectively. The zero-order linear range (r(2) > 0.990) was determined to span the concentrations of 0.010 to 1.000 g/dL. The coefficient of variation of replicate analyses was less than 3.1%. Quantitative accuracy was within ±8%, ±6%, ±3%, and ±1.5% at concentrations of 0.010, 0.025, 0.080, and 0.300 g/dL, respectively. In addition, 1,1-difluoroethane was validated for qualitative identification by this method. The validated FID-MS method provides a procedure for the quantitation of ethyl alcohol in blood by FID with simultaneous confirmation by MS and can also be utilized as an identification method for inhalants such as 1,1-difluoroethane.

  3. Improved gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analytical method for the analysis of epoxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mubiru, Edward; Shrestha, Kshitij; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-11-29

    In this study an improved method for analysis of epoxy fatty acids is reported. Data obtained from analysis of polar fatty acids has previously been presented, but due to the high number of compounds that co-elute in the polar fraction, the resultant chromatograms are complex which may lead to compromising the accuracy of the data. A three steps separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a silica gel column to remove hydroxy fatty acid interferences was proposed. This approach is opposed to a two step separation procedure that has been often used to prevent analytical interferences caused by non-altered fatty acids. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with a polar CP-Sil 88™ column was used. Quantification was based on the use of methyl nonadecanoate (C19:0), as an internal standard. Individual mono epoxy fatty acids were well separated without co-eluting compounds. The optimized method was finally applied to screen epoxy fatty acids in 37 fresh oil samples. Results obtained for the total epoxy fatty acids were in the range 0.03-2mgg(-1) of oil with repeatability coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 2.8 to 9.9% for duplicate analysis showing that the results obtained are repeatable.

  4. Dense Molecular Gas Tracers in the Outflow of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Fabian; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Leroy, Adam K.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R.; Hodge, Jacqueline; Levy, Rebecca C.; Meier, David S.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Ott, Jürgen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Scoville, Nick; Weiss, Axel; Zschaechner, Laura; Zwaan, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of a molecular outflow feature in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 using ALMA. We find that this feature is clearly associated with the edge of NGC 253's prominent ionized outflow, has a projected length of ∼300 pc, with a width of ∼50 pc, and a velocity dispersion of ∼40 km s‑1, which is consistent with an ejection from the disk about 1 Myr ago. The kinematics of the molecular gas in this feature can be interpreted (albeit not uniquely) as accelerating at a rate of 1 km s‑1 pc‑1. In this scenario, the gas is approaching an escape velocity at the last measured point. Strikingly, bright tracers of dense molecular gas (HCN, CN, HCO+, CS) are also detected in the molecular outflow: we measure an HCN(1–0)/CO(1–0) line ratio of ∼ 1/10 in the outflow, similar to that in the central starburst region of NGC 253 and other starburst galaxies. By contrast, the HCN/CO line ratio in the NGC 253 disk is significantly lower (∼ 1/30), similar to other nearby galaxy disks. This strongly suggests that the streamer gas originates from the starburst, and that its physical state does not change significantly over timescales of ∼1 Myr during its entrainment in the outflow. Simple calculations indicate that radiation pressure is not the main mechanism for driving the outflow. The presence of such dense material in molecular outflows needs to be accounted for in simulations of galactic outflows.

  5. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  6. DENSITY OF WARM IONIZED GAS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: LOW RADIO FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Subhashis

    2013-08-10

    We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1 Degree-Sign . The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359. Degree-Sign 5 < l < 0. Degree-Sign 5 and -0. Degree-Sign 5 < b < 0. Degree-Sign 5 (Hyperstrong Scattering Region) of the Galaxy. High free-free optical depths ({tau}) are observed toward most of the extended non-thermal sources within 0. Degree-Sign 6 from the GC. Significant variation of {tau} indicates that the absorbing medium is patchy at an angular scale of {approx}10' and n{sub e} is {approx}10 cm{sup -3}, which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of {approx}0. Degree-Sign 2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically {approx}7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz.

  7. THE ROTATING MOLECULAR STRUCTURES AND THE IONIZED OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH IRAS 16547-4247

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Hernandez, Ramiro; Moran, James M.; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Garay, Guido

    2009-08-20

    We present Very Large Array 1.3 cm radio continuum and water maser observations as well as Submillimeter Array SO{sub 2} (226.300 GHz) and 1.3 mm dust continuum observations toward the massive star formation region IRAS 16547-4247. We find evidence of multiple sources in the central part of the region. There is evidence of a rotating structure associated with the most massive of these sources, traced at small scales ({approx}50 AU) by the water masers. At large scales ({approx}1000 AU), we find a velocity gradient in the SO{sub 2} molecular emission with a barely resolved structure that can be modeled as a rotating ring or two separate objects. The velocity gradients of the masers and of the molecular emission have the same sense and may trace the same structure at different size scales. The position angles of the structures associated with the velocity gradients are roughly perpendicular to the outflow axis observed in radio continuum and several molecular tracers. We estimate the mass of the most massive central source to be around 30 solar masses from the velocity gradient in the water maser emission. The main source of error in this estimate is the radius of the rotating structure. We also find water masers that are associated with the large-scale molecular outflow of the system, as well as water masers that are associated with other sources in the region. Our results suggest that the formation of this source, one of the most luminous protostars or protostellar clusters known, is taking place with the presence of ionized jets and disk-like structures.

  8. Ambient Ionization and FAIMS Mass Spectrometry for Enhanced Imaging of Multiply Charged Molecular Ions in Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Feider, Clara L.; Elizondo, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been increasingly used to investigate the molecular distribution of biological tissue samples. Here, we report the integration and optimization of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and liquid-microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) with a chip-based high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) device to image metabolites, lipids, and proteins in biological tissue samples. Optimized FAIMS parameters for specific molecular classes enabled semitargeted detection of multiply charged molecular species at enhanced signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), improved visualization of spatial distributions, and, most importantly, allowed detection of species which were unseen by ambient ionization MSI alone. Under static DESI-FAIMS conditions selected for transmission of doubly charged cardiolipins (CL), for example, detection of 71 different CL species was achieved in rat brain, 23 of which were not observed by DESI alone. Diagnostic CL were imaged in a human thyroid tumor sample with reduced interference of isobaric species. LMJ-SSP-FAIMS enabled detection of 84 multiply charged protein ions in rat brain tissue, 66 of which were exclusive to this approach. Spatial visualization of proteins in substructures of rat brain, and in human ovarian cancerous, necrotic, and normal tissues was achieved. Our results indicate that integration of FAIMS with ambient ionization MS allows improved detection and imaging of selected molecular species. We show that this methodology is valuable in biomedical applications of MSI for detection of multiply charged lipids and proteins from biological tissues. PMID:27782388

  9. Ionized gas kinematics at high resolution. IV. Star formation and a rotating core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-05-20

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features. We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0.''18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 μm [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution ∼4 km s{sup –1}: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  10. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution. IV. Star Formation and a Rotating Core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-05-01

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features. We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0.''18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 μm [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution ~4 km s-1: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  11. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution. IV. Star Formation and a Rotating Core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Neff, Susan Gale; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features.We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0".18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 micron [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution approx. 4 km/s: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  12. Molecular-beam gas-sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. S.; Knuth, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A molecular beam mass spectrometer system for rocket motor combustion chamber sampling is described. The history of the sampling system is reviewed. The problems associated with rocket motor combustion chamber sampling are reported. Several design equations are presented. The results of the experiments include the effects of cooling water flow rates, the optimum separation gap between the end plate and sampling nozzle, and preliminary data on compositions in a rocket motor combustion chamber.

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the impact of diffuse ionized gas on emission-line ratios, interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas metallicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Walterbos, René; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Belfiore, Francesco; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nitschelm, Christian; Andrews, Brett; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cheung, Edmond; Li, Cheng; Law, David R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of 365 nearly face-on star-forming galaxies observed by Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impacts the measurements of emission-line ratios, hence the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas-phase metallicity measurements. At fixed metallicity, DIG-dominated low ΣHα regions display enhanced [S II]/Hα, [N II]/Hα, [O II]/Hβ and [O I]/Hα. The gradients in these line ratios are determined by metallicity gradients and ΣHα. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves H II regions towards composite or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LI(N)ER)-like regions. A harder ionizing spectrum is needed to explain DIG line ratios. Leaky H II region models can only shift line ratios slightly relative to H II region models, and thus fail to explain the composite/LI(N)ER line ratios displayed by DIG. Our result favours ionization by evolved stars as a major ionization source for DIG with LI(N)ER-like emission. DIG can significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradients derived using strong-line methods. Metallicities derived using N2O2 are optimal because they exhibit the smallest bias and error. Using O3N2, R23, N2 = [N II]/Hα and N2S2Hα to derive metallicities introduces bias in the derived metallicity gradients as large as the gradient itself. The strong-line method of Blanc et al. (IZI hereafter) cannot be applied to DIG to get an accurate metallicity because it currently contains only H II region models that fail to describe the DIG.

  14. Identification of Guest-Host Inclusion Complexes in the Gas Phase by Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, De´bora C.; Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan; Da Silva, Jose´ P.

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students follow a step-by-step procedure to prepare and study guest-host complexes in the gas phase using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Model systems are the complexes of hosts cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) with the guest 4-styrylpyridine (SP). Aqueous solutions of CB7 or CB8…

  15. Low-Frequency Observations of Galactic Supernova Remnants and the Distribution of Low-Density Ionized Gas in the Interstellar Medium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    New long-wavelength observations of Galactic supernova remnants ( SNRs ) at 30.9 and 57.5 MHz are used to derive detailed low-frequency radio spectra...for 32 SNRs . Of these, approximately two-thirds show turnovers at low frequencies, implying the presence of a widespread, but inhomogeneous, ionized... SNRs and to constrain the physical properties of the ionized gas responsible for the absorption. Three generally accepted ionized components of the

  16. Impact ionization of molecular oxygen by 3.5-MeV/u bare carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, Aditya N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Tachino, Carmen A.; Rivarola, Roberto D.; Martín, F.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured the absolute double-differential cross sections (DDCSs) for electron emission in ionization of O2 molecules under the impact of 3.5-MeV/u C6+ ions. The data were collected between 10 and 600 eV, in an angular range of 30∘ to 150∘. The single-differential cross sections (SDCSs) in emission angle and electron energy are deduced from the electron DDCS spectra. Also, the total cross section has been obtained from the SDCS spectra. The DDCS spectra as well as the SDCS spectra are compared with continuum distorted-wave eikonal initial-state calculations which employ molecular wave functions built as linear combinations of atomic orbitals. The DDCS ratio i.e. σO2/2σO, derived by dividing the experimental DDCS for molecular oxygen with the theoretical DDCS for atomic oxygen, does not show any primary or secondary oscillations arising from Young-type interference, which is apparently in contrast to what has been observed earlier for H2 and in agreement with the model calculation. Similarly, the forward-backward angular asymmetry increases monotonically with the velocity of the emitted electrons. However, the results on the DDCSs, SDCSs, the asymmetry parameter, and the nonexistence of oscillations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model used.

  17. Document authentication at molecular levels using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Jia, Bin; Ding, Liying; Hong, Feng; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Shumin; Chen, Huanwen; Fang, Xiang

    2013-09-01

    Molecular images of documents were obtained by sequentially scanning the surface of the document using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS), which was operated in either a gasless, solvent-free or methanol vapor-assisted mode. The decay process of the ink used for handwriting was monitored by following the signal intensities recorded by DAPCI-MS. Handwritings made using four types of inks on four kinds of paper surfaces were tested. By studying the dynamic decay of the inks, DAPCI-MS imaging differentiated a 10-min old from two 4 h old samples. Non-destructive forensic analysis of forged signatures either handwritten or computer-assisted was achieved according to the difference of the contour in DAPCI images, which was attributed to the strength personalized by different writers. Distinction of the order of writing/stamping on documents and detection of illegal printings were accomplished with a spatial resolution of about 140 µm. A Matlab® written program was developed to facilitate the visualization of the similarity between signature images obtained by DAPCI-MS. The experimental results show that DAPCI-MS imaging provides rich information at the molecular level and thus can be used for the reliable document analysis in forensic applications.

  18. On-line derivatization gas chromatography with furan chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for screening of amphetamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ghule, Anil; Liu, Jen-Yu; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-12-22

    A simple alternative method with minimal sample pretreatment is investigated for screening of amphetamines in small volume (using only 20 microL) of urine sample. The method is sensitive and selective. The method uses gas chromatography (GC) direct sample introduction (DSI) for on-line derivatization (acylation) of amphetamines to improve sensitivity. Furan as chemical ionization (CI) reagent in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to improve selectivity. Low background with sharp protonated molecular ion peaks of analytes is the evidence of improvement in sensitivity and selectivity. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine is analyzed. Selected ion monitoring of the characteristic product ions (m/z 119+136+150+163) using furan CI-MS/MS in positive ion mode is used for quantification. Limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) between 1.0 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) are established. Linear response over the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (r(2)>0.997) is observed for all analytes, except for methamphetamine (2.0-1000 ng mL(-1)). Good accuracy between 86 and 113% and precision ranging from 4 to 18% is obtained. The method is also tested on real samples of urine from suspected drug abusers. This method could be used for screening and determination of amphetamines in urine samples, however needs additional work for full validation.

  19. A high-dispersion molecular gas component in nearby galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; De Blok, W. J. G.; Ianjamasimanana, R.; Mogotsi, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of the atomic (H I) and molecular (H{sub 2}) gas components in the disks (R ≲ R {sub 25}) of a sample of 12 nearby spiral galaxies with moderate inclinations. Our analysis is based on sensitive high-resolution data from the THINGS (atomic gas) and HERACLES (molecular gas) surveys. To obtain reliable measurements of the velocity dispersion, we stack regions several kiloparsecs in size, after accounting for intrinsic velocity shifts due to galactic rotation and large-scale motions. We stack using various parameters: the galactocentric distance, star formation rate surface density, H I surface density, H{sub 2} surface density, and total gas surface density. We fit single Gaussian components to the stacked spectra and measure median velocity dispersions for H I of 11.9 ± 3.1 km s{sup –1} and for CO of 12.0 ± 3.9 km s{sup –1}. The CO velocity dispersions are thus, surprisingly, very similar to the corresponding ones of H I, with an average ratio of σ{sub HI}/σ{sub CO}= 1.0 ± 0.2 irrespective of the stacking parameter. The measured CO velocity dispersions are significantly higher (factor of ∼2) than the traditional picture of a cold molecular gas disk associated with star formation. The high dispersion implies an additional thick molecular gas disk (possibly as thick as the H I disk). Our finding is in agreement with recent sensitive measurements in individual edge-on and face-on galaxies and points toward the general existence of a thick disk of molecular gas, in addition to the well-known thin disk in nearby spiral galaxies.

  20. Comparison of electron and chemical ionization modes for the quantification of thiols and oxidative compounds in white wines by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Redon, Pascaline; Méreau, Raphaël; Darriet, Philippe

    2015-10-09

    A rapid, sensitive method for assaying volatile impact compounds in white wine was developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technology, with a triple quadrupole analyzer operating in chemical ionization and electron impact mode. This GC-MS/MS method made it possible to assay volatile thiols (3SH: 3-sulfanylhexanol, formerly 3MH; 3SHA: 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, formerly 3MHA; 4MSP: 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one, formerly 4MMP; BM: benzenemethanethiol; E2SA: ethyl 2-sulfanylacetate; and 2FM: 2-furanmethanethiol) and odoriferous oxidation markers (Sotolon: 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5)H-furanone, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde) simultaneously in dry white wines, comparing electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes. More molecular ions were produced by CI than protonated molecules, despite the greater fragmentation caused by EI. So, even using the best reactant gas giving the highest signal for thiols, EI was the best ionization mode, with the lowest detection limits. For all compounds of interest, the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were well below their detection thresholds (ranging from 0.5 to 8.5ng/L for volatile thiols and 65-260ng/L for oxidation markers). Recovery rates ranged from 86% to 111%, reproducibility (in terms of relative standard deviation; RSD) was below 18% in all cases, with correlation coefficients above 0.991 for all analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of compounds of interest in Sauvignon Blanc wines from a single estate and ten different vintages.

  1. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Combes, F.; Freundlich, J.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Neri, R.; Nordon, R.; Bournaud, F.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Lutz, D. E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  2. Manifestations of two-dimensional electron gas in molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Sharia, Onise; Tsyshevsky, Roman

    2017-03-01

    The existence of two-dimensional electron gas in molecular materials has not been reported or discussed. Intriguing properties of two-dimensional electron gas observed on interfaces of polar and nonpolar oxides spurred oxide electronics and advanced nanotechnology. Here we discover how an electrostatic instability occurs on polar surfaces of molecular crystals and explore its manifestations, chemical degradation of surfaces, charge separation, electrical conductivity, optical band-gap closure and surface metallization. A thin layer of polar surface of a dielectric molecular crystal becomes metallic due to interactions of polar molecules. Our findings are illustrated with two polymorphs of cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals, the polar δ-phase and nonpolar β-phase. Our theory offers an explanation to a relative stability of the β-phase versus the explosive reactivity of δ-phase and to the experimentally observed difference in conductivity of these crystals. We predict that the electrostatic instability takes place on all polar molecular materials.

  3. Resonant two-photon ionization of fluorene rare-gas van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwyler, Samuel; Even, Uzi; Jortner, Joshua

    1983-12-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied for the interrogation of the S0 → S1 electronic-vibrational excitations of van der Waals complexes of fluorene (FL) with rare-gas atoms and N2 in supersonic jets. Energy-resolved and mass-resolved spectra of FL ṡ Ne, FL ṡ Arn (n=1-3), FL ṡ Kr, FL ṡ Xe, and FL ṡ N2 were recorded over the energy range 0-800 cm-1 above the electronic origin of S1. The red microscopic spectral shifts of the electronic origins of FL ṡ R (R=Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes are dominated by dispersive interactions, being proportional to the polarizability of R. The vibrational level structure of FL ṡ Rn (R=Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes exhibits intramolecular vibrational excitations of FL, as well as intermolecular vibrations, which involve the relative motion of FL and R in the complex. The spectra of FL ṡ Ne and FL ṡ N2 reveal a rich vibrational structure in the vicinity of the electronic origin, indicating a substantial change of the nuclear configuration upon electronic excitation. Upper and lower bounds on the dissociation energies of FL ṡ R (R=Ne, Kr, and Xe) and FL ṡ Ar2 were inferred from the vibrational level structure in the mass-resolved spectra, where the disappearance of the signal of the parent van der Waals ion and the appearance of the ion signal of the fragments mark the onset of the vibrational predissociation process.

  4. Internally heated membrane interfaced to a gas chromatography flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Kanu, A Bakarr; Thomas, C L P

    2013-07-15

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mixtures in aqueous solutions have been investigated using a simple and efficient all-in-one on-line sampling, isolation, enrichment and pre-concentration internally heated membrane connected to a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In our previous study with the internally heated membrane, no GC column was used in the instrument. In this new study, we introduce a GC column in the instrument design and this makes it possible for mixtures to be investigated. This new experimental design enabled high resolution separation of analyte mixtures capable of being adsorbed, diffused, and desorbed from the device for detection with an FID. With the new design we present data from investigation of competitive adsorption effects on the membrane. The data showed that analyte adsorption and diffusion onto the membrane can be affected when mixtures of analytes are introduced. The application of multiple linear regressions approach to the data enabled us to correct for the problem of competitive adsorption. Analyte adsorption and diffusion was affected by the diffusion coefficients of the analytes; the higher the diffusion coefficient the better the extraction from the membrane. Increasing the sampling time from 1 to 4 min increases the response by 77%. The sampling time responses were linear up to 4 min sampling time. Above 4 min sampling time, the data deviate from linearity. The effect of adding salt to standards has no effect on analyte absorption onto the membrane. The detection limits for key VOCs studied with an internal standard calibration ranged from 0.2 to 194 ng cm(-3).

  5. Discovery of nine extended ionized gas clouds in a z = 0.4 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Gu, Liyi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (<2.3 arcmin ∼ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  6. Discovery of Nine Extended Ionized Gas Clouds in a z = 0.4 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Gu, Liyi; Koyama, Yusei; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hattori, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2015-02-01

    From deep Hα imaging data of Suprime-Cam/Subaru, we discovered nine extended ionized gas clouds (EIG) around galaxies in the Abell 851 cluster (A851) at z = 0.4. We surveyed a 30 × 25 arcmin region, and the EIGs were found only near the cluster center (\\lt 2.3 arcmin ˜ 750 kpc). The parent galaxies of the EIGs are star-forming or post-starburst galaxies, all of which are spectroscopically confirmed members of the cluster. Four out of the nine parent galaxies show distortion of stellar distribution in the disk, which can be a sign of recent interaction, and the interaction may have made the EIGs. On the other hand, six parent galaxies (one overlaps those exhibiting distortion) show Hα emission without stars, which implies ram pressure stripping. The spectrum of the brightest parent galaxy shows a post-starburst signature and resembles the Hα stripped galaxies found in the Coma cluster. Meanwhile, two brightest parent galaxies in A851 are more massive than the EIG parent galaxies in the Coma cluster. This is consistent with a “downsizing” of star-forming galaxies, though it is still within the statistical variance. We also analyzed Suprime-Cam data of another z=0.39 cluster, CL0024+17, but found no EIGs. The key difference between A851 and CL0024+17 would be the existence of a subcluster colliding with the main body of A851, in which six or seven out of the nine parent galaxies in A851 exist, and the fraction of EIGs in the subcluster is significantly higher than the main subcluster of A851 and CL0024+17.

  7. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked, grilled and boiled meats were determined using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). PAHs in the processed meats were extracted in n-hexane after hydrolysis with methanolic KOH. Clean-up was achieved using solid phase extraction in neutral-Si/basic-Si/acidic-Si/neutral-Si frits. The fractions, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[123-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were separated and quantified using GC-FID. The method and instrument limits of detections were 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3μg/kg and 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5μg/kg, respectively, for BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP. The method's recovery and precision generally varied between 83.69% and 94.25% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.18-15.60%; and 90.38-96.71% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.82-12.87% respectively. The concentration of BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP in smoked, grilled and boiled meat samples were ranged 0.64-31.54μg/kg, 0.07-7.04μg/kg, 0.09-15.03, 0.51-46.67μg/kg and 0.01-5.11μg/kg, respectively.

  8. Gossypetin ameliorates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice liver--a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amitava; Manna, Krishnendu; Das, Dipesh Kr; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Ujjal; Biswas, Sushobhan; Sengupta, Aaveri; Sikder, Kunal; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Mahua; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Banerji, Asoke; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-10-01

    Radioprotective action of gossypetin (GTIN) against gamma (γ)-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver was explored in the present article. Our main aim was to evaluate the protective efficacy of GTIN against radiation-induced alteration of liver in murine system. To evaluate the effect of GTIN, it was orally administered to mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days prior to γ-radiation at a dose of 5 Gy. Radioprotective efficacy of GTIN were evaluated at physiological, cellular, and molecular level using biochemical analysis, comet assay, flow cytometry, histopathology, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques. Ionizing radiation was responsible for augmentation of hepatic oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence studies showed that irradiation enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) level, which leads to hepatic inflammation. To investigate further, we found that radiation induced the activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK)-mediated apoptotic pathway and deactivation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated redox signaling pathway, whereas GTIN pretreatment ameliorated these radiation-mediated effects. This is the novel report where GTIN rationally validated the molecular mechanism in terms of the modulation of cellular signaling system' instead of ' This is the novel report where GTIN is rationally validated in molecular terms to establish it as promising radioprotective agents. This might be fruitful especially for nuclear workers and defense personnel assuming the possibility of radiation exposure.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gas Transport in Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, David; Butler, Simon; Adolf, David

    2010-03-01

    Parallel molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to determine the permeability of O2 and N2 through polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene and cis(1-4) polybutadiene. The permeability of both mixed and unmixed gas penetrants is studied within films of these well known gas barrier polymers. Results are obtained either through the solubility and diffusion (i.e. P=D*S) or via the permeability directly. Encouraging results are obtained. Additional analysis focuses on ``unmixed/mixed gas'' intracomparisons of the simulated permeability data in addition to corresponding penetrant and host polymer local dynamics.

  10. A mobile mass spectrometer for comprehensive on-line analysis of trace and bulk components of complex gas mixtures: parallel application of the laser-based ionization methods VUV single-photon ionization, resonant multiphoton ionization, and laser-induced electron impact ionization.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, F; Zimmermann, R; Kettrup, A

    2001-08-01

    A newly developed compact and mobile time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for on-line analysis and monitoring of complex gas mixtures is presented. The instrument is designed for a (quasi-)simultaneous application of three ionization techniques that exhibit different ionization selectivities. The highly selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) technique, using 266-nm UV laser pulses, is applied for selective and fragmentationless ionization of aromatic compounds at trace levels (parts-per-billion volume range). Mass spectra obtained using this technique show the chemical signature solely of monocyclic (benzene, phenols, etc.) and polycyclic (naphthalene, phenathrene, indol, etc.) aromatic species. Furthermore, the less selective but still fragmentationless single photon ionization (SPI) technique with 118-nm VUV laser pulses allows the ionization of compounds with an ionization potential below 10.5 eV. Mass spectra obtained using this technique show the profile of most organic compounds (aliphatic and aromatic species, like nonane, acetaldehyde, or pyrrol) and some inorganic compounds (e.g., ammonia, nitrogen monoxide). Finally, the nonselective ionization technique laser-induced electron-impact ionization (LEI) is applied. However, the sensitivity of the LEI technique is adjusted to be fairly low. Thus, the LEI signal in the mass spectra gives information on the inorganic bulk constituents of the sample (i.e., compounds such as water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide). Because the three ionization methods (REMPI, SPI, LEI) exhibit largely different ionization selectivities, the isolated application of each method alone solely provides specific mass spectrometric information about the sample composition. Special techniques have been developed and applied which allow the quasi-parallel use of all three ionization techniques for on-line monitoring purposes. Thus, a comprehensive characterization of complex samples is feasible jointly using

  11. Tracing kinematic (mis)alignments in CALIFA merging galaxies. Stellar and ionized gas kinematic orientations at every merger stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Wild, V.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ziegler, B.; del Olmo, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Walcher, C. J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bekeraitė, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar and/or ionized gas kinematic properties for a sample of 103 interacting galaxies, tracing all merger stages: close companions, pairs with morphological signatures of interaction, and coalesced merger remnants. In order to distinguish kinematic properties caused by a merger event from those driven by internal processes, we compare our galaxies with a control sample of 80 non-interacting galaxies. We measure for both the stellar and the ionized gas components the major (projected) kinematic position angles (PAkin, approaching and receding) directly from the velocity distributions with no assumptions on the internal motions. This method also allow us to derive the deviations of the kinematic PAs from a straight line (δPAkin). We find that around half of the interacting objects show morpho-kinematic PA misalignments that cannot be found in the control sample. In particular, we observe those misalignments in galaxies with morphological signatures of interaction. On the other hand, thelevel of alignment between the approaching and receding sides for both samples is similar, with most of the galaxies displaying small misalignments. Radial deviations of the kinematic PA orientation from a straight line in the stellar component measured by δPAkin are large for both samples. However, for a large fraction of interacting galaxies the ionized gas δPAkin is larger than the typical values derived from isolated galaxies (48%), indicating that this parameter is a good indicator to trace the impact of interaction and mergers in the internal motions of galaxies. By comparing the stellar and ionized gas kinematic PA, we find that 42% (28/66) of the interacting galaxies have misalignments larger than 16°, compared to 10% from the control sample. Our results show the impact of interactions in the motion of stellar and ionized gas as well as the wide the variety of their spatially resolved kinematic distributions. This study also provides a local

  12. Molecular Imaging of Growth, Metabolism, and Antibiotic Inhibition in Bacterial Colonies by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Balan, Pranav; Vertes, Akos

    2016-11-21

    Metabolism in microbial colonies responds to competing species, rapidly evolving genetic makeup, and sometimes dramatic environmental changes. Conventional characterization of the existing and emerging microbial strains and their interactions with antimicrobial agents, e.g., the Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test, relies on time consuming methods with limited ability to discern the molecular mechanism and the minimum inhibitory concentration. Assessing the metabolic adaptation of microbial colonies requires their non-targeted molecular imaging in a native environment. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) is an ambient ionization technique that in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) enables the analysis and imaging of numerous metabolites and lipids. In this contribution, we report on the application of LAESI-MS imaging to gain deeper molecular insight into microbe-antibiotic interactions, and enhance the quantitative nature of antibiotic susceptibility testing while significantly reducing the required incubation time.

  13. A New View of Molecular Gas in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Elisabeth A.; Morris, M.; Güsten, R.; Requena Torres, M.; Lang, C. C.; Butterfield, N.; Ott, J.

    2013-01-01

    On average, the molecular gas in the center of our Galaxy is significantly hotter (T = 50-300 K), denser (n > 10^4 cm^-3), and more turbulent than gas in the rest of the disk. I will present results from a recent series of observations that indicate that our understanding of the Galactic center (GC) molecular gas is incomplete, and that conditions in some clouds are even more extreme than previously thought. Using the Green Bank telescope, we have measured a very hot molecular gas component (T = 400-500 K ) in three largely quiescent GC giant molecular clouds using metastable inversion lines of ammonia from (8,8) to (15,15) . We further detect the (9,9) line in seven other GC clouds, indicating that this hot gas component may be a common feature of GC clouds, potentially yielding insight into the heating source of the molecular gas in this region. In addition, I will present new density constraints for the circumnuclear disk (CND), a reservoir of gas and dust 1.5 parsecs in radius from the central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. Recent estimates of the CND density vary by four orders of magnitude, which makes its future evolution uncertain: gas in the CND could either accrete onto the black hole, dissipate, or, if the density is higher than 10^7 cm^-3, exist in gravitationally-stable clumps capable of forming stars. However, our APEX measurements of highly excited lines of HCN and HCO+ indicate that although the CND gas is denser than most other GC clouds, it is not likely to be tidally stable and thus is unlikely to host star formation. Finally, I will present early results from a new Very Large Array study of gas on sub-parsec scales in a sample of GC clouds, all of which exhibit unexpectedly abundant Class I methanol maser emission. The widespread distribution of these masers suggests shocks play an important role in driving cloud evolution throughout this unique region of our Galaxy.

  14. A molecular dynamics simulation of DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Abolfath, Ramin M; Carlson, David J; Chen, Zhe J; Nath, Ravinder

    2013-10-21

    We present a multi-scale simulation of the early stage of DNA damages by the indirect action of hydroxyl ((•)OH) free radicals generated by electrons and protons. The computational method comprises of interfacing the Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo with ReaxFF molecular dynamics software. A clustering method was employed to map the coordinates of (•)OH-radicals extracted from the ionization-track-structures onto nano-meter simulation voxels filled with DNA and water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the time-evolution and chemical reactions in individual simulation voxels as well as the energy-landscape accounted for the DNA-(•)OH chemical reaction that is essential for the first-principle enumeration of hydrogen abstractions, chemical bond breaks, and DNA-lesions induced by collection of ions in clusters less than the critical dimension which is approximately 2-3 Å. We show that the formation of broken bonds leads to DNA-base and backbone damages that collectively propagate to DNA single and double-strand breaks. For illustration of the methodology, we focused on particles with an initial energy of 1 MeV. Our studies reveal a qualitative difference in DNA damage induced by low energy electrons and protons. Electrons mainly generate small pockets of (•)OH-radicals, randomly dispersed in the cell volume. In contrast, protons generate larger clusters along a straight-line parallel to the direction of the particle. The ratio of the total DNA double-strand breaks induced by a single proton and electron track is determined to be ≈4 in the linear scaling limit. In summary, we have developed a multi-scale computational model based on first-principles to study the interaction of ionizing radiation with DNA molecules. The main advantage of our hybrid Monte Carlo approach using Geant4-DNA and ReaxFF is the multi-scale simulation of the cascade of both physical and chemical events which result in the formation of biological damage. The tool developed in

  15. A molecular dynamics simulation of DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Carlson, David J.; Chen, Zhe J.; Nath, Ravinder

    2013-10-01

    We present a multi-scale simulation of the early stage of DNA damages by the indirect action of hydroxyl (•OH) free radicals generated by electrons and protons. The computational method comprises of interfacing the Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo with ReaxFF molecular dynamics software. A clustering method was employed to map the coordinates of •OH-radicals extracted from the ionization-track-structures onto nano-meter simulation voxels filled with DNA and water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the time-evolution and chemical reactions in individual simulation voxels as well as the energy-landscape accounted for the DNA-•OH chemical reaction that is essential for the first-principle enumeration of hydrogen abstractions, chemical bond breaks, and DNA-lesions induced by collection of ions in clusters less than the critical dimension which is approximately 2-3 Å. We show that the formation of broken bonds leads to DNA-base and backbone damages that collectively propagate to DNA single and double-strand breaks. For illustration of the methodology, we focused on particles with an initial energy of 1 MeV. Our studies reveal a qualitative difference in DNA damage induced by low energy electrons and protons. Electrons mainly generate small pockets of •OH-radicals, randomly dispersed in the cell volume. In contrast, protons generate larger clusters along a straight-line parallel to the direction of the particle. The ratio of the total DNA double-strand breaks induced by a single proton and electron track is determined to be ≈4 in the linear scaling limit. In summary, we have developed a multi-scale computational model based on first-principles to study the interaction of ionizing radiation with DNA molecules. The main advantage of our hybrid Monte Carlo approach using Geant4-DNA and ReaxFF is the multi-scale simulation of the cascade of both physical and chemical events which result in the formation of biological damage. The tool developed in this

  16. Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10

  17. Dense gas in the Galactic central molecular zone is warm and heated by turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Henkel, Christian; Ao, Yiping; Riquelme, Denise; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Immer, Katharina; Testi, Leonardo; Ott, Juergen; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Darling, Jeremy; Aalto, Susanne; Stanke, Thomas; Kendrew, Sarah; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Longmore, Steven; Dale, James; Guesten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The Galactic center is the closest region where we can study star formation under extreme physical conditions like those in high-redshift galaxies. Aims: We measure the temperature of the dense gas in the central molecular zone (CMZ) and examine what drives it. Methods: We mapped the inner 300 pc of the CMZ in the temperature-sensitive J = 3-2 para-formaldehyde (p - H2CO) transitions. We used the 32,1-22,0/ 30,3-20,2 line ratio to determine the gas temperature in n ~ 104-105 cm-3 gas. We have produced temperature maps and cubes with 30'' and 1 km s-1 resolution and published all data in FITS form. Results: Dense gas temperatures in the Galactic center range from ~60 K to >100 K in selected regions. The highest gas temperatures TG> 100 K are observed around the Sgr B2 cores, in the extended Sgr B2 cloud, the 20 km s-1 and 50 km s-1 clouds, and in "The Brick" (G0.253+0.016). We infer an upper limit on the cosmic ray ionization rate ζCR< 10-14s-1. Conclusions: The dense molecular gas temperature of the region around our Galactic center is similar to values found in the central regions of other galaxies, in particular starburst systems. The gas temperature is uniformly higher than the dust temperature, confirming that dust is a coolant in the dense gas. Turbulent heating can readily explain the observed temperatures given the observed line widths. Cosmic rays cannot explain the observed variation in gas temperatures, so CMZ dense gas temperatures are not dominated by cosmic ray heating. The gas temperatures previously observed to be high in the inner ~75 pc are confirmed to be high in the entire CMZ. The data can be accessed from doi:10.7910/DVN/27601 and are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A50

  18. Molecular Spectra in an Ultracold Strontium Rydberg Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Joseph D.; Camargo, Francisco; Ding, Roger; Woehl, Germano, Jr.; Dunning, F. Barry; Killian, Thomas C.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction between a ground state atom and a highly excited Rydberg electron creates a potential that can support ultra-long-range bound molecular states comprising a Rydberg atom and several ground-state atoms. We excite these molecular states using two-photon spectroscopy in an ultracold gas of 84 Sr. In a thermal gas, we observe a highly structured spectrum of many-body bound states with one Rydberg atom and as many as three ground-state atoms in various vibrational levels. We also describe the spectrum in a dense, quantum degenerate gas, which is sensitive to the properties of the polaron formed by the binding of many atoms in the quantum gas to the Rydberg impurity. Because of the absence of a p-wave shape resonance in e-Sr scattering, the molecular spectrum in Sr provides a sensitive probe of the excitation dynamics in a quantum gas in a different regime than is accessible using Rb. Research supported by the AFOSR under Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0007, the NSF under Grants No. 1301773 and No. 1205946, the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grants No. C-0734 and No. C-1844.

  19. Approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds with laser desorption/ionization techniques and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Nina; Shevchenko, Denys; Bergquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes various approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds by different laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry techniques (LDI-MS). It is common to use an agent to assist the ionization, and small molecules are normally difficult to analyze by, e.g., matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) using the common matrices available today, because the latter are generally small organic compounds themselves. This often results in severe suppression of analyte peaks, or interference of the matrix and analyte signals in the low mass region. However, intrinsic properties of several LDI techniques such as high sensitivity, low sample consumption, high tolerance towards salts and solid particles, and rapid analysis have stimulated scientists to develop methods to circumvent matrix-related issues in the analysis of LMW molecules. Recent developments within this field as well as historical considerations and future prospects are presented in this review.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of Coulomb explosion, melting and shock wave creation in silicon after an ionization pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Di; Wang, Jing; Shao, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Strong electronic stopping power of swift ions in a semiconducting or insulating substrate can lead to localized electron stripping. The subsequent repulsive interactions among charged target atoms can cause Coulomb explosion. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate Coulomb explosion in silicon by introducing an ionization pulse lasting for different periods, and at different substrate temperatures. We find that the longer the pulse period, the larger the melting radius. The observation can be explained by a critical energy density model assuming that melting required thermal energy density is a constant value and the total thermal energy gained from Coulomb explosion is linearly proportional to the ionization period. Our studies also show that melting radius is larger at higher substrate temperatures. The temperature effect is explained due to a longer structural relaxation above the melting temperature at original ionization boundary due to lower heat dissipation rates. Furthermore, simulations show the formation of shock waves, created due to the compression from the melting core.

  1. Ultrafast molecular dynamics of dissociative ionization in OCS probed by soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, Ali; Wales, Benji; Karimi, Reza; Gauthier, Isabelle; MacDonald, Michael; Zuin, Lucia; Sanderson, Joe

    2016-11-01

    Soft x-rays (90-173 eV) from the 3rd generation Canadian Light Source have been used in conjunction with a multi coincidence time and position sensitive detection apparatus to observe the dissociative ionization of OCS. By varying the x-ray energy we can compare dynamics from direct and Auger ionization processes, and access ionization channels which result in two or three body breakup, from 2+ to 4+ ionization states. We make several new observations for the 3+ state such as kinetic energy release limited by photon energy, and using Dalitz plots we can see evidence of timescale effects between the direct and Auger ionization process for the first time. Finally, using Dalitz plots for OCS4+ we observe for the first time that breakup involving an O2+ ion can only proceed from out of equilibrium nuclear arrangement for S(2p) Auger ionization.

  2. The ALMA View of Dense Molecular Gas in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal L.; Hunter, Todd R.; Leroy, Adam

    2017-01-01

    At a distance of 50 kpc, the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts several sites of star formation including R136, a starburst region home to dozens of evolved O stars. The intense radiation from R136 creates an extreme environment for nearby star formation in such a low-metallicity, low mass galaxy. We have targeted a star-forming region ~15 pc away from R136 within 30 Doradus using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to map the molecular gas to study the sites of star formation. We are conducting a clump-by-clump analysis of the intensities and line ratios of dense gas (HCO+, HCN, CS, H13CO+, H13CN) and diffuse gas (CO, 13CO, C18O) tracers at sub-parsec resolution. We identify and characterize ~100 molecular clumps within the region. With the observed molecular species, we aim to determine the physical conditions of each clump (e.g. size, internal turbulence, molecular abundance). We compare the intensities and line ratios to non-LTE Radex model grids of the excitation temperature, molecular column density, and volume density of the H2 collider to determine the physical excitation conditions within the clumps. We compare these properties of each clump to both associated and embedded star formation properties to quantify the relative importance of internal feedback from the star formation itself versus external feedback processes from R136 and determine which process dominates in this region.

  3. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Measurements of Gas-Phase Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Yoshida, K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D. J.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Hubler, G.; Fortin, T. J.; Sueper, D. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2005-12-01

    Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) can be a highly selective technique with fast time response for measuring many atmospheric trace gases (e.g., hydroxyl radical (OH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3)). CIMS is highly versatile and has been used under a wide variety of conditions with many different ion-molecule detection schemes, even for detecting the same molecule. Because of its high proton affinity (853.6 kJ/mol), ammonia (NH3) is another ideal candidate for detection by CIMS. NH3, the dominant gas-phase base in the atmosphere, is a precursor of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfates, compounds that are important constituents of airborne fine particulate matter that affect air quality. The characterization of three NH3 CIMS instruments: an atmospheric pressure ionization instrument and a low-pressure flow tube reactor instrument, both utilizing protonated ethanol cluster ion chemistry, and a different low-pressure flow tube reactor instrument using protonated acetone dimer ion chemistry, is presented here. Instrument performance is assessed using ambient data from both ground-based and airborne field programs to examine detection sensitivity, background signal, and time response. Laboratory characterization of different inlet materials is also presented. All three instruments used PFA Teflon sampling inlets. Instrumental backgrounds were determined by scrubbing NH3 from ambient air using silicon phosphates that release phosphoric acid when exposed to ambient levels of humidity. Standard addition calibrations were performed using NH3 permeation devices whose output was determined via 185nm optical absorption. Regardless of CIMS technique or ion chemistry used, the observed detection sensitivities were all adequate for detecting changes in NH3 at the 10 pptv level on a 1s timescale. The time responses, defined by a 1/e2 decay in the calibration signal, ranged from 5s to 45s for the different sampling inlet configurations and are rapid enough

  4. Laboratory and Ambient Measurements of Oxidized Organic Compounds in the Gas Phase Using Nitrate Ion Chemical Ionization Coupled with High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Krechmer, J.; Lambe, A. T.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Kimmel, J.; Kroll, J. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) is a widely used technique for molecular level characterization of inorganic and organic gas phase species. Here we present laboratory and ambient measurements of gaseous organic compounds by means of a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) using nitrate ion (NO3-) chemistry, which recently has proven capable of selectively detecting oxidized organic molecules in the gas-phase via clustering with NO3- and its high order clusters. Such low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOC, ELVOC) have an important role in particulate phase chemistry and formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The HR-ToF-CIMS was deployed during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the forest site in Centreville, AL (June 1 - July 15, 2013), where emissions were dominated by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), occasionally mixing with anthropogenic emissions. During SOAS, the HR-ToF-CIMS detected oxidation products of both isoprene (typically C5 LVOC) and terpenes (typically C10 ELVOC). The isoprene-related LVOC showed a diurnal cycle with a day time peak, while two groups of terpene ELVOC were identified, one peaking at night and one peaking during the day. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analyses are applied to the dataset to further interpret these observations. The effect of anthropogenic pollution on the biogenic-dominated environment was also investigated during periods of elevated nitrous and sulfur dioxide levels. To further aid in interpretation of the SOAS dataset, oxidized organic molecules were produced via OH and O3 initiated oxidation of biogenic gas-phase precursors in targeted laboratory studies and detected using the HR-ToF-CIMS. Spectra were obtained in these studies over a range of simulated atmospheric conditions.

  5. Dissecting the molecular mechanism of ionizing radiation-induced tissue damage in the feather follicle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liao, Chunyan; Chu, Qiqi; Zhou, Guixuan; Lin, Xiang; Li, Xiaobo; Lu, Haijie; Xu, Benhua; Yue, Zhicao

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. It damages normal tissue and causes side effects including dermatitis and mucositis. Here we use the feather follicle as a model to investigate the mechanism of IR-induced tissue damage, because any perturbation of feather growth will be clearly recorded in its regular yet complex morphology. We find that IR induces defects in feather formation in a dose-dependent manner. No abnormality was observed at 5 Gy. A transient, reversible perturbation of feather growth was induced at 10 Gy, leading to defects in the feather structure. This perturbation became irreversible at 20 Gy. Molecular and cellular analysis revealed P53 activation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the pathobiology. IR also induces patterning defects in feather formation, with disrupted branching morphogenesis. This perturbation is mediated by cytokine production and Stat1 activation, as manipulation of cytokine levels or ectopic Stat1 over-expression also led to irregular feather branching. Furthermore, AG-490, a chemical inhibitor of Stat1 signaling, can partially rescue IR-induced tissue damage. Our results suggest that the feather follicle could serve as a useful model to address the in vivo impact of the many mechanisms of IR-induced tissue damage.

  6. Electrospray Ionization Efficiency Is Dependent on Different Molecular Descriptors with Respect to Solvent pH and Instrumental Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Kiontke, Andreas; Oliveira-Birkmeier, Ariana; Opitz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, electrospray ionization for mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has become one of the most commonly employed techniques in analytical chemistry, mainly due to its broad applicability to polar and semipolar compounds and the superior selectivity which is achieved in combination with high resolution separation techniques. However, responsiveness of an analytical method also determines its suitability for the quantitation of chemical compounds; and in electrospray ionization for mass spectrometry, it can vary significantly among different analytes with identical solution concentrations. Therefore, we investigated the ESI-response behavior of 56 nitrogen-containing compounds including aromatic amines and pyridines, two compound classes of high importance to both, synthetic organic chemistry as well as to pharmaceutical sciences. These compounds are increasingly analyzed employing ESI mass spectrometry detection due to their polar, basic character. Signal intensities of the peaks from the protonated molecular ion (MH+) were acquired under different conditions and related to compound properties such as basicity, polarity, volatility and molecular size exploring their quantitative impact on ionization efficiency. As a result, we found that though solution basicity of a compound is the main factor initially determining the ESI response of the protonated molecular ion, other factors such as polarity and vaporability become more important under acidic solvent conditions and may nearly outweigh the importance of basicity under these conditions. Moreover, we show that different molecular descriptors may become important when using different types of instruments for such investigations, a fact not detailed so far in the available literature. PMID:27907110

  7. Molecular recognition of T:G mismatched base pairs in DNA as studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Aldini, Giancarlo; Colombo, Maristella; Colombo, Nicoletta; Malyszko, Jan; Vistoli, Giulio; D'Alessio, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Postreplicative mismatch repair (MMR) is a cellular system involved in the recognition and correction of DNA polymerase errors that escape detection in proofreading. Of the various mismatched bases, T:G pairing in DNA is one of the more common mutations leading to the formation of tumors in humans. In addition, the absence of the MMR system can generate resistance to several chemotherapeutic agents, particularly DNA-damaging substances. The main purpose of this study was the setup and validation of an electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry method for the identification of small molecules that are able to recognize T:G mismatches in DNA targets. These findings could be useful for the discovery of new antitumor drugs. The analytical method is based on the ability of electrospray to preserve the noncovalent adducts present in solution and transfer them to the gas phase. Lexitropsin derivatives (polyimidazole compounds) have been previously described as selective for T:G mismatch binding by NMR and ITC studies. We synthesized and tested various polyimidazole derivatives, one of which in particular (NMS-057) showed a higher affinity for an oligonucleotide DNA sequence containing a T:G mismatched base pair. To rationalize these findings, molecular docking studies were performed using available NMR structures. Moreover, ESI-MS experiments, performed on an orbitrap mass spectrometer, highlighted the formation of heterodimeric complexes between DNA sequences, distamycin A, and polyimidazole compounds. Our results confirm that this ESI method could be a valuable tool for the identification of new molecules able to specifically recognize T:G mismatched base pairs.

  8. Investigation of ionization-induced electron injection in a wakefield driven by laser inside a gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audet, T. L.; Hansson, M.; Lee, P.; Desforges, F. G.; Maynard, G.; Dobosz Dufrénoy, S.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Aurand, B.; Persson, A.; Gallardo González, I.; Maitrallain, A.; Monot, P.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Lundh, O.; Cros, B.

    2016-02-01

    Ionization-induced electron injection was investigated experimentally by focusing a driving laser pulse with a maximum normalized potential of 1.2 at different positions along the plasma density profile inside a gas cell, filled with a gas mixture composed of 99 %H2+1 %N2 . Changing the laser focus position relative to the gas cell entrance controls the accelerated electron bunch properties, such as the spectrum width, maximum energy, and accelerated charge. Simulations performed using the 3D particle-in-cell code WARP with a realistic density profile give results that are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The interest of this regime for optimizing the bunch charge in a selected energy window is discussed.

  9. Rapid formation of molecular clouds from turbulent atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, S. C. O.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    The characteristic lifetimes of molecular clouds remain uncertain and a topic of frequent debate, with arguments having recently been advanced both in support of short-lived clouds, with lifetimes of a few Myr or less (see e.g. Elmegreen 2000; Hartmann et al. 2001) and in support of much longer-lived clouds, with lifetimes of the order of 10 Myr or more (see e.g. Tassis & Mouschovias, 2004; Goldsmith & Li, 2005). An argument that has previously been advanced in favour of longer lived clouds is the apparent difficulty involved in converting sufficient atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen within the short timescale required by the rapid cloud formation scenario. However, previous estimates of the time required for this conversion to occur have not taken into account the effects of the supersonic turbulence which is inferred to be present in the atomic gas. In this contribution, we present results from a set of high resolution three-dimensional simulations of turbulence in gravitationally unstable atomic gas. These simulations were performed using a modified version of the ZEUS-MP hydrodynamical code (Norman 2000), and include a detailed treatment of the thermal balance of the gas and of the formation of molecular hydrogen. The effects of photodissociation of H2 by the Galactic UV field are also included, with a simple local approximation used to compute the effects of H2 self-shielding. The results of our simulations demonstrate that H2 formation occurs rapidly in turbulent atomic gas. Starting from purely atomic gas, large quantities of molecular gas can be produced on timescales of less than a Myr, given turbulent velocity dispersions and magnetic field strengths consistent with observations. Moreover, as our simulations underestimate the effectiveness of H2 self-shielding and dust absorption, we can be confident that the molecular fractions which we compute are strong lower limits on the true values. The formation of large quantities of molecular gas on the

  10. An efficient polymer molecular sieve for membrane gas separations.

    PubMed

    Carta, Mariolino; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Croad, Matthew; Rogan, Yulia; Jansen, Johannes C; Bernardo, Paola; Bazzarelli, Fabio; McKeown, Neil B

    2013-01-18

    Microporous polymers of extreme rigidity are required for gas-separation membranes that combine high permeability with selectivity. We report a shape-persistent ladder polymer consisting of benzene rings fused together by inflexible bridged bicyclic units. The polymer's contorted shape ensures both microporosity-with an internal surface area greater than 1000 square meters per gram-and solubility so that it is readily cast from solution into robust films. These films demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and good selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as hydrogen and oxygen, over larger molecules, such as nitrogen and methane. Hence, this polymer has excellent potential for making membranes suitable for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance.

  11. Cold molecular gas in cooling flow clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, P.; Combes, F.

    2003-12-01

    The results of a CO line survey in central cluster galaxies with cooling flows are presented. Cold molecular gas is detected with the IRAM 30 m telescope, through CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission lines in 6-10 among 32 galaxies. The corresponding gas masses are between 3*E8 and 4*E10 Msun. These results are in agreement with recent CO detections by \\cite{Edg01}. A strong correlation between the CO emission and the Hα luminosity is also confirmed. Cold gas exists in the center of cooling flow clusters and these detections may be interpreted as evidence of the long searched for very cold residual of the hot cooling gas. Tables 1-4 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/657

  12. Present-day Galactic Evolution: Low-metallicity, Warm, Ionized Gas Inflow Associated with High-velocity Cloud Complex A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Duncan, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin Hα Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s-1 in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full Hα intensity map of Complex A across (\\mathit {l, b}) = (124{^\\circ }, 18{^\\circ }) to (171°, 53°) and deep targeted observations in Hα, [S II] λ6716, [N II] λ6584, and [O I] λ6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The Hα data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 106 M ⊙. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn & Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 104 K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DENSE NEUTRAL AND DIFFUSE IONIZED GAS IN THE THICK DISKS OF TWO EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rueff, Katherine M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Pitterle, Marissa; Hirschauer, Alec S.; Fox, Andrew J.; Savage, Blair D.

    2013-03-15

    We present high-resolution, optical images (BVI + H{alpha}) of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Large Binocular Telescope, and WIYN 3.5 m telescope reveal an extensive population of filamentary dust absorption seen to z {approx}2-2.5 kpc. Many of these dusty thick disk structures have characteristics reminiscent of molecular clouds found in the Milky Way disk. Our H{alpha} images show that the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies is dominated by a smooth, diffuse component. The strongly filamentary morphologies of the dust absorption have no counterpart in the smoothly distributed H{alpha} emission. We argue that the thick disk DIG and dust-bearing filaments trace physically distinct phases of the thick disk ISM, the latter tracing a dense, warm or cold neutral medium. The dense, dusty matter in the thick disks of spiral galaxies is largely tracing matter ejected from the thin disk via energetic feedback from massive stars. The high densities of the gas may be a result of converging gas flows. This dense material fuels some thick disk star formation, as evidenced by the presence of thick disk H II regions.

  14. Al III, Si IV, and C IV absorption toward zeta Ophiuchi: Evidence for photionized and collisionally ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.; Jenkins, Edward B.

    1994-01-01

    We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph observations at 3.5 km/s resolution and signal-to-noise ratios of 30 to 60 for the Al III, Si IV, and N V absorption lines in the far-ultraviolet spectrum of the O9.5 V star zeat Ophiuchi. The measurement reveal three types of highly ionized gas along the 140 pc line of sight. (1) Narrow components of Al III (b = 4.3 km/s, the mean value of (v(helio)) = -7.8 km/s; b = 3.2 km/s, the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -14.4 km/s) and Si IV (b = 5.3 km/s, the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -15.0 km/s) trace photionized gas in the expanding H II region surrounding zeta Oph. The observed magnitude and direction of the velocity offset between the Al III and Si IV profiles can be explained by models of H II regions that incorporate expansion. Narrow C IV absorption associated with the H II region is not detected. Predictions of the expected amounts of Si IV and C IV overestimate the column densities of these ions by factors of 30 and more than 10, respectively. The discrepancy may be due to the effects of elemental depletions in the gas and/or to the interaction of the stellar wind with surrounding matter. (2) Broad (b = 15 to 18 km/s) and weak Si IV and C IV absorption components are detected near the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -26 km/s. The high-ionization species associated with these absorption components are probably produced by electron collisional ionization in a heated gas. This absorption may be physically related to the zeta Oph bow shock ot to a cloud complex situated within the local interstellar medium at d less than 60 pc. The C IV to Si IV column density ratio in this gas is 8, a factor of 6 less than conductive interface models predict, but this discrepancy may be removed by considering the effects of self-photoionization within the cooling gas in the model calculations. (3) A broad (b = 13 km/s) and weak C IV absorption feature detected at the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -61 km/s is not seen in other

  15. Dust, Atomic, and Molecular Gas in the Nearest Primitive Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, A.; Bolatto, A. D.; Stanimirovic, S.; Sandstrom, K.; Simon, J. D.; Bot, C.; Shah, R.; Jackson, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    We present ongoing work studying the dust and gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This work is part of the Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud, S^3MC. We combine new IRAC and MIPS observations of the SMC with existing far infrared (FIR) observations from DIRBE, IRAS, and ISO to construct a complete picture of the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). We compare the FIR SED of the SMC to the SEDs of other nearby galaxies as measured by DIRBE. Although reasonably bright (in a normalized sense) at long wavelengths, the SMC is dimmer than other galaxies at intermediate (˜ 5 -- 50 μm) wavelengths, presumably a result of the relative deficiency of small grains in the SMC. We also compare the FIR emission to the distribution of atomic and molecular gas as traced by HI and CO millimeter wave emission. The emissivity of atomic hydrogen in the SMC is extremely low, implying a very low dust to gas ratio. Despite this, there is evidence for a substantial "hidden" reservoir of molecular gas near the CO emission --- enough to imply a CO-to-H_2 conversion factor ˜ 15 -- 35 times the Galactic value. This observation is at odds with CO studies of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the SMC and other nearby low metallicity systems, which find that GMC properties (including the virial parameter) are not strong functions of environment. As such, this may be evidence that the excess H_2 exists in an envelope of CO-free H_2 that lies outside the molecular gas.

  16. Extragalactic chemistry of molecular gas: lessons from the local universe.

    PubMed

    García-Burillo, S; Fuente, A; Martín-Pintado, J; Usero, A; Graciá-Carpio, J; Planesas, P

    2006-01-01

    Observational constraints provided by high resolution and high sensitivity observations of external galaxies made in the millimetre and sub-millimetre range have started to put on a firm footing the study of the extragalactic chemistry of molecular gas. In particular, the availability of multi-species and multi-line surveys of nearby galaxies is central to the interpretation of existent and forthcoming millimetre observations of the high redshift universe. Probing the physical and chemical status of molecular gas in starbursts and active galaxies (AGN) requires the use of specific tracers of the relevant energetic phenomena that are known to be at play in these galaxies: large-scale shocks, strong UV fields, cosmic rays and X-rays. We present below the first results of an ongoing survey, allying the IRAM 30 m telescope with the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), devoted to the study of the chemistry of molecular gas in a sample of starbursts and AGN of the local universe. These observations highlight the existence of a strong chemical differentiation in the molecular disks of starbursts and AGN.

  17. The ionized gas at the centre of IC 10: a possible localized chemical pollution by Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; López-Martín, L.; Esteban, C.

    2011-03-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrograph at the 3.5-m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory of the intense star-forming region [HL90] 111 at the centre of the starburst galaxy IC 10. We have obtained maps with a spatial sampling of 1 × 1 arcsec2= 3.9× 3.9 pc2 of different emission lines and analysed the extinction, physical conditions, nature of the ionization and chemical abundances of the ionized gas, as well determined locally the age of the most recent star formation event. By defining several apertures, we study the main integrated properties of some regions within [HL90] 111. Two contiguous spaxels show an unambiguous detection of the broad He IIλ4686 emission line, this feature seems to be produced by a single late-type WN star. We also report a probable N and He enrichment in the precise spaxels where the Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are detected. The enrichment pattern is roughly consistent with that expected for the pollution of the ejecta of a single or a very small number of WR stars. Furthermore, this chemical pollution is very localized (˜2 arcsec ˜7.8 pc) and it should be difficult to detect in star-forming galaxies beyond the Local Volume. We also discuss the use of the most common empirical calibrations to estimate the oxygen abundances of the ionized gas in nearby galaxies from 2D spectroscopic data. The ionization degree of the gas plays an important role when applying these empirical methods, as they tend to give lower oxygen abundances with increasing ionization degree. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astrónomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Plank Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Visiting Astronomer at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  18. Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Aihong; Zhou, Yueming; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-08-21

    Using the classical ensemble method, we have investigated double ionization (DI) of diatomic molecules driven by circularly polarized laser pulses with different internuclear distances (R). The results show that the DI mechanism changes from sequential double ionization (SDI) to nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) as the internuclear distance increases. In SDI range, the structure of the electron momentum distribution changes seriously as R increases, which indicates the sensitive dependence of the release times of the two electrons on R. For NSDI, because of the circular polarization, the ionization of the second electron is not through the well-known recollision process but through a process where the first electron ionizes over the inner potential barrier of the molecule, moves directly towards the other nucleus, and kicks out the second electron.

  19. Rotations of molecular photoelectron angular distributions in above threshold ionization of H2+ by intense circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2014-10-01

    We present molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in multi-photon ionization processes by circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses. Simulations are performed on the single electron aligned molecular ion H_2^+ by solving corresponding 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Numerical results of molecular above threshold ionization (MATI) show that rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular and polarization axes depend on pulse intensities and photoelectron kinetic energies. We attribute the rotation to Γ, the difference between parallel and perpendicular ionization probabilities. It is found that in a resonant ionization process, the rotation angle is also a function of the symmetry of intermediate electronic states. The coherent population transfer between the initial and the resonant electronic states is controlled by pulse intensities. Such dependence of rotations on the pulse intensity is absent in Rydberg resonant ionizations as well as in MATI at large energy photons ℏω > Ip, where ω is angular frequency of photons and Ip is the molecular ionization potential. We describe these processes by a multi-photon perturbation theory model. Effects of molecular alignment and pulse ellipticities on rotations are investigated, confirming the essence of the ionization parameter Γ in rotations of MPADs.

  20. Multiple Point Dynamic Gas Density Measurements Using Molecular Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard; Panda, Jayanta

    1999-01-01

    A nonintrusive technique for measuring dynamic gas density properties is described. Molecular Rayleigh scattering is used to measure the time-history of gas density simultaneously at eight spatial locations at a 50 kHz sampling rate. The data are analyzed using the Welch method of modified periodograms to reduce measurement uncertainty. Cross-correlations, power spectral density functions, cross-spectral density functions, and coherence functions may be obtained from the data. The technique is demonstrated using low speed co-flowing jets with a heated inner jet.

  1. Low-Ionization Emission Regions in Quasars: Gas Properties Probed with Broad O I and Ca II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Kawara, K.; Oyabu, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have compiled the emission-line fluxes of O I λ8446, O I λ11287, and the near-infrared (IR) Ca II triplet (λ8579) observed in 11 quasars. These lines are considered to emerge from the same gas as do the Fe II lines in the low-ionized portion of the broad emission line region (BELR). The compiled quasars are distributed over wide ranges of redshift (0.06 <= z<= 1.08) and of luminosity (-29.8 <= MB <= - 22.1), thus providing a useful sample to investigate the line-emitting gas properties in various quasar environments. The measured line strengths and velocities, as functions of the quasar properties, are analyzed using photoionization model calculations. We found that the flux ratio between the Ca II triplet and O I λ8446 is hardly dependent on the redshift or luminosity, indicating similar gas densities in the emission region from quasar to quasar. On the other hand, a scatter of the O I λ11287/λ8446 ratios appears to imply the diversity of the ionization parameter. These facts invoke a picture of the line-emitting gases in quasars that have similar densities and are located at regions exposed to various ionizing radiation fluxes. The observed O I line widths are found to be remarkably similar over more than 3 orders of magnitude in luminosity, which indicates a kinematically determined location of the emission region and is in clear contrast to the case of H I lines. We also argue about the dust presence in the emission region since the region is suggested to be located near the dust sublimation point at the outer edge of the BELR.

  2. Molecular gas content of H I monsters and implications to cold gas content evolution in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G.; Erickson, N.

    2014-06-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1 → 0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.04 < z < 0.08) with a large neutral hydrogen reservoir, or `H I monsters'. The data were obtained using the redshift search receiver on the five college radio astronomy observatory (FCRAO) 14 m telescope. The sample consists of 20 H I-massive galaxies with MH I > 3 × 1010 M⊙ from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and 8 low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs) with a comparable MH I(>1.5 × 1010 M⊙). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these H I-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass MH2 of (1-11)× 109 M⊙. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7) × 1010 M⊙ make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with H I, H2, and stellar properties of the H I massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analysed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviours of disc and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modelling.

  3. An Extremely High Velocity Molecular Jet Surrounded by an Ionized Cavity in the Protostellar Source Serpens SMM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Girart, Josep M.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Rodríguez-Kamenetzky, Adriana; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Cortés, Paulo C.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Plambeck, Richard L.

    2016-06-01

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a one-sided, high-velocity (˜80 km s-1) CO(J = 2\\to 1) jet powered by the intermediate-mass protostellar source Serpens SMM1-a. The highly collimated molecular jet is flanked at the base by a wide-angle cavity; the walls of the cavity can be seen in both 4 cm free-free emission detected by the Very Large Array and 1.3 mm thermal dust emission detected by ALMA. This is the first time that ionization of an outflow cavity has been directly detected via free-free emission in a very young, embedded Class 0 protostellar source that is still powering a molecular jet. The cavity walls are ionized either by UV photons escaping from the accreting protostellar source or by the precessing molecular jet impacting the walls. These observations suggest that ionized outflow cavities may be common in Class 0 protostellar sources, shedding further light on the radiation, outflow, and jet environments in the youngest, most embedded forming stars.

  4. Verifying thermodynamic equilibrium of molecular manifolds: Kennard-Stepanov spectroscopy of a molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Stavros; Möller, Dominik; Cota, Roberto; Gerwers, Benedikt; Weitz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The degree of thermalization of electronically excited state manifolds of an absorber can be tested via optical spectroscopy. In the thermalized-manifold case, the ratio of absorption and emission is expected to follow a universal Boltzmann-type frequency scaling, known as the Kennard-Stepanov relation. Here, we investigate absorption and emission spectral profiles of rubidium, cesium, and potassium molecular dimers in a high-pressure argon buffer-gas environment and study the effect of collisionally induced redistribution. We find that, despite the use of nonlinear excitation techniques, the ratio of absorption and emission well follows the Kennard-Stepanov scaling for a variety of molecular transitions. We conclude that the upper electronic state rovibrational manifold of the molecular gas is well in thermodynamic equilibrium. Further, we demonstrate an accurate, calibration-free determination of the gas temperature from the measured spectroscopic data.

  5. Constraints on molecular gas in cooling flows and powerful radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Sparks, William B.

    1994-01-01

    We searched for molecular gas in a heterogeneous sample of five radio-loud galaxies (three of which are inferred to be in cooling flow clusters) using the Swedish-European Southern Observatory (Swedish-ESO) Submillimeter Telescope. We do not detect CO in emission in any of the cluster sources at a 3 sigma level of typically 15 mK. White et al. (1991) have suggested column densities of N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm in these clusters with a spatial covering factor of order unity and a total mass of M approximately 10(exp 12) solar mass. Our limits are inconsistent with these column densities and spatial covering factor unless the molecular gas is very cold (kinetic temperature close to 2.7 K) or there only a few clouds along each line of sight. We estimate minimum temperatures in the range approximately 20-30 K. We find that clouds of atomic and molecular hydrogen require strict fine-tuning of parameter space in order to satisfy the requirements for the large column densities N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, unit covering factor, and a small number of clouds along the line of sight. Currently the only way molecular gas can be responsible for the X-ray absorption and still be consistent with our observations is if (1) there is of order one cloud along the line of sight and (2) the optical depth in C-12 1 to 0 is less than 10. In addition, we present a Very Large Array (VLA) image of NGC 4696 which suggests this object is a member of the class of 'amorphous cooling flow radio sources.' The C-12 1 to 0 line is detected in emission in PKS 0634-206, a classical double radio galaxy which is rich in extended optical emission line gas. The estimated molecular gas mass is M(sub mol) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9) solar mass and is much larger than that of the ionized component detected in hydrogen alpha suggesting that the emission-line nebula is radiation bounded.

  6. A method for measuring the electron drift velocity in working gas using a Frisch-grid ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Huaiyong; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-12-01

    A method for measuring the electron drift velocity in working gas is proposed. Based on the cathode and the anode signal waveforms of the Frisch-grid ionization chamber, the electron drift velocity is extracted. With this method, the electron drift velocities in Ar + 10% CH4, Ar + 3.5% CO2 and Kr + 2.7% CO2 gases have been measured and the results are compared with the existing measurements and the simulating results. Using this method, the electron drift velocity can be monitored throughout the experiment of charged particle without bothering the measurement of other parameters, such as the energy and orientation.

  7. A simple and sensitive quantitation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine by gas chromatography with surface ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Seno, H; Suzuki, O; Hattori, H; Kumazawa, T

    1997-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) by gas chromatography (GC) with surface ionization detection (SID) is presented. Whole blood or urine, containing DMT and gramine (internal standard), was subjected to solid-phase extraction with a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge before analysis by GC-SID. The calibration curve was linear in the DMT range of 1.25-20 ng/mL blood or urine. The detection limit of DMT was about 0.5 ng/mL (10 pg on-column). The recovery of both DMT and gramine spiked in biological fluids was above 86%.

  8. Extraction of thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, and camphor residues from honey and beeswax. Determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Jiménez, J J; González, M J; Higes, M

    2002-04-19

    A gas chromatographic method to determine thymol, eucalyptol (cineole), menthol and camphor residues in honey and beeswax is proposed. To isolate the compounds, three methods involving liquid-liquid extraction with methylene chloride, distillation, or solid-phase extraction on octadecylsilica cartridges can be used. The GC separation is carried out on a 60 m x 0.53 mm Stabilwax DA capillary column, using a flame ionization detector. The method is applied to the analysis of natural honey and also honey and beeswax samples from beehives treated with the above compounds.

  9. Far-IR spectroscopy of the galactic center: Neutral and ionized gas in the central 10 pc of the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J.; Watson, D. M.; Townes, C. H.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Hollenbach, D.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M.; Storey, J. W. V.

    1983-01-01

    The 3P1 - 3P2 fine structure line emission from neutral atomic oxygen at 63 microns in the vicinity of the galactic center was mapped. The emission is extended over more than 4' (12 pc) along the galactic plane, centered on the position of Sgr A West. The line center velocities show that the O I gas is rotating around the galactic center with an axis close to that of the general galactic rotation, but there appear also to be noncircular motions. The rotational velocity at R is approximately 1 pc corresponds to a mass within the central pc of about 3 x 10(6) solar mass. Between 1 and 6 pc from the center the mass is approximately proportional to radius. The (O I) line probability arises in a predominantly neutral, atomic region immediately outside of the ionized central parsec of out galaxy. Hydrogen densities in the (O I) emitting region are 10(3) to 10(6) cm(-3) and gas temperatures are or = 100 K. The total integrated luminosity radiated in the line is about 10(5) solar luminosity, and is a substantial contribution to the cooling of the gas. Photoelectric heating or heating by ultraviolet excitation of H2 at high densities (10(5) cm(-3)) are promising mechanisms for heating of the gas, but heating due to dissipation of noncircular motions of the gas may be an alternative possibility. The 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line of (O III) at 88 microns toward Sgr A West was also detected. The (O III) emission comes from high density ionized gas (n 10(4) cm(-3)), and there is no evidence for a medium density region (n 10(3) cm(-3)), such as the ionized halo in Sgr A West deduced from radio observations. This radio halo may be nonthermal, or may consist of many compact, dense clumps of filaments on the inner edges of neutral condensations at R or = 2 pc.

  10. The probability density function in molecular gas in the G333 and Vela C molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The probability density function (PDF) is a simple analytical tool for determining the hierarchical spatial structure of molecular clouds. It has been used frequently in recent years with dust continuum emission, such as that from the Herschel space telescope and ALMA. These dust column density PDFs universally show a log-normal distribution in low column density gas, characteristic of unbound turbulent gas, and a power-law tail at high column densities, indicating the presence of gravitationally bound gas. We have recently conducted a PDF analysis of the molecular gas in the G333 and Vela C giant molecular cloud complexes, using transitions of CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+ and N2H+.The results show that CO and its isotopologues trace mostly the log-normal part of the PDF, while HCN and HCO+ trace both a log-normal part and a power law part to the distribution. On the other hand, HNC and N2H+ mostly trace only the power law tail. The difference between the PDFs of HCN and HNC is surprising, as is the similarity between HNC and the N2H+ PDFs. The most likely explanation for the similar distributions of HNC and N2H+ is that N2H+ is known to be enhanced in cool gas below 20K, where CO is depleted, while the reaction that forms HNC or HCN favours the former at similar low temperatures. The lack of evidence for a power law tail in 13CO and C18O, in conjunction for the results for the N2H+ PDF suggest that depletion of CO in the dense cores of these molecular clouds is significant. In conclusion, the PDF has proved to be a surprisingly useful tool for investigating not only the spatial distribution of molecular gas, but also the wide scale chemistry of molecular clouds.

  11. Radiative properties of molecular nitrogen ions produced by helium Penning ionization and argon effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, George, III; Song, Kyo-Dong

    1994-01-01

    The development of hypersonic aerospace vehicles requires a better understanding on the thermal and chemical nonequilibrium kinetics of participating species in shock layers. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes developed for such flowfields overestimate the radiation in the spectral region of 300 - 600 nm. A speculation for this overestimation is that inclusion of Ar, CO2, and H2O at the upper atmosphere flight region makes a significant impact on radiative kinetics of molecular nitrogen ions. To define the effects of minority species on the radiative kinetics of N2(+), an experimental setup was made by using the helium Penning ionization. The vibrational and rotational temperature were measured by mapping the vibrational and rotational distributions of N2(+) emission with high spectroscopic resolution and absolute intensity measurements. Measured vibrational temperatures were in the range from 18,000 to 36,000 K, and rotational temperatures were in the range from 300 to 370 K. The irradiance of 391.44 nm line and rotational and vibrational temperatures were analyzed to define argon and CO2 effects on the N2(+) emission. When Ar or CO2 is injected with N2, the rotational temperature did not change. The irradiances were reduced by 34 percent and 78 percent for the 50 percent of mixture of Ar and CO2, respectively. The vibrational temperatures were increased by 24.1 percent and 82.9 percent for the 50 percent of mixture of Ar and CO2, respectively. It appears that there are no significant effects from small concentrations of Ar and CO2 at the upper atmosphere flight region.

  12. Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electron Ionization and Negative-Ion Chemical Ionization for Analyses of Pesticides at Trace Levels in Atmospheric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Renata; Hall, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of detection limits of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with both electron ionization (EI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI) are presented for over 50 pesticides ranging from organochlorines (OCs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and pre-emergent herbicides used in the Canadian prairies (triallate, trifluralin, ethalfluralin). The developed GC-EI/SIM, GC-NCI/SIM, and GC-NCI/SRM are suitable for the determination of pesticides in air sample extracts at concentrations <100 pg μL−1 (<100 pg m−3 in air). No one method could be used to analyze the range of pre-emergent herbicides, OPs, and OCs investigated. In general GC-NCI/SIM provided the lowest method detection limits (MDLs commonly 2.5–10 pg μL−1) along with best confirmation (<25% RSD of ion ratio), while GC-NCI/SRM is recommended for use where added selectivity or confirmation is required (such as parathion-ethyl, tokuthion, carbofenothion). GC-EI/SRM at concentration <100 pg μL−1 was not suitable for most pesticides. GC-EI/SIM was more prone to interference issues than NCI methods, but gave good sensitivity (MDLs 1–10 pg μL−1) for pesticides with poor NCI response (OPs: sulfotep, phorate, aspon, ethion, and OCs: alachlor, aldrin, perthane, and DDE, DDD, DDT). PMID:19609395

  13. Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by elliptically polarized few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai-Hong, Tong; Guo-Qiang, Feng; Dan, Liu

    2015-03-01

    Using the classical ensemble method, we have investigated double ionization (DI) of diatomic molecules driven by elliptically polarized few-cycle laser pulses. The results show that DI channel depends strongly on internuclear distances (R), which is dominated by nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) for small and large R, while sequential double ionization (SDI) for mediate R. By tracing NSDI trajectories, we find that NSDI mainly originates from recollision process for small R and collision process for large R. Moreover, the correlated momentum distributions along the long axis strongly depend on the carrier-envelope-phase (CEP), and this phase dependence is affected by R.

  14. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Atomic Gas Dominated Regions - Results from the HERACLES Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, A. K.; Walter, F.; HERACLES Team

    2012-01-01

    We perform a sensitive search for faint CO emission and study how it is related to star formation in HI-dominated regions of 45 nearby spiral and dwarf galaxies using observations of CO (HERACLES), HI (THINGS), IR & Halpha (SINGS/LVL), and UV (GALEX NGS). Constraining the molecular gas content in HI-dominated regions is a crucial measurement to distinguish the role of atomic and molecular gas in the star formation process. We apply a novel technique, leveraging HI velocity fields from THINGS and wide area coverage of HERACLES to stack CO spectra and significantly increase the sensitivity. For spiral galaxies, CO (and thus H2) is linearly related to tracers of star formation (IR, Halpha, FUV) and does not depend on gas density. Meanwhile, the H2-to-HI ratio varies by several orders of magnitude with radius and total gas surface density and thus sensitively regulates the supply of star-forming molecular gas. For dwarf galaxies, we determine sensitive upper limits on the CO luminosity both near star-forming peaks and the entire galaxy and find CO emission to be faint both in an absolute sense and normalized by B-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR). The ratio SFR/CO increases by more than an order of magnitude toward low metallicities which likely indicates a dramatic increase in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor.

  15. Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohui; Patwardhan, Gauri; Schrauth, Samuel; Zhu, Daiwei; Popmintchev, Tenio; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the plasma dynamics inside a femtosecond-pulse-induced filament generated in an argon gas for a wide range of pressures up to 60 bar. At higher pressures, we observe ionization immediately following a pulse, with up to a threefold increase in the electron density within 30 ps after the filamentary propagation of a femtosecond pulse. Our study suggests that this picosecond evolution can be attributed to collisional ionization including Penning and associative ionizations and electron-impact ionization of excited atoms generated during the pulse. The dominance of excited atoms over ionized atoms at the end of the pulse also indicates an intrapulse inhibition of avalanche ionization. This delayed ionization dynamics provides evidence for diagnosing atomic and molecular excitation and ionization in intense laser interaction with high-pressure gases.

  16. Determination of red blood cell fatty acid profiles: Rapid and high-confident analysis by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schober, Yvonne; Wahl, Hans Günther; Renz, Harald; Nockher, Wolfgang Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) profiles have been acknowledged as biomarkers in various human diseases. Nevertheless, common FA analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) requires long analysis time. Hence, there is a need for feasible methods for high throughput analysis in clinical studies. FA was extracted from red blood cells (RBC) and derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A method using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with ammonia-induced chemical ionization (CI) was developed for the analysis of FA profiles in human RBC. We compared this method with classical single GC-MS using electron impact ionization (EI). The FA profiles of 703 RBC samples were determined by GC-MS/MS. In contrast to EI ammonia-induced CI resulted in adequate amounts of molecular ions for further fragmentation of FAME. Specific fragments for confident quantification and fragmentation were determined for 45 FA. The GC-MS/MS method has a total run time of 9min compared to typical analysis times of up to 60min in conventional GC-MS. Intra and inter assay variations were <10% for all FA analyzed. Analysis of RBC FA composition revealed an age-dependent increase of the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, and a decline of the omega-6 linoleic acid with a corresponding rise of the omega-3 index. The combination of ammonia-induced CI and tandem mass spectrometry after GC separation allows for high-throughput, robust and confident analysis of FA profiles in the clinical laboratory.

  17. Rotating Molecular Gas Disks around Protostellar Jet Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    1999-10-01

    Large millimeter arrays such as ALMA provide a means to map the warm dust and molecular gas in regions encircling protostellar accretion zones. Line observations, in particular, provide the means not only for excitation studies but for kinematical studies of the protostellar environment. Radio and millimeter interferometers are already being used to trace infall, rotation, and outflow of dense gas. Recently, flattened large (~10,000 AU) molecular gas disks around protostars were detected and show strong evidence for rotation (Zhang et al. 1998, Wiseman et al. 1998). We present here our most recent VLA ammonia maps showing flattened gas disks with velocity gradients indicative of rotation around the sources of the jets HH111, HH211 and HH212. We discuss interaction with the jets and outflows. We also discuss how line maps from ALMA and radio interferometers complement each other. Wiseman, J., Wootten, A., Zinnecker, H., & McCaughrean, M. 1998, in The Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium, abstract book of the 3rd Cologne-Zermatt Symposium, ed. V. Ossenkopf Wiseman, J., Fuller, G., & Wootten, A. 1999, in preparation Zhang, Q., Hunter, T., & Sridharan, T. 1998, ApJ, 505, L151

  18. How hot is the molecular gas in the Galactic Center?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immer, Katharina; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Ginsburg, Adam; Menten, Karl M.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone of our Galaxy (CMZ; inner ~200 pc) show systematically higher gas than dust temperatures (>50 K vs <30 K) in recent H2CO line and dust continuum surveys. This discrepancy is puzzling since gas and dust temperatures should become equal over short times at the high densities observed in these clouds. In deep H2CO(3-2) and (4-3) observations of seven clouds in the CMZ, we detected not only large temperature differences between the clouds but also large gradients within the clouds. Comparing the temperatures and the main H2CO lines at 218 and 291 GHz, we found a positive correlation between those two parameters, indicating that turbulence plays an important role in the heating of the gas. As a follow-up, we mapped the temperature tracers CH3CCH and CH3CN in these seven clouds to derive multiple temperature estimates and test the accuracy of high gas temperatures.

  19. The linewidth-size scaling law of molecular gas revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, Edith; McKee, Christopher F.

    The origin of the linewidth-size (LWS) scaling law, first noticed by Larson three decades ago and ascribed to turbulence, is still a highly debated issue. Not unexpectedly, its properties depend on the environment and on the line tracer used. When the optically thick 12CO (J=1-0) line is used, a specific medium is sampled: the translucent molecular gas of moderate density that builds up the bulk of the molecular interstellar medium in galaxies like the Milky Way. The sensitivity of the 12CO line to this gas is such that the LWS is found to hold over almost five orders of magnitude in lengthscale, although with a considerable scatter (+/- 0.5 dex). It also appears to split into two regimes, depending on the gas mass surface density: below a given threshold that is proposed to be linked to the galactic structure, it bears the signature of a turbulent cascade, while above it, the scaling law is ascribed to virial balance. Large deviations from the LWS scaling law are observed at small scales where signatures of turbulent intermittency appear. The mass-size scaling law built with the 12CO (J=1-0) line also splits into two regimes. The mass surface density is uniform (also with a large scatter) above lengthscales ~ 10pc and increases with size at smaller scales, following turbulence predictions. The two thresholds define an average gas density n H ~ 300 cm-3.

  20. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wade C; Lewis, Charlotte R; Openshaw, Anna P; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  2. Metal-ligand redox reactions in gas-phase quaternary peptide-metal complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisar, T.; Gatlin, C. L.; Turecek, F.

    1997-03-01

    The dipeptides Phe-Leu, Leu-Phe, Leu-Ala, and Ala-Leu form quaternary complexes of the type [Cu(II)(peptide - 2H+M)bpy]+ in the gas phase when electrosprayed in the presence of Cu(II) salts, 2.2'-bipyridyl (bpy), and an alkali hydroxide (MOH). The gas-phase complexes decarboxylate on collisional activation at low ion kinetic energies. The resulting ions undergo unusual eliminations of neutral Na, K, and Rb, which depend on the peptide structure. The ionization energy of the decarboxylated Phe-Leu-Cu-bpy complex was bracketed at 4.2 eV. Other collision-induced dissociations also depend on the alkali metal ion and the peptide structure. Ab initio calculations on a model system are reported and used to discuss the electronic properties of the peptide complexes.

  3. Adaptation of the Black Yeast Wangiella dermatitidis to Ionizing Radiation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    laboratory and in the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor suggest they have adapted the ability to survive or even benefit from exposure to ionizing...damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl , which are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation, harbor large of amounts of microorganisms, including fungal...species [3,4]. Furthermore, Zhdanova et al. reported that beta and gamma radiation promoted directional growth of fungi isolated from the Chernobyl

  4. Effect of an improved molecular potential on strong-field tunneling ionization of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Songfeng; Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.

    2010-09-15

    We study the effect of one-electron model potentials on the tunneling ionization rates of molecules in strong fields. By including electron correlation using the modified Leeuwen-Baerends (LB {alpha}) model, the binding energies of outer shells of molecules are significantly improved. However, we show that the tunneling ionization rates from the LB {alpha} do not differ much from the earlier calculations [Phys. Rev. A 81, 033423 (2010)], in which the local correlation potential was neglected.

  5. Potential of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for screening and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane.

    PubMed

    Sales, Carlos; Portolés, Tania; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Abad, Esteban; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Fiedler, Heidelore; Gómara, Belén; Beltrán, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    A fast method for the screening and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane (sum of all isomers) by gas chromatography using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (GC-APCI-QqQ) is proposed. This novel procedure makes use of the soft atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source, which results in less fragmentation of the analyte than by conventional electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) sources, favoring the formation of the [M - Br](+) ion and, thus, enhancing sensitivity and selectivity. Detection was based on the consecutive loses of HBr from the [M - Br](+) ion to form the specific [M - H5Br6](+) and [M - H4Br5](+) ions, which were selected as quantitation (Q) and qualification (q) transitions, respectively. Parameters affecting ionization and MS/MS detection were studied. Method performance was also evaluated; calibration curves were found linear from 1 pg/μL to 100 pg/μL for the total HBCD concentration; instrumental detection limit was estimated to be 0.10 pg/μL; repeatability and reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation, were better than 7% in both cases. The application to different real samples [polyurethane foam disks (PUFs), food, and marine samples] pointed out a rapid way to identify and allow quantification of this compound together with a number of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two other novel brominated flame retardants [i.e., decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE)] because of their presence in the same fraction when performing the usual sample treatment.

  6. The Ionized Gas and Nuclear Environment in NGC 3783. IV; Variability and Modeling of the 900 ks CHANDRA Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Brandt, W. N.; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Gabel, Jack R.; Hamann, Frederick W.; George, Steven B.

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the 900 ks spectrum of NGC3783 obtained by Chandra in 2000-2001 (Kaspi et al. 2002). We split the data in various ways to look for time dependent and luminosity dependent spectral variations. This analysis, the measured equivalent widths of a large number of X-ray lines, and our photoionization calculations, lead us to the following conclusions: 1) NGC 3783 fluctuated in luminosity, by a factor N 1.5, during individual 170 ks observations. The fluctuations were not associated with significant spectral variations. 2) On a longer time scale, of 20-120 days, we discovered two very different spectral shapes that are noted the high state and the low state spectra. The observed changes between the two can be described as the appearance and disappearance of a soft continuum component. The spectral variations are not related, in a simple way, to the brightening or the fading of the short wavelength continuum, as observed in other objects. NGC3783 seems to be the first AGN to show this unusual behavior. 3) The appearance of the soft continuum component is consistent with beeing the only spectral variation and there is no need to invoke changes in the absorber s opacity. In particular, all absorption lines with reliable measurements show the same equivalent width, within the observational uncertainties, during high and low states. 4) Photoionization model calculations show that a combination of three ionization components, each split into two kinematic components, explain very well the intensity of almost all absorption lines and the bound-free absorption. The components span a large range of ionization and a total column of about 3 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter Moreover, all components are thermally stable and are situated on the vertical branch of the stability curve.. This means that they are in pressure equilibrium and perhaps occupy the same volume of space. This is the first detection of such a multi-component equilibrium gas in

  7. Determination of the enantiomer fraction of PBB 149 by gas chromatography/electron capture negative ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    von der Recke, Roland; Mariussen, Espen; Berger, Urs; Götsch, Arntraut; Herzke, Dorte; Vetter, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Enantioselective determination of the atropisomers of 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexabromobiphenyl (PBB 149) in a purified sample from a bird egg was attempted in this work. By application of the classic method for PBB determination, i.e. gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) using the bromide ions, the enantiomers interfered with another brominated compound. Subsequent measurements clarified that this interference did not occur in the mass chromatogram of the molecular ion of PBB 149. Therefore, a GC/ECNI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed, based on the fragmentation of [M]-. A suitable precursor-product ion transition was found for m/z 627.5 --> 80 +/- 1.5, representing the most abundant ion trace of the molecular ion and the bromide ions. Optimization of the ion source temperature, the methane gas pressure, and the collision voltages resulted in a robust method that could solve the problem. Subsequent injections of a technical PBB product (Firemaster BP-6) resulted in the anticipated racemic proportion (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.50 +/- 0.02 (n = 8)). By contrast, the EF in the purified extract of a bird egg was found to be 0.42 +/- 0.02 (n = 10), indicative of a significant enantioenrichment of the second eluting atropisomer. Additional measurements were performed on a non-chiral column. These measurements allowed for the detection of 16 hexabromobiphenyls (hexa-BBs) in Firemaster BP-6. These comparisons verified that PBB 149 enantiomers did not interfere with an isomer that could falsify the enantiomer fraction in the sample. The novel method using GC/ECNI-MS/MS in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was eight times more sensitive than application of conventional GC/ECNI-MS selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis of the molecular ion.

  8. Gas Diffusion in Polyethylene Terepthalate By Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Simon; Adolf, David

    2006-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the diffusion of small penetrants through PET have been performed utilising the anisotropic united atom model [1] and a virtual liquid technique. [2] The accuracy and reliability of these two approaches has been assessed in terms of the improvement in equation of state behaviour and of diffusion co-efficients and solubilities. The effect of the diffusion of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen on the local dynamics of PET have been investigated as a result. Attention has been focused on the dual mode effect [3] observed during mixed gas diffusion. [1] Molecular dynamics calculation of the equation of state of alkanes, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6 (1990) [2] Kikuchi, Kuwajima, Fukada, Novel method to estimate the solubility of small molecules in cis-polyisoprene by molecular dynamics simulations, J. Chem. Phys, 115, 13 (2001) [3] Lewis, Duckett, Ward, Fairclough, Ryan, The barrier properties of polyethylene terephthalate to mixtures of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, Polymer, 1631, 44 (2003)

  9. Anomalous Decline of Molecular Ion Mobility in Cooled Helium Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Kazumasa; Hananoe, Masatoshi; Matsuzawa, Michio

    2005-11-01

    We present a first successful theoretical account of the ion mobilities of N2+ and O2+ in helium gas at 4.3 K. Measured mobilities of various molecular ions at low effective temperatures reportedly tend to values smaller than their polarization limits, with the exception of N2+ [J. Sanderson , J. Phys. BJPAPEH0953-4075 26, L465 (1993)10.1088/0953-4075/26/15/006; J. SandersonJ. Phys. BJPAPEH0953-407527, L433 (1994)10.1088/0953-4075/27/14/021]. The present theoretical results obtained by the classical trajectory calculations agree with the experimental ones very well, and make it definitive that the anomalous decline of molecular ion mobility is caused by a Feshbach-like resonance due to the anisotropic interaction potential between a molecular ion and a helium atom. The mechanism thus revealed is supported by quantitative quantum mechanical calculations. The process appears very similar to that of laser cooling.

  10. Highly ionized gas in the Gum nebula and elsewhere - A comparison of IUE and Copernicus satellite results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Richard J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1992-01-01

    The data from six high-dispersion IUE echelle spectra are averaged in order to obtain an interstellar absorption line spectrum with an S/N of about 30 and a resolution of about 25 km/s. The interstellar lines of C IV and Si IV are very strong and broad and N V is detected. The profiles for these species and Al III are compared to the Copernicus satellite profiles for O VI. The high ionization lines toward HD 64760 are much stronger and broader than those recorded toward Zeta Pup and Gamma super 2 Vel, the two exciting stars of the Gum nebula. The profiles for Al III and Si IV are similar and considerably narrower than the O VI profile. An origin in photoionized Gum nebula gas is suggested as the most likely explanation for Al III and Si IV. The C IV profile has a high positive velocity wing extending to approximately +80 km/s, which is similar in appearance to the positive velocity portion of the O VI profile. It is inferred that a substantial part of the observed C IV has an origin in the collisionally ionized gas most likely rsponsible for the O VI.

  11. A combined segmented anode gas ionization chamber and time-of-flight detector for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ström, Petter; Petersson, Per; Rubel, Marek; Possnert, Göran

    2016-10-01

    A dedicated detector system for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University is presented. Benefits of combining a time-of-flight measurement with a segmented anode gas ionization chamber are demonstrated. The capability of ion species identification is improved with the present system, compared to that obtained when using a single solid state silicon detector for the full ion energy signal. The system enables separation of light elements, up to Neon, based on atomic number while signals from heavy elements such as molybdenum and tungsten are separated based on mass, to a sample depth on the order of 1 μm. The performance of the system is discussed and a selection of material analysis applications is given. Plasma-facing materials from fusion experiments, in particular metal mirrors, are used as a main example for the discussion. Marker experiments using nitrogen-15 or oxygen-18 are specific cases for which the described improved species separation and sensitivity are required. Resilience to radiation damage and significantly improved energy resolution for heavy elements at low energies are additional benefits of the gas ionization chamber over a solid state detector based system.

  12. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  13. Ambient molecular imaging and depth profiling of live tissue by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Peter; Barton, Alexis A; Li, Yue; Vertes, Akos

    2008-06-15

    Mass spectrometry in conjunction with atmospheric pressure ionization methods enables the in vivo investigation of biochemical changes with high specificity and sensitivity. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) is a recently introduced ambient ionization method suited for the analysis of biological samples with sufficient water content. With LAESI mass spectrometric analysis of chimeric Aphelandra squarrosa leaf tissue, we identify the metabolites characteristic for the green and yellow sectors of variegation. Significant parts of the related biosynthetic pathways (e.g., kaempferol biosynthesis) are ascertained from the detected metabolites and metabolomic databases. Scanning electron microscopy of the ablated areas indicates the feasibility of both two-dimensional imaging and depth profiling with a approximately 350 microm lateral and approximately 50 microm depth resolution. Molecular distributions of some endogenous metabolites show chemical contrast between the sectors of variegation and quantitative changes as the ablation reaches the epidermal and mesophyll layers. Our results demonstrate that LAESI mass spectrometry opens a new way for ambient molecular imaging and depth profiling of metabolites in biological tissues and live organisms.

  14. Angle-dependent molecular above-threshold ionization with ultrashort intense linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2011-07-01

    We present molecular above-threshold ionization (MATI) spectra generated by ultrashort intense linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses from nonperturbative numerical solutions of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the molecular-ion H2+. It is found that high-order MATI spectra with maximum kinetic energy 32Up, where Up=I0/4meω02 is the ponderomotive energy at intensity I0 and frequency ω0, can be obtained in H2+ at great internuclear distances R for both linear and circular polarizations. Quasiclassical laser-induced collision models confirm that such high-order MATIs mainly result from a collision with neighboring ions of the ionized electron. Interference patterns in the high-order MATI spectra are critically sensitive to both the internuclear distance R of the molecules and the polarizations of the driving laser pulses. Moreover, with few-cycle laser pulses, the carrier-envelope phase sensitivity of MATI angular distributions is also investigated for varying internuclear distances R. At critical internuclear distances for charge-resonance-enhanced ionization, we also find that enhanced interference patterns occur.

  15. Angle-dependent molecular above-threshold ionization with ultrashort intense linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2011-07-15

    We present molecular above-threshold ionization (MATI) spectra generated by ultrashort intense linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses from nonperturbative numerical solutions of the corresponding time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the molecular-ion H{sub 2}{sup +}. It is found that high-order MATI spectra with maximum kinetic energy 32U{sub p}, where U{sub p}=I{sub 0}/4m{sub e}{omega}{sub 0}{sup 2} is the ponderomotive energy at intensity I{sub 0} and frequency {omega}{sub 0}, can be obtained in H{sub 2}{sup +} at great internuclear distances R for both linear and circular polarizations. Quasiclassical laser-induced collision models confirm that such high-order MATIs mainly result from a collision with neighboring ions of the ionized electron. Interference patterns in the high-order MATI spectra are critically sensitive to both the internuclear distance R of the molecules and the polarizations of the driving laser pulses. Moreover, with few-cycle laser pulses, the carrier-envelope phase sensitivity of MATI angular distributions is also investigated for varying internuclear distances R. At critical internuclear distances for charge-resonance-enhanced ionization, we also find that enhanced interference patterns occur.

  16. Nature of the ionizing source of the nuclear gas in NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, W.C.; Miller, J.S.

    1983-03-15

    We examine the ionization and physical state of the emission-line region in the nucleus of elliptical galaxy NGC 1052. The (O III) lambda4363/lambda5007 ratio, frequently used as a diagnostic for ionization mechanisms, is very poorly determined because of difficulties in matching the underlying stellar continuum spectrum, which is unusual in having very strong lines for the galaxy luminosity. Within these limitations, we find the (O III) temperature to be only marginally compatible with shock models, and the overall emission spectrum to be better fitted by photoionization models with a very dilute flat-spectrum central source. In any event, the case for NGC 1052 as a shock-heated nucleus is not strong.

  17. THE KINEMATICS AND IONIZATION OF NUCLEAR GAS CLOUDS IN CENTAURUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Neumayer, Nadine E-mail: Ralph.Sutherland@anu.edu.au

    2013-03-20

    Neumayer et al. established the existence of a blueshifted cloud in the core of Centaurus A, within a few parsecs of the nucleus and close to the radio jet. We propose that the cloud has been impacted by the jet, and that it is in the foreground of the jet, accounting for its blueshifted emission on the southern side of the nucleus. We consider both shock excitation and photoionization models for the excitation of the cloud. Shock models do not account for the [Si VI] and [Ca VIII] emission line fluxes. However, X-ray observations indicate a source of ionizing photons in the core of Centaurus A; photoionization by the inferred flux incident on the cloud can account for the fluxes in these lines relative to Brackett-{gamma}. The power-law slope of the ionizing continuum matches that inferred from synchrotron models of the X-rays. The logarithm of the ionization parameter is -1.9, typical of that in Seyfert galaxies and consistent with the value proposed for dusty ionized plasmas. The model cloud density depends upon the Lorentz factor of the blazar and the inclination of our line of sight to the jet axis. For acute inclinations, the inferred density is consistent with expected cloud densities. However, for moderate inclinations of the jet to the line of sight, high Lorentz factors imply cloud densities in excess of 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} and very low filling factors, suggesting that models of the gamma-ray emission should incorporate jet Lorentz factors {approx}< 5.

  18. Using PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy to study excited states of molecular ions: implications for state selection through pulsed field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James D.; Alcaraz, Christian; Mank, A.; Kong, Wei; Hepburn, John W.

    1995-09-01

    The introduction of the pulsed field ionization zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy technique (referred to as PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy) has resulted in a revolution in photoelectron spectroscopy, because of the tremendous improvement in resolution. This method of threshold photoelectron spectroscopy is based on field ionization of metastable high principal quantum number Rydberg states using a pulsed electric field, delayed from the laser excitation. The detailed mechanism for stabilization of the high principal quantum number Rydberg states has been the subject of a great deal of recent discussion in the literature, and is still somewhat controversial. It is well known that Rydberg state lifetimes scale as n-3, for fluorescence, autoionization, or predissociation, under ideal conditions. This means that for a Rydberg series that can decay by autoionization, if the lifetime of a 5p Rydberg state is 10-12 s, the lifetime of a 150p state will be 10-7 s, which is an order of magnitude shorter than typical delay times used in PFI-ZEKE. The 150p state will be field ionized by an electric field of 0.7 to 1.5 V/cm, which is typical of the pulsed fields used for Stark ionization. This question about Rydberg state lifetimes becomes quite important if one wishes to carry out PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy of ion states well above the lowest ionization threshold, as many decay channels will be available to the Rydberg states converging to the high energy states, resulting in shorter lifetimes for these high energy Rydberg states. Our work in this area has focused largely on PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy at excited state thresholds in molecular ions, where problems of autoionization will be most severe. To reach these high energy thresholds, we have usually used single photon excitation with coherent vacuum ultraviolet light. This excitation method has many advantages.

  19. Ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Walenta, Albert H.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

  20. Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air with gas chromatograph-flame ionization and ion trap detection

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Carley, R.J.; Kang, J.; Chen, J.; Stuart, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Two new techniques are utilized to integrate the following three equipments: an Entech 2000 automated air concentrator, a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) and an ion trap mass spectrometer detector (ITD). This combined analytical system is used to determine low ppb level volatile organic compounds (VOC) in ambient air. The first technique is to configure the inlet system of the GC, so that the pressure regulated flow control system of the GC injection port is used to control the flow of both the desorb gas of the automated air concentrator and the carrier gas of the GC column. The injection port still can be used to inject gas and liquid samples directly. The second technique is to split the effluent of GC column at a 1:1 ratio to the ITD and the FID. In this way, both FID and ITD data can be obtained for each analysis. For ambient air non-methane hydrocarbons monitoring, the FID detector is widely used. Oxygen containing and halogenated organic compounds cannot be differentiated by FID detector and would be quantified as coeluting hydrocarbons. However, volatile organic compounds other than target hydrocarbons can be identified by ITD. This analytical system is very valuable research tool for non-methane hydrocarbons and urban air toxic monitoring. The performances of this developed system have been presented.

  1. The infrared continuum spectrum of x ray illuminated molecular gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. Mark

    1990-01-01

    In starburst galaxies, active galaxies, and the mysterious ultraluminous infrared galaxies, x rays are likely to interact with molecular gas and dust, thereby inducing infrared emission. X ray heated thermal dust will emit the IR continuum, and x ray photoelectrons will excite an IR emission-line spectrum. Here, researchers model the IR continuum emission characteristic of some selected x ray spectral fluxes, in particular the x ray bremsstrahlung characteristic of supernova and stellar wind bubble shocks in dense media and the power law spectra characteristic of active galactic nuclei. These models are part of a larger project to determine the complete IR spectra, lines plus continuum, of x ray sources embedded in molecular gas. They modeled the thermal emission from grains by calculating a grain temperature/size/composition distribution function, f(T,a,Comp.), which accounts for temperature fluctuations by averaging over all grain thermal histories. In determining the grain thermal distribution, researchers account for both direct grain heating (by x ray absorption and subsequent electron energy deposition) and indirect grain heating (by absorption of the UV emission stimulated by non-thermal photo- and Auger electrons in the gas phase). We let the grain size distribution be proportional to a(exp -3.5), and they consider two types of grain composition: graphites, which we assume to be pure carbon, and silicates, which contain all other depleted heavy elements. They derive the grain composition distribution function from solar abundances and interstellar depletion data.

  2. Measurement of neutral gas pressure in the D-module of GAMMA 10/PDX by using ASDEX type fast ionization gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, K.; Fukumoto, M.; Islam, M. M.; Islam, M. S.; Shimizu, K.; Fukui, K.; Ohuchi, M.; Nojiri, K.; Terakado, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ezumi, N.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the divertor simulation experiments in the GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror, pressure of the neutral gas was investigated by using a fast ionization gauge. The gauge was absolutely calibrated for hydrogen gas by using a capacitance manometer. Change of the gauge sensitivity due to the magnetic field of GAMMA 10/PDX was also evaluated. The typical gas pressure measured in detached plasma experiments was 0.1-10 Pa. The degree of plasma detachment determined from the reduction of heat flux was enhanced as the gas pressure increases. Rapid increase of the gas pressure under the plasma flow was also observed.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of high speed rarefied gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongari, Nishanth; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.

    2012-11-01

    To understand the molecular behaviour of gases in high speed rarefied conditions, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) numerical experiments using the open source code Open FOAM. We use shear-driven Couette flows as test cases, where the two parallel plates are moving with a speed of Uw in opposite directions with their temperatures set to Tw. The gas rarefaction conditions vary from slip to transition, and compressibility conditions vary from low speed isothermal to hypersonic flow regimes, i.e. Knudsen number (Kn) from 0.01 to 1 and Mach number (Ma) from 0.05 to 10. We measure the molecular velocity distribution functions, the spatial variation of gas mean free path profiles and other macroscopic properties. Our MD results convey that flow properties in the near-wall non-equilibrium region do not merely depend on Kn, but they are also significantly affected by Ma. These results may yield new insight into diffusive transport in rarefied gases at high speeds.

  4. Revising the forty-year old paradigm: from Giant Molecular Clouds to Molecular Gas Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik William; Duarte Cabral, Ana; Ginsburg, Adam; Hughes, Annie; Kalinova Dimitrova, Veselina

    2015-08-01

    Since the first large surveys of early 80s, the statistical description of Giant Molecular Cloud properties has provided important insights into the physics that govern the star formation itself. However, those statistics heavily rely on the performance of automatic identification algorithms that are often seriously affected by the survey design — notably sensitivity and resolution.In this presentation, I will discuss how some of the limitations of commonly used algorithms can be overcome by considering the cloud segmentation problem in the broad framework of the graph theory. Additionally, the clustering analysis provides a natural and robust mathematical description of the molecular ISM discrete features that might be viewed as “Molecular Gas Clusters”.In particular, the algorithm we designed (SCIMES - Spectral Clustering for Molecular Emission Segmentation) applies the spectral clustering approach to look for relevant objects within topological graphs of emission (dendrograms) from star-forming clouds. SCIMES appears especially useful for the cloud identification within complex molecular emission data cubes since, in contrast to other algorithms, it does not over-divide structures, faithfully reproducing the work of the human eyes.To prove this, I will show the cloud decomposition obtained by SCIMES from the CO High Resolution Survey, where the clustering approach allows to automatically identify a variety of gas morphologies including coherent filamentary structures and holes within the molecular ISM. To calculate the cloud physical properties, distances to the clouds are attributed through the dendrograms using data from the BOLOCAM Survey, while the cloud size-line width relation is explored using a Principal Component Analysis approach as well as in the classical way.Finally, I will discuss how SCIMES introduces a new philosophy in the identification of the molecular clouds, where virtually every property of the molecular emission might be used for the

  5. Revising the forty-year old paradigm: from Giant Molecular Clouds to Molecular Gas Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik William; Duarte Cabral, Ana; Ginsburg, Adam; Hughes, Annie; Kalinova Dimitrova, Veselina

    2015-08-01

    Since the first large surveys of early 80s, the statistical description of Giant Molecular Cloud properties has provided important insights into the physics that govern the star formation itself. However, those statistics heavily rely on the performance of automatic identification algorithms that are often seriously affected by the survey design — notably sensitivity and resolution.In this presentation, I will discuss how some of the limitations of commonly used algorithms can be overcome by considering the cloud segmentation problem in the broad framework of the graph theory. Additionally, the clustering analysis provides a natural and robust mathematical description of the molecular ISM discrete features that might be viewed as “Molecular Gas Clusters”.In particular, the algorithm we designed (SCIMES - Spectral Clustering for Molecular Emission Segmentation) applies the spectral clustering approach to look for relevant objects within topological graphs of emission (dendrograms) from star-forming clouds. SCIMES appears especially useful for the cloud identification within complex molecular emission data cubes since, in contrast to other algorithms, it does not over-divide structures, faithfully reproducing the work of the human eyes.To prove this, I will show the cloud decomposition obtained by SCIMES from the CO High Resolution Survey, where the clustering approach allows to automatically identify a variety of gas morphologies including coherent filamentary structures and holes within the molecular ISM. To calculate the cloud physical properties, distances to the clouds are attributed through the dendrograms using data from the BOLOCAM Survey, while the cloud size-line width relation is explored using a Principal Component Analysis approach as well as in the classical way.Finally, I will discuss how SCIMES introduces a new philosophy in the identification of the molecular clouds, where virtually every property of the molecular emission might be used for the

  6. A heterogeneous model for gas transport in carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Ding, L P; Yuan, Y X; Farooq, S; Bhatia, S K

    2005-01-18

    A dual resistance model with distribution of either barrier or pore diffusional activation energy is proposed in this work for gas transport in carbon molecular sieve (CMS) micropores. This is a novel approach in which the equilibrium is homogeneous, but the kinetics is heterogeneous. The model seems to provide a possible explanation for the concentration dependence of the thermodynamically corrected barrier and pore diffusion coefficients observed in previous studies from this laboratory on gas diffusion in CMS. The energy distribution is assumed to follow the gamma distribution function. It is shown that the energy distribution model can fully capture the behavior described by the empirical model established in earlier studies to account for the concentration dependence of thermodynamically corrected barrier and pore diffusion coefficients. A methodology is proposed for extracting energy distribution parameters, and it is further shown that the extracted energy distribution parameters can effectively predict integral uptake and column breakthrough profiles over a wide range of operating pressures.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of sound propagation in a gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takeru

    2012-09-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to clarify the nonlinear and non-equilibrium processes of large-amplitude and high-frequency progressive sound waves in a gas. The statistical errors in calculating macroscopic variables are reduced by putting more than 0.3 million molecules in a simulation box with the length of several micrometers in the direction of wave propagation. The one-dimensional sound wave is generated by a harmonic oscillation of sound source with the Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential, which is the same as that of gas molecules. As a result, we find that the large-amplitude and high-frequency sound propagates with strong attenuation, in some cases, exhibiting a stream-like profile accompanied with mass, momentum, and energy transports. This leads to a completely different picture and a different dispersion relation from a classical theory of high-frequency sound based on the linear standing wave analysis.

  8. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source

    SciTech Connect

    Leplat, N.; Rossi, M. J.

    2013-11-15

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300–630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10{sup 11} and 5.0 × 10{sup 11} molecule s{sup −1} cm{sup −3} of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup •} (ethyl) and t-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}{sup •} (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K.

  9. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-05

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  10. Molecular gas in supernova local environments unveiled by EDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; Mora, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Bolatto, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maeda, K.; Pérez, S.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Wong, T.; Badenes, C.; Blitz, L.; Marino, R. A.; Utomo, D.; Van de Ven, G.

    2017-03-01

    CO observations allow estimation of the gas content of molecular clouds, which trace the reservoir of cold gas fuelling star formation, as well as determination of extinction via H2 column density, N(H2). Here, we study millimetric and optical properties at 26 supernovae (SNe) locations of different types in a sample of 23 nearby galaxies, by combining molecular 12C16O (J = 1 → 0) resolved maps from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution (EDGE) survey and optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. We found an even clearer separation between type II and type Ibc SNe in terms of molecular gas than is found in the optical using Hα emission as a proxy for the current star formation (SF) rate, which reinforces the fact that SNe Ibc are more associated with SF environments. While AV at SN locations is similar for SNe II and SNe Ibc and higher than for SNe Ia, N(H2) is significantly higher for SNe Ibc than for SNe II and Ia. When compared with alternative extinction estimations made directly from SN photometry and spectroscopy, we find that our SNe Ibc also have redder colour excess, but showed standard Na i D absorption pseudo-equivalent widths (˜1 Å). In some cases, we find no extinction when IT is estimated from the environment but high amounts of extinction when measured from SN observations, which suggests that circumstellar material or dust sublimation may be playing a role. This work serves as a benchmark for future studies combining last-generation millimetre and optical IFS instruments to reveal the local environmental properties of extragalactic SNe.

  11. Characterising the Dense Molecular Gas in Exceptional Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnard, Richard C. A.

    2016-08-01

    The interferometric facilities now coming online (the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) and the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA)) and those planned for the coming decade (the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA)) in the radio to sub-millimetre regimes are opening a window to the molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies. However, our understanding of similar galaxies in the local universe is still far from complete and the data analysis techniques and tools needed to interpret the observations in consistent and comparable ways are yet to be developed. I first describe the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) script developed to empower a public radiative transfer code. I characterise both the public code and MCMC script, including an exploration of the effect of observing molecular lines at high redshift where the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) can provide a significant background, as well as the effect this can have on well-known local correlations. I present two studies of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the local universe making use of literature and collaborator data. In the first of these, NGC6240, I use the wealth of available data and the geometry of the source to develop a multi-phase, multi-species model, finding evidence for a complex medium of hot diffuse and cold dense gas in pressure equilibrium. Next, I study the prototypical ULIRG Arp 220; an extraordinary galaxy rendered especially interesting by the controversy over the power source of the western of the two merger nuclei and its immense luminosity and dust obscuration. Using traditional grid based methods I explore the molecular gas conditions within the nuclei and find evidence for chemical differentiation between the two nuclei, potentially related to the obscured power source. Finally, I investigate the potential evolution of proto-clusters over cosmic time with sub-millimetre observations of 14 radio galaxies, unexpectedly finding

  12. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-ionization or resonance-enhanced-multi-photon-ionization for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Otto, Stefan; Streibel, Thorsten; Erdmann, Sabrina; Klingbeil, Sophie; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as a part of dissolved organic matter (DOM), are environmental pollutants of the marine compartment. This study investigates the origin of PAH, which is supposed to derive mainly from anthropogenic activities, and their alteration along the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography and two mass selective detectors in one measurement cycle are utilized as a tool for an efficient trace analysis of such complex samples, by which it is possible to detect degradation products of high molecular structures. Along the north-south transect of the Baltic Sea a slightly rising trend for PAH is visible. Their concentration profiles correspond to the ship traffic as a known anthropogenic source, underlined by the value of special isomer ratios such as phenanthrene and anthracene (0.31-0.45) or pyrene and fluoranthene (0.44-0.53). The detection of naphthalene and the distribution of its alkylated representatives support this statement.

  13. Coupling Kinetic and Hydrodynamic Models for Simulations of Gas Flows and Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, V. I.; Arslanbekov, R. R.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents adaptive kinetic/fluid models for simulations of gases and weakly ionized plasmas. We first describe a Unified Flow Solver (UFS), which combines Adaptive Mesh Refinement with automatic selection of kinetic or hydrodynamic models for different parts of flows. This Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement (AMAR) technique limits expensive atomistic-scale solutions only to the regions where they are needed. We present examples of plasma simulations with fluid models and describe kinetic solvers for electrons which are currently being incorporated into AMAR techniques for plasma simulations.

  14. The dynamics and structure of the ionized and neutral gas in the 30 Doradus nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, N. J.

    1981-08-01

    A variety of new optical observations have been made over the bright core of the supermassive H II region 30 Doradus and the ionized filamentary material surrounding this object. In addition, a more detailed analysis of previously published interstellar absorption and H I emission profiles has been undertaken. The velocity and density structure of this complex region is discussed and the new results analyzed here shown to be compatible to the model of 30 Doradus presented in Canto et al. (1980) and Meaburn (1980).

  15. An Experimental and Computational Evaluation of the Importance of Molecular Diffusion in Gas Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jeremy J.

    The accidental release of hazardous, denser-than-air gases during their transport or manufacture is a vital area of study for process safety researchers. This project examines the importance of molecular diffusion on the developing concentration field of a gas gravity current released into a calm environment. Questions which arose from the unexpectedly severe explosion in 2005 at Buncefield, England were of particular interest. The accidental overfilling of a large tank with gasoline on a completely calm morning led to a massive open air explosion. Forensic evidence showed that at the time of ignition, a vapor cloud, most of which now appears to have been within the flammability limits, covered approximately 120,000 m2. Neither the severity of the explosion, nor the size of the vapor cloud would have been anticipated. Experiments were conducted in which carbon dioxide was released from a sunken source into a one meter wide channel devoid of any wind. These experiments were designed in such a way as to mitigate the formation of a raised head at the front of the gravity current which would have resulted in turbulent entrainment of air. This was done to create a flow in which molecular diffusion was the controlling form of mixing between the carbon dioxide and air. Concentration measurements were taken using flame ionization detection at varying depths and down channel locations. A model of the experiments was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics. The only form of mixing allowed between carbon dioxide and air in the model was molecular diffusion. In this manner the accuracy of the assertion that molecular diffusion was controlling in our experiments was checked and verified. Experimental measurements showed a large variation of gas concentration with depth of the gravity current at the very beginning of the channel where the gas emerged up from the sunken source and began flowing down channel. Due to this variation, molecular diffusion caused the vertical concentration

  16. Pinpointing the Molecular Gas within an Lyα Blob at z ~ 2.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yujin; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bertoldi, Frank; Weiss, Axel; Dey, Arjun; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Bădescu, Toma

    2014-04-01

    We present IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the CO(3-2) and CO(5-4) line transitions from an Lyα blob at z ~ 2.7 in order to investigate the gas kinematics, determine the location of the dominant energy source, and study the physical conditions of the molecular gas. CO line and dust continuum emissions are detected at the location of a strong MIPS source that is offset by ~1.''5 from the Lyα peak. Neither of these emission components is resolved with the 1.''7 beam, showing that the gas and dust are confined to within ~7 kpc from this galaxy. No millimeter source is found at the location of the Lyα peak, ruling out a central compact source of star formation as the power source for the Lyα emission. Combined with a spatially resolved spectrum of Lyα and He II, we constrain the kinematics of the extended gas using the CO emission as a tracer of the systemic redshift. Near the MIPS source, the Lyα profile is symmetric, and its line center agrees with that of the CO line, implying that there are no significant bulk flows and that the photo-ionization from the MIPS source might be the dominant source of the Lyα emission. In the region near the Lyα peak, the gas is slowly receding (~100 km s-1) with respect to the MIPS source, thus making the hyper-/superwind hypothesis unlikely. We find a sub-thermal line ratio between two CO transitions, I CO(5-4)/I CO(3-2) = 0.97 ± 0.21. This line ratio is lower than the average values found in high-z submillimeter galaxies and QSOs but is consistent with the value found in the Galactic center, suggesting that there is a large reservoir of low-density molecular gas that is spread over the MIPS source and its vicinity.

  17. Pinpointing the molecular gas within an Lyα blob at z ∼ 2.7

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yujin; Bertoldi, Frank; Bădescu, Toma; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Weiss, Axel; Dey, Arjun; Prescott, Moire K. M.

    2014-04-01

    We present IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the CO(3-2) and CO(5-4) line transitions from an Lyα blob at z ∼ 2.7 in order to investigate the gas kinematics, determine the location of the dominant energy source, and study the physical conditions of the molecular gas. CO line and dust continuum emissions are detected at the location of a strong MIPS source that is offset by ∼1.''5 from the Lyα peak. Neither of these emission components is resolved with the 1.''7 beam, showing that the gas and dust are confined to within ∼7 kpc from this galaxy. No millimeter source is found at the location of the Lyα peak, ruling out a central compact source of star formation as the power source for the Lyα emission. Combined with a spatially resolved spectrum of Lyα and He II, we constrain the kinematics of the extended gas using the CO emission as a tracer of the systemic redshift. Near the MIPS source, the Lyα profile is symmetric, and its line center agrees with that of the CO line, implying that there are no significant bulk flows and that the photo-ionization from the MIPS source might be the dominant source of the Lyα emission. In the region near the Lyα peak, the gas is slowly receding (∼100 km s{sup –1}) with respect to the MIPS source, thus making the hyper-/superwind hypothesis unlikely. We find a sub-thermal line ratio between two CO transitions, I {sub CO(5-4)}/I {sub CO(3-2)} = 0.97 ± 0.21. This line ratio is lower than the average values found in high-z submillimeter galaxies and QSOs but is consistent with the value found in the Galactic center, suggesting that there is a large reservoir of low-density molecular gas that is spread over the MIPS source and its vicinity.

  18. Molecular-orbital decomposition of the ionization continuum for a diatomic molecule by angle- and energy-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. I. Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hongkun; Zare, Richard N.

    1996-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is developed for the quantum-state-specific photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from the direct photoionization of a diatomic molecule in which both the ionizing state and the state of the ion follow Hund's case (b) coupling. The formalism is based on the molecular-orbital decomposition of the ionization continuum and therefore fully incorporates the molecular nature of the photoelectron-ion scattering within the independent electron approximation. The resulting expression for the quantum-state-specific PADs is dependent on two distinct types of dynamical quantities, one that pertains only to the ionization continuum and the other that depends both on the ionizing state and the ionization continuum. Specifically, the electronic dipole-moment matrix element rlλ exp(iηlλ) for the ejection of a photoelectron with orbital angular momentum quantum number l making a projection λ on the internuclear axis is expressed as ΣαλŪlαλλ exp (iπτ¯αλλ) Mαλλ, where Ūλ is the electronic transformation matrix, τ¯αλλ is the scattering phase shift associated with the αλth continuum molecular orbital, and Mαλλ is the real electronic dipole-moment matrix element that connects the ionizing orbital to the αλth continuum molecular orbital. Because Ūλ and τ¯αλλ depend only on the dynamics in the ionization continuum, this formalism allows maximal exploitation of the commonality between photoionization processes from different ionizing states. It also makes possible the direct experimental investigation of scattering matrices for the photoelectron-ion scattering and thus the dynamics in the ionization continuum by studying the quantum-state-specific PADs, as illustrated in the companion article on the photoionization of NO.

  19. The role of molecular electron distribution in strong-field ionization and dissociation of heteronuclear molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei; Guo, Chunlei

    2016-11-01

    A comparison study of double-ionization induced dissociation in strong laser fields between a homonuclear diatomic molecule, O2, and a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, NO, shows that two electrons can easily be removed from one O atom of O2 to form a O2++O, however, two electrons can hardly be removed from the O atom of NO to form a N+O2+. Instead, for NO, two electrons are preferentially removed from the N atom to form a N2++O, even though the N atom requires higher ionization energy than the O atom. This indicates that atomic ionization energy does not play a significant role here. Our further study on the formation dynamics of the N2++O channel shows that the initial electron distribution of the NO molecule plays an important role in influencing the strong-field ionization and dissociation of NO and this effect seems to commonly exist in heteronuclear molecules when interacting with strong laser fields.

  20. Which molecular features affect the intrinsic hepatic clearance rate of ionizable organic chemicals in fish?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a p...

  1. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  2. The study of large biopolymer complexes in solution and the gas phase using electrospray ionization-FTICR mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Lei, Q.P.; Wu, Qinyuan; Hofstadler, A.

    1997-12-31

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) can transfer large biopolymers and many noncovalently bound complexes into the gas phase and to preserve specific noncovalent biomolecular associations for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Although a number of details of the ESI process remain a subject of debate, it is now incontestable that many weak associations can survive transfer to the gas phase and are stable for periods of at least seconds. In this presentation, the application of ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry methods for the study of large biopolymers and their noncovalent complexes will be described. It will also be shown that competitive binding studies can be used to quickly establish relative binding affinities in solution, allowing combinatorial libraries to be rapidly screened. After measurements of the intact complex, dissociation studies can be conducted to probe the structure of the individual constituents of complexes. Studies comparing the relative stabilities of protein-ligand complexes in solution and desolvated in the gas phase will also be presented, and discussed from both fundamental and analytical perspectives.

  3. Determination of carbon number distributions of complex phthalates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with ammonia chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Di Sanzo, Frank P; Lim, Peniel J; Han, Wenning W

    2015-01-01

    An assay method for phthalate esters with a complex mixture of isomer of varying carbon numbers, such as di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) positive chemical ionization (PCI) with 5% ammonia in methane is described. GC-MS-PCI-NH3, unlike GC-MS electron ionization (EI) (GC-MS-EI) that produces generally m/z 149 ion as the main base peak and low intensity M(+) peaks, produces higher intensity (M + 1) ions that allow the determination of total (R + R') carbon number distributions based on the various R and R' alkyl groups of the di-esters moiety. The technique allows distinguishing among the various commercial DINP and DIDP plasticizers. The carbon number distributions are determined in the acceptable range of <0.1 mole percent to >85 mole percent (m/m). Several examples of analysis made on commercial DINP and DIDP are presented. The use of only 5% instead of 100% ammonia simplifies use of GC-MS-PCI-NH3 but still produces sufficient M + 1 ion intensities that are appropriate for the assay. In addition, use of low concentrations of ammonia mitigates potential safety aspects related to use of ammonia and provides less corrosion for the instrument hardware.

  4. Complexation of diazaperylene and bisisoquinoline with transition metal ions in the gas phase studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Starke, Ines; Kammer, Stefan; Grunwald, Nicolas; Schilde, Uwe; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen; Kleinpeter, Erich

    2008-01-01

    The complex formation of the ligands 1,12-diazaperylene (dap), 1,1'-bisisoquinoline (bis), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) with transition metal ions (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ru, Os, Re, Pd, Pt, Ag and Cd) in the gas phase has been studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. With the exception of Ru, Os, Fe, Ni and Cu, singly charged complexes [MLn](+) (n = 1,2) were observed. The complexes of dap and bis with Ru, Os, Fe and Ni ions, and the mixed ligand complexes with bpy and phen, are preferably of the doubly charged type [ML3]2+. In addition, collision-induced dissociation (CID) measurements were employed to evaluate the relative stabilities of these complexes. The CID experiments of mixed-ligand complexes which contain both dap and phen or dap and bpy exhibit preferential elimination of bpy, indicating that bpy is a weaker ligand than phen and dap.

  5. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  6. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum.

    PubMed

    Hewetson, Michael; Aaltonen, Kaisa; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Sankari, Satu

    2014-03-01

    A simple and accurate method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum that can be applied to sucrose permeability testing in the horse was developed and validated using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The assay provided an acceptable degree of linearity, accuracy, and precision at concentrations of sucrose as low as 2.34 μmol/l and as high as 20.45 μmol/l. Percentage recovery of sucrose from serum ranged from 89% to 102%; repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation) ranged from 3.6% to 6.7% and 4.1% to 9.3%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.73 μmol/l. No interfering peaks were observed except lactose, which gave 2 peaks, one of which overlapped partially with sucrose. To evaluate the suitability of the method for quantifying sucrose in serum samples from horses with naturally occurring gastric ulceration, 10 horses with and without naturally occurring gastric ulceration were subjected to sucrose permeability testing. All horses demonstrated an increase in serum sucrose concentration over time following oral administration of sucrose; however, the increase from baseline was significant for horses with gastric ulceration at 45 min (P = 0.0082) and 90 min (P = 0.0082) when compared with healthy horses. It was concluded that gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is a valid method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum and can be applied directly to the analysis of sucrose in equine serum as part of a larger validation study aimed at developing a blood test for the diagnosis of gastric ulcers in horses.

  7. Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy in Glow Discharge: A New Dimension for Gas Chromatography Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheverev, V. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kojiro, D. R.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Admixtures to helium of 100 ppm and 5 ppm of nitrogen, and 100 ppm and 10 ppm of carbon monoxide were identified and measured in the helium discharge afterglow using an electrical probe placed into the plasma. For nitrogen and carbon monoxide gases, the measured electron energy spectra display distinct characteristic peaks (fingerprints). Location of the peaks on the energy scale is determined by the ionization energies of the analyte molecules. Nitrogen and carbon monoxide fingerprints were also observed in a binary mixture of these gases in helium, and the relative concentration analytes has been predicted. The technically simple and durable method is considered a good candidate for a number of analytical applications, and in particular, in GC and for analytical flight instrumentation.

  8. Glitters of warm H2 in cold diffuse molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, Edith; Boulanger, Francois; Combes, Francoise; Pineau Des Forets, Guillaume; Verstraete, Laurent

    2007-05-01

    Cold molecular hydrogen, a dominant gas fraction in galaxies, does not radiate due to the symmetry of the molecule. The only tracers of cold H2, the rotational lines of CO and dust thermal emission operate only in metal-rich environments. By detecting the lowest rotational lines of H2 at unexpected levels in the cold diffuse medium of the Galaxy, ISO-SWS has challenged the traditional view of the interstellar medium (ISM) by possibly revealing the existence of tiny gas fractions within the cold ISM, warm enough to excite H2 lines. The heating source of H2 there is the intermittent dissipation of supersonic turbulence, pervading the entire ISM. These glitters of H2 line emission may become the unique tracers of cold H2 in low metallicity environments. Given the fundamental importance of probing large hidden masses of gas in galaxies, for their implication on galaxy dynamics, star formation thresholds in metal-poor environments, and the hypothesis of H2 as baryonic dark matter in galaxies, the present SST/IRS proposal is dedicated to further search of this still elusive emission. The proposed observations consist in several IRS LL pointings along the major axis of two external galaxies with massive HI disks extending far beyond their optical radius, and for which the HI rotation curve cannot be accounted for by the stellar and visible gas components. These spectra also observed in the direction of the galaxy nuclei, are meant to allow the separation between the H2 emission with stellar-type excitation from that originating in gas heated by turbulence dissipation. The goal of the proposal is to strenghten the existence of pockets of warm H2 disseminated in the cold diffuse medium of galaxies. These glitters of warm H2 would be a new tracer of hitherto undetected amounts of cold H2 in low metallicity environments, and, as a more exploratory facet, might probe the presence of large amounts of baryonic dark matter in galaxies in the form of cold molecular hydrogen.

  9. The Warm Molecular Gas around the Cloverleaf Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aikin, R.; Bock, J. J.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Inami, H.; Maloney, P. R.; Matsuhara, H.; Naylor, B. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2009-11-01

    We present the first broadband λ = 1 mm spectrum toward the z = 2.56 Cloverleaf quasar, obtained with Z-Spec, a grating spectrograph on the 10.4 m Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The 190-305 GHz observation band corresponds to the rest frame 272-444 μm, and we measure the dust continuum as well as all four transitions of carbon monoxide (CO) lying in this range. The power-law dust emission, F ν = 14 mJy(ν/240 GHz)3.9 is consistent with the published continuum measurements. The CO J = 6 → 5, J = 8 → 7, and J = 9 → 8 measurements are the first, and now provide the highest-J CO information in this source. Our measured CO intensities are very close to the previously published interferometric measurements of J = 7 → 6, and we use all available transitions and our 13CO upper limits to constrain the physical conditions in the Cloverleaf molecular gas disk. We find a large mass (2-50 × 109 M sun) of highly excited gas with thermal pressure nT > 106 K cm-3. The ratio of the total CO cooling to the far-IR dust emission exceeds that in the local dusty galaxies, and we investigate the potential heating sources for this bulk of warm molecular gas. We conclude that both UV photons and X-rays likely contribute, and discuss implications for a top-heavy stellar initial mass function arising in the X-ray-irradiated starburst. Finally, we present tentative identifications of other species in the spectrum, including a possible detection of the H2O 20,2 → 11,1 transition at λrest = 303 μm.

  10. Noise characteristics of the gas ionization cascade used in low vacuum scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Thiel, Bradley L.; Knowles, W. Ralph; Toth, Milos

    2009-07-01

    The noise characteristics of gas cascade amplified electron signals in low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) are described and analyzed. We derive expressions for each component contributing to the total noise culminating in a predictive, quantitative model that can be used for optimization of LVSEM operating parameters. Signal and noise behavior is characterized experimentally and used to validate the model. Under most operating conditions, the noise is dominated by the excess noise generated in the gas amplification cascade. At high gains, the excess noise increases proportionally with gain such that the signal-to-noise ratio is constant. The effects of several instrument operating parameters, including working distance, gas pressure, beam current, and detector bias, are condensed and presented in the form of a master curve.

  11. Molecular Data for a Biochemical Model of DNA Radiation Damage: Electron Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of DNA Bases and Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the database for building up a biochemical model of DNA radiation damage, electron impact ionization cross sections of sugar-phosphate backbone and DNA bases have been calculated using the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. It is found that the total ionization cross sections of C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate, two conformers of the sugar-phosphate backbone, are close to each other. Furthermore, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 10%. Of the four DNA bases, the ionization cross section of guanine is the largest, then in decreasing order, adenine, thymine, and cytosine. The order is in accordance with the known propensity of oxidation of the bases by ionizing radiation. Dissociative ionization (DI), a process that both ionizes and dissociates a molecule, is investigated for cytosine. The DI cross section for the formation of H and (cytosine-Hl)(+), with the cytosine ion losing H at the 1 position, is also reported. The threshold of this process is calculated to be 17.1 eV. Detailed analysis of ionization products such as in DI is important to trace the sequential steps in the biochemical process of DNA damage.

  12. Ionization of molecular hydrogen and stripping of oxygen atoms and ions in collisions of Oq++H2 (q = 0- 8): Data for secondary electron production from ion precipitation at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. R.; Ozak, N.; Cravens, T. E.; Gharibnejad, H.

    2017-01-01

    Energetic oxygen and sulfur ion precipitation into the atmosphere of Jupiter is thought to produce an X-ray aurora as well as to contribute to ionization, heating, and dissociation of the molecules of the atmosphere. At high energy, stripping of electrons from these ions by atmospheric gas molecules results in the production of high charge states throughout a portion of this passage through the atmosphere. Therefore, to enable modeling of the effects of secondary electrons produced by this ion precipitation, from either the solar wind or magnetospheric sources such as the Galilean moons, a large range of ionization and stripping data is calculated and tabulated here that otherwise is not available. The present data are for the abundant precipitating species, oxygen, colliding with the dominant upper atmosphere gas, molecular hydrogen, and cover the principal reaction channels leading to secondary electron production (single and double ionization, transfer ionization, and double capture followed by autoionization, and single and double stripping of electrons from the projectile). Since the ions possess initial energies at the upper atmosphere in the keV to MeV range, and are then slowed as they pass through the atmosphere, results are calculated for 1-2000 keV/u Oq++H2 (q =0-8). In addition to the total cross sections for ionization and stripping processes, models require the distribution in energy and angle of the ejected electrons, so cross sections differential in these parameters are also calculated. The data may be used to model the energy deposited by ion precipitation in Jupiter's atmosphere and thereby contribute to the elucidation of the ionosphere-atmosphere coupling.

  13. Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-03-03

    We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

  14. Molecular insights into the pH-dependent adsorption and removal of ionizable antibiotic oxytetracycline by adsorbent cyclodextrin polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Cai, Xiyun; Xiong, Weina; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Haitong; Yang, Xianhai; Li, Chao; Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jingwen

    2014-01-01

    Effects of pH on adsorption and removal efficiency of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) by environmental adsorbents are an area of debate, because of its dual mediation towards adsorbents and adsorbate. Here, we probe the pH-dependent adsorption of ionizable antibiotic oxytetracycline (comprising OTCH2 (+), OTCH(±), OTC(-), and OTC(2-)) onto cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) with the nature of molecular recognition and pH inertness. OTCH(±) commonly has high adsorption affinity, OTC(-) exhibits moderate affinity, and the other two species have negligible affinity. These species are evidenced to selectively interact with structural units (e.g., CD cavity, pore channel, and network) of the polymers and thus immobilized onto the adsorbents to different extents. The differences in adsorption affinity and mechanisms of the species account for the pH-dependent adsorption of OTC. The mathematical equations are derived from the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of quantitatively relating adsorption affinity of OTC at varying pH to adsorbent properties. A combination of the MLR analysis for OTC and molecular recognition of adsorption of the species illustrates the nature of the pH-dependent adsorption of OTC. Based on this finding, γ-HP-CDP is chosen to adsorb and remove OTC at pH 5.0 and 7.0, showing high removal efficiency and strong resistance to the interference of coexisting components.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Nonlinearity in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-12

    Goldberg, Z. (2007) Transient genome -wide transcriptional response to low-dose ionizing radiation in-vivo in humans , International Journal of...and protocols. The cRNA was hybridized to the Full details are given in Rocke (31) and Rocke et al. (32), but in Human Genome U 133 Plus 2.0 arrays...Science) using CDS combined database ( Celera Discovery System v. KBMS3.2.20040119), containing 1,416,555 sequences . Searches were performed without

  16. Searching for Molecular Gas in Southern Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Laing, R. A.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.

    2012-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that the jets of low-luminosity radio galaxies are powered by direct accretion of the hot phase of the IGM onto the central black hole. Cold gas remains a plausible alternative fuel supply, however. The most compelling evidence that cold gas plays a role in fueling radio galaxies is that dust is detected more commonly and/or in larger quantities in (elliptical) radio galaxies compared with radio-quiet elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, only small numbers of radio galaxies have yet been detected in CO (and even fewer imaged), and whether or not all radio galaxies have enough cold gas to fuel their jets remains an open question. If so, then the dynamics of the cold gas in the nuclei of radio galaxies may provide important clues to the fuelling mechanism. The only instrument capable of imaging the molecular component on scales relevant to the accretion process is ALMA, but very little is yet known about CO in southern radio galaxies. Our aim is to measure the CO content in a complete volume-limited sample of southern radio galaxies, in order to create a well-defined list of nearby targets to be imaged in the near future with ALMA. APEX has been equipped with a receiver (APEX-1) able to observe the 230 GHz waveband. This allows us to search for CO(2-1) line emission in our target galaxies. Here we present the results of CO(2-1) APEX-1 spectroscopy taken in 2008 and 2010 for our southern sample. The experiment was successful with nearly all targets detected, and several indications for double-horned CO line profiles, consistent with ordered rotation.

  17. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  18. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches.

  19. Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction combined with gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of N-nitrosamines in swimming pool water samples.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ssu-Chieh; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Chang; Wang, Yu-Chen; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2012-02-01

    A simple sample pretreatment technique, dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, was applied for the extraction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and other four N-nitrosamines (NAs) from samples of swimming pool water. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. The best extraction conditions involved immersing 75 mg of carbon molecular sieve, Carboxen™ 1003 (as an adsorbent), in a 50-mL water sample (pH 7.0) containing 5% sodium chloride in a sample tube. After 20 min of extraction by vigorous shaking, the adsorbent was collected on a filter and the NAs desorbed by treatment with 150 μL of dichloromethane. A 10-μL aliquot was then directly determined by large-volume injection gas chromatography with chemical ionization mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The limits of quantitation were <0.9 ng/L. The precision for these analytes, as indicated by relative standard deviations, were <8% for both intra- and inter-day analyses. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 62% and 109%. A preliminary analysis of swimming pool water samples revealed that NDMA was present in the highest concentration, in the range from n.d. to 100 ng/L.

  20. Headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) for the determination of dissolved methane in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Beale, D J; Tjandraatmadja, G; Toifl, M; Goodman, N

    2014-01-01

    There is currently a need for a simple, accurate and reproducible method that quantifies the amount of dissolved methane in wastewater in order to realize the potential methane that can be recovered and account for any emissions. This paper presents such a method, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection fitted with a GS-Gas PRO column coupled with a headspace auto sampler. A practical limit of detection for methane of 0.9 mg L(-1), with a retention time of 1.24 min, was obtained. It was found that the reproducibility and accuracy of the method increased significantly when samples were collected using an in-house constructed bailer sampling device and with the addition of 100 μL hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 25% sodium chloride (NaCl) and sonication for 30 min prior to analysis. Analysis of wastewater samples and wastewater sludge collected from a treatment facility were observed to range from 12.51 to 15.79 mg L(-1) (relative standard deviation (RSD) 8.1%) and 17.56 to 18.67 mg L(-1) (RSD 3.4%) respectively. The performance of this method was validated by repeatedly measuring a mid-level standard (n=8; 10 mg L(-1)), with an observed RSD of 4.6%.

  1. Nebular emission from AGN in the ultraviolet/optical: diagnostics of the ionizing source and gas properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltre, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spectroscopic studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are powerful means of probing the physical properties of the ionized gas within them. In particular, forthcoming facilities such as JWST and the E-ELT, will provide rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectra of the very distant AGN. To lay the groundwork for the interpretation of these revolutionary datasets, we have recently computed new photoionization models of the narrow-line emitting regions (NLR) of AGN and combined them with similar models of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies. In this talk, I will first describe how new ultraviolet and standard optical spectral diagnostics allow one to distinguish between nuclear activity and star formation. I will then explain how predictions of AGN nebular emission can be best used to understand the physical properties of the AGN NLR gas. In particular, I will present recent results from a study on one of the most comprehensive set of optical spectra (from VIMOS/VLT) sampling the rest-frame ultraviolet range of ~90 type 2 AGN (1.5 < z < 3), drawn from the z-COSMOS deep survey. To conclude, I will show how the implementation of AGN photoionization calculations in an innovative Bayesian fitting code can help us best interpret current, and future, spectro-photometric data on active galaxies.

  2. Free energy landscape and molecular pathways of gas hydrate nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Porras, Anna; Li, Tianshu

    2016-12-01

    Despite the significance of gas hydrates in diverse areas, a quantitative knowledge of hydrate formation at a molecular level is missing. The impediment to acquiring this understanding is primarily attributed to the stochastic nature and ultra-fine scales of nucleation events, posing a great challenge for both experiment and simulation to explore hydrate nucleation. Here we employ advanced molecular simulation methods, including forward flux sampling (FFS), pB histogram analysis, and backward flux sampling, to overcome the limit of direct molecular simulation for exploring both the free energy landscape and molecular pathways of hydrate nucleation. First we test the half-cage order parameter (H-COP) which we developed for driving FFS, through conducting the pB histogram analysis. Our results indeed show that H-COP describes well the reaction coordinates of hydrate nucleation. Through the verified order parameter, we then directly compute the free energy landscape for hydrate nucleation by combining both forward and backward flux sampling. The calculated stationary distribution density, which is obtained independently of nucleation theory, is found to fit well against the classical nucleation theory (CNT). Subsequent analysis of the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories show that although on average, hydrate formation is facilitated by a two-step like mechanism involving a gradual transition from an amorphous to a crystalline structure, there also exist nucleation pathways where hydrate crystallizes directly, without going through the amorphous stage. The CNT-like free energy profile and the structural diversity suggest the existence of multiple active transition pathways for hydrate nucleation, and possibly also imply the near degeneracy in their free energy profiles among different pathways. Our results thus bring a new perspective to the long standing question of how hydrates crystallize.

  3. Molecular gas observations and enhanced massive star formation efficiencies in M 100.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, J. H.; Beckman, J. E.; Cepa, J.; Nakai, N.

    1996-04-01

    We present new J=1->0 ^12^CO observations along the northern spiral arm of the grand-design spiral galaxy M 100 (NGC 4321), and study the distribution of molecular hydrogen as derived from these observations, comparing the new data with a set of data points on the southern arm published previously. We compare these measurements on both spiral arms and on the interarm regions with observations of the atomic and ionized hydrogen components. We determine massive star formation efficiency parameters, defined as the ratio of Hα luminosity to total gas mass, along the arms and compare the values to those in the interarm regions adjacent to the arms. We find that these parameters in the spiral arms are on average a factor of 3 higher than outside the arms, a clear indication of triggering of the star formation in the spiral arms. We discuss possible mechanisms for this triggering, and conclude that a density wave system is probably responsible for it. We discuss several possible systematical effects in some detail, and infer that the conclusions on triggering are sound. We specifically discuss the possible effects of extinction in Hα, or a non-standard CO to H_2_ conversion factor (X), and find that our conclusions on the enhancement of the efficiencies in the arms are reinforced rather than weakened by these considerations. A simple star forming scheme involving threshold densities for gravitational collapse is discussed for NGC 4321, and comparison is made with M 51. We find that the gas between the arms is generally stable against gravitational collapse whereas the gas in the arms is not, possibly leading to the observed arm-interarm differences in efficiency, but also note that these results, unlike the others obtained in this paper, do depend critically on the assumed value for the conversion factor.

  4. The MASSIVE Survey. VI. The Spatial Distribution and Kinematics of Warm Ionized Gas in the Most Massive Local Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Viraj; Greene, Jenny E.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Veale, Melanie; Ene, Irina; Davis, Timothy A.; Blakeslee, John P.; Goulding, Andy D.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Nyland, Kristina; Thomas, Jens

    2017-03-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of the existence, spatial distribution, and kinematics of warm ionized gas as traced by the [O ii] 3727 Å emission line in 74 of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. All of our galaxies have deep integral-field spectroscopy from the volume- and magnitude-limited MASSIVE survey of early-type galaxies with stellar mass {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )> 11.5 (M K < ‑25.3 mag) and distance D < 108 Mpc. Of the 74 galaxies in our sample, we detect warm ionized gas in 28, which yields a global detection fraction of 38 ± 6% down to a typical [O ii] equivalent width limit of 2 Å. MASSIVE fast rotators are more likely to have gas than MASSIVE slow rotators with detection fractions of 80 ± 10% and 28 ± 6%, respectively. The spatial extents span a wide range of radii (0.6–18.2 kpc; 0.1–4R e ), and the gas morphologies are diverse, with 17/28 ≈ 61 ± 9% being centrally concentrated, 8/28 ≈ 29 ± 9% exhibiting clear rotation out to several kiloparsecs, and 3/28 ≈ 11 ± 6% being extended but patchy. Three out of four fast rotators show kinematic alignment between the stars and gas, whereas the two slow rotators with robust kinematic measurements available exhibit kinematic misalignment. Our inferred warm ionized gas masses are roughly ∼105 M ⊙. The emission line ratios and radial equivalent width profiles are generally consistent with excitation of the gas by the old underlying stellar population. We explore different gas origin scenarios for MASSIVE galaxies and find that a variety of physical processes are likely at play, including internal gas recycling, cooling out of the hot gaseous halo, and gas acquired via mergers.

  5. The physiological property and function of the electrolyzed-ionized calcium Aquamax on water molecular clusters fractionization.

    PubMed

    Hatto, M; Sakai, Y; Ohtsuka, H

    1997-01-01

    Aquamax, the ionized mineral (Ca, 21 mg/ml; MG, 0.068 mg/ml; Na 0.13 mg/ml; K, 0.006 mg/ml) is a fermented organic mineral extract. The fundamental physiological property and function of this mineral is to promote the molecular level mineral supply to the cell inside. The contained minerals exist at a molecular level to fractionize the molecular clusters of water and to make water's penetration ratio into objects higher only at 0.1-0.2% concentration. Existing minerals, especially the calcium, were barely dissolved in water, and its low penetration was caused by its low electrolyzed behavior plus the effects from an anion mineral, such as phosphorous, sulfur, nitrogen, or any oxalic acid combining with a colloidal calcium to construct and crystallize as the calcium phosphate and the calcium sulfate. Aquamax minerals penetrate into objects to fractionize water molecular clusters and to make water functional, neutralize in the anion mineral and oxalic acid elements, raise the object's electric conductivity, and preserve perishables.

  6. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-06

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster nucleation during inert gas condensation.

    PubMed

    Krasnochtchekov, Pavel; Averback, R S

    2005-01-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations of vapor-phase nucleation of germanium in an argon atmosphere were performed and a unexpected channel of nucleation was observed. This channel, vapor-induced cluster splitting, is important for more refractory materials since the critical nucleus size can fall below the size of a dimer. As opposed to conventional direct vapor nucleation of the dimer, which occurs by three-body collisions, cluster-splitting nucleation is a second-order reaction. The most important cluster-splitting reaction is the collision of a vapor atom and a trimer that leads to the formation of two dimers. The importance of the cluster-splitting nucleation channel relative to the direct vapor nucleation channel is observed to increase with decreasing vapor density and increasing ratio of vapor to carrier gas atoms.

  8. MOLECULAR GAS VELOCITY DISPERSIONS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas E-mail: schruba@mpe.mpg.de

    2016-02-15

    In order to characterize the distribution of molecular gas in spiral galaxies, we study the line profiles of CO (1 – 0) emission in Andromeda, our nearest massive spiral galaxy. We compare observations performed with the IRAM 30 m single-dish telescope and with the CARMA interferometer at a common resolution of 23 arcsec ≈ 85 pc × 350 pc and 2.5 km s{sup −1}. When fitting a single Gaussian component to individual spectra, the line profile of the single dish data is a factor of 1.5 ± 0.4 larger than the interferometric data one. This ratio in line widths is surprisingly similar to the ratios previously observed in two other nearby spirals, NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, but measured at ∼0.5–1 kpc spatial scale. In order to study the origin of the different line widths, we stack the individual spectra in five bins of increasing peak intensity and fit two Gaussian components to the stacked spectra. We find a unique narrow component of FWHM = 7.5 ± 0.4 km s{sup −1} visible in both the single dish and the interferometric data. In addition, a broad component with FWHM = 14.4 ± 1.5 km s{sup −1} is present in the single-dish data, but cannot be identified in the interferometric data. We interpret this additional broad line width component detected by the single dish as a low brightness molecular gas component that is extended on spatial scales >0.5 kpc, and thus filtered out by the interferometer. We search for evidence of line broadening by stellar feedback across a range of star formation rates but find no such evidence on ∼100 pc spatial scale when characterizing the line profile by a single Gaussian component.

  9. Shocks, Superbubbles, and Filaments: Investigations into Large Scale Gas Motions in Giant Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pon, Andrew Richard

    2013-12-01

    -tohigh rotational transitions of CO (e.g., J= 8 → 7), should be dominated by shocked gas emission and should trace the turbulent energy being dissipated in molecular clouds. Orion-Eridanus superbubble. The nearby Orion star forming region has created a large bubble of hot plasma in the local interstellar medium referred to as the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. This bubble is unusual in that it is highly elongated, is believed to be oriented roughly parallel to the galactic plane, and contains bright filamentary features on the Eridanus side. I fit models for a wind driven bubble in an exponential atmosphere to the Orion-Eridanus superbubble and show that the elongation of the bubble cannot be explained by such a model in which the scale height of the galactic disk is the typical value of 150 pc. Either a much smaller scale height must be adopted or some additional physics must be added to the model. I also show that the Eridanus filaments cannot be equilibrium objects ionized by the Orion star forming region.

  10. KINEMATICS AND EXCITATION OF THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED IONIZED GAS FILAMENTS IN THE COMA CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hattori, Takashi; Okamura, Sadanori

    2012-04-10

    We present the results of deep imaging and spectroscopic observations of very extended ionized gas (EIG) around four member galaxies of the Coma Cluster of galaxies: RB 199, IC 4040, GMP 2923, and GMP 3071. The EIGs were serendipitously found in an H{alpha} narrowband imaging survey of the central region of the Coma Cluster. The relative radial velocities of the EIGs with respect to the systemic velocities of the parent galaxies from which they emanate increase almost monotonically with the distance from the nucleus of the respective galaxies, reaching {approx} - 400 to - 800 km s{sup -1} at around 40-80 kpc from the galaxies. The one-sided morphologies and the velocity fields of the EIGs are consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations of ram pressure stripping. We found a very low velocity filament (v{sub rel} {approx} -1300 km s{sup -1}) at the southeastern edge of the disk of IC 4040. Some bright compact knots in the EIGs of RB 199 and IC 4040 exhibit blue continuum and strong H{alpha} emission. The equivalent widths of the H{alpha} emission exceed 200 A and are greater than 1000 Angstrom-Sign for some knots. The emission-line intensity ratios of the knots are basically consistent with those of sub-solar abundance H II regions. These facts indicate that intensive star formation occurs in the knots. Some filaments, including the low-velocity filament of the IC 4040 EIG, exhibit shock-like emission-line spectra, suggesting that shock heating plays an important role in ionization and excitation of the EIGs.

  11. Gas phase enantiomeric distinction of (R)- and (S)-aromatic hydroxy esters by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a chiral reagent gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancel, Valérie; Sellier, Nicole; Lesage, Denis; Fournier, Françoise; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-01

    Negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) using a chiral reagent gas such as (2S,3S) butanediol (GSS) allows the differentiation of chiral [alpha] hydroxy esters (MR or MS). The distinction is significantly enhanced by using CID on the deprotonated hetero dimer [M + (GSS-H)]-. The contribution of a non covalent [M + (GSS-H)]- competitive form is very minor. In fact, a covalent form appears favored. To produce a covalent adduct ion, an enantioselectivity of the alkoxide attack on the electrophilic ester site to form a tetravalent adduct is suggested by the product ion abundances. This observed steric control is consistent with the one observed in solution (Cram-Felkin addition/reduction orientation). The dissociations under collision conditions of the product deprotonated diastereomeric compounds show a stereospecific effect in the elimination of alcohol from the tetravalent adduct ions rather than a regeneration of the deprotonated diol reagent as expected from non-covalent heterodimer. This study shows an orientation with a chiral compound that allows, from an analytical point of view, the distinction of enantiomers and the attribution of chirality in the gas phase under NICI conditions.

  12. Thermally modulated nano-trampoline material as smart skin for gas molecular mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hua

    2012-06-01

    Conventional multi-component gas analysis is based either on laser spectroscopy, laser and photoacoustic absorption at specific wavelengths, or on gas chromatography by separating the components of a gas mixture primarily due to boiling point (or vapor pressure) differences. This paper will present a new gas molecular mass detection method based on thermally modulated nano-trampoline material as smart skin for gas molecular mass detection by fiber Bragg grating-based gas sensors. Such a nanomaterial and fiber Bragg grating integrated sensing device has been designed to be operated either at high-energy level (highly thermal strained status) or at low-energy level (low thermal strained status). Thermal energy absorption of gas molecular trigs the sensing device transition from high-thermal-energy status to low-thermal- energy status. Experiment has shown that thermal energy variation due to gas molecular thermal energy absorption is dependent upon the gas molecular mass, and can be detected by fiber Bragg resonant wavelength shift with a linear function from 17 kg/kmol to 32 kg/kmol and a sensitivity of 0.025 kg/kmol for a 5 micron-thick nano-trampoline structure and fiber Bragg grating integrated gas sensing device. The laboratory and field validation data have further demonstrated its fast response characteristics and reliability to be online gas analysis instrument for measuring effective gas molecular mass from single-component gas, binary-component gas mixture, and multi-gas mixture. The potential industrial applications include fouling and surge control for gas charge centrifugal compressor ethylene production, gas purity for hydrogen-cooled generator, gasification for syngas production, gasoline/diesel and natural gas fuel quality monitoring for consumer market.

  13. Dense gas in high-latitude molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reach, William T.; Pound, Marc W.; Wilner, David J.; Lee, Youngung

    1995-01-01

    The nearby molecular clouds MBM 7, 12, 30, 32, 40, 41, and 55 were surveyed for tracers of dense gas, including the (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational lines of CS and the (1-0) lines of HCO(+) and HCN. MBM 7 and MBM 12 contain dense cores, while the other clouds contain little or no traces of dense gas. Comparison of the emission from dense gas tracers to that of (13)CO reveals that the former are more compact in angular size as well as line width. An extensive CS(2-1) survey of part of MBM 12 reveals that the emission is characterized by clumps on approximately 3 min scales as well as extended emission. Observations of the CS(1-0) and (3-2) lines using telescopes with matched beam sizes reveal that the volume density must be at least approximately 10(exp 4.5)/cc within the (3-2) emitting regions, which are approximately 0.03 pc in radius. Electron excitation of the CS rotational levels is ruled out (in the cores) by comparing the (3-2)/(1-0) line ratios with models including H2 and electron collisions. The volume density in the cores is substantially larger than in the portions of the cloud traced by CO emission. The density increases into the cores as r(exp -2), suggesting dynamical collapse. The masses of the cores are close to the virial mass, suggesting they are dynamically bound. The cores in MBM 7 and MBM 12 are thus likely to form stars; they are the nearest sites of star formation.

  14. Extended Carbon Line Emission in the Galaxy: Searching for Dark Molecular Gas along the G328 Sightline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Freeman, Matthew; Kulesa, Craig; Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David J.; Rowell, Gavin; Lau, James

    2015-09-01

    We present spectral data cubes of the [CI] 809 GHz, {}12{CO} 115 GHz, {}13{CO} 110 GHz, and HI 1.4 GHz line emission from a ∼1 square degree region along the l=328^\\circ (G328) sightline in the Galactic Plane. Emission arises principally from gas in three spiral arm crossings along the sightline. The distribution of emission in the CO and [CI] lines is found to be similar, with the [CI] slightly more extended, and both are enveloped in extensive HI. Spectral line ratios per voxel in the data cubes are found to be similar across the entire extent of the Galaxy. However, toward the edges of the molecular clouds the [CI]/{}13{CO} and {}12{CO}/{}13{CO} line ratios rise by ∼50%, and the [CI]/HI ratio falls by ∼10%. We attribute this to these sightlines passing predominantly through the surfaces of photodissociation regions (PDRs), where the carbon is found mainly as C or C+, while the H2 is mostly molecular, and the proportion of atomic gas also increases. We undertake modeling of the PDR emission from low density molecular clouds excited by average interstellar radiation fields and cosmic-ray ionization to quantify this comparison, finding that depletion of sulfur and reduced PAH abundance is needed to match line fluxes and ratios. Roughly one-third of the molecular gas along the sightline is found to be associated with this surface region, where the carbon is largely not to be found in CO. Approximately 10% of the atomic hydrogen along the sightline is cold gas within PDRs.

  15. MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES

    SciTech Connect

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2009-02-01

    In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room

  16. Single photon simultaneous K-shell ionization and K-shell excitation. II. Specificities of hollow nitrogen molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniato, S. Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Nakano, M.; Hikosaka, Y.; Ito, K.

    2015-01-07

    The formalism developed in the companion Paper I is used here for the interpretation of spectra obtained recently on the nitrogen molecule. Double core-hole ionization K{sup −2} and core ionization-core excitation K{sup −2}V processes have been observed by coincidence electron spectroscopy after ionization by synchrotron radiation at different photon energies. Theoretical and experimental cross sections reported on an absolute scale are in satisfactory agreement. The evolution with photon energy of the relative contribution of shake-up and conjugate shake-up processes is discussed. The first main resonance in the K{sup −2}V spectrum is assigned to a K{sup −2}π{sup ∗} state mainly populated by the 1s→ lowest unoccupied molecular orbital dipolar excitation, as it is in the K{sup −1}V NEXAFS (Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) signals. Closer to the K{sup −2} threshold Rydberg resonances have been also identified, and among them a K{sup −2}σ{sup ∗} resonance characterized by a large amount of 2s/2p hybridization, and double K{sup −2}(2σ{sup ∗}/1π/3σ){sup −1}1π{sup ∗2} shake-up states. These resonances correspond in NEXAFS spectra to, respectively, the well-known σ{sup ∗} shape resonance and double excitation K{sup −1}(2σ{sup ∗}/1π/3σ){sup −1}1π{sup ∗2} resonances, all being positioned above the threshold.

  17. Molecular Simulation of Gas Solubility in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, M; Sutton, A P; Mostofi, A A

    2017-01-12

    Molecular simulation is used to compute the solubility of small gases in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) with a Widom particle-insertion technique biased by local free volume. The convergence of the method is examined as a function of the number of snapshots upon which the insertions are performed and the number of insertions per snapshot and is compared to the convergence of the unbiased Widom insertion technique. The effect of varying the definition of local free volume is also investigated. The acrylonitrile content of the polymer is altered to examine its influence on the solubility of helium, CO2, and H2O, and the solubilities of polar gases are found to be enhanced relative to those of nonpolar gases, in qualitative agreement with experiment. To probe this phenomenon further, the solubilities are decomposed into contributions from the neighborhoods of different atoms, using a Voronoi cell construction, and a strong bias is found for CO2 and H2O in particular to be situated near nitrogen sites in the elastomer. Temperature is shown to suppress the solubility of CO2 and H2O but to increase that of helium. Increasing pressure is found to suppress the solubility of all gases but at different rates, according to a balance between their molecular sizes and electrostatic interactions with the polymer. These results are relevant to the use of NBR seals at elevated temperatures and pressures, such as in oil and gas wells.

  18. From Gas to Stars in Energetic Environments: Chemistry of Clumps in Giant Molecular Clouds Within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Crystal N.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Juergen; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony H.

    2015-01-01

    We present parsec scale interferometric maps of HCN and HCO^{+} emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is characterized by a very intense ultraviolet ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to impact molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 bright, dense clumps within the 30 Doradus-10 giant molecular cloud. Some of the clumps are aligned along a filamentary structure with a characteristic spacing that is consistent with formation via the varicose fluid instability. Our analysis shows that the filament is gravitationally unstable and collapsing to form stars. There is a good correlation between HCO^{+} emission in the filament and signatures of recent star formation activity including H_{2}O masers and young stellar objects (YSOs). We present detailed comparisons of clump properties (masses, linewidths, sizes) in 30Dor-10 to those in other star forming regions of the LMC (N159, N113, N105, N44). Our analysis shows that the 30 Doradus-10 clumps have similar mass but wider linewidths and similar HCN/HCO^{+} (1-0) line ratios as clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions. Our results suggest that the dense molecular gas clumps in the interior of 30Dor-10 are well-shielded against the intense ionizing field that is present in the 30 Doradus region. We also present preliminary results from follow up observations with the ATCA of a several molecular lines detected from the brightest clumps in 30 Doradus-10, N113 and N159W. The maps cover the following dense gas, photo-dominated regions (PDRs), and shock tracers: HCN, HCO^{+}, C_{2}H, SiO, HNCO, SiS, N_{2}H^{+}, CS, CH_{3}H, CH_{3}CN, {13}^CS, OCS, H_{2}, {34}^CS. These giant molecular clouds have varying radiation fields and energetics. We compare the chemistry within these giant molecular clouds to one another to

  19. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  20. Taming molecular beams; towards a gas-phase molecular laboratory on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meek, Samuel A.; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Conrad, Horst; Meijer, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    The manipulation of gas-phase molecules with electric and magnetic fields above a chip is an emerging field of research. Miniaturization of the electric and magnetic field structures allows for the creation of large field gradients and tight traps above the chip. Present-day microelectronics technology enables the integration of complicated tools and devices on a compact surface area. The molecules can be positioned extremely accurately and reproducibly above the chip where they can be held isolated from their environment and where there is excellent access to them. It is expected that several of the gas-phase molecular beam experiments that are currently being done in machines that are up to several meters in length can in the future be performed on a surface area of a few cm2 and that many new experiments will become possible.

  1. Highly-Ionized Gas in the Galactic Halo: A FUSE Survey of O 6 Absorption toward 22 Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsargo, J.; Sembach, K. R.; Howk, J. C.; Savage, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of 22 Galactic halo stars are studied to determine the amount of O 6 in the Galactic halo between ~0.3 and ~10 kpc from the Galactic mid-plane. Strong O 6 λ 1031.93 absorption was detected toward 21 stars, and a reliable 3 σ upper limit was obtained toward HD 97991. The weaker member of the O 6 doublet at 1037.62 Å could be studied toward only six stars. The observed columns are reasonably consistent with a patchy exponential O 6 distribution with a mid-plane density of 1.7x10-8 cm-3 and scale height between 2.3 and 4 kpc. We do not see clear signs of strong high-velocity components in O 6 absorption along the Galactic sight lines, which indicates the general absence of high velocity O 6 within 2-5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane. The correlation between the H 1 and O 6 intermediate velocity absorption is also poor. The O 6 velocity dispersions are much larger than the value of ~18 km/s expected from thermal broadening for gas at T ~ 3x105 K, the temperature at which O 6 is expected to reach its peak abundance in collisional ionization equilibrium. Turbulence, inflow, and outflow must have an effect on the shape of the O 6 profiles. Kinematical comparisons of O 6 with Ar 1 reveal that 9 of 21 sight lines are closely aligned in LSR velocity (|Δ VLSR| <=5 km/s ), while 8 of 21 exhibit significant velocity differences (|Δ VLSR| >= 15 km/s ). This dual behavior may indicate the presence of two different types of O 6-bearing environments toward the Galactic sight lines. Comparison of O 6 with other highly-ionized species suggests that the high ions are produced primarily by cooling hot gas in the Galactic fountain flow, and that turbulent mixing also has a significant contribution. The role of turbulent mixing is most important toward sight lines that sample supernova remnants like Loop I and IV. We are also able to show that the O 6 enhancement toward the Galactic center region that was observed in the FUSE

  2. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 and VLA Observations of the Ionized Gas in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John W.; Maíz-Apellániz, Jesús; Pickens, Christopher E.; Norman, Colin A.; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2000-12-01

    We present new Hα and [O III] λ5007 narrowband images of the starbursting dwarf galaxy NGC 4214, obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with VLA observations of the same galaxy. The HST images resolve features down to physical scales of 2-5 pc, revealing several young (<10 Myr) star-forming complexes of various ionized gas morphologies (compact knots, complete or fragmentary shells) and sizes (~10-200 pc). Our results are consistent with a uniform set of evolutionary trends: The youngest, smaller, filled regions that presumably are those just emerging from dense star-forming clouds tend to be of high excitation and are highly obscured. Evolved, larger shell-like regions have lower excitation and are less extincted owing to the action of stellar winds and supernovae. In at least one case we find evidence for induced star formation, which has led to a two-stage starburst. Age estimates based on W(Hα) measurements do not agree with those inferred from wind-driven shell models of expanding H II regions. The most likely explanation for this effect is the existence of an ~2 Myr delay in the formation of superbubbles caused by the pressure exerted by the high-density medium in which massive stars are born. We report the detection of a supernova remnant embedded in one of the two large H II complexes of NGC 4214. The dust in NGC 4214 is not located in a foreground screen but is physically associated with the warm ionized gas. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the NRAO Very Large Array. The HST observations were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. Time-Resolved Molecular Characterization of Limonene/Ozone Aerosol using High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2009-09-09

    Molecular composition of limonene/O3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) as a function of reaction time. SOA was generated by ozonation of D-limonene in a reaction chamber and sampled at different time intervals using a cascade impactor. The SOA samples were extracted into acetonitrile and analyzed using a HR-ESI-MS instrument with a resolving power of 100,000 (m/Δm). The resulting mass spectra provided detailed information about the extent of oxidation inferred from the O:C ratios, double bond equivalency (DBE) factors, and aromaticity indexes (AI) in hundreds of identified individual SOA species.

  5. Matrix-assisted and polymer-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of low molecular weight polystyrenes and polyethylene glycols.

    PubMed

    Woldegiorgis, Andreas; Löwenhielm, Peter; Björk, Anders; Roeraade, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Recently, matrices based on oligomers of dioxin and thiophene (polymer-assisted laser desorption/ionization (PALDI)) have been described for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of low molecular weight compounds (Woldegiorgis A, von Kieseritzky F, Dahlstedt E, Hellberg J, Brinck T, Roeraade J. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2004; 18: 841-852). In this paper, we report the use of PALDI matrices for low molecular weight polymers. An evaluation with polystyrene and polyethylene glycol showed that no charge transfer ionization occurs. Ionization is mediated through metal ion adduction. Comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) data for two very low molecular weight polymers with data obtained from size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed a systematic difference regarding mean molecular weight and dispersity. Further, the mass spectra obtained with PALDI matrices had a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the spectra obtained with conventional matrices. For polymers with higher molecular weights (>1500 Da), the conventional matrices gave better performance. For evaluation of the MALDI spectra, three non-linear mathematical models were evaluated to model the cumulative distributions of the different oligomers and their maximal values of Mw, Mn and PDI. Models based on sigmoidal or Boltzmann equations proved to be most suitable. Objective modeling tools are necessary to compare different sample and instrumental conditions during method optimization of MALDI analysis of polymers, since the bias between MALDI and SEC data can be misleading.

  6. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-03

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices.

  7. The Molecular Gas Environment in the 20 km s‑1 Cloud in the Central Molecular Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Zhang, Qizhou; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Battersby, Cara; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ginsburg, Adam; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2017-04-01

    We recently reported a population of protostellar candidates in the 20 km s‑1 cloud in the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way, traced by H2O masers in gravitationally bound dense cores. In this paper, we report molecular line studies with high angular resolution (∼3″) of the environment of star formation in this cloud. Maps of various molecular line transitions as well as the continuum at 1.3 mm are obtained using the Submillimeter Array. Five NH3 inversion lines and the 1.3 cm continuum are observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The interferometric observations are complemented with single-dish data. We find that the CH3OH, SO, and HNCO lines, which are usually shock tracers, are better correlated spatially with the compact dust emission from dense cores among the detected lines. These lines also show enhancement in intensities with respect to SiO intensities toward the compact dust emission, suggesting the presence of slow shocks or hot cores in these regions. We find gas temperatures of ≳100 K at 0.1 pc scales based on RADEX modeling of the H2CO and NH3 lines. Although no strong correlations between temperatures and linewidths/H2O maser luminosities are found, in high-angular-resolution maps we note several candidate shock-heated regions offset from any dense cores, as well as signatures of localized heating by protostars in several dense cores. Our findings suggest that at 0.1 pc scales in this cloud star formation and strong turbulence may together affect the chemistry and temperature of the molecular gas.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Thiols in Fossil Fuels by Michael Addition Reaction Derivatization and Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhao, Suoqi; Liu, Xuxia; Shi, Quan

    2016-10-04

    Thiols widely occur in sediments and fossil fuels. However, the molecular composition of these compounds is unclear due to the lack of appropriate analytical methods. In this work, a characterization method for thiols in fossil fuels was developed on the basis of Michael addition reaction derivatization followed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). Model thiol compound studies showed that thiols were selectively reacted with phenylvinylsulfone and transformed to sulfones with greater than 98% conversions. This method was applied to a coker naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and crude oils from various geological sources. The results showed that long alkyl chain thiols are readily present in petroleum, which have up to 30 carbon atoms. Large DBE dispersity of thiols indicates that naphthenic and aromatic thiols are also present in the petroleum. This method is capable of detecting thiol compounds in the part per million range by weight. This method allows characterization of thiols in a complex hydrocarbon matrix, which is complementary to the comprehensive analysis of sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

  9. Warm ionized gas in CALIFA early-type galaxies. 2D emission-line patterns and kinematics for 32 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Breda, I.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Walcher, C. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Masegosa, J.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; CALIFA Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Context. The morphological, spectroscopic, and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium (wim) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive, quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, offer an unprecedented opportunity for advancing our understanding of the wim in ETGs. Aims: This article centers on a 2D investigation of the wim component in 32 nearby (≲150 Mpc) ETGs from CALIFA, complementing a previous 1D analysis of the same sample. Methods: The analysis presented here includes Hα intensity and equivalent width (EW) maps and radial profiles, diagnostic emission-line ratios, and ionized-gas and stellar kinematics. It is supplemented by τ-ratio maps, which are a more efficient means to quantify the role of photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component than alternative mechanisms (e.g., AGN, low-level star formation). Results: Confirming and strengthening our previous conclusions, we find that ETGs span a broad continuous sequence in the properties of their wim, exemplified by two characteristic classes. The first (type i) comprises systems with a nearly constant EW(Hα) in their extranuclear component, which quantitatively agrees with (but is no proof of) the hypothesis that photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component is the main driver of extended wim emission. The second class (type ii) stands for virtually wim-evacuated ETGs with a very low (≤0.5 Å), outwardly increasing EW(Hα). These two classes appear indistinguishable from one another by their LINER-specific emission-line ratios in their extranuclear component. Here we extend the tentative classification we proposed previously by the type i+, which is assigned to a subset of type i ETGs exhibiting ongoing low-level star-forming activity in their periphery. This finding along with faint

  10. The Cosmic Evolution of the Metallicity Distribution of Ionized Gas Traced by Lyman Limit Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Nicolas; O'Meara, John M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele

    2016-12-01

    We present the first results from our KODIAQ Z survey aimed at determining the metallicity distribution and physical properties of the z≳ 2 partial and full Lyman limit systems (pLLSs and LLSs; 16.2≤slant {log}{N}{{H}{{I}}}\\lt 19), which are probed of the interface regions between the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies. We study 31 H i-selected pLLSs and LLSs at 2.3\\lt z\\lt 3.3 observed with Keck/HIRES in absorption against background QSOs. We compare the column densities of metal ions to H i and use photoionization models to assess the metallicity. The metallicity distribution of the pLLSs/LLSs at 2.3\\lt z\\lt 3.3 is consistent with a unimodal distribution peaking at [{{X}}/{{H}}]≃ -2. The metallicity distribution of these absorbers therefore evolves markedly with z since at z≲ 1 it is bimodal with peaks at [{{X}}/{{H}}]≃ -1.8 and -0.3. There is a substantial fraction (25%-41%) of pLLSs/LLSs with metallicities well below those of damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) at any studied z from z≲ 1 to z˜ 2-4, implying reservoirs of metal-poor, cool, dense gas in the IGM/galaxy interface at all z. However, the gas probed by pLLSs and LLSs is rarely pristine, with a fraction of 3%-18% for pLLSs/LLSs with [{{X}}/{{H}}]≤slant -3. We find C/α enhancement in several pLLSs and LLSs in the metallicity range -2≲ [{{X}}/{{H}}]≲ -0.5, where C/α is 2-5 times larger than observed in Galactic metal-poor stars or high-redshift DLAs at similar metallicities. This is likely caused by preferential ejection of carbon from metal-poor galaxies into their surroundings.

  11. Pulsed discharge helium ionization detector : a new sensitive space detector for gas chromatography ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, C.; Cabane, M.; Coscia, D.; Coll, P.; Eugenie, J.; Brun, J. F.; Israel, G.

    2003-04-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) is a powerful analytical technique which has been widely used in the exploration of other planetary atmospheres and surfaces. It was part of the scientific payloads devoted to in situ chemical analysis of the soil of Mars, the atmosphere of Venus, and it is currently present in the Huygens probe en route to explore Titan’s atmosphere as well as in the Rosetta lander probe to investigate a cometary nucleus. Obviously, since it was first used in a Viking probe (1976), space GC was improved to fulfil the more and more constraining scientific and space instrumental requirements. More particularly, the separation part, composed of chromatographic columns, was the subject of transformations which contributed to significantly improve the efficiency and the sensitivity of the technique. But on the other hand, space GC detectors remained relatively rudimentary systems, if one except the introduction of mass spectrometry coupled to GC, and they became the limiting factor to a better sensitivity of the whole instrument. In other words, much more sensitive space GC is now required to investigate the composition in organics of hostile environments, as can be the soil of Mars where concentration in organics could be limited to trace levels. That is the reason why, in order to overcome this limitation, we are currently leading a research and development program funded by the space French agency to develop a new type of space chromatographic detector which could meet the objectives of the future space GC : the pulsed discharge helium ionisation detector (PDHID). The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the compatibility of the analytical performances of PDHID with space exploration requirements, by presenting the results of a series of experiments led with a commercial version of PDHID. These results made us starting a program of miniaturisation of this type of detector to build a version compatible with space instrumentation requirements in terms of mass

  12. Real-time gas and particle-phase organic acids measurement at a forest site using chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry during BEACHON-RoMBAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Kimmel, J.; Cubison, M.; Day, D. A.; Jayne, J.; Thornton, J. A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    We present measurement of organic acids in gas and aerosol particles conducted in a ponderosa pine forest during July and August 2011 as part of the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS; http://tinyurl.com/BEACHON-RoMBAS). The measurement technique is based on chemical ionization, high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and utilizes a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor [MOVI-CI-HR-ToFMS; Yatavelli et al., AS&T, 2010] to collect sub-micron aerosol particles while simultaneously measuring the gas-phase composition. The collected particles are subsequently analyzed by temperature-programmed thermal desorption. The reagent ion chosen for this campaign is the acetate anion (CH3C(O)O-, m/z 59), which reacts selectively via proton transfer with compounds that are stronger gas-phase acids than acetic acid [Veres et al., IJMS, 2008]. Preliminary results show substantial particle-phase concentrations of biogenic oxidation products such as hydroxy-glutaric acid, pinic acid, pinonic acid, and hydroxy-pinonic acid along with numerous lower and higher molecular weight organic acids. Correlations of the organic acid concentrations with meteorological, gas and aerosol parameters measured by other instrumentation are investigated in order to understand the formation, transformation, and partitioning of gas and particle-phase organic acids in a forested environment dominated by terpenes.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Selected Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Surong; Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-03-01

    Emerging brominated flame retardants (eBFRs) other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and their derivatives in foods have been in focus in recent years due to their increasing production volumes, indefinite information on toxicities and the lack of data on occurrence in environments, foods as well as humans. In this study, gas chromatography was coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) for the analysis of six eBFRs in pork, chicken, egg, milk and fish. A short section of unpacked capillary column coupled to the end of the analytical column was applied to improve the chromatographic behaviors of high boiling point compounds. The method was comprehensively validated with method limit of quantification (mLOQ) lower than 8 pg/g wet weight (w.w.). Samples from Chinese Total Diet study were quantified following the validated APGC-MS/MS method. 2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-ethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were most frequently detected in samples. The highest concentration was found in fish with 351.9 pg/g w.w. of PBT. This is the first report on the presence of PBT in food samples with non-ignorable concentrations and detection rate.

  14. Seasonal variation of gastroprotective terpenoids in Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID).

    PubMed

    Zermiani, Tailyn; Junior, Antonio A S; Ferreira, Renê A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Machado, Marina S; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

    2016-11-01

    The triterpenes friedelin (1), β-friedelinol (2) and 3,15-dioxo-21α-hydroxyfriedelane (3) in the aerial parts of Maytenus robusta, a Brazilian medicinal plant with antiulcer potential, were seasonally quantified by gas chromatography flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) using an external standard. The method was found to be linear, precise and sensitive. Compounds 1 and 2 were found in M. robusta leaves and branches, with highest concentrations in the leaves collected in autumn, i.e. 3.21 ± 0.16 and 12.60 ± 1.49 mg g-1 dry weight of 1 and 2, respectively. On the other hand, compound 3 was found only in the branches, with the highest concentrations in winter and autumn (0.21 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.02 mg g-1). The results allow to define the optimal season and plant parts for the collection of M. robusta as a phytotherapeutic drug.

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Selected Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Surong; Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-01-01

    Emerging brominated flame retardants (eBFRs) other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and their derivatives in foods have been in focus in recent years due to their increasing production volumes, indefinite information on toxicities and the lack of data on occurrence in environments, foods as well as humans. In this study, gas chromatography was coupled to an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) for the analysis of six eBFRs in pork, chicken, egg, milk and fish. A short section of unpacked capillary column coupled to the end of the analytical column was applied to improve the chromatographic behaviors of high boiling point compounds. The method was comprehensively validated with method limit of quantification (mLOQ) lower than 8 pg/g wet weight (w.w.). Samples from Chinese Total Diet study were quantified following the validated APGC-MS/MS method. 2,3,4,5-pentabromo-6-ethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were most frequently detected in samples. The highest concentration was found in fish with 351.9 pg/g w.w. of PBT. This is the first report on the presence of PBT in food samples with non-ignorable concentrations and detection rate. PMID:28281659

  16. Determination of phthalate esters in cosmetics by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiming; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xing; Hao, Nan; Liu, Juan

    2005-08-01

    A gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometric detection (MSD) method was developed to determine the six kinds of phthalate esters [dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP)] in cosmetics (solid, cream and liquid cosmetics). The cosmetics were extracted with methanol by ultrasonic and then separated with high-speed centrifugation. The upper clear layer was dried and filtered through a 0.45 mum pore diameter filter. The filtrate was injected into GC-FID/GC-MS for detection. GC-FID chromatogram was applied for qualitative analysis, external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. Confirmation of phthalate presence was undertaken by GC-EI-MS. The recovery range of all phthalates were between 92.0 and 110.0% with relative standard deviations between 1.95 and 5.92%. The low detection limits of the method were: 0.1 ng for DMP, DEP, DBP and BBP, 0.5 ng for DEHP and DOP. The method had advantages of high precision and sensitivity, simplicity of pretreatment. The method can be used to test the six kinds of phthalate esters in cosmetics.

  17. Quantitation of volatile oils in ground cumin by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Heikes, D L; Scott, B; Gorzovalitis, N A

    2001-01-01

    Ground cumin is used as a flavoring agent in a number of ethnic cuisines. The chemical entities, which primarily establish its characteristically pungent flavor, are found in the volatile oil of cumin. Fixed oils and carbohydrates tend to round out the harshness of the volatile oil components. However, the quantity of volatile oil is commonly the measure of the quality of this spice. For several decades, the spice industry has used a classical distillation procedure for the determination of volatile oil in cumin and other spices. However, the method is cumbersome and requires nearly 8 h to complete. Supercritical fluid extraction with capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection is utilized in the formulation of a rapid, accurate, and specific method for the determination of volatile oil in ground cumin. Samples are extracted in a static-dynamic mode with CO2 at 550 bar and 100 degrees C. Toluene is used as a static modifier addition. The extracted volatile oil, collected in toluene, is analyzed directly using tetradecane as the internal standard. Integration is performed as grouped peaks to include all chemical entities found in cumin volatile oil recovered from the official distillation procedure. Results from this procedure compare favorably with those obtained by the official procedure (coefficient of correlation = 0.995, 24 samples).

  18. Simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in plasma by chemical ionization gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (CI-GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Youso, Stephanie L; Petrikovics, Ilona; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    An analytical method utilizing chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in plasma. Sample preparation for this analysis required essentially one-step by combining the reaction of cyanide and thiocyanate with pentafluorobenzyl bromide and simultaneous extraction of the product into ethyl acetate facilitated by a phase-transfer catalyst, tetrabutylammonium sulfate. The limits of detection for cyanide and thiocyanate were 1 μM and 50 nM, respectively. The linear dynamic range was from 10 μM to 20 mM for cyanide and from 500 nM to 200 μM for thiocyanate with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999 for both cyanide and thiocyanate. The precision, as measured by %RSD, was below 9 %, and the accuracy was within 15 % of the nominal concentration for all quality control standards analyzed. The gross recoveries of cyanide and thiocyanate from plasma were over 90 %. Using this method, the toxicokinetic behavior of cyanide and thiocyanate in swine plasma was assessed following cyanide exposure.

  19. Determination of benzene series compounds and chlorobenzenes in water sample by static headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Sun, Xiumei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Guo, Yuanming

    2015-06-01

    A simple, efficient, solvent-free, and readily commercially available approach for the determination of eight benzene series compounds and 12 chlorobenzenes in water samples using the static headspace sampling and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection has been described in this paper. The proposed static headspace sampling method was initially optimized, and the optimum experimental conditions explored were 10 mL water sample containing 20% w/v sodium chloride placed in a 20 mL vial and stirred at 70°C for 43 min. The linearity of the method ranged from 1 to 200 μg/L for 20 analytes, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9962 and 0.9994. The limits of detection were in the μg/L level, ranging between 0.15 and 0.4 μg/L. The relative recoveries of spiked benzene series and chlorobenzenes with external calibration method at different concentration levels in pure, tap, and sea water samples were 84-113, 78-115 and 85-119%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of 3.8-6.8, 4.1-5.8, and 4.8-5.4% (n = 5), respectively. That this method can be successfully applied to the determination of benzene series compounds and chlorobenzenes in pure, tap, and sea water samples, simultaneously.

  20. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-06-14

    Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%.

  1. Molecular photoelectron angular distribution rotations in multi-photon resonant ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} by circularly polarized ultraviolet laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2015-04-14

    We study effects of pulse durations on molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in ultrafast circular polarization ultraviolet resonant ionization processes. Simulations performed on aligned H{sub 2}{sup +} by numerically solving time dependent Schrödinger equations show rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular symmetry axes. It is found that in multi-photon resonant ionization processes, rotation angles are sensitive to pulse durations, which we attribute to the coherent resonant excitation between the ground state and the intermediate excited electronic state induced by Rabi oscillations. Multi-photon nonresonant and single photon ionization processes are simulated and compared which exhibit a constant rotation angle. An asymmetry parameter is introduced to describe the pulse duration sensitivity by perturbation theory models. Influence of pulse frequency detunings on MPADs is also investigated where oscillations of rotations are absent at long pulse durations due to nonresonance excitation.

  2. Intensity Mapping of Molecular Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey; Keating, Garrett; Marrone, Dan; DeBoer, David; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Ming-Tang; Jiang, Homin; Koch, Patrick; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, K. Y.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Darling, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The origin and evolution of structure in the Universe is one of the major challenges of observational astronomy. How and when did the first stars and galaxies form? How does baryonic structure trace the underlying dark matter? A multi-wavelength, multi-tool approach is necessary to provide the complete story or the evolution of structure in the Universe. Intensity mapping, which relies on the ability to detect many objects at once through their integrated emission rather than direct detection of individual objects, is a critical part of this mosaic. Intensity mapping provides a window on lower luminosity objects that cannot be detected individually but that collectively drive important processes. In particular, our understanding of the molecular gas component of massive galaxies is being revolutionized by ALMA and EVLA but the population of smaller, star-forming galaxies, which provide the bulk of star formation cannot be individually probed by these instruments.In this talk, I will summarize two intensity mapping experiments to detect molecular gas through the carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition. We are currently completing sensitive observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovic Array (SZA) telescope at a wavelength of 1 cm that are sensitive to emission at redshifts 2.3 to 3.3. The SZA experiments sets strong limits on models for the CO emission and demonstrates the ability to reject foregrounds and telescope systematics in very deep integrations. I also describe the development of an intensity mapping capability for the Y.T. Lee Array, a 13-element interferometer located on Mauna Loa. In its first phase, this project focuses on detection of CO at redshifts 2.3 - 3.3 with detection via power spectrum and cross-correlation with other surveys. The project includes a major technical upgrade, a new digital correlator and IF electronics component to be deployed in 2015/2016. The Y.T. Lee Array observations will be more sensitive and extend to larger angular scales

  3. Testing Equilibrium Models of Molecular Gas in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tony

    We propose to study the molecular gas fractions and physical conditions of diffuse molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds using ultraviolet (UV) and optical absorption spectra, principally from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archives. We will use these data to constrain the abundance of molecular hydrogen (H_2) undetectable in CO emission surveys and to test equilibrium models that seek to predict the H_2 mass fraction and the H_2/HI ratio as functions of metallicity, column density, and thermal pressure. Our approach complements HI and CO surveys by providing direct estimates of HI and H_2 column densities. For sight lines where sufficiently high resolution spectra are available, we will use the excitation of CI to determine thermal pressures, allowing us to test models that assume thermodynamic equilibrium in order to determine the HI-H_2 balance. The recently completed Spitzer Legacy surveys of the MCs provide images of PAH emission on sub-parsec scales, which may provide a means to model the distribution and small-scale clumping of gas in the vicinity of the absorption sight lines, and thus connect the absorption data with the much coarser resolution radio data. We will investigate this possibility and the implications that small-scale clumping have for comparisons with theoretical models. A preliminary analysis of the FUSE and HST data is already underway, and we present a few early results. We seek support to continue this effort over the next two years and to disseminate our results. Our methodology is novel in several respects. It includes the use of high-resolution optical spectra to derive component models for the FUSE absorption spectra, in order to derive more accurate column densities, especially for the higher J transitions of H_2 which provide key diagnostics of density and radiation field strength. Such component models will also aid in the analysis of the CI spectra. We will work to increase

  4. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. III. Molecular gas and star formation efficiency of 3C 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Piqueras López, J.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L.; Neri, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Powerful radio galaxies show evidence of ongoing active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, mainly in the form of fast, massive outflows. But it is not clear how these outflows affect the star formation of their hosts. Aims: We investigate the different manifestations of AGN feedback in the evolved, powerful radio source 3C 293 and their impact on the molecular gas of its host galaxy, which harbors young star-forming regions and fast outflows of H i and ionized gas. Methods: We study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of 3C 293 using high spatial resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) lines, and the 3 mm and 1 continuum taken with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We mapped the molecular gas of 3C 293 and compared it with the dust and star-formation images of the host. We searched for signatures of outflow motions in the CO kinematics, and re-examined the evidence of outflowing gas in the H i spectra. We also derived the star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) of the host with all available SFR tracers from the literature, and compared them with the SFE of young and evolved radio galaxies and normal star-forming galaxies. Results: The 12CO(1-0) emission line shows that the molecular gas in 3C 293 is distributed along a massive (M(H2) ~ 2.2 × 1010M⊙) ~24″(21 kpc-) diameter warped disk, that rotates around the AGN. Our data show that the dust and the star formation are clearly associated with the CO disk. The 12CO(2-1) emission is located in the inner 7 kpc (diameter) region around the AGN, coincident with the inner part of the 12CO(1-0) disk. Both the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) spectra reveal the presence of an absorber against the central regions of 3C 293 that is associated with the disk. We do not detect any fast (≳500 km s-1) outflow motions in the cold molecular gas. The host of 3C 293 shows an SFE consistent with the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of normal galaxies and young radio galaxies, and it

  5. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  6. Recognition, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells: the molecular choreography.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Larry H

    2012-01-01

    The faithful maintenance of chromosome continuity in human cells during DNA replication and repair is critical for preventing the conversion of normal diploid cells to an oncogenic state. The evolution of higher eukaryotic cells endowed them with a large genetic investment in the molecular machinery that ensures chromosome stability. In mammalian and other vertebrate cells, the elimination of double-strand breaks with minimal nucleotide sequence change involves the spatiotemporal orchestration of a seemingly endless number of proteins ranging in their action from the nucleotide level to nucleosome organization and chromosome architecture. DNA DSBs trigger a myriad of post-translational modifications that alter catalytic activities and the specificity of protein interactions: phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation, followed by the reversal of these changes as repair is completed. "Superfluous" protein recruitment to damage sites, functional redundancy, and alternative pathways ensure that DSB repair is extremely efficient, both quantitatively and qualitatively. This review strives to integrate the information about the molecular mechanisms of DSB repair that has emerged over the last two decades with a focus on DSBs produced by the prototype agent ionizing radiation (IR). The exponential growth of molecular studies, heavily driven by RNA knockdown technology, now reveals an outline of how many key protein players in genome stability and cancer biology perform their interwoven tasks, e.g. ATM, ATR, DNA-PK, Chk1, Chk2, PARP1/2/3, 53BP1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BLM, RAD51, and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex. Thus, the nature of the intricate coordination of repair processes with cell cycle progression is becoming apparent. This review also links molecular abnormalities to cellular pathology as much a possible and provides a framework of temporal relationships.

  7. Strong-field approximation for above-threshold ionization of polyatomic molecules. II. The role of electron rescattering off the molecular centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasović, E.; Milošević, D. B.

    2014-05-01

    We consider high-order above-threshold ionization of polyatomic molecules by a strong laser field. An improved molecular strong-field approximation which takes into account the electron rescattering off the molecular centers is developed. The presented theory is applied to calculate the photoelectron energy and angular distributions for the ozone molecule. The obtained spectra exhibit pronounced minima, and this is explained as a three-point destructive interference of the rescattered electron wave packets.

  8. THE EGNoG SURVEY: MOLECULAR GAS IN INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Wright, M.; Bolatto, A.; Teuben, P.; Bureau, M.; Leroy, A.; Ostriker, E.; Wong, T.

    2013-05-10

    We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z = 0.05 to z = 0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and star formation rates of 4-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 {+-} 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 Gyr for starburst galaxies. We calculate an average molecular gas fraction of 7%-20% at the intermediate redshifts probed by the EGNoG survey. By expressing the molecular gas fraction in terms of the specific star formation rate and molecular gas depletion time (using typical values), we also calculate the expected evolution of the molecular gas fraction with redshift. The predicted behavior agrees well with the significant evolution observed from z {approx} 2.5 to today.

  9. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    ) population, and conclude that WR stars alone cannot be responsible for producing the observed N/O excess. Instead, the location and disturbed morphology of the N-enriched region suggest that interaction-induced inflow of metal-poor gas may be responsible.

  10. Molecular gas in the outer disks of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braine, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Molecular gas has still only been detected beyond the R25 radius in a few galaxies. Is this due to the low H2 content or to the difficulty of using Carbon Monoxide (CO) to trace H2? Similarly, star formation (SF) decreases sharply in the outer disks of spirals although HI is often plentiful; is the decrease in SF because there is little H2 or because the SF is very inefficient in the outer disk environment? Existing observations suggest that while outer disk clouds tend to be smaller (steeper mass function), their CO brightness temperature is only slightly lower than in the inner disk, at least when observed with sufficiently high angular resolution. In near-solar metallicity galaxies (Z >= 0.5Zsol ), the CO does not become intrinsically difficult to detect when H2 is present, even in the outer disk. While more observations of CO or other means of tracing H2 in the outer disks are necessary, current data tend to show that the SF rate per unit H2 remains approximately constant with galactocentric distance, indicating that the star formation proceeds normally but the transformation of HI into H2 is very slow in the outer disk.

  11. Molecular structure of tetramethylgermane from gas electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csákvári, Éva; Rozsondai, Béla; Hargittai, István

    1991-05-01

    The molecular structure of Ge(CH 3) 4 has been determined from gas-phase electron diffraction augmented by a normal coordinate analysis. Assuming tetrahedral symmetry for the germanium bond configuration, the following structural parameters are found: rg(GeC) = 1.958 ± 0.004 Å, rg(CH) = 1.111 ± 0.003 Å and ∠(GeCH) = 110.7 ± 0.2° ( R=4.0%). The methyl torsional barrier V 0 is estimated to be 1.3 kJ mol -1 on the basis of an effective angle of torsion 23.0 ± 1.5°, from the staggered form, yielded directly by the analysis. The GeC bond length of Ge(CH 3) 4 is the same, within experimental error, as that of Ge(C 6H 5) 4 and is in agreement with the prediction of a modified Schomaker-Stevenson relationship.

  12. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hasan, Naila M.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used to generate a wide range of singly and multiply charged vanadium oxide cluster anions including VxOy n- and VxOyCln- ions (x = 1-14, y = 2-36, n = 1-3), protonated clusters, and ligand-bound polyoxovanadate anions. The cluster anions were produced by electrospraying a solution of tetradecavanadate, V14O36Cl(L)5 (L = Et4N+, tetraethylammonium), in acetonitrile. Under mild source conditions, ESI-MS generates a distribution of doubly and triply charged VxOyCln- and VxOyCl(L)(n-1)- clusters predominantly containing 14 vanadium atoms as well as their protonated analogs. Accurate mass measurement using a high-resolution LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometer (m/Δm = 60,000 at m/z 410) enabled unambiguous assignment of the elemental composition of the majority of peaks in the ESI-MS spectrum. In addition, high-sensitivity mass spectrometry allowed the charge state of the cluster ions to be assigned based on the separation of the major from the much less abundant minor isotope of vanadium. In-source fragmentation resulted in facile formation of smaller VxOyCl(1-2)- and VxOy (1-2)- anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments enabled systematic study of the gas-phase fragmentation pathways of the cluster anions originating from solution and from in-source CID. Surprisingly simple fragmentation patterns were obtained for all singly and doubly charged VxOyCl and VxOy species generated through multiple MS/MS experiments. In contrast, cluster anions originating directly from solution produced comparatively complex CID spectra. These results are consistent with the formation of more stable structures of VxOyCl and VxOy anions through low-energy CID. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that solution-phase synthesis of one precursor cluster anion combined with gas-phase CID is an efficient approach for the top-down synthesis of a

  13. Fingerprinting and source identification of an oil spill in China Bohai Sea by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multi-statistical analyses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peiyan; Bao, Mutai; Li, Guangmei; Wang, Xinping; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhou, Qing; Cao, Lixin

    2009-01-30

    This paper describes a case study in which advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the source of an unknown spilled oil reported on the beach of China Bohai Sea in 2005. The spilled oil was suspected to be released from nearby platforms. In response to this specific site investigation need, a tiered analytical approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied. A variety of diagnostic ratios of "source-specific marker" compounds, in particular isomers of biomarkers, were determined and compared. Several statistical data correlation analysis methods were applied, including clustering analysis and Student's t-test method. The comparison of the two methods was conducted. The comprehensive analysis results reveal the following: (1) The oil fingerprinting of three spilled oil samples (S1, S2 and S3) positively match each other; (2) The three spilled oil samples have suffered different weathering, dominated by evaporation with decrease of the low-molecular-mass n-alkanes at different degrees; (3) The oil fingerprinting profiles of the three spilled oil samples are positive match with that of the suspected source oil samples C41, C42, C43, C44 and C45; (4) There are significant differences in the oil fingerprinting profiles between the three spilled oil samples and the suspected source oil samples A1, B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, C5 and C6.

  14. Ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of single-core and multi-core polyaromatic hydrocarbons under variable conditions of collisional cooling: insights into the generation of molecular ions, fragments and oligomers.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Francisco; Hortal, Ana R; Martínez-Haya, Bruno; Soltwisch, Jens; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    The ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated under different background pressures of an inert gas (up to 1.2 mbar of N2) in the ion source of a hybrid, orthogonal-extracting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (oTOF-MS). The study includes an ensemble of six model PAHs with isolated single polyaromatic cores and four ones with multiple cross-linked aromatic and polyaromatic cores. In combination with a weak ion extraction field, the variation of the buffer gas pressure allowed to control the degree of collisional cooling of the desorbed PAHs and, thus, to modulate their decomposition into fragments. The dominant fragmentation channels observed are related to dehydrogenation of the PAHs, in most cases through the cleavage of even numbers of C-H bonds. Breakage of C-C bonds leading to the fragmentation of rings, side chains and core linkages is also observed, in particular, at low buffer gas pressures. The precise patterns of the combined fragmentation processes vary significantly between the PAHs. The highest abundances of molecular PAH ions and cleanest mass spectra were consistently obtained at the highest buffer gas pressure of 1.2 mbar. The effective quenching of the fragmentation pathways at this elevated pressure improves the sensitivity and data interpretation for analytical applications, although the fragmentation of side chains and of bonds between (poly)aromatic cores is not completely suppressed in all cases. Moreover, these results suggest that the detected fragments are generated through thermal equilibrium processes rather than as a result of rapid photolysis. This assumption is further corroborated by a laser desorption/ionization post-source decay analysis using an axial time-of-flight MS. In line with these findings, covalent oligomers of the PAHs, which are presumably formed by association of two or more dehydrogenated fragments, are detected with higher abundances at the lower buffer gas

  15. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Portolés, T; Mol, J G J; Sancho, J V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, F

    2014-08-01

    A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS(E)). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1). For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01mg kg(-1) for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ≤±5ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ≤±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1) level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second ion was the main reason for the inability to identify detected pesticides, followed by deviations in mass accuracy and ion ratios.

  16. Identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines in cosmetics using gas chromatography/chemical ionization-mass spectrometry coupled with head space-solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Kim, Yong Pyo; Ji, Won Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Ahn, Yun Gyong

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for the identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines (n-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], n-nitrosoethylmethylamine [NMEA], n-nitrosodiethylamine [NDEA], n-nitrosodipropylamine [NDPA], n-nitrosodibutylamine [NDBA], n-nitrosopiperidine [NPIP], and n-nitrosopyrrolidine [NPYR]) in water insoluble cream type cosmetics. It was found that the head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was suitable for extraction, clean up, and pre-concentration of n-nitrosamines in the cream type samples so its optimal conditions were investigated. Identification and quantification of n-nitrosamines using single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in chemical ionization (CI) mode were carried out with accurate mass measurements. Their accurate masses of protonated molecular ions were obtained within 10 mDa of the theoretical masses when sufficiently high signal was acquired from the unique calibration method using mass and isotope accuracy. For the method validation of quantification, spiking experiments were carried out to determine the linearity, recovery, and method detection limit (MDL) using three deuterated internal standards. The average recovery was 79% within 20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the concentration of 50 ng/g. MDLs ranged from 0.46 ng/g to 36.54 ng/g, which was satisfactory for the directive limit of 50 ng/g proposed by the European Commission (EC). As a result, it was concluded that the method could be provided for the accurate mass screening, confirmation, and quantification of n-nitrosamines when applied to cosmetic inspection.

  17. Performance of a gas flow ionization detector filled with He-iso-C4H10 mixtures for STIM-T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. C.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Fonte, P.; Beasley, D. G.; Cruz, C.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.

    2015-04-01

    A cylindrical gas flow ionization chamber has been developed for measuring particle energy in Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T) experiments due to its ability to withstand the direct beam. The response of a He-iso-C4H10 filled ionization detector to 2 MeV H+ and He+ beams was studied. Different operating parameters, such as concentration of isobutane (in the range of 55-100%), anode voltage, amplifier shaping time, the geometry of the detector entrance canal and the solid angle of the detector, were investigated. The stable operating plateau and the anode voltage at which the best energy resolution is attained were also determined for every gas mixture. The best energy resolution achieved so far for 2 MeV H+ and He+ static beams was ∼1.3%, which is comparable to that of Si PIN diode detectors (in the range of 15-30 keV). Computed tomography (CT) was applied to a set of STIM projections acquired with the gas ionization chamber at the IST/CTN microprobe beam line in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in a test structure.

  18. The Green Bank Telescope Maps the Dense Molecular Gas in the Starburst Galaxy M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, A. K.; Frayer, D. T.; Usero, A.; Marvil, J.; Walter, F.

    2014-01-01

    In both the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the presence of dense molecular gas is correlated with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas may represent a key regulating step in the star formation process. Testing this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation. Until now, these observations have been limited by the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO+, but new instruments like the 4mm receiver on Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) -- the largest single-dish millimeter telescope -- are poised to change this picture. We present GBT maps of the dense gas tracers HCN and HCO+ in the prototypical nearby starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO+ in the disk of M82 correlates both with recent star formation and the diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. HCO+ emission is also associated with the outflow of molecular gas previously identified in CO. These observations mark the first time that dense molecular gas like HCO+ has been associated with an outflow in a nearby galaxy and suggests that the outflow of dense molecular gas from the center of galaxies like M82 may regulate the star formation globally. Finally, the CO-to-HCN and CO-to-HCO+ line ratios reveal that there is more dense gas at the center of M82, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies; this capability will increase further with the 16-element feed array currently being built for the GBT.