Science.gov

Sample records for gas storage operations

  1. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  2. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  3. Methodology for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, J.C.; Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center is pursuing the development of a methodology that uses geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. Several Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) will serve as the vehicle to implement this product. CRADAs have been signed with National Fuel Gas and Equitrans, Inc. A geologic model is currently being developed for the Equitrans CRADA. Results from the CRADA with National Fuel Gas are discussed here. The first phase of the CRADA, based on original well data, was completed last year and reported at the 1993 Natural Gas RD&D Contractors Review Meeting. Phase 2 analysis was completed based on additional core and geophysical well log data obtained during a deepening/relogging program conducted by the storage operator. Good matches, within 10 percent, of wellhead pressure were obtained using a numerical simulator to history match 2 1/2 injection withdrawal cycles.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer

  6. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  7. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  8. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  9. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  10. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology

  11. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  12. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  13. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  14. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  16. Design and operation of an inert gas facility for thermoelectric generator storage

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    While the flight hardware is protected by design from the harsh environments of space, its in-air storage often requires special protection from contaminants such as dust, moisture and other gases. One of these components, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which powers the missions, was deemed particularly vulnerable to pre-launch aging because the generators remain operational at core temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees centigrade throughout the storage period. Any oxygen permitted to enter the devices will react with thermally hot components, preferentially with molybdenum in the insulating foils, and with graphites to form CO/CO{sub 2} gases which are corrosive to the thermopile. It was important therefore to minimize the amount of oxygen which could enter, by either limiting the effective in-leakage areas on the generators themselves, or by reducing the relative amount of oxygen within the environment around the generators, or both. With the generators already assembled and procedures in place to assure minimal in-leakage in handling, the approach of choice was to provide a storage environment which contains significantly less oxygen than normal air. 2 refs.

  17. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  18. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  19. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  20. Field and laboratory investigations into the persistence of glutaraldehyde and acrolein in natural gas storage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A. III; Pope, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The persistence of biocides formulated in glutaraldehyde and acrolein were tested in different produced water environments using a calorimetric general aldehyde detection method based on metaphenylenediamine. The objective of Phase 1 (laboratory study) was to characterize the persistence of acrolein and glutaraldehyde in water samples representative of the environments to which the biocides has been applied. To validate the test results, some duplicate samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic (GC) methods and repeat trials were done on certain tests. The objective of Phase 2 (field assessment) was to compare the Phase 1 results on formation waters to actual field data. At the study site, monitoring of biocide residuals had been done by the chemical vendor at all treated wells. The data provided information on glutaraldehyde and acrolein residuals for one gas withdrawal (winter) season. The data were compiled so that persistence/degradation graphs could be constructed for the biocides in each formation. These field data were then compared to the Phase 1 results. The persistence of the biocides in each environment tested was shown to be unique, but repeatable.

  1. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  2. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  3. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  4. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  5. Ethylene Gas in Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene is a small volatile organic molecule that is produced by plants and many microbes. Potato tubers sense ethylene at concentrations of less than 1 ppm and respond to ethylene in ways that may be beneficial or detrimental for potato tuber storage. High concentrations of ethylene suppress sprou...

  6. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  7. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  8. 77 FR 14514 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 2, 2012, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  9. 78 FR 16495 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2013, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  10. 77 FR 10490 - Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 13, 2012, Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to further define...

  11. 77 FR 6107 - Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on January 30, 2012, Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC filed a Statement of Operating Conditions to set forth the addition...

  12. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, Mark P.; Kedl, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  13. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  14. Separate low pressure gas storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Hallen, W.R.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a gas storage system. It comprises: a floor; anchor means surround the floor; a flexible floor membrane positioned upon the floor and having a periphery being substantially co-extensive with the anchor means; a flexible gas storage membrane overlying the flexible floor membrane and having a periphery sealingly secured to the periphery of the flexible floor membrane. The flexible gas storage membrane and the floor membrane forming a flexible gas storage chamber therebetween; gas inlet and outlet means connecting the gas storage chamber to a supply of gas; a flexible air membrane having an exterior and encompassing the gas storage membrane and having a periphery sealingly secured to the periphery of the flexible gas storage membrane. The flexible air membrane overlying the flexible gas storage membrane to form a flexible cover over the flexible gas storage membrane and to form an air chamber over the gas storage chamber; air supply means; air inlet means connecting the air chamber with the air supply means; air outlet means for venting air from the air chamber; and a plurality of flexible restraining members extending over the flexible air membrane for restraining the inflated flexible air membrane.

  15. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  16. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  17. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  18. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  19. Gas storage using fullerene based adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor); Lu, Xiao-Chun (Inventor); Li, Weijiong (Inventor); Mikhael, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention is directed to the synthesis of high bulk density high gas absorption capacity adsorbents for gas storage applications. Specifically, this invention is concerned with novel gas absorbents with high gravimetric and volumetric gas adsorption capacities which are made from fullerene-based materials. By pressing fullerene powder into pellet form using a conventional press, then polymerizing it by subjecting the fullerene to high temperature and high inert gas pressure, the resulting fullerene-based materials have high bulk densities and high gas adsorption capacities. By pre-chemical modification or post-polymerization activation processes, the gas adsorption capacities of the fullerene-based adsorbents can be further enhanced. These materials are suitable for low pressure gas storage applications, such as oxygen storage for home oxygen therapy uses or on-board vehicle natural gas storage. They are also suitable for storing gases and vapors such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

  20. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-04-08

    Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

  1. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is

  2. 76 FR 25328 - Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 27, 2011, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC (Worsham-Steed) filed pursuant to section 284.123(e) of the Commission's regulations, a revised Statement of Operating Conditions for Gas Storage and...

  3. 77 FR 2715 - D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 29, 2011, D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC (D'Lo), 1002 East St. Mary Blvd., Lafayette, Louisiana 70503, filed in... D'Lo to construct, operate, and maintain a new natural gas storage project to be located in...

  4. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-02-27

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Activities during this time period were: (1) Nomination and election of Executive Council members for 2006-07 term, (2) Release the 2006 GSTC request-for-proposals (RFP), (3) Recruit and invoice membership for FY2006, (4) Improve communication efforts, and (5) Continue planning the GSTC spring meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006.

  5. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2005-10-24

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) receiving proposals in response to the RFP, and (2) organizing and hosting the proposal selection meeting on August 30-31, 2005.

  6. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Task 2. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    New opportunities have been created for underground gas storage as a result of recent regulatory developments in the energy industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 directly changed the economics of gas storage nationwide. This paper discusses the storage of natural gas, storage facilities, and factors affecting the current, and future situation for natural gas storage.

  7. Management of a complex cavern storage facility for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Epe cavern storage facility operated by Ruhrgas AG has developed into one of the largest gas cavern storage facilities in the world. Currently, there are 32 caverns and 18 more are planned in the future. Working gas volume will increase from approximately 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} to 2 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. The stratified salt deposit containing the caverns has a surface area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} and is 250 m thick at the edge and 400 m thick in the center. Caverns are leached by a company that uses the recovered brine in the chlorine industry. Cavern dimensions are determined before leaching. The behavior of each cavern, as well as the thermodynamic properties of natural gas must be considered in cavern management. The full-length paper presents the components of a complex management system covering the design, construction, and operation of the Epe gas-storage caverns.

  8. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  9. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage

  10. 75 FR 63465 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC (Hill-Lake) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) for its Storage Services, proposing substantive revisions to its tariff...

  11. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  12. Automatic venting valve for gas storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1986-12-02

    A control valve is described for blocking atmospheric venting of gas fumes contained within a gasoline storage tank during tanker refill operations. The gasoline tank includes a venting tube coupled to open space within the top of the tank to provide air intake for pressure equalization as gasoline is gradually removed from the tank, the control valve comprising: a. a rigid, tubular valve casing having a top opening, a bottom opening and a flow channel therebetween; b. means for attaching the bottom end of the casing to an upper end of the venting tube such that the valve flow channel forms a continuation venting path for the venting tube; c. first and second valve seats and an intermediate seating member coupled to the casing and at least partially contained within the flow channel. The seating member is configured in shape and size to form restricted air space between the seating member and a surrounding wall of the flow channel to be reversibly displaceable in response to fume exhaust expelled during refill operations.

  13. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operations and Storage....236-10 Operations and Storage Areas. As prescribed in 36.510, insert the following clause: Operations and Storage Areas (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor shall confine all operations (including storage...

  14. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operations and Storage....236-10 Operations and Storage Areas. As prescribed in 36.510, insert the following clause: Operations and Storage Areas (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor shall confine all operations (including storage...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operations and Storage....236-10 Operations and Storage Areas. As prescribed in 36.510, insert the following clause: Operations and Storage Areas (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor shall confine all operations (including storage...

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operations and Storage....236-10 Operations and Storage Areas. As prescribed in 36.510, insert the following clause: Operations and Storage Areas (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor shall confine all operations (including storage...

  17. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    2000-07-18

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  18. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Rogers, Michael Ray; Judkins, Roddie R.

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  19. Storage peak gas-turbine power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinkotski, B.

    1980-01-01

    A storage gas-turbine power plant using a two-cylinder compressor with intermediate cooling is studied. On the basis of measured characteristics of a .25 Mw compressor computer calculations of the parameters of the loading process of a constant capacity storage unit (05.3 million cu m) were carried out. The required compressor power as a function of time with and without final cooling was computed. Parameters of maximum loading and discharging of the storage unit were calculated, and it was found that for the complete loading of a fully unloaded storage unit, a capacity of 1 to 1.5 million cubic meters is required, depending on the final cooling.

  20. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  1. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Denholm; Tracey Holloway

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO{sub 2} and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions 'accounting' might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO2 and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation.

  3. Sonar surveys used in gas-storage cavern analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, N.G.

    1998-05-04

    Natural-gas storage cavern internal configuration, inspection information, and cavern integrity data can be obtained during high-pressure operations with specialized gas-sonar survey logging techniques. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., has successfully performed these operations on several of its deepest and highest pressurized caverns. The data can determine gas-in-place inventory and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes can result from cavern creep, shrinkage, or closure or from various downhole abnormalities such as fluid infill or collapse of the sidewall or roof. The paper discusses conventional surveys with sonar, running surveys in pressurized caverns, accuracy of the sonar survey, initial development of Cavern 5, a roof fall, Cavern 4 development, and a damaged string.

  4. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  5. 48 CFR 36.510 - Operations and storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operations and storage... Operations and storage areas. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-10, Operations ald Storage Areas, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract or a...

  6. 48 CFR 36.510 - Operations and storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operations and storage... Operations and storage areas. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-10, Operations ald Storage Areas, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract or a...

  7. 48 CFR 36.510 - Operations and storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operations and storage... Operations and storage areas. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-10, Operations ald Storage Areas, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract or a...

  8. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  9. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  10. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and rcontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at LANL TA-54 Area L. This report summarizes the operation. This is Volume 2 of five volumes.

  11. Trunkline preserves indian artifacts while developing gas storage field

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.G.

    1981-10-01

    Not only is Poverty Point, La, a potential underground gas storage field, but it also is the site of the earliest Indian society yet discovered in the Lower Mississippi Valley. The report, recounts Trunkline Gas Company's experience in studying and preserving archeological data in an area it proposed for an underground gas storage facility.

  12. 75 FR 47587 - Wabash Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wabash Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application July 30, 2010. Take notice that on July 29, 2010, Wabash Gas Storage LLC (Petitioner), 1044 North 115th Street, Suite 400, Omaha... and Procedure, and section 7(c)(1)(B) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to perform specific...

  13. 75 FR 57011 - Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application September 9, 2010. Take notice that on August 31, 2010, Tallulah Gas Storage LLC (Tallulah), 10370 Richmond Avenue, Suite 510... Natural Gas Act, subpart F of part 157, and subpart G of part 284 of the Commission's regulations for:...

  14. 76 FR 48841 - Liberty Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 25, 2011, Liberty Gas Storage, LLC (Liberty) submitted a request for confirmation that it is not required to file... is applicable only when a natural gas company is obligated to file a Form 2-A, Liberty...

  15. 75 FR 70727 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC ; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC ; Notice of Application November 10, 2010. Take notice that on November 5, 2010, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350...)(5), and section 7(c)(1)(B) of the Natural Gas Act, to perform specific temporary activities...

  16. 76 FR 22092 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on March 30, 2011, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  17. 77 FR 8248 - Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 27, 2012, Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC (Bluewater), 333 Clay Street, Suite 1500, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP12-51-000 under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA),...

  18. 77 FR 74838 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on December 3, 2012, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  19. 77 FR 31840 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on May 11, 2012, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  20. 75 FR 36376 - Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, Tallulah Gas Storage LLC (Petitioner), 10370 Richmond Avenue, Suite 510, Houston... Procedure, and section 7(c)(1)(B) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to perform specific temporary...

  1. 76 FR 13611 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2011, Bay Gas Storage, LLC (Bay Gas) filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of...

  2. 75 FR 45610 - Liberty Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on July 26, Liberty Gas Storage LLC (``Liberty''), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, CA 92101, filed in the above referenced docket, an application pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to amend its Application...

  3. 75 FR 21288 - Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 5, 2010, Henry Gas Storage LLC (HGS), 1010 Lamar, Suite 1720, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... section 7(c)(1)(B) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to perform specific temporary activity related to...

  4. Slim-hole horizontal well improves gas storage field deliverability

    SciTech Connect

    Gredell, M.E.; Benson, M.A.

    1995-12-11

    A slim-hole horizontal well in a gas storage field, drilled with a 2,000-ft lateral section under a city, initially produced about four times more than a nearby offset vertical well. The ability of the well to cycle gas efficiently from the area under the city will be determined by monitoring the future performance of the well and field. The objectives and conditions of this project were ideal for a slim-hole horizontal well, and the results suggest the potential for more horizontal slim-hole wells in other gas storage applications. The slim-hole well design helped lower total costs. Among the technical and operational issues addressed on this horizontal well project were prediction of well performance and benefits, environmental and safety concerns of drilling in an urban area, optimizing well design parameters, protecting the integrity of the storage zone, and geosteering in a thin reservoir. The paper describes the reservoir, field development, feasibility studies, well location, well plan, radius, the lateral section, well completion, and results.

  5. Kepiting field production/storage barge; Design, installation, and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, A.C.; Satar, S. ); Liles, S.P. )

    1990-04-01

    The Kepiting field is located in 295 ft (90 m) of water in the Natuna Sea, Indonesia. Development of this two-well field required innovative planning and involved unique designs of producing systems. The plan includes seafloor wells tied back to a spread-anchored, purpose-built, oil-process and -storage barge. The barge is designed to handle four producing wells and to process 10,000 B/D (1590 m{sup 3}/d) well fluid and 10 million scf/D (283 {times} 10{sup 3} std m{sup 3}/d) gas. Excess gas beyond barge-fuel needs and artificial-lift requirements is flared on the barge. Heated oil storage for 53,000 bbl (8430 m{sup 3}) is available. Processed crude is transported from the barge to a floating export terminal by a shuttle tanker. Kepiting field was operated profitably from Oct. 27, 1986, to Aug. 8, 1989, at which time the wells were plugged and the tieback risers disconnected. This paper discusses the design and construction of the barge and the operating philosophy and experience.

  6. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim; ,

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  7. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or underground storage tank system. 280.230 Section 280.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than...

  8. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or underground storage tank system. 280.230 Section 280.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than...

  9. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or underground storage tank system. 280.230 Section 280.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than...

  10. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or underground storage tank system. 280.230 Section 280.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than...

  11. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or underground storage tank system. 280.230 Section 280.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to... UST system for purposes of compliance with 40 CFR part 280 if there is an operator, other than...

  12. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  13. Salt deposits in Arizona promise gas-storage opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauzi, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Massive salt formations and their proximity to pipeline systems and power plants make Arizona attractive for natural gas storage. Caverns dissolved in subsurface salt are used to store LPG at Ferrellgas Partners LP facility near Holbrook and the AmeriGas Partners LP facility near Glendale. Three other companies are investigating the feasibility of storing natural gas in Arizona salt: Copper Eagle Gas Storage LLC, Desert Crossing Gas Storage and Transportation System LLC, and Aquila Inc. The most extensive salt deposits are in the Colorado Plateau Province. Marine and nonmarine salt deposits are present in Arizona.

  14. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- An overhead crane in the Operations and Checkout Building lowers one of four gas tanks onto the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet while workers help guide it. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  15. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, workers check out the placement of one of four gas tanks on the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS- 104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  16. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Workers in the Operations and Checkout Building stand by while one of four gas tanks is moved toward the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  17. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  18. Transport and Storage Research Program. Gas Research Institute: Status report-1989 projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The 1989 status report of the Gas Research Institute Transport and Storage Research Subprogram describes the tactical objectives, major accomplishments and strategies, and provides contract status reports for projects within these project areas: Construction and Maintenance, Metering and Operations, Plastic and Advanced Distribution Piping Materials, Residential/Commercial Interior Distribution Systems, Gas Storage Technology, Transmission Piping Systems, and Advanced Transport and Sensor-Based Systems.

  19. 77 FR 3766 - Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference Notice of Public Conference On... interested parties to discuss issues related to natural gas storage development in the southwestern...

  20. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. 30 CFR 550.123 - Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands? 550.123 Section 550.123 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General...

  2. 30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section 550.119 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance...

  3. 30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section 550.119 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance...

  4. 30 CFR 550.123 - Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands? 550.123 Section 550.123 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General...

  5. 30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section 550.119 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance...

  6. 30 CFR 550.123 - Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands? 550.123 Section 550.123 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General...

  7. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  8. Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amawd, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

  9. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  10. Compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs: effects of porous media and gas mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4

  11. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  12. 71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ON SLC-3W LIQUID OXYGEN APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  14. Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

  15. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  16. Hydrogen gas storage in fluorinated ultramicroporous tunnel crystal.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Katagiri, Toshimasa

    2012-08-21

    We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder. PMID:22782245

  17. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2015-05-04

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  18. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-12-01

    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.

  19. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniak, Z. I.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-12-01

    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20 percent cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20 percent more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5 percent when compared to larger gas turbines.

  20. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2015-12-18

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) finalized procurement targets and other requirements to its jurisdictional utilities for a minimum of 1,325 MW of 'viable and cost-effective' energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to explore several aspects of grid operations in California and the Western Interconnection resulting from meeting the CPUC storage targets. We perform this analysis using a set of databases and grid simulation tools developed and implemented by the CPUC, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), and the California Energy Commission (CEC) for the CPUC's Long-term Procurement Plan (LTPP). The 2014 version of this database contains information about generators, storage, transmission, and electrical demand, for California in the year 2024 for both 33% and 40% renewable energy portfolios. We examine the value of various services provided by energy storage in these scenarios. Sensitivities were performed relating to the services energy storage can provide, the capacity and duration of storage devices, export limitations, and negative price floor variations. Results show that a storage portfolio, as outlined by the CPUC, can reduce curtailment and system-wide production costs for 33% and 40% renewable scenarios. A storage device that can participate in energy and ancillary service markets provides the grid with the greatest benefit; the mandated storage requirement of 1,325 MW was estimated to reduce the total cost of production by about 78 million per year in the 33% scenario and 144 million per year in the 40% scenario. Much of this value is derived from the avoided start and stop costs of thermal generators and provision of ancillary services. A device on the 2024 California grid and participating in only ancillary service markets can provide the system with over 90% of the value as the energy and ancillary service device. The analysis points to the challenge of new storage providing regulation

  1. 76 FR 54760 - Perryville Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Crowville Gas Storage Project Amendment The staff of the Federal Energy... Gas Storage Project Amendment (Project) as proposed by Perryville Gas Storage, LLC (Perryville) in...

  2. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  3. Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Hindes, Clyde J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

  4. Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

  5. Overview of geologic storage of natural gas with an emphasis on assessing the feasibility of storing hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Anna Snider

    2009-09-01

    In many regions across the nation geologic formations are currently being used to store natural gas underground. Storage options are dictated by the regional geology and the operational need. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in understanding theses various geologic storage options, the advantages and disadvantages, in the hopes of developing an underground facility for the storage of hydrogen as a low cost storage option, as part of the hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Currently, depleted gas/oil reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground natural gas storage in use today. The other storage options available currently and in the near future, such as abandoned coal mines, lined hard rock caverns, and refrigerated mined caverns, will become more popular as the demand for natural gas storage grows, especially in regions were depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and salt deposits are not available. The storage of hydrogen within the same type of facilities, currently used for natural gas, may add new operational challenges to the existing cavern storage industry, such as the loss of hydrogen through chemical reactions and the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement. Currently there are only three locations worldwide, two of which are in the United States, which store hydrogen. All three sites store hydrogen within salt caverns.

  6. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, JA; Veenstra, M; Long, JR

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have received significant attention as a new class of adsorbents for natural gas storage; however, inconsistencies in reporting high-pressure adsorption data and a lack of comparative studies have made it challenging to evaluate both new and existing materials. Here, we briefly discuss high-pressure adsorption measurements and review efforts to develop metal-organic frameworks with high methane storage capacities. To illustrate the most important properties for evaluating adsorbents for natural gas storage and for designing a next generation of improved materials, six metal-organic frameworks and an activated carbon, with a range of surface areas, pore structures, and surface chemistries representative of the most promising adsorbents for methane storage, are evaluated in detail. High-pressure methane adsorption isotherms are used to compare gravimetric and volumetric capacities, isosteric heats of adsorption, and usable storage capacities. Additionally, the relative importance of increasing volumetric capacity, rather than gravimetric capacity, for extending the driving range of natural gas vehicles is highlighted. Other important systems-level factors, such as thermal management, mechanical properties, and the effects of impurities, are also considered, and potential materials synthesis contributions to improving performance in a complete adsorbed natural gas system are discussed.

  7. Simulation of production and injection performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Hagoort, J. )

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a simple yet comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of injection and production performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations. The model predicts the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cavern and at the wellhead for an arbitrary sequence of production and injection cycles. The model incorporates nonideal gas properties, thermodynamic heat effects associated with gas expansion and compression in the cavern and tubing, heat exchange with the surrounding salt formation, and non-uniform initial temperatures but does not include rock-mechanical effects. The model is based on a mass and energy balance for the gas-filled cavern and on the Bernoulli equation and energy balance for flow in the wellbore. Cavern equations are solved iteratively at successive timesteps, and wellbore equations are solved within an iteration cycle of the cavern equations. Gas properties are calculated internally with generally accepted correlations and basic thermodynamic relations. Example calculations show that the initial temperature distribution has a strong effect on production performance of a typical gas storage cavern. The primary application of the model is in the design, planning, and operation of gas storage projects.

  8. Hydrogen gas storage in fluorinated ultramicroporous tunnel crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Katagiri, Toshimasa

    2012-07-01

    We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder.We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 246922. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30940h

  9. Optimizing nanoporous materials for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Martin, Richard L; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2014-03-28

    In this work, we address the question of which thermodynamic factors determine the deliverable capacity of methane in nanoporous materials. The deliverable capacity is one of the key factors that determines the performance of a material for methane storage in automotive fuel tanks. To obtain insights into how the molecular characteristics of a material are related to the deliverable capacity, we developed several statistical thermodynamic models. The predictions of these models are compared with the classical thermodynamics approach of Bhatia and Myers [Bhatia and Myers, Langmuir, 2005, 22, 1688] and with the results of molecular simulations in which we screen the International Zeolite Association (IZA) structure database and a hypothetical zeolite database of over 100,000 structures. Both the simulations and our models do not support the rule of thumb that, for methane storage, one should aim for an optimal heat of adsorption of 18.8 kJ mol(-1). Instead, our models show that one can identify an optimal heat of adsorption, but that this optimal heat of adsorption depends on the structure of the material and can range from 8 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The different models we have developed are aimed to determine how this optimal heat of adsorption is related to the molecular structure of the material.

  10. Optimizing nanoporous materials for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Martin, Richard L; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2014-03-28

    In this work, we address the question of which thermodynamic factors determine the deliverable capacity of methane in nanoporous materials. The deliverable capacity is one of the key factors that determines the performance of a material for methane storage in automotive fuel tanks. To obtain insights into how the molecular characteristics of a material are related to the deliverable capacity, we developed several statistical thermodynamic models. The predictions of these models are compared with the classical thermodynamics approach of Bhatia and Myers [Bhatia and Myers, Langmuir, 2005, 22, 1688] and with the results of molecular simulations in which we screen the International Zeolite Association (IZA) structure database and a hypothetical zeolite database of over 100,000 structures. Both the simulations and our models do not support the rule of thumb that, for methane storage, one should aim for an optimal heat of adsorption of 18.8 kJ mol(-1). Instead, our models show that one can identify an optimal heat of adsorption, but that this optimal heat of adsorption depends on the structure of the material and can range from 8 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The different models we have developed are aimed to determine how this optimal heat of adsorption is related to the molecular structure of the material. PMID:24394864

  11. Gas chromatographic column for the storage of sample profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimandja, J. M.; Valentin, J. R.; Phillips, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a sample retention column that preserves the true time profile of an analyte of interest is studied. This storage system allows for the detection to be done at convenient times, as opposed to the nearly continuous monitoring that is required by other systems to preserve a sample time profile. The sample storage column is essentially a gas chromatography column, although its use is not the separation of sample components. The functions of the storage column are the selective isolation of the component of interest from the rest of the components present in the sample and the storage of this component as a function of time. Using octane as a test substance, the sample storage system was optimized with respect to such parameters as storage and readout temperature, flow rate through the storage column, column efficiency and storage time. A 3-h sample profile was collected and stored at 30 degrees C for 20 h. The profile was then retrieved, essentially intact, in 5 min at 130 degrees C.

  12. Thermodynamics and kinetics of gas storage in porous liquids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fei; Yang, Fengchang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Qiao, Rui

    2016-07-05

    The recent synthesis of organic molecular liquids with permanent porosity (Giri et al., Nature, 2015, 527, 216) opens up exciting new avenues for gas capture, storage, and separation. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the thermodynamics and kinetics for the storage of CH4, CO2, and N2 molecules in porous liquids consisting of crown-ether substituted cage molecules in a 15-crown-5 solvent. It is found that the gas storage capacity per cage molecule follows the order of CH4 > CO2 > N2, which does not correlate simply with the size of gas molecules. Different gas molecules are stored inside the cage differently,more » e.g., CO2 molecules prefer the cage s core while CH4 molecules favor both the core and the branch regions. All gas molecules considered can enter the cage essentially without energy barriers, and their dynamics inside the cage are only slightly hindered by the nanoscale confinement. In addition, all gas molecules can leave the cage on nanosecond time scale by overcoming a modest energy penalty. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are clarified.« less

  13. 78 FR 77445 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 6, 2013, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (Tres Palacios) 700 Louisiana Street, Suite 2060, Houston... Palacios to abandon up to 22.9 Bcf of working gas storage capacity in its salt cavern natural gas...

  14. 77 FR 50101 - Cadeville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cadeville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization On July 27, 2012, Cadeville Gas Storage LLC (Cadeville) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... to construct an additional natural gas storage and injection well at Cadeville's natural gas...

  15. 78 FR 58529 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 4, 2013, Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC (Floridian Gas Storage... application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's...

  16. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  17. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  18. Low Pressure Storage of Natural Gas for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Burchell; Mike Rogers

    2000-06-19

    Natural gas is an attractive fuel for vehicles because it is a relatively clean-burning fuel compared with gasoline. Moreover, methane can be stored in the physically adsorbed state [at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi)] at energy densities comparable to methane compressed at 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Here we report the development of natural gas storage monoliths [1]. The monolith manufacture and activation methods are reported along with pore structure characterization data. The storage capacities of these monoliths are measured gravimetrically at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi) and ambient temperature, and storage capacities of >150 V/V have been demonstrated and are reported.

  19. Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.

    1993-12-31

    A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

  20. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  1. Study on propane-butane gas storage by hydrate technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Nurkholis; Wijayanti, Widya; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2016-03-01

    Different technology has been applied to store and transport gas fuel. In this work the storage of gas mixture of propane-butane by hydrate technology was studied. The investigation was done on the effect of crystallizer rotation speed on the formation of propane-butane hydrate. The hydrates were formed using crystallizer with rotation speed of 100, 200, and 300 rpm. The formation of gas hydrates was done at initial pressure of 3 bar and temperature of 274K. The results indicated that the higher rotation speed was found to increase the formation rate of propane-butane hydrate and improve the hydrates stability.

  2. Beam dynamics of CANDLE storage ring low alpha operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Amatuni, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.; Zanyan, G.

    2015-10-01

    The generation of the coherent THz radiation and short pulse synchrotron radiation in dedicated electron storage rings requires the study of non-standard magnetic lattices which provide low momentum compaction factor (alpha) of the ring. In the present paper two low alpha operation lattices based on modification of the original beam optics and implementation of inverse bend magnets are studied for CANDLE storage ring. For considered cases an analysis of transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics is given and the feasibility of lattices is discussed.

  3. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer therebetween. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  4. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, R.J.

    1982-09-30

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer there between. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  5. Reduced gas pressure operation of sludge digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This report describes bench-scale research for improving the digestion of sludges. The effects of reduced headspace pressure on anaerobic digester performance was evaluated. Four identical digester systems were constructed for investigating reduced headspace pressure effects. The first system served as a control and was operated with a 1.0 atmosphere gas phase pressures. The remaining three reactors had 0.83, 0.75 and 0.5 atm. gas phase pressures. The reactor systems were housed in a 35 {degrees}C walk-in incubator. Each anaerobic system was designed to simulate the operation of a typical municipal digester. Reactors were seeded with sludge and operated with a 15-day solids retention time (SRT), a typical value for a high-rate digester. This was accomplished by replacing one-fifteenth of the active volume (1.5 liters) with fresh feed daily. Headspace gas pressures were controlled by a pressure-sensitive valve located between the reactor and a large closed vacuum reservoir. Changes in reservoir pressure as a function of time were recorded and used to evaluate gas production. Municipal sludges (3, 5, and 8 percent solids) were used as feedstock for the reactors with 15-day SRTs. A 5 percent sludge was also evaluated with a 25-day SRT. Feed characteristics and reactor pH, alkalinity, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total and volatile suspended solids (TSS and VSS) and gas composition (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}) and production rates were routinely monitored. Total COD, VSS and SS destruction rates along with CH{sub 4} and total gas generation rates were determined as a function of headspace pressure. 25 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  7. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  8. The significance of gas for offshore operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, G. C.; Wheeler, S. J.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the physical behaviour of a seabed containing undissolved gas in the light of laboratory simulations undertaken at Oxford, Belfast and Sheffield Universities. This physical behaviour is significant for offshore operations in several ways. Gas may exist in high pressure pockets, trapped beneath low permeability clays, which form a blow out hazard during drilling. In fine-grained soils, it exists in voids distributed through the soil, at pressures only a little greater than te ambient water pressure. In this condition, it is unlikely to induced casastrophic failure, but will affect the foundation behaviour through changes in compressibility and strength. In sands, gas may be present in pores between particles, replacing water but not affecting the soil structure. There are common features in all these cases, in that the gas-water interaction occurs through surface tension, acting in menisci whose curvature is affected by the soil particle sizes, shapes and packing. These menisci determine the differences between gas and water pressure that may exist in the soil. Results are presented to show that the compressibility and undrained shear strength of a fine-grained soil are reduced by the presence of gas in a predictable manner, with a similar conclusion for the undrained strength of a gassy sand.

  9. Use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (emats) for Cement Bond Logging of Gas Storage Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakov, A. O.; Domangue, E. J.; Barolak, J. G.; Patterson, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    According to the Department of Energy (DOE), there are approximately 110 operators maintaining more than 17,000 gas storage wells in over 415 underground storage facilities across the USA. In virtually every application, steel casing, cemented into place, serves to isolate the well from the underground formations. The process of cementing wellbore casing provides two major benefits: 1) cement prevents gas migration between the casing and formation; 2) cement transfers stress from the casing to the formation, increasing the effective strength and working pressure of the casing. Current cement evaluation techniques use an acoustic wave generated and received by a logging tool within the wellbore to detect cement placed outside the casing. These techniques rely on fluid in the casing to provide acoustic coupling between the logging tool and the casing and therefore are unable to operate in gas-filled boreholes. This paper details efforts to confirm the validity and applicability of the use of EMATs for evaluating cement in gas-filled boreholes. The methods and techniques proposed for the cement bond logging using EMATs are confirmed and validated based on the results obtained from the numerical modeling and experiments with physical cement models. Partial funding for this investigation was provided by the DOE and Gas Storage Technology Consortium.

  10. Unconventional Shale-Gas Resource Systems and Processes Affecting Gas Generation, Retention, Storage, and Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvie, D. M.; Philp, R. P.; Jarvie, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and petrophysical characterization of various shale-gas systems in the U.S. indicates a variety of unconventional shale-gas system types. The most basic distinction is gas type: biogenic and thermogenic, although there can also be mixtures of the two gas types. Thermogenic shale-gas systems are further segregated into various sub-types depending on geochemistry and geology. The shale-gas system categories are: (1) high thermal maturity shale; (2) low thermal maturity shales; (3) mixed lithology intra-formational systems containing shale, sands, and silts; (4) inter-formational systems where gas is generated in a mature shale and stored in a less mature shale, and (5) mixed systems. A key difference among these shale-gas systems are initial gas flow rates. High thermal maturity systems tend to have much higher gas flow rates than low maturity systems because of gas charge and storage mechanisms. Certainly other non-geochemical factors, such as shale mineralogy, are extremely important in being able to stimulate these shales to flow gas. Geochemical comparison of the Antrim Shale (Michigan Basin), New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin), and Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin) are used to illustrate these different systems as well as other systems. These systems show significant differences in gas type, organic richness, thermal maturity, and gas flow rates. Gas flow rates are then dependent upon the amount of gas stored (or generated) and the ability to release gas from adsorption sites as well as connecting to micro-reservoir compartments.

  11. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  12. Technical and economic barriers to innovative gas storage. Final report, November 1991-July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Feinberg, D.A.; Hastings, G.A.

    1993-03-01

    To evaluate the technical and economic barriers to innovative natural gas storage technologies, advantages and disadvantages of several end use applications were analyzed, including on-grid deliverability of natural gas, transporting natural gas to off-grid end users, and storage of natural gas at an off-grid end user's site. Three basic innovative approaches were investigated: (1) separation of the higher molecular weight components of the pipeline gas and storage of the separated ethane, propane, butane, etc., as a liquid; (2) separation of the components with storage in the separating media; and (3) storage of the pipeline gas without changing its composition.

  13. 76 FR 81924 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on December 16, 2011, East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC (East Cheyenne), 10901 W. Toller Drive, Suite... reservoir pressure for the D Sand zone in the West Peetz Field of its East Cheyenne Gas Storage Project to...

  14. 77 FR 24190 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on April 6, 2012, East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC (East Cheyenne), 10901 W. Toller Drive, Suite 200... Cheyenne requests authorization to make certain changes to its certificated gas storage project,...

  15. 75 FR 57747 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (Tres Palacios), 53 Riverside... the certificated capacities of its three in-service natural gas storage caverns to the...

  16. 76 FR 78641 - Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference; Notice of Public Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference; Notice of Public Conference... related to natural gas storage development in the southwestern United States. The conference will be held... Recommendations, `` dditional gas storage capacity in the downstream market areas closer to demand centers...

  17. 76 FR 12095 - Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC (Monroe), 3773 Cherry Creek North Drive, Suite 1000... changes to the certificated design of the Monroe Gas Storage Project. Specifically, through...

  18. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250....119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS approval you...

  19. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250... Performance Standards § 250.119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS...

  20. 75 FR 8051 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application February 12, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas..., Vice President and Regulatory Counsel, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston,...

  1. 75 FR 35007 - Wyckoff Gas Storage Company LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wyckoff Gas Storage Company LLC; Notice of Application June 15, 2010. On June 10, 2010, Wyckoff Gas Storage Company, LLC, (``Wyckoff''), 6733 South Yale, Tulsa, OK 74136... application should be directed to John A. Boone, Wyckoff Gas Storage Company, LLC, 6733 South Yale, Tulsa,...

  2. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  3. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  4. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  5. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  6. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  8. Modelling the deployment of CO₂ storage in U.S. gas-bearing shales

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation's gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO₂ into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO₂ storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO₂ adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH₄ recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO₂ than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO₂-enhanced gas recovery (CO₂-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO₂ for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO₂. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO₂ storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO₂ storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO₂. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO₂ storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental recovery; modeling the low revenue case resulted in only five shale-based projects, while under the high

  9. Modelling the deployment of CO₂ storage in U.S. gas-bearing shales

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation's gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO₂ into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO₂ storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO₂ adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH₄more » recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO₂ than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO₂-enhanced gas recovery (CO₂-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO₂ for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO₂. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO₂ storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO₂ storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO₂. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO₂ storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental recovery; modeling the low revenue case resulted in only five shale-based projects, while under

  10. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage plant: Ten years operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    Operational experience at the 1 530 MW Raccoon Mountain underground pumped-storage plant can be relevant to other large hydro facilities. A number of unusual features were incorporated and individual unit size was only recently overtaken elsewhere. Direct water cooling of rotor and stator winding has been successfully applied to salient pole machines. A number of problems, including difficulties with oil-filled 161 kV current transformers, and some mechanical aspects, are reported. Designed for remote supervisory control, the plant has required closer attention. Operating statistics are included.

  11. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-01

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  12. Dynamic simulation of an underground gas storage injection-production network .

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanbi; Liu, Enbin; Xian, Weiwei; Wang, Di; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-07-01

    Underground gas storage is a well-known strategic practice to seasonal peak shaving and emergency facility. The changing operation conditions of injection-production network directly affects the reliability of downstream gas supply of the city. In the present study, a model of injection-production network on the basis of field data analysis and research was established. By comparing the actual node pressure and simulation results, the reliability of model was verified. Based on the volume of underground gas storage and downstream gas consumption, the best seasonal peak-shaving schedule of the whole year was set. According to dynamic analysis of network, 20% increase in downstream demand could be fulfilled. Besides, the study also analyzed the well pressure and flow rate changes after shutdown of gas well, which is most likely to fail, and concludes that the best rescue time should be within 4 hr after gas supply interruption. The results would help in making decisions about the operation of injection-production network, which have important significance in the environmental protection. PMID:26387354

  13. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  14. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage facility operational fish monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.P.; Pasch, R.W.; Smith, A.O.; Swor, C.T.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-09-01

    The impact of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Facility operations on fisheries resources in the Nickajack Reservoir was investigated. Analyses of data collected from 1979 through 1981 on population status and distribution of adults, larvae and eggs are presented with comparisons of preoperational fisheries monitoring data collected by the TVA from 1977 through 1978. Although minor differences in composition of dominant species, and slight declines in standing stock of some species were noted, no major impacts were identified. Appendix B contains a short report entitled Nickajack Reservoir Ictiobine Study 1979 by Edwin Scott Jr. 7 references, 46 figures, 31 tables.

  15. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-04-11

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas.

  16. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  17. A Feasibility Study on Operating Large Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage in Porous Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Pfeiffer, W. T.; Li, D.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations has been considered as one promising option of large scale energy storage for decades. This study, hereby, aims at analyzing the feasibility of operating large scale CAES in porous formations and evaluating the performance of underground porous gas reservoirs. To address these issues quantitatively, a hypothetic CAES scenario with a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was numerically simulated. Because of the rapid growth in photovoltaics, the period of extraction in a daily cycle was set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. The gas turbine scenario was defined referring to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant. The numerical simulations involved two stages, i.e. initial fill and cyclic operation, and both were carried out using the Eclipse E300 simulator (Schlumberger). Pressure loss in the gas wells was post analyzed using an analytical solution. The exergy concept was applied to evaluate the potential energy amount stored in the specific porous formation. The simulation results show that porous formations prove to be a feasible solution of large scale CAES. The initial fill with shut-in periods determines the spatial distribution of the gas phase and helps to achieve higher gas saturation around the wells, and thus higher deliverability. The performance evaluation shows that the overall exergy flow of stored compressed air is also determined by the permeability, which directly affects the deliverability of the gas reservoir and thus the number of wells required.

  18. Modeling of information flows in natural gas storage facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbari, Leyla; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers the natural-gas storage valuation based on the information-based pricing framework of Brody-Hughston-Macrina (BHM). As opposed to many studies which the associated filtration is considered pre-specified, this work tries to construct the filtration in terms of the information provided to the market. The value of the storage is given by the sum of the discounted expectations of the cash flows under risk-neutral measure, conditional to the constructed filtration with the Brownian bridge noise term. In order to model the flow of information about the cash flows, we assume the existence of a fixed pricing kernel with liquid, homogenous and incomplete market without arbitrage.

  19. 76 FR 41235 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 5, 2011, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (TPGS), Two Brush Creek Blvd., Suite 200, Kansas City... changes to the certificated Tres Palacios Storage Facility located in Matagorda County, Texas. The...

  20. 75 FR 76970 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment December 3, 2010. Take notice that on November 19, 2010, East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC (East Cheyenne), 10901 W. Toller Drive... storage and hub services, as well as the various waivers granted in the order issuing certificates....

  1. 78 FR 63179 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Petal Gas Storage, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Petal Gas Storage, LLC. Take notice that on October 9, 2013, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston... authorization to increase its maximum storage capacity in the Petal Salt Dome's Cavern 12A, located in...

  2. 77 FR 9233 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 31, 2012, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest), P.O. Box 4967... facilities at Southwest's Howell storage field in Livingston County, Michigan. Specifically,...

  3. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  4. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  5. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  6. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  7. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  8. Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has been publishing monthly storage information for years. In order to address the need for more timely information, in 1994 the American Gas Association (AGA) began publishing weekly storage levels. Both the EIA and the AGA series provide estimates of the total working gas in storage, but use significantly different methodologies.

  9. Storage sizing for embedding of local gas production in a micro gas grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkano, D.; Nefkens, W. J.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Volkerts, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we study the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas producers. The paper considers the possibility to have a local storage device for each producer, who partly consumes his own production, i.e. prosumer. In addition, connected prosumers can sell stored gas to create revenue from it. An optimization model is employed to derive the size of storage device and to provide a pricing mechanism in an effort to value the stored gas. Taking into account physical grid constraints, the model is constructed in a centralized scheme of model predictive control. Case studies show that there is a relation between the demand and price profiles in terms of peaks and lows. The price profiles generally follow each other. The case studies are employed as well to to study the impacts of model parameters on deriving the storage size.

  10. Improving Gas Storage Development Planning Through Simulation-Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.M.; Ammer, J.; Trick, M.D.

    2000-07-25

    This is the first of two papers describing the application of simulator-optimization methods to a natural gas storage field development planning problem. The results presented here illustrate the large gains in cost-effectiveness that can be made by employing the reservoir simulator as the foundation for a wide-ranging search for solutions to management problems. The current paper illustrates the application of these techniques given a deterministic view of the reservoir. A companion paper will illustrate adaptations needed to accommodate uncertainties regarding reservoir properties.

  11. Stress change and fault slip in produced gas reservoirs used for storage of natural gas and carbon-dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlic, Bogdan; Wassing, Brecht

    2013-04-01

    Gas extraction and subsequent storage of natural gas or CO2 in produced gas reservoirs will change the state of stress in a reservoir-seal system due to poro-mechanical, thermal and possibly chemical effects. Depletion- and injection-induced stresses can mechanically damage top- and side-seals, re-activate pre-existing sealing faults and create new fractures, allowing fluid migration out of the storage reservoir and causing induced seismicity. The first case study describes a field scale three-dimensional geomechanical numerical modelling of a depleted gas field in the Netherlands, which will be used for underground gas storage (UGS). The field experienced induced seismicity associated with gas production in the past and concerns were raised regarding the risk of future injection-related seismicity. The numerical modelling study aimed at investigating the potential of major faults for reactivation during UGS operations. The geomechanical model was calibrated to match the location and timing of the fault slip on the main central fault, which has most likely caused past seismic events during gas production. Simulation results showed that the part of the central fault most sensitive to slip during reservoir depletion is located at partial juxtaposition of the two main reservoir blocks across the central fault, which is in agreement with the seismological localization of the recorded seismic events. UGS operations with annual cycles of gas injection and production will largely have stabilizing effects on fault stability. The potential for fault slip on the central fault will therefore be low throughout annual operational cycles of this storage facility. The second case study describes a field scale two-dimensional geomechanical modelling of an offshore depleted gas field in the Netherlands, which is being considered for CO2 storage. The geomechanical modelling study aimed at investigating the mechanical impact of induced stress changes, resulting from past gas

  12. CO2 geological storage into a lateral aquifer of an offshore gas field in the South China Sea: storage safety and project design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Dexiang; Ezekiel, Justin; Zhang, Weidong; Mi, Honggang; Ren, Shaoran

    2015-06-01

    The DF1-1 gas field, located in the western South China Sea, contains a high concentration of CO2, thus there is great concern about the need to reduce the CO2 emissions. Many options have been considered in recent years to dispose of the CO2 separated from the natural gas stream on the Hainan Island. In this study, the feasibility of CO2 storage in the lateral saline aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field is assessed, including aquifer selection and geological assessment, CO2 migration and storage safety, project design, and economic analysis. Six offshore aquifers have been investigated for CO2 geological storage. The lateral aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field has been selected as the best target for CO2 injection and storage because of its proven sealing ability, and the large storage capacity of the combined aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir geological structure. The separated CO2 will be dehydrated on the Hainan Island and transported by a long-distance subsea pipeline in supercritical or liquid state to the central platform of the DF1-1 gas field for pressure adjustment. The CO2 will then be injected into the lateral aquifer via a subsea well-head through a horizontal well. Reservoir simulations suggest that the injected CO2 will migrate slowly upwards in the aquifer without disturbing the natural gas production. The scoping economic analysis shows that the unit storage cost of the project is approximately US26-31/ton CO2 with the subsea pipeline as the main contributor to capital expenditure (CAPEX), and the dehydration system as the main factor of operating expenditure (OPEX).

  13. 75 FR 66077 - Bay Gas Storage Company Ltd.; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage Company Ltd.; Notice of Compliance Filing October 20, 2010. Take notice that on October 13, 2010, Bay Gas Storage Company Ltd. (Bay Gas) filed its Refund...

  14. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands...

  15. 77 FR 20618 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 22, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics), 4470 Bluebonnet Blvd...) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, to amend its...

  16. 77 FR 23241 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 30, 2012, Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC (FGS), 1000 Louisiana Street... section 7 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations to amend...

  17. 77 FR 5788 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 27, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics), 4470 Bluebonnet... section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, to amend...

  18. 75 FR 8318 - Petrologistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petrologistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application February 17, 2010. Take notice that on February 12, 2010, Petrologistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (Petrologistics... to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to amend its Certificate of Public Convenience...

  19. 76 FR 544 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application December 28, 2010. Take notice that on December 14, 2010, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's...

  20. 75 FR 49917 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application August 3, 2010. Take notice that on July 21, 2010, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics), 4470... section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting...

  1. 77 FR 7575 - Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference; Notice of Revised Agenda and Transcript Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... (Storage Applicability). of Energy Projects, Division of Pipeline Certificates; Tom Shaw, Vice President, Corporate Development, Voyager Midstream, LLC. Environmental Impacts of Danny Laffoon, Office 10:55 Storage. of Energy Projects, Division of Gas Environment & Engineering. Environmental Impacts--Case...

  2. Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2013-04-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production

  3. Reservoir storage loss due to grounded ice during winter operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidou, O.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Bilodeau, L.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryThe immobilization of water in the form of deposited ice on the reservoir's embankments during winter operations has received little attention in hydrological literature. In Nordic countries like Canada, this phenomenon is likely to have significant negative impacts on reservoir operation. In a previous work (Seidou, O., Ouarda, T.B.M.J., Bilodeau, L., Hessami, M., St-Hilaire, A., Bruneau, P., 2006. Modeling ice growth on Canadian lakes using artificial neural metworks. Water Resources Research 42. doi: doi:10.1029/2005WR004622); the authors developed a global artificial neural network model to predict ice thickness growth in unmonitored Canadian lakes and reservoirs. This model is used in this paper to compute a time series of ice thickness on the Gouin reservoir (Saint-Maurice River, Quebec, Canada) and the Outardes 4 reservoir (Aux Outardes River, Quebec, Canada). This and the relationship between surface water area and water level were then used to evaluate the volume of ice left on the banks of the two reservoirs during winter operation, as its water level is progressively lowered in order to release water for hydroelectric production at downstream power dams. Results show that the ratio of frozen water left on the banks to the active storage varies from 2% to 8% at the Gouin reservoir, and from 0.41% to 1.15% at the Outardes 4 reservoir depending on the water usage policy and the geometry of the reservoir.

  4. 76 FR 15971 - Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint... Regulatory Commission (Commission) a joint application under section 7 for (i) Authorization from the.... Questions regarding the joint application may be directed to William Rapp, Counsel for Liberty and...

  5. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  6. Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.

  7. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  8. CO2 Utilization and Storage in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; Glezakou, V.; Owen, T.; Miller, Q.; Loring, J.; Davidson, C.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Surging natural gas production from fractured shale reservoirs and the emerging concept of utilizing anthropogenic CO2 for secondary recovery and permanent storage is driving the need for understanding fundamental mechanisms controlling gas adsorption and desorption processes, mineral volume changes, and impacts to transmissivity properties. Early estimates indicate that between 10 and 30 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity may exist in the 24 shale gas plays included in current USGS assessments. However, the adsorption of gases (CO2, CH4, and SO2) is not well understood and appears unique for individual clay minerals. Using specialized experimental techniques developed at PNNL, pure clay minerals were examined at relevant pressures and temperatures during exposure to CH4, CO2, and mixtures of CO2-SO2. Adsorbed concentrations of methane displayed a linear behavior as a function of pressure as determined by a precision quartz crystal microbalance. Acid gases produced differently shaped adsorption isotherms, depending on temperature and pressure. In the instance of kaolinite, gaseous CO2 adsorbed linearly, but in the presence of supercritical CO2, surface condensation increased significantly to a peak value before desorbing with further increases in pressure. Similarly shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms derived from natural shale samples and coal samples have been reported in the literature. Adsorption steps, determined by density functional theory calculations, showed they were energetically favorable until the first CO2 layer formed, corresponding to a density of ~0.35 g/cm3. Interlayer cation content (Ca, Mg, or Na) of montmorillonites influenced adsorbed gas concentrations. Measurements by in situ x-ray diffraction demonstrate limited CO2 diffusion into the Na-montmorillonite interlayer spacing, with structural changes related to increased hydration. Volume changes were observed when Ca or Mg saturated montmorillonites in the 1W hydration state were exposed to

  9. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  10. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned

  11. TRC (Texas Railroad Commission) rejects gas storage project financing plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-11

    TRC has rejected Valero Transmission Co.'s plan to finance a 5 billion cu ft underground storage facility already under construction in Wharton County, TX. The fee application, dismissed without prejudice to Valero's filing another application, would have added $0.015/1000 cu ft for the first nine years of operation before dropping to $0.014/1000 cu ft in the tenth year. The TRC commissioners decided that the costs underlying this proposed fee schedule were too speculative to be passed on to pipeline customers.

  12. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the market for natural gas storage that will provide for rigorous evaluation of federal research and development opportunities in storage technologies. The project objectives are: (1) to identify market areas and end use sectors where new natural gas underground storage capacity can be economically employed; (2) to develop a storage evaluation system that will provide the analytical tool to evaluate storage requirements under alternate economic, technology, and market conditions; and (3) to analyze the economic and technical feasibility of alternatives to conventional gas storage. An analytical approach was designed to examine storage need and economics on a total U.S. gas system basis, focusing on technical and market issues. Major findings of each subtask are reported in detail. 79 figs.

  13. Modular Coating for Flexible Gas Turbine Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. R. A.; Schab, J. C.; Stankowski, A.; Grasso, P. D.; Olliges, S.; Leyens, C.

    2016-01-01

    In heavy duty gas turbines, the loading boundary conditions of MCrAlY systems are differently weighted for different operation regimes as well as for each turbine component or even in individual part locations. For an overall optimized component protection it is therefore of interest to produce coatings with flexible and individually tailored properties. In this context, ALSTOM developed an Advanced Modular Coating Technology (AMCOTEC™), which is based on several powder constituents, each providing specific properties to the final coating, in combination with a new application method, allowing in-situ compositional changes. With this approach, coating properties, such as oxidation, corrosion, and cyclic lifetime, etc., can be modularly adjusted for individual component types and areas. For demonstration purpose, a MCrAlY coating with modular ductility increase was produced using the AMCOTEC™ methodology. The method was proven to be cost effective and a highly flexible solution, enabling fast compositional screening. A calculation method for final coating composition was defined and validated. The modular addition of ductility agent enabled increasing the coating ductility with up to factor 3 with only slight decrease of oxidation resistance. An optimum composition with respect to ductility is reached with addition of 20 wt.% of ductility agent.

  14. CO2 Storage and Enhance Gas Recovery from Shales: Insights from In Situ Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; McGrail, P.; Miller, Q. R.; Glezakou, V.; Loring, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing technologies have provided a basis for dramatic increases in natural gas production from shale and tight gas reservoirs. GIS data analysis shows that approximately 60% of U.S. stationary CO2 emission sources are within 50 miles of a currently operating or potential shale gas play. Those emission sources represent a potential supply of CO2 to support enhanced gas recovery operations to extend the economic production life of these shale gas fields. Conservative estimates of the CO2 storage capacity in these depleted shale gas reservoirs are around 10 GtCO2 potentially producing up to an additional 100 Tcf of gas. Hence, there is a critical need to better understand the fundamental factors controlling CO2 storage and secondary gas production in shales. Mineralogy of shale formations are complicated, often times containing varying amounts of different clay minerals (illite, kaolinite, chlorite, and montmorillonite) carbonates (calcite, siderite, and dolomite), feldspar, quartz, gypsum, and pyrite. Interactions of these minerals with wet scCO2 are mostly unknown and will ultimately control injectivity, methane production, and CO2 storage capacity through mineral volume changes. To investigate the interactions between important clay minerals and wet scCO2, we have conducted a series of experiments exposing selected clay minerals to scCO2 containing variable amounts of dissolved water. Observations by in situ XRD indicate the montmorillonite structure contracts when in contact with dry scCO2. Expansion is observed when the same mineral is exposed to wet scCO2. Degrees of expansion and contraction are related to total dissolved water content in the scCO2 and the amount of water in the interlayer and type of interlayer cation. Other clays such as kaolinite, chlorite, and illite appear stable and undergo no observable structural change during exposure to scCO2. Experiments are in progress with in situ optical spectroscopic probes

  15. X-ray computed tomography studies of gas storage and transport in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Miao, P.; Watson, A.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Pepin, G.P.; Moss, R.M. ); Semmelbeck, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Devonian shales and other unconventional resources can be highly fractured and may have significant amounts of gas stored by adsorption. Conventional experiments are not well suited for characterizing the properties important for describing gas storage and transport in these media. Here, X-ray computed tomography scanning is used to determine gas storage in dynamic gas flow experiments on Devonian shale samples. Several important properties are obtained from these experiments, including fracture widths, adsorption isotherms, and matrix porosities and permeabilities.

  16. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    experts represented a range of disciplines and hailed from North America and Europe. Major findings of the study are that compression and transport of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes in the United States has shown that impurities are not likely to cause transport problems if CO2 stream composition standards are maintained and pressures are kept at 10.3 MPa or higher. Cyclic, or otherwise intermittent, CO2 supplies historically have not impacted in-field distribution pipeline networks, wellbore integrity, or reservoir conditions. The U.S. EOR industry has demonstrated that it is possible to adapt to variability and intermittency in CO2 supply through flexible operation of the pipeline and geologic storage facility. This CO2 transport and injection experience represents knowledge that can be applied in future CCS projects. A number of gaps in knowledge were identified that may benefit from future research and development, further enhancing the possibility for widespread application of CCS. This project was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  17. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore » associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  18. Spatial and intertemporal arbitrage in the California natural gas transportation and storage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio

    Intertemporal and spatial price differentials should provide the necessary signals to allocate a commodity efficiently inside a network. This dissertation investigates the extent to which decisions in the California natural gas transportation and storage system are taken with an eye on arbitrage opportunities. Daily data about flows into and out of storage facilities in California over 2002-2006 and daily spreads on the NYMEX futures market are used to investigate whether the injection profile is consistent with the "supply-of-storage" curve first observed by Working for wheat. Spatial price differentials between California and producing regions fluctuate throughout the year, even though spot prices at trading hubs across North America are highly correlated. In an analysis of "residual supply", gas volumes directed to California are examined for the influence of those fluctuations in locational differentials. Daily storage decisions in California do seem to be influenced by a daily price signal that combines the intertemporal spread and the locational basis between California and the Henry Hub, in addition to strong seasonal and weekly cycles. The timing and magnitude of the response differs across storage facilities depending on the regulatory requirements they face and the type of customers they serve. In contrast, deviations in spatial price differentials from the levels dictated by relative seasonality in California versus competing regions do not trigger significant reallocations of flows into California. Available data for estimation of both the supply-of-storage and residual-supply curves aggregate the behavior of many individuals whose motivations and attentiveness to prices vary. The resulting inventory and flow profiles differ from those that a social planner would choose to minimize operating costs throughout the network. Such optimal allocation is deduced from a quadratic programming model, calibrated to 2004-2005, that acknowledges relative seasonality

  19. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    fluid, but it results in a complex cavern shape. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the ability of storage caverns produced by the acid-dissolution method to store natural gas. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate cavern stability during gas injection and withdrawal from storage caverns created in carbonate formations by the acid-dissolution method. The stability analyses were conducted using FLAC2D, a commercially available geotechnical analysis and design software. The analyses indicate that a tall cylindrical cavern with a domed roof and floor will be stable under the expected range of in situ and operational conditions. This result suggests that it should be feasible to avoid mechanical instabilities that could potentially diminish the effectiveness of the storage facility. The feasibility of using pressure transients measured at the ground surface was investigated as a means to evaluate (Abstract truncated)

  20. 78 FR 2982 - Steuben Gas Storage Company (Steuben); Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Steuben Gas Storage Company (Steuben); Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 19, 2012, Steuben Gas Storage Company (Steuben) submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  1. 77 FR 28869 - Worsham Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Worsham Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2012, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC filed ] an updated market power analysis to...

  2. 75 FR 35780 - ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its...

  3. 76 FR 47569 - Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 19, 2011 and July 26, 2011, Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC submitted a revised baseline filing of...

  4. 75 FR 18200 - Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing April 1, 2010. Take notice that on March 23, 2010, Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC (Monroe), submitted a...

  5. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may...

  6. 75 FR 52937 - Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application August 20, 2010. Take notice that on August 6, 2010, Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC (Turtle Bayou), One Office... caverns and related facilities to be located in Chambers and Liberty Counties, Texas. Turtle Bayou...

  7. Gas storage cylinder formed from a composition containing thermally exfoliated graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A gas storage cylinder or gas storage cylinder liner, formed from a polymer composite, containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(exp 2)/g to 2600 m(exp 2)2/g.

  8. 75 FR 63452 - ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Baseline Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on October 1, 2010, ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C. submitted a revised baseline filing of...

  9. 43 CFR 3105.5 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3105.5 Section 3105.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Conservation Provisions § 3105.5 Subsurface storage of oil and gas....

  10. 43 CFR 3105.5 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3105.5 Section 3105.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Conservation Provisions § 3105.5 Subsurface storage of oil and gas....

  11. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000,...

  12. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  13. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  14. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  15. HEADSPACE GAS EVALUATION OF WELDED PLUTONIUM STORAGE CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B; Stephen Harris, S; Matthew Arnold, M; Steve Hensel, S

    2008-04-01

    The Can Puncture Device (CPD) serves as a containment vessel during the puncture of nested 3013 containers as part of surveillance operations in K-Area. The purpose of the CPD sampling process is to determine the original pressure and composition of gases within the inner 3013 container. The relation between the composition of the gas sample drawn from the CPD and that originally in the inner 3013 container depends on the degree of mixing that occurs over the interval of time from the puncture to drawing the sample. Gas mixing is bounded by the extremes of no mixing of gases in the inner container and that of complete mixing, in which case the entire CPD system is of uniform composition. Models relating the sample composition and pressure to the initial (pre-puncture) inner can composition and pressure for each of these extremes were developed. Predictions from both models were compared to data from characterization experiments. In the comparison, it was found that the model that assumed complete gas mixing after puncture, the Uniform Mixing Model, showed significantly better agreement with the data than the model that assumed no change in the composition of the inner container, referred to as the Non-Uniform Mixing Model. Both models were implemented as Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel spreadsheet calculations, which utilize macros, to include the effects of uncertainties and biases in the measurements of process parameters and in the models. Potential inleakage of gas from the glovebox is also addressed. The spreadsheet utilizing the Uniform Mixing Model, which was validated by data from the characterization tests, is used to evaluate the pre-puncture composition and pressure within the inner 3013 container. This spreadsheet model is called the Gas Evaluation Software Tool (GEST).

  16. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  17. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin

  18. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  20. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  1. 77 FR 28870 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Floridian Natural Gas Amendment Project and Request for Comments on... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Floridan Natural Gas...

  2. Hydrogen Energy Storage and Power-to-Gas: Establishing Criteria for Successful Business Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua; Melaina, Marc

    2015-10-27

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility, sufficient capacity and greater concern for overgeneration. As a result there is growing interest in exploring the role of energy storage and demand response technologies to support grid needs. Hydrogen is a versatile feedstock that can be used in a variety of applications including chemical and industrial processes, as well as a transportation fuel and heating fuel. Traditionally, hydrogen technologies focus on providing services to a single sector; however, participating in multiple sectors has the potential to provide benefits to each sector and increase the revenue for hydrogen technologies. The goal of this work is to explore promising system configurations for hydrogen systems and the conditions that will make for successful business cases in a renewable, low-carbon future. Current electricity market data, electric and gas infrastructure data and credit and incentive information are used to perform a techno-economic analysis to identify promising criteria and locations for successful hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas projects. Infrastructure data will be assessed using geographic information system applications. An operation optimization model is used to co-optimizes participation in energy and ancillary service markets as well as the sale of hydrogen. From previous work we recognize the great opportunity that energy storage and power-to-gas but there is a lack of information about the economic favorability of such systems. This work explores criteria for selecting locations and compares the system cost and potential revenue to establish competitiveness for a variety of equipment configurations. Hydrogen technologies offer unique system flexibility that can enable interactions between multiple energy sectors including electric, transport, heating fuel and industrial. Previous research established that

  3. Natural gas storage and end user interaction: A progress report, September 30, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, L.R. Jr.; Reich, S.; Godec, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    In late 1994, ICF Resources began a contract with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to conduct a study of natural gas storage and end user interaction. This study is being conducted in three phases: the first phase is an assessment of the market requirements for natural gas storage and in particular to identify those end user requirements for storage that could benefit from METC-sponsored research and development (R&D) in storage technology; the second phase will address the particular technical and economic feasibility for expanding conventional storage; and the third phase will address alternative, unconventional technologies. ICF is approaching the conclusion of the first phase of the study and the second phase has begun. This paper summarizes the scope of the study and reports some of the preliminary findings of the first phase. We begin by providing an overview of the goals of the effort and of natural gas storage. We will address the evolving market requirements for storage and the regulatory and institutional changes that are having a major impact on the use of natural gas storage. We address the demand for storage and the alternatives for meeting this demand, with specific reference to regional and end use issues.

  4. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  5. 75 FR 53284 - Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; New York State Electric & Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-81-000; Docket No. PR10-82-000; Docket No. PR10-83-000 (Not Consolidated)] Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; New York State Electric & Gas Corporation; Notice of...

  6. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046, filed...

  7. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on November 8, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg), filed a Stipulation and Agreement...

  8. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nature occasioned by the Contractor's performance. (b) Temporary buildings (e.g., storage sheds, shops... and shall be built with labor and materials furnished by the Contractor without expense to the Government. The temporary buildings and utilities shall remain the property of the Contractor and shall...

  10. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  11. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  12. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22 Section 212.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of...

  13. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22 Section 212.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of...

  14. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22 Section 212.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of...

  15. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22 Section 212.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of...

  16. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22 Section 212.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of...

  17. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  18. Automated gas transfer systems for low pressure operations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Hoseus, N.L.

    1988-01-22

    The introduction of new components and the modification of commercially available hardware have been instrumental in the automation of low pressure gas transfer systems. The benefits from the automation have been faster sample operation, increased precision and a safer environment for the operator.

  19. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Fountain, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  20. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  2. Study of the modifications needed for effective operation NASTRAN on IBM virtual storage computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, C. W.; Render, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    The necessary modifications were determined to make NASTRAN operational under virtual storage operating systems (VS1 and VS2). Suggested changes are presented which will make NASTRAN operate more efficiently under these systems. Estimates of the cost and time involved in design, coding, and implementation of all suggested modifications are included.

  3. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  4. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer

    2006-09-01

    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  5. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  6. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  7. Safe storage and effective monitoring of CO2 in depleted gas fields.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Charles R; Cook, Peter J; Ennis-King, Jonathan; Undershultz, James; Boreham, Chris; Dance, Tess; de Caritat, Patrice; Etheridge, David M; Freifeld, Barry M; Hortle, Allison; Kirste, Dirk; Paterson, Lincoln; Pevzner, Roman; Schacht, Ulrike; Sharma, Sandeep; Stalker, Linda; Urosevic, Milovan

    2012-01-10

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is vital to reduce CO(2) emissions to the atmosphere, potentially providing 20% of the needed reductions in global emissions. Research and demonstration projects are important to increase scientific understanding of CCS, and making processes and results widely available helps to reduce public concerns, which may otherwise block this technology. The Otway Project has provided verification of the underlying science of CO(2) storage in a depleted gas field, and shows that the support of all stakeholders can be earned and retained. Quantitative verification of long-term storage has been demonstrated. A direct measurement of storage efficiency has been made, confirming that CO(2) storage in depleted gas fields can be safe and effective, and that these structures could store globally significant amounts of CO(2).

  8. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Knoxville, TN

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  9. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-3 Section 75.1106-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-3 Section 75.1106-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-3 Section 75.1106-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  12. 78 FR 59073 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) Company for amendment of Materials License No. SNM-2514 which authorizes PG&E to receive, possess, store, and transfer spent nuclear fuel and associated radioactive...

  13. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  14. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-06

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  15. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  16. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-10-23

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fall closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  17. Method and means for refinery gas plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a process for operating an unsaturated gas plant of a catalytic hydrocarbon conversion process. It comprises: contacting acidic hydrocarbon feedstreams to a gas plant absorption zone comprising a least one liquid absorber bed and one vapor absorber bed upstream of the separator zone, the feedstreams comprising unstabilized liquid gasoline and liquid and vapor output streams from liquid vapor separator for inter-stage liquids and compressor effluents from the conversion process main fractionator, whereby the feedstreams are deacidified.

  18. Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

  19. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  20. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  1. Apparatus for operating a gas and oil producting well

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes an apparatus for operating a gas and oil producing well of the plunger lift type including a cylindrical tubing mounted in concentrically spaced relation within a vertical well casing that is embedded in an oil and gas producing formation, the casing and tubing being perforated adjacent their lower ends; a plunger mounted for vertical movement in the tubing, the plunger normally having an initial lower position adjacent the lower end of the tubing and being vertically displaceable toward an upper position adjacent the upper end thereof; an outlet conduit connected at one end with the upper end of the tubing, the outlet conduit including gas and oil branch legs for discharging gas and oil, respectively; and normally closed gas and fluid discharge valves connected in the gas and oil branches, respectively. It comprises: means for comparing the casing and tubing pressures; means for opening the gas discharge valve; means for opening the fluid discharge valve; means for initially closing the fluid discharge valve when the plunger reaches its upper position adjacent the upper end of the tubing; means operable after a given first period following closing of the fluid discharge valve for reopening the fluid discharge valve only when both: the oil level produces a pressure difference greater than the selected difference value, and the casing pressure is greater than the selected lift value.

  2. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage-Radiator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupta, Ian

    2005-01-01

    High-energy-density regenerative fuel cell systems that are used for energy storage require novel approaches to integrating components in order to preserve mass and volume. A lightweight unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) energy storage system concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system minimizes mass by using the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes, which are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different-sized commercial-grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage tank-radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. In the future, the results will be incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, spacerated carbon composite tanks.

  3. Thermal and hydraulic effects in the subsurface related to large scale hydrogen storage operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, W. T.; Li, D.; Dethlefsen, F.; Bauer, S.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as wind or solar power is subject to natural temporal fluctuations. Therefore, energy storage will become indispensable when renewable sources represent a substantial share in the total energy production. Subsurface storage of synthetically produced hydrogen in porous sandstone formations is particularly suited for large amounts of energy and relatively long production cycles. The increasing use of the subsurface, however, demands for an a priori analysis of possible effects of a storage operation in order to minimize environmental risks and interference with other usages, such as geothermal energy storage or groundwater abstraction. In this context, this work aims at an assessment of thermal and hydraulic impacts of a hypothetical hydrogen storage scenario in an anticlinal structure in northern Germany using numerical process simulations. The storage structure consists of partially eroded Rhaetian sandstones acting as the storage formation with the upper barrier formations being mud- and chalkstones of the Lower Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous. The storage operation was modeled over a period of one year using three wells located on the flank of the structure near its top. Each production cycle was set to a duration of seven days in which an equivalent of around 280000 GJ were extracted. The numerical simulations were carried out using the Eclipse E300 simulator (Schlumberger) in conjunction with the open source THMC-simulator OpenGeoSys, where the hydraulic- and mass transport processes are solved by Eclipse and the heat transport processes by OpenGeoSys. The simulation results show that the thermal effects due to the storage operation are mainly limited to the immediate vicinity of the storage wells, thus their reach is on the decimeter to meter scale. Since heat transport is dominated by thermal conduction this also includes the sealing formations above and below the storage formation. Moreover, the propagation of

  4. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  5. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  6. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  7. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  8. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  9. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  10. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  11. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  12. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  13. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage/Radiator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakupca, Ian; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    The ancillary components for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system is unique in that it uses the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes. The heat pipes are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive layer of carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different sized commercial grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. The results were incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, space rated carbon composite tanks.

  14. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  15. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    ScienceCinema

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2016-07-12

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  16. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2014-02-24

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  17. Improved operation of magnetic bearings for flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis and operation of prototype 500-Wh flywheel at low speeds have shown that many factors affect the correct functioning of the magnetic bearings. An examination is made of a number of these, including magnetic bearing control system nonlinearities and displacement transducer positioning, and their effects upon the successful operation of the suspension system. It is observed that the bearing control system is extremely sensitive to actuator parameters such as coil inductance. As a consequence of the analysis of bearing relaxation oscillations, the bearing actuator design methodology which has previously been used, where coil parameter selection is based upon static considerations, has been revised. Displacement transducer sensors which overcome the collocation problem are discussed.

  18. Technique for Low Amperage Potline Operation for Electricity Grid Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark P.; Chen, John J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Following a critical review and analysis of steady-state energy balance windows for large modern cell technologies [ Taylor et al ., Met. Mat. Transactions E, 9th Sept. 2014], the issue of a substantial reduction in energy input and heat output to a specific cell technology is addressed in this paper. To investigate the feasibility of such a reduction, the dynamic response to substantial changes in cell amperage and energy input must be quantified. If large amperage reductions can be shown to be feasible and to have no major detrimental affects, a flexible amperage operating philosophy would allow the use of smelting cells as an energy reservoir in the following way: in times of high electricity demand the cells would operate at reduced amperage, releasing electricity to the grid, while in times of low demand or an over-supply of electricity on the grid, the cells would store the surplus electricity in the form of additional aluminum metal. However, to take the above concept out of the realms of the theoretical, it will first be necessary to demonstrate an ability to predict and control the response of the cell to such changes in energy input through regulating the heat losses from the cell. The process of regulation of cell heat loss is quite foreign to operators of aluminum smelters, because the technology to regulate heat loss from smelting cells has not existed previously. This technology does now exist in the form of patented heat exchangers [ Taylor et al ., US Patent 7,901,617 B2, Mar. 8, 2011], but its impact on smelter cell walls must be examined in a dynamic analysis to determine the effect on the molten bath temperature and liquid mass within the cell. The objective of this paper therefore is to perform a first-order analysis of this problem, and to identify the key scientific issues in regulating cell heat loss and in the operating philosophy of heat loss regulation.

  19. Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Flavio

    2012-03-01

    This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions.

  20. Occupation Competency Profile: Gas Utility Operator Certificate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the gas utility operator certificate program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the occupation committee and its members; the Alberta…

  1. Natural Gas Storage in the United States in 2001: A Current Assessment and Near-Term Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the large decline of underground natural gas storage inventories during the 2000-2001 heating season and the concern that the nation might run out of working gas in storage prior to the close of the heating season on March 31, 2001. This analysis also looks at the current profile and capabilities of the U.S. natural gas underground storage sector.

  2. Operating atmospheric vent collection headers using methane gas enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, L.G.

    1996-12-31

    Tests at 60{degrees}C and 16psia using ethylene, hydrogen and methyl alcohol {open_quote}fuel vapors{open_quotes} showed that if an atmospheric vent collection header contains 25 vol% of methane and the only source of oxygen is the air, no possible mixture of fuel vapor, nitrogen and residual oxygen is flammable. Addition of these fuel vapors to a header containing 25% by volume of methane in all cases increases the 3.8 vol% oxygen safety factor that exists with zero fuel vapor in the gas stream. It is irrelevant that the fuel vapor has an upper flammable limit (VFL) greater than the methane enrichment gas. The minimum oxygen concentration to sustain a flame (MOC) increases with increased methane:nitrogen ratio in the gas stream, so that the {open_quote}listed{close_quotes} MOC has no relevance under methane enriched conditions. These findings have important ramifications when applying Coast Guard Regulations in 33CFR.154 for Marine Vapor Control Systems, which implies the need to operate at 170% of the combined gas stream UFL and requires operation at less than the MOC ({le} 8% oxygen) when tanks have been partly inerted with nitrogen. Large reductions of enrichment gas usage with attendant environmental benefits are technically possible using flow control of methane rather than gas analysis down-stream of the enrichment station. Operation above the UFL rather than below the MOC can cut enrichment gas usage by 50% or more while actually increasing the assumed 2 vol% oxygen safety factor. A negative flow control error of 7 vol% methane ({minus} 280% of target) is required to achieve flammability under worst case assumptions. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Design, Construction and Operation of a Light Gas Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, John

    2005-11-01

    In order to conduct Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments in shock accelerated thin liquid sheets, a light gas gun was designed and constructed at Marquette University. This paper contains the basic predictions and construction techniques utilized in the design and operation of a double diaphragm light gas gun. The compressed air gas gun is used to accelerate a nylon projectile up to a velocity of 300 m/s. Pretest simulations were performed using two different hydrodynamic computational codes in order to simulate the inboard gas dynamics and projectile velocity. These simulations are compared with post test projectile velocity data. The simulations compare favorably to the data, including the one-dimensional calculations which do not account for frictional losses or diameter changes between the breech and barrel. Finally, both the computational simulations and the experimental measurements are compared to simple analytical predictions of the projectile velocity.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  5. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  6. Heat exchangers and thermal energy storage concepts for the off-gas heat of steelmaking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinparzer, T.; Haider, M.; Fleischanderl, A.; Hampel, A.; Enickl, G.; Zauner, F.

    2012-11-01

    The fluctuating thermal emissions of electric arc furnaces require energy storage systems to provide downstream consumers with a continuous amount of thermal energy or electricity. Heat recovery systems based on thermal energy storage are presented. A comparison of different thermal energy storage systems has been performed. For the purpose, suitable heat exchangers for the off-gas heat have been developed. Dynamic process simulations of the heat recovery plants were necessary to check the feasibility of the systems and consider the non-steady-state off-gas emissions of the steelmaking devices. The implementation of a pilot plant into an existing off-gas duct of an electric arc furnace was required to check the real behavior of the heat exchanger and determine suitable materials in view of corrosion issues. The pilot plant is presented in this paper.

  7. Liquefaction of natural gas to methanol for shipping and storage

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, T.E.; Sapienza, R.S.; Mahajan, D.; Skaperdas, G.T.

    1986-07-01

    The penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275/sup 0/C to about 100/sup 0/C. The new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to methanol in a single pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This characteristic leads to a further major improvement in the methanol plant. As a result of process design factors made possible by the BNL catalyst, the plant required to convert natural gas to methanol is very simple. Conversion of natural gas to methanol requires two chemical reactions, both of which are exothermic, and thus represent a loss of heating value in the feed natural gas. This loss is about 20% of the feed gas energy, and is, therefore, higher than the 10% loss in energy in natural gas liquefaction, which is a simpler physical - not a chemical - change. The energy disadvantage of the methanol option must be balanced against the advantage of a much lower capital investment requirement made possible by the new BNL synthesis. Preliminary estimates show that methanol conversion and shipping require an investment for liquefaction to methanol, and shipping liquefied methanol that can range from 35 to 50% of the capital needed for the LNG plant and LNG tanker fleet. This large reduction in capital requirements is expected to make liquefaction to methanol attractive in many cases where the LNG capital needs are prohibitive. 3 tabs.

  8. Monitoring the convergence and the stability of high-pressure gas storage cavities by echometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Denzau, H.; Erhardt, S.; Wierczeyco, E.

    1988-01-01

    To demonstrate the stability of high-pressure gas storage cavities and to monitor cavity convergence, a fully computerized echometric sonar technique was developed in the early eighties. Cavity surveys made by this technique at regular intervals in accordance with requirements imposed by mining authorities are necessary to monitor the stability of cavities as well as to predict cavity life and the effect of cavity convergence on the surface. Unlike conventional methods determining overall cavity closure, the new echometric sonar method allows the calculation of convergence as a function of depth by an intercomparison of data from different surveys. The first operation in the interpretation process is a numerical comparison of the data of vertical and horizontal cross-sections of two successive surveys. This operation will identify changes in the shape of a cavity which may occur if the cavity is leached in a steep-sloped salt dome. Following a verification of the computerized interpretation of the data, the volume of fall is calculated and cross-checked against the volume of rock deposited on the bottom of the cavity.

  9. Operation of Ferroelectric Plasma Sources in a Gas Discharge Mode

    SciTech Connect

    A. Dunaevsky; N.J. Fisch

    2004-03-08

    Ferroelectric plasma sources in vacuum are known as sources of ablative plasma, formed due to surface discharge. In this paper, observations of a gas discharge mode of operation of the ferroelectric plasma sources (FPS) are reported. The gas discharge appears at pressures between approximately 20 and approximately 80 Torr. At pressures of 1-20 Torr, there is a transition from vacuum surface discharge to the gas discharge, when both modes coexist and the surface discharges sustain the gas discharge. At pressures between 20 and 80 Torr, the surface discharges are suppressed, and FPS operate in pure gas discharge mode, with the formation of almost uniform plasma along the entire surface of the ceramics between strips. The density of the expanding plasma is estimated to be about 1013 cm-3 at a distance of 5.5 mm from the surface. The power consumption of the discharge is comparatively low, making it useful for various applications. This paper also presents direct measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission from ferroelectric ceramics, which, at low energies of primary electrons, is high and dependent on the polarization of the ferroelectric material

  10. Adsorption studies of natural gas storage in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.C.; Li, F.C.; Watson, A.T.

    1995-06-01

    Significant amounts of natural gas exist as an adsorbed, or condensed, phase in Devonian shale formations and other unconventional gas resources. The amount of the adsorbed phase depends on the pressure and temperature. The Langmuir isotherm has been used to describe the pressure dependence. However, temperature dependence has not been explored. This is important to evaluate thermal simulation as a recovery method and to extrapolate laboratory measurements to reservoir conditions. The authors investigate adsorption as a function of both pressure and temperature. They found that the effects of temperature are significant and that the Langmuir model does not describe adsorption adequately. They reconciled the data with bi-Langmuir models.

  11. A 3D Model for Gas Transfer, Storage and Resulting Displacement in a Permeable Volcanic Edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen

    2014-05-01

    The total volume of gas in a magma, dissolved and subsequently exsolved, greatly influences the degree of explosiveness of a volcanic system. There is a marked contrast between the behaviour of a volcano in an open system compared to one which is closed. Whilst gas release is evident from surface gas emission measurements, gas storage is also thought to play an important role, as evidenced by large gas emissions after some large dome collapse events, suggesting gas may be stored in large volumes at shallow depths within the dome and edifice. Consequently, it is essential to understand degassing, to appreciate how much gas may be stored and where, and under what conditions it may be transferred or emitted to the atmosphere. We use previous experimental data on permeabilities to create 3D numerical models to investigate gas transport and storage in a permeable volcanic edifice. We combine the continuity equation, Darcy's law and the ideal gas law to derive a partial differential equation which is solved using a finite element method to obtain the gas pressure. The associated pressure gradient is then used within Darcy's law to calculate the gas velocity. In addition, we use the momentum equation to investigate how the presence of gas and variations in permeability influence the rate and degree of deformation in the volcanic edifice. Hence this provides two important surface constraints: gas emissions and surface displacement. Geometries are created to simulate the topography of actual volcanoes and the pressure and permeabilities incorporated into the model as boundary and domain conditions, respectively. This method is applied to investigate a variety of volcanological phenomena affecting gas, for example regions of high permeability due to fractures, or low permeability due to sealing.

  12. Operational Challenges of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12550

    SciTech Connect

    Nichol, M.

    2012-07-01

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain used fuel repository program and a continuing climate of uncertainty in the national policy for nuclear fuel disposition, the likelihood has increased that extended storage, defined as more than 60 years, and subsequent transportation of used nuclear fuel after periods of extended storage may become necessary. Whether at the nation's 104 nuclear energy facilities, or at one or more consolidated interim storage facilities, the operational challenges of extended storage and transportation will depend upon the future US policy for Used Fuel Management and the future Regulatory Framework for EST, both of which should be developed with consideration of their operational impacts. Risk insights into the regulatory framework may conclude that dry storage and transportation operations should focus primarily on ensuring canister integrity. Assurance of cladding integrity may not be beneficial from an overall risk perspective. If assurance of canister integrity becomes more important, then mitigation techniques for potential canister degradation mechanisms will be the primary source of operational focus. If cladding integrity remains as an important focus, then operational challenges to assure it would require much more effort. Fundamental shifts in the approach to design a repository and optimize the back-end of the fuel cycle will need to occur in order to address the realities of the changes that have taken place over the last 30 years. Direct disposal of existing dual purpose storage and transportation casks will be essential to optimizing the back end of the fuel cycle. The federal used fuel management should focus on siting and designing a repository that meets this objective along with the development of CIS, and possibly recycling. An integrated approach to developing US policy and the regulatory framework must consider the potential operational challenges that they would create. Therefore, it should be integral to

  13. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  14. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  15. Defining Noble Gas Partitioning for Carbon Capture and Storage Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, O.; Masters, A.; Rochelle, C.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    For viable CCS implementation variables such as CO2 dissolution rates, reactions with the host rock and the extent of groundwater interaction must be accurately constrained. Noble gases play an important role in these systems [e.g. 1,2]. Their application, however, requires accurate Henry's constants within dense CO2-H2O systems. Current interpretations use pure noble gas-H2O partitioning data [3,4] and assume CO2-noble gas interactions are negligible, even at high (>700 kg/m3) CO2 densities [2]. To test this assumption we experimentally determined noble gas CO2-H2O partitioning for the 170-656 kg/m3 CO2 density range; representative of most CCS environments. Contrary to assumption, CO2 density significantly affected noble gas partition coefficients. For helium, increasing CO2 density resulted in a negative deviation trend from CO2-free values whilst for argon, krypton and xenon strong, positive deviations were observed. At 656 kg/m3 these deviations were -35%, 74%, 114% and 321% respectively. This is interpreted as the CO2 phase acting as a polar solvent inducing polarisation in the noble gases. Deviation trends are well defined using a 2nd order polynomial. The effect of a dense CO2 phase can now be incorporated into existing noble gas models. We also present results from a Gibbs-Ensemble Monte Carlo molecular simulation to model partitioning for this binary system. This fundamental technique makes predictions based on the pair-potentials of interaction between the molecules. Here it gives the phase compositions and Henry coefficients for noble gases. With a proven ability in accurately replicating both the CO2-H2O system and low pressure noble gas Henry constants the focus is now on fully optimising the model to match high pressure observations. [1] Gilfillan et al. (2009) Nature 458 614-618 [2] Gilfillan et al. (2008) GCA 72 1174-1198 [3] Crovetto et al. (1982) J.Chem.Phys. 76 1077-1086 [4] Ballentine et al. in Porcelli et al. (eds.) (2002) Rev.Min.Geo. 47 539-614.

  16. Modelling the Deployment of CO2 Storage in U.S. Gas-bearing Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation’s gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO2 into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO2 storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO2 adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH4 recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO2 than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO2-enhanced gas recovery (CO2-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO2 for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO2. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO2 storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO2 storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO2. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO2 storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental

  17. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years it has become generally accepted that gas hydrates represent a potential important future energy resource, a significant drilling and production hazard, a potential contributor to global climate change, and a controlling factor in seafloor stability and landslides. Research drilling and coring programs carried out by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), government agencies, and several consortia have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in marine and permafrost environments. For the most part, each of these field projects were built on the lessons learned from the projects that have gone before them. One of the most important factors contributing to the success of some of the more notable gas hydrate field projects has been the close alignment of project goals with the processes used to select the drill sites and to develop the project’s operational research plans. For example, IODP Expedition 311 used a transect approach to successfully constrain the overall occurrence of gas hydrate within the range of geologic environments within a marine accretionary complex. Earlier gas hydrate research drilling, including IODP Leg 164, were designed primarily to assess the occurrence and nature of marine gas hydrate systems, and relied largely on the presence of anomalous seismic features, including bottom-simulating reflectors and “blanking zones”. While these projects were extremely successful, expeditions today are being increasingly mounted with the primary goal of prospecting for potential gas hydrate production targets, and site selection processes designed to specifically seek out anomalously high-concentrations of gas hydrate are needed. This approach was best demonstrated in a recently completed energy resource focused project, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II), which featured the collection of a

  18. A dual output pressure, high reliability, long storage life gas delivery vessel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maya, Isaac; Mckee, Joe; Rajpurkar, Rajiv

    1993-01-01

    A Gas Vessel Assembly has been developed that delivers purified, very low moisture content gas at two different output pressures. High pressure gas is delivered at up to 6,700 psi, and low pressure gas regulated to 130 psi is also delivered via a second outlet over a wide range of flow rates. The device is extremely lightweight (less than 1 lb) and compact, affords maximum mechanical integrity, high reliability (0.9999 at 95 percent confidence level), and offers extremely long storage life. Specialized design and fabrication techniques are employed that guarantee gas purity and negligible leakage for more than 20 years, in widely varying conditions of storage temperature, humidity, altitude, and vibration environments. The technology offers unique advantages in fast, high pressure discharge applications. For example, when combined with a cryostat, cryogenic temperatures can be achieved such as those used in missile seeker technology. The technology has many additional applications such as: emergency power sources for safety devices such as those needed in nuclear power plants, refineries, collision cushioning devices, superconductor cooling devices, emergency egress systems, miniature mechanical devices that employ gas bearings, and other areas where long storage, extremely high reliability and/or high energy density sources are required.

  19. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  20. Reduction of Gas Contamination in The Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Shykoff, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    The level of anesthetic gas considered to be hazardous for operating room personnel is as yet unknown, but the least possible contamination is desirable. This paper discusses methods of reducing contamination from several sources — the anesthetic machine, high pressure leaks, low pressure leaks, and from anesthetists' poor habits. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 & 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:20469279

  1. Effectiveness of purging on preventing gas emission buildup in wood pellet storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, Choon Jim; Lau, Anthony; Bi, Xiaotao

    2015-04-24

    Storage of wood pellets has resulted in deadly accidents in connection with off-gassing and self-heating. A forced ventilation system should be in place to sweep the off-gases and control the thermal conditions. In this study, multiple purging tests were conducted in a pilot scale silo to evaluate the effectiveness of a purging system and quantify the time and volume of the gas needed to sweep the off-gases. To identify the degree of mixing, residence time distribution of the tracer gas was also studied experimentally. Large deviations from plug flow suggested strong gas mixing for all superficial velocities. As the velocity increased, the system dispersion number became smaller, which indicated less degree of mixing with increased volume of the purging gas. Finally, one-dimensional modelling and numerical simulation of the off-gas concentration profile gave the best agreement with the measured gas concentration at the bottom and middle of the silo.

  2. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 2: Operation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Burroughs, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive computer program (SIMWEST) developed for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic) is described. Features of the program include: a precompiler which generates computer models (in FORTRAN) of complex wind source/storage/application systems, from user specifications using the respective library components; a program which provides the techno-economic system analysis with the respective I/O the integration of system dynamics, and the iteration for conveyance of variables; and capability to evaluate economic feasibility as well as general performance of wind energy systems. The SIMWEST operation manual is presented and the usage of the SIMWEST program and the design of the library components are described. A number of example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation is given along with a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  3. 76 FR 6457 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings January 31, 2011. Take notice that on January 28, 2011, Hill-Lake submitted a revised baseline filing of their...

  4. 76 FR 7186 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings February 2, 2011. Take notice that on February 1, 2011, Hill-Lake submitted a revised baseline filing of their...

  5. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  6. 78 FR 18329 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of..., Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046, and Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite...

  7. 75 FR 28602 - Bully Camp Gas Storage Project; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bully Camp Gas Storage Project; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Bully Camp Gas Storage Project May 14, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Bully...

  8. 78 FR 18974 - ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on March 14, 2013, ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C. filed a Rate Election pursuant to...

  9. 75 FR 78986 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ..., Colorado. The proposed amendment primarily involves redeveloping a number of existing oil production wells... existing vertical oil production wells into natural gas storage I/W wells; Relocation of two of the... Assessment for the East Cheyenne Gas Storage Project Well Plan Amendment and Request for Comments...

  10. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  11. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the highly

  12. Removing a small quantity of THT from gas storage groundwater through air stripping and gas-phase carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Girod, J.F.; Leclerc, J.P.; Muhr, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the response to a case of contaminated groundwater located in France. The natural gas is stored during summer in porous underground rocks. When energy requirements increase (particularly in winter), gas is drawn off, but water is also pumped during this operation. The water has a strong characteristic odour of the TetraHydroThiophene (THT), which has been used by Gaz de France as an additive in order to detect gas leakages because of its strong odour. Unfortunately, the presence of THT in medium other than natural gas can be responsible for safety problems. Gas stripping combined with adsorption on granular activated carbon was chosen to obtain removal of THT from the groundwater. The gas to water ratio for stripping column is higher than usual and the gas used for stripping was recycled in order to prevent air pollution. Carbon consumption is approximately 3 tons a year. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  14. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2storage in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-03-02

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improveunderstanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health,safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost ofCO2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasisto date on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedprocess models to representations of engineering components andassociated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop asystem-level model for geological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture andseparation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, andCO2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection into a gas reservoir and relatedenhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associatedenvironmental impacts are also considered. The platform for thesystem-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim TechnologyGroup; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system modelfocuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration withenhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. Thereservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2.Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhancedgas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits ofCO2 injection.

  15. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  16. Technical basis for extending storage of the UK's advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.I.

    2013-07-01

    The UK Nuclear Decommissioning Agency has recently declared a date for cessation of reprocessing of oxide fuel from the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs). This will fundamentally change the management of AGR fuel: from short term storage followed by reprocessing to long term fuel storage followed, in all likelihood, by geological disposal. In terms of infrastructure, the UK has an existing, modern wet storage asset that can be adapted for centralised long term storage of dismantled AGR fuel under the required pond water chemistry. No AGR dry stores exist, although small quantities of fuel have been stored dry as part of experimental programmes in the past. These experimental programmes have shown concerns about corrosion rates.

  17. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-06-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by

  18. Dynamic gas flow during plasma operation in TMX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W.L.; Carter, M.R.; Clower, C.A.; Drake, R.P.; Hunt, A.L.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-11-12

    Control of the neutral density outside of the plasma radius is essential for proper operation of the various plasma configurations in TMX-U. TMX-U excess-beam, stream-gun, gas-box, and beam-reflux gases are pumped internally in regions defined by 73/sup 0/ Ti-gettered liners and warm Ti-gettered plasma liners. The array of fast and slow ion gauges - a large TMX-U diagnostic - has been used to measure the dynamic pressure in many of the liner-defined regions on three time scales. The natural divertor action, or plasma pump effect, of mirror plasmas has been measured using the ion gauge diagnostics on a fast time scale during operation of TMX-U with ECRH start-up. Routine operation of TMX-U is enhanced by the ability to verify the effectiveness of gettering and to locate leaks using pressure data collected on the two slow time scales. A computer code, DYNAVAC 6, which treats TMX-U as a set of conductance-coupled regions with pumping and sources in each region, has been used to successfully model the overall gas dynamics during all phases of TMX-U operation.

  19. Large storage operations under climate change: expanding uncertainties and evolving tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Vu, Phuong Nam; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    In a changing climate and society, large storage systems can play a key role for securing water, energy, and food, and rebalancing their cross-dependencies. In this letter, we study the role of large storage operations as flexible means of adaptation to climate change. In particular, we explore the impacts of different climate projections for different future time horizons on the multi-purpose operations of the existing system of large dams in the Red River basin (China-Laos-Vietnam). We identify the main vulnerabilities of current system operations, understand the risk of failure across sectors by exploring the evolution of the system tradeoffs, quantify how the uncertainty associated to climate scenarios is expanded by the storage operations, and assess the expected costs if no adaptation is implemented. Results show that, depending on the climate scenario and the time horizon considered, the existing operations are predicted to change on average from -7 to +5% in hydropower production, +35 to +520% in flood damages, and +15 to +160% in water supply deficit. These negative impacts can be partially mitigated by adapting the existing operations to future climate, reducing the loss of hydropower to 5%, potentially saving around 34.4 million US year-1 at the national scale. Since the Red River is paradigmatic of many river basins across south east Asia, where new large dams are under construction or are planned to support fast growing economies, our results can support policy makers in prioritizing responses and adaptation strategies to the changing climate.

  20. Certification Testing and Demonstration of Insulated Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Hydrogen and Natural Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Schaffer, R; Clapper, W

    2002-05-22

    We are working on developing an alternative technology for storage of hydrogen or natural gas on light-duty vehicles. This technology has been titled insulated pressure vessels. Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can accept either liquid fuel or ambient-temperature compressed fuel. Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of cryogenic liquid fuel tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (fuel flexibility, lower energy requirement for fuel liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). The work described in this paper is directed at verifying that commercially available pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen or LNG. The use of commercially available pressure vessels significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the insulated pressure vessel development effort. This paper describes a series of tests that have been done with aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped vessels to evaluate the damage caused by low temperature operation. All analysis and experiments to date indicate that no significant damage has resulted. Future activities include a demonstration project in which the insulated pressure vessels will be installed and tested on two vehicles. A draft standard will also be generated for obtaining insulated pressure vessel certification.

  1. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  2. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the

  3. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  4. International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sacuta, Norm; Young, Aleana; Worth, Kyle

    2015-12-22

    The IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project (WMP) began in 2000 with the first four years of research that confirmed the suitability of the containment complex of the Weyburn oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan as a storage location for CO₂ injected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The first half of this report covers research conducted from 2010 to 2012, under the funding of the United States Department of Energy (contract DEFE0002697), the Government of Canada, and various other governmental and industry sponsors. The work includes more in-depth analysis of various components of a measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) program through investigation of data on site characterization and geological integrity, wellbore integrity, storage monitoring (geophysical and geochemical), and performance/risk assessment. These results then led to the development of a Best Practices Manual (BPM) providing oilfield and project operators with guidance on CO₂ storage and CO₂-EOR. In 2013, the USDOE and Government of Saskatchewan exercised an optional phase of the same project to further develop and deploy applied research tools, technologies, and methodologies to the data and research at Weyburn with the aim of assisting regulators and operators in transitioning CO₂-EOR operations into permanent storage. This work, detailed in the second half of this report, involves seven targeted research projects – evaluating the minimum dataset for confirming secure storage; additional overburden monitoring; passive seismic monitoring; history-matched modelling; developing proper wellbore design; casing corrosion evaluation; and assessment of post CO₂-injected core samples. The results from the final and optional phases of the Weyburn-Midale Project confirm the suitability of CO₂-EOR fields for the injection of CO₂, and further, highlight the necessary MMV and follow-up monitoring required for these operations to be considered

  5. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  6. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  7. Residual gas analysis for long-pulse, advanced tokamak operation.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Hillis, D L; Bucalossi, J; Douai, D; Oddon, P; Vartanian, S; Colas, L; Manenc, L; Pégourié, B

    2010-10-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer (RGA) system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This "diagnostic RGA" has been used in long-pulse (up to 6 min) discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H(2)/D(2) isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H(2) injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses (>4 min) absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H(2) could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components.

  8. Residual gas analysis for long-pulse, advanced tokamak operation

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C. C.; Hillis, D. L.; Bucalossi, J.; Douai, D.; Oddon, P.; Vartanian, S.; Colas, L.; Manenc, L.; Pegourie, B.

    2010-10-15

    A shielded residual gas analyzer (RGA) system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This ''diagnostic RGA'' has been used in long-pulse (up to 6 min) discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H{sub 2} injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses (>4 min) absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H{sub 2} could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components.

  9. Residual Gas Analysis for Long-Pulse, Advanced Tokamak Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C Christopher; Hillis, Donald Lee; Bucalossi, J.; Douai, D.; OddonCEA, IRFM, P.; VartanianCEA-Cadarach, S.; Colas, L.; Manenc, L.; Pegourie, B.

    2010-01-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer RGA system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This diagnostic RGA has been used in long-pulse up to 6 min discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H2 /D2 isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H2 injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses 4 min absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H2 could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Multi-disciplinary monitoring of the Hutubi underground natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Underground natural Gas Storage (UGS) can balance the gas demand and supply through injecting gas into or withdraw gas from the subsurface rock formation. UGS has been wildly established all over the world to face the complicated international energy system. In 2013, the Hutubi underground natural gas storage was put into production, which was one of the largest UGS in China. In the Hutubi UGS, the pressurized natural gas is injected into and extracted from an obsolete gas reservoir during summer and winter time, respectively. The repeatable in and out going high pressure gas may change the stress state and material properties of the underground rock formation, which may in turn cause surface deformation and alter the seismic hazard in this region. To understand the physical process of the periodic loading and unloading, we established a multi-disciplinary monitoring system composed of a geodetic network, a seismic network, and an active source monitoring system. The position and level of 13 spots around and above the UGS area are measured every three to six months with Global Position System (GPS) and short base-line leveling. More than 30 portable broad band three component seismic stations were deployed in study area to continuously monitor the background and possible triggered seismicity. These seismic stations together with a 12000 in3 airgun source, are also used to monitor the seismic velocity change associated with the gas injection and extraction. Preliminary results indicate that seismic velocity change correlates well with the injection pressure; seismicity decays with the lapse time after the startup of Hutubi UGS; small but detectable surface deformation associated with the gas activities is observed.

  11. Thermal Analysis of of Near-Isothermal Compressed Gas Energy Storage System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, alternative system configurations for a novel Ground-Level Integrated Diverse Energy Storage (GLIDES) system, which can store energy via input of electricity and heat and deliver dispatchable electricity, is presented. The proposed system is low-cost and hybridizes compressed air and pumped hydro storage approaches that will allow for the off-peak storage of intermittent renewable energy for use during peak times. This study reveals that implementing direct-contact low grade heat exchange via sprayed falling droplets to cool the gas during charging (compression) and warm the gas during discharging (expansion) can be achieved through a secondary recirculating loop of liquid.more » This study shows that if the recirculating liquid loop is pre-conditioned with waste-heat prior to spraying during gas expansion and considering all the round trip conversion losses from standard 120 V 60 HZ electricity input and output with utilization of low grade heat at 90 C the alternative system design leads to a 16% boost in round trip efficiency of the electricity storage to elec = 82% with an energy density of ED = 3.59 MJ/m3.« less

  12. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  13. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-03-15

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing < 1.5 g/l, maximum safe storage times from 4 weeks to 12 months are proposed. The maximum safe storage times vary depending upon the plutonium concentration in the solution. Low concentration plutonium solutions can be stored safely for longer periods of time than high concentration plutonium solutions. For solutions containing > 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed.

  14. 77 FR 11530 - Port Barre Investments, L.L.C. (d/b/a Bobcat Gas Storage); Notice of Request Under Blanket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Port Barre Investments, L.L.C. (d/b/a Bobcat Gas Storage); Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 6, 2012 Bobcat Gas Storage (Bobcat), 5400... Manager, Rates & Certificates, Bobcat Gas Storage, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642 at (713)...

  15. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  17. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  18. High-Performance of Gas Hydrates in Confined Nanospace for Reversible CH4 /CO2 Storage.

    PubMed

    Casco, Mirian E; Jordá, José L; Rey, Fernando; Fauth, François; Martinez-Escandell, Manuel; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Ramos-Fernández, Enrique V; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín

    2016-07-11

    The molecular exchange of CH4 for CO2 in gas hydrates grown in confined nanospace has been evaluated for the first time using activated carbons as a host structure. The nano-confinement effects taking place inside the carbon cavities and the exceptional physicochemical properties of the carbon structure allows us to accelerate the formation and decomposition process of the gas hydrates from the conventional timescale of hours/days in artificial bulk systems to minutes in confined nanospace. The CH4 /CO2 exchange process is fully reversible with high efficiency at practical temperature and pressure conditions. Furthermore, these activated carbons can be envisaged as promising materials for long-distance natural gas and CO2 transportation because of the combination of a high storage capacity, a high reversibility, and most important, with extremely fast kinetics for gas hydrate formation and release.

  19. 382-1 underground gasoline storage tank soil-gas survey

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, I.D.

    1993-08-27

    A soil-gas survey was conducted near the 382 Pump House in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of the soil-gas survey was to characterize the extent of petroleum product contamination in the soil beneath the 382-1 underground gasoline storage tank excavation. The tank was discovered to have leaked when it was removed in September 1992. The results of this soil-gas survey indicate petroleum products released from the 382-1 tank are probably contained in a localized region of soil directly beneath the tank excavation site. The soil-gas data combined with earlier tests of groundwater from a nearby downgradient monitoring well suggest the spilled petroleum hydrocarbons have not penetrated the soil profile to the water table.

  20. High-Performance of Gas Hydrates in Confined Nanospace for Reversible CH4 /CO2 Storage.

    PubMed

    Casco, Mirian E; Jordá, José L; Rey, Fernando; Fauth, François; Martinez-Escandell, Manuel; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Ramos-Fernández, Enrique V; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín

    2016-07-11

    The molecular exchange of CH4 for CO2 in gas hydrates grown in confined nanospace has been evaluated for the first time using activated carbons as a host structure. The nano-confinement effects taking place inside the carbon cavities and the exceptional physicochemical properties of the carbon structure allows us to accelerate the formation and decomposition process of the gas hydrates from the conventional timescale of hours/days in artificial bulk systems to minutes in confined nanospace. The CH4 /CO2 exchange process is fully reversible with high efficiency at practical temperature and pressure conditions. Furthermore, these activated carbons can be envisaged as promising materials for long-distance natural gas and CO2 transportation because of the combination of a high storage capacity, a high reversibility, and most important, with extremely fast kinetics for gas hydrate formation and release. PMID:27273454

  1. Gas storage in porous metal-organic frameworks for clean energy applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-01-01

    Depletion of fossil oil deposits and the escalating threat of global warming have put clean energy research, which includes the search for clean energy carriers such as hydrogen and methane as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, on the urgent agenda. A significant technical challenge has been recognized as the development of a viable method to efficiently trap hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide gas molecules in a confined space for various applications. This issue can be addressed by employing highly porous materials as storage media, and porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which have exceptionally high surface areas as well as chemically-tunable structures are playing an unusual role in this respect. In this feature article we provide an overview of the current status of clean energy applications of porous MOFs, including hydrogen storage, methane storage and carbon dioxide capture. PMID:20024292

  2. Gas storage in porous metal-organic frameworks for clean energy applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-01-01

    Depletion of fossil oil deposits and the escalating threat of global warming have put clean energy research, which includes the search for clean energy carriers such as hydrogen and methane as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, on the urgent agenda. A significant technical challenge has been recognized as the development of a viable method to efficiently trap hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide gas molecules in a confined space for various applications. This issue can be addressed by employing highly porous materials as storage media, and porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which have exceptionally high surface areas as well as chemically-tunable structures are playing an unusual role in this respect. In this feature article we provide an overview of the current status of clean energy applications of porous MOFs, including hydrogen storage, methane storage and carbon dioxide capture.

  3. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits. PMID:26435043

  4. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits.

  5. Pebble Bed Reactor Power Systems for Lunar Outposts: Long Operation Life and End-of Life Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Schriener, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor(PeBR) and power system for supporting future lunar outposts offer many desirable design, operation and safety features and address post operation storage of spent nuclear fuel. In addition to its long, full power operation life of 66 year, the PeBR is launched without fuel and loaded after placement below grade on the lunar surface with spherical fuel pellets, designed to fully contain fission products. The fuel pellets(~1.0 cm dia.) are launched separately in subcritical canisters. The post-operation PeBR is stored below grade for > 300 year to allow the radioactivity in the spent fuel to decay to a sufficiently low level. The PeBR power system, designed for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion, nominally generates ~100 kWe at a thermal efficiency of ~ 21%. In addition to the sectored reactor core, it uses three Closed Brayton Cycle loops with centrifugal flow turbo-machines for energy conversion and He-Xe(40 g/mol) binary gas mixture working fluid and reactor coolant.

  6. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  7. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  8. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  9. Thermo-mechanical modelling of cyclic gas storage applications in salt caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Watanabe, Norihiro; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Kolditz, Olaf; Nagel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the growing importance of renewable energy sources it becomes more and more necessary to investigate energy storage potentials. One major way to store energy is the power-to-gas concept. Excessive electrical energy can be used either to produce hydrogen or methane by electrolysis or methanation or to compress air, respectively. Those produced gases can then be stored in artificial salt caverns, which are constructed in large salt formations by solution mining. In combination with renewable energy sources, the power-to-gas concept is subjected to fluctuations. Compression and expansion of the storage gases lead to temperature differences within the salt rock. The variations can advance several metres into the host rock, influencing its material behaviour, inducing thermal stresses and altering the creep response. To investigate the temperature influence on the cavern capacity, we have developed a numerical model to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. The model considers the thermodynamic behaviour of the stored gases as well as the heat transport and the temperature dependent material properties of the host rock. Therefore, we utilized well-known constitutive thermo-visco-plastic material models, implemented into the open source-scientific software OpenGeoSys. Both thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, connected via a staggered coupling scheme. The model allows the assessment of the structural safety as well as the convergence of the salt caverns.

  10. Towards sustainability in offshore oil and gas operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Ibrahim

    acceptable, economically profitable and socially responsible. This dissertation discusses the framework of true 'sustainability' for practically all aspects oil and gas operations and nature-based resource operations. Sustainability of existing offshore oil and gas operations techniques are analyzed and new nature-based technologies are proposed. Also evaluated are the fate and effect, environmental impact, risk factors, and the green supply chain in the case of seismic, drilling, production and decommissioning of oil operations. It is demonstrated with detailed examples that using the new approach will be economically more beneficial than the conventional approach, even in the short-term. The dissertation also examines the present status of petroleum operations with respect to waste generation, improper resource management, and the usage of toxic compounds in the overall lifecycle. To achieve true sustainability, some innovative models and technologies are presented. They include achievement of zero emissions, zero waste of resources, zero waste in activities, zero use of toxics, and zero waste in product life-cycle. This dissertation also discusses the environmental and technological problems of the petroleum sector and provides guidelines to achieve overall sustainability in oil company activities. Finally, this dissertation shows that inherent sustainability can be achieved by the involvement of community participation. The new screening tool proposed in this dissertation provides proper guidelines to achieve true sustainability in the technology development and other resource development operations.

  11. A New Model for Gas Transfer and Storage in a Permeable Volcanic Edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, A. D.; Neuberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    There is a marked contrast between the behaviour of a volcano in an open system compared to one which is closed. It is therefore essential to understand degassing, to appreciate how much gas is lost and where. Previous studies by a variety of scientists have led to the accumulation of data via field evidence from both active and fossil volcanoes (Stasiuk et al., 1996), laboratory experiments (Moore et al., 1994) and conceptual modelling, in which Darcy's law has become increasingly applicable (Eichelberger et al., 1986; Edmonds et al., 2003). Of particular interest for this study, is the effect different permeabilities have on the degree and pattern of the gas flux. A new method has been devised to investigate gas transport and storage in a permeable volcanic edifice. The continuity equation and Darcy's law are amalgamated to derive a partial differential equation which is solved using a finite element method to obtain the gas pressure. The associated pressure gradient is then used within Darcy's law to calculate the gas flux. The properties of the gas are described by the ideal gas law. The strength of this method is that it allows the modelling of two and three dimensional structures both in stationary equilibrium and as a time dependent progression. A geometry is created and the pressure and permeabilites incorporated into the model as boundary and domain conditions respectively. The aim of the model is to investigate how variable permeability and pressure gradients influence the gas flux, for example highly permeable cracks in the dome, or impermeable layers within the volcanic structure. We also use this gas model to complement the model of Neuberg et al. (2006) in which brittle failure of the conduit-wall boundary is used as a trigger mechanism of low-frequency earthquakes. The associated behaviour of the gas in response to the brittle failure is simulated in our model by increasing the permeability through a narrow zone at the boundary between the conduit

  12. Materials testing in a gas turbine operating on coal-derived gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.; Lyell, G.D.

    1992-11-01

    An aero derived gas turbine engine, the Olympus SK30 ran for 1166 hours on coal derived (slagger) gas at the British Gas site at Westfield, Fife, Scotland. Slagger gas is low in calorific value and high in sulphur content. A ``rainbow`` HP turbine assembly, with a range of corrosion protective overlay coatings on both the vanes and blades was installed to evaluate the protection offered by the various coatings against the highly sulphurous slagger gas. A detailed metallurgical inspection was carried out on a random selection of the coated vanes and blades. None of the components examined showed evidence of any serious erosion. It was concluded that the operating time was too short to cause extensive damage to the coatings. However, the various coatings showed different degrees of degradation and may be ranked as follows: 1. Platinum Aluminide, LDC-2E, 2. Platinum Aluminide, RT22A, 3. Pack Aluminide, 4. EB-PVD* Coating Co-29Cr-5Al-O.34Y, GT-29, 5. EB-PVD* Coating Co-23Cr-lOA1-0.34Y, BC-21 Electron Beam-Plasma Vapour Deposit.

  13. Materials testing in a gas turbine operating on coal-derived gas

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.; Lyell, G.D. )

    1992-11-01

    An aero derived gas turbine engine, the Olympus SK30 ran for 1166 hours on coal derived (slagger) gas at the British Gas site at Westfield, Fife, Scotland. Slagger gas is low in calorific value and high in sulphur content. A rainbow'' HP turbine assembly, with a range of corrosion protective overlay coatings on both the vanes and blades was installed to evaluate the protection offered by the various coatings against the highly sulphurous slagger gas. A detailed metallurgical inspection was carried out on a random selection of the coated vanes and blades. None of the components examined showed evidence of any serious erosion. It was concluded that the operating time was too short to cause extensive damage to the coatings. However, the various coatings showed different degrees of degradation and may be ranked as follows: 1. Platinum Aluminide, LDC-2E, 2. Platinum Aluminide, RT22A, 3. Pack Aluminide, 4. EB-PVD* Coating Co-29Cr-5Al-O.34Y, GT-29, 5. EB-PVD* Coating Co-23Cr-lOA1-0.34Y, BC-21 Electron Beam-Plasma Vapour Deposit.

  14. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  15. Analysis of an activated-carbon sorption compressor operating with gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, N.; Grossman, G.

    2012-10-01

    Sorption compressors elevate the pressure of gases and can provide a more or less continuous mass flow. Unlike mechanical compressors, sorption compressors have no moving parts, and therefore do not emit vibrations and are highly reliable. There exist different sorption compressors for different operating conditions and various gases. However, there are no published reports of sorption compressors for mixed gases. Such compressors, among other applications, may drive mixed-refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocoolers. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the sorption process in a compressor goes through varying states and mass changes; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In this research a numerical analysis for mixed gas sorption compressors is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics and the ideal adsorbed solution theory. Two pure gas adsorption models are used for calculating the conditions of the adsorbed phase: Langmuir and Sips; and the Peng-Robinson equation of state is used to calculate the conditions of the vapor phase. Two mixtures are investigated; nitrogen-methane and nitrogen-ethane. Finally, the analysis is verified against experimental results. This research provides initiatory observation for mixed gases sorption compressor in which each component is differently adsorbed.

  16. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  17. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

  18. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, atmore » 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

  19. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) and associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural

  20. 75 FR 9404 - Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Amended Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... natural gas storage facility in a solution-mined salt dome in Liberty County, Texas. The Turtle Bayou...: Two salt storage caverns, wells, and well pads; A 17,000-horsepower compressor station; Two meter... select the type of filing you are making. A comment on a particular project is considered a ``Comment...

  1. Effectiveness of purging on preventing gas emission buildup in wood pellet storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, Choon Jim; Lau, Anthony; Bi, Xiaotao

    2015-04-24

    Storage of wood pellets has resulted in deadly accidents in connection with off-gassing and self-heating. A forced ventilation system should be in place to sweep the off-gases and control the thermal conditions. In this study, multiple purging tests were conducted in a pilot scale silo to evaluate the effectiveness of a purging system and quantify the time and volume of the gas needed to sweep the off-gases. To identify the degree of mixing, residence time distribution of the tracer gas was also studied experimentally. Large deviations from plug flow suggested strong gas mixing for all superficial velocities. As the velocitymore » increased, the system dispersion number became smaller, which indicated less degree of mixing with increased volume of the purging gas. Finally, one-dimensional modelling and numerical simulation of the off-gas concentration profile gave the best agreement with the measured gas concentration at the bottom and middle of the silo.« less

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Natural Gas Contaminants on Corrosion in Compressed Natural Gas Storage Systems - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, F.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the composition ranges of contaminants in natural gases; and to obtain information regarding corrosion damage of CNG cylinders and cylinder materials. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were performed on the cylinder materials most widely used in CNG cylinders in the United States (4130X and 15B30 steels and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy). Tests were conducted in: natural gases from several producing wells and from an interstate pipeline; and in aqueous solutions saturated with varying concentrations of natural gas contaminants. Also, metallurgical analyses of nine (eight steel and one aluminum), used CNG cylinders were performed. Limiting concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and other CNG contaminants necessary to prevent internal corrosion of CNG fuel and storage cylinders were defined. This knowledge will minimize potential hazards of using CNG as a vehicle fuel. It should also lead to reduced costs of CNG use, since it has been shown that reduction of contaminants to the very low levels currently specified by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Canadian Transport Commission (CTC) is not necessary. A gas-quality standard based on program results is recommended. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has adopted the recommended gas-quality standard.

  3. 78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators, 78 FR 44900 (July.../fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ); Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets...) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-13/pdf/2012-30063.pdf ); Coordination between Natural Gas...

  4. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  5. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  6. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  7. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  8. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  9. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  10. Fate and persistence of glutaraldehyde and retention lagoon diversity of life at a natural gas storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, R.M.; Morris, E.A. III; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    In view of increasingly stringent environmental regulations concerning Produced water disposal, the natural gas industry needs to approximate the maximum amount of biocide which can be applied downhole and not adversely impact the local biology in retention lagoons receiving produced waters. Biocide treatment data from a microbially sour aquifer-storage natural gas facility, archived by the operations personnel, were incorporated into a study sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Chicago, Illinois along with additional data from focused field sampling. The sandy assessed the persistence and fate of glutaraldehyde and its possible effects on diversity of life in the produced water system and outfall areas which receive the lagoon discharge under a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed that incorporated experimentally-determined glutaraldehyde persistence, wellhead Outaraldehyde residuals, rates of water production, and lagoon specifications. The model was used to calculate the levels of glutaraldehyde in the lagoons as a function of time, based on the amount of glutaraldehyde applied downhole. The modeled results were used to assess the potential impacts of various levels of downhole treatment using glutaraldehyde and confirmed that the current treatment regime provided little potential for adverse environmental effects in the retention lagoons or the lagoon outfall areas. Chemical and biological sampling and diversity of life analyses were performed in the retention lagoon system and outfall areas to further test for environmental impacts relating to biocide use; no evidence of adverse effects was found.

  11. [Occupational exposure to enflurane and laughing gas in operating rooms].

    PubMed

    Hoerauf, K; Mayer, T; Hobbhahn, J

    1996-02-01

    Current scientific evidence suggests that chronic exposure to trace concentrations of anaesthetic gases may result in various forms of untoward health responses in operating room personnel. Although there are no clear dose-effect-relationships, in Germany threshold values (MAK-values) exist for nitrous oxide of 100 ppm and for enflurane of 20 ppm. Aim of this investigation was, to determine the exposure of the operating room personnel under modern working conditions using a standardized anaesthetic procedure. By means of a direct-reading, high sensitive gas monitor trace concentrations of nitrous oxide and enflurane were measured at three personnel-related (surgeon, anaesthetist, auxiliary nurse) and a potential leakage source (patient's mouth). The calculation and assessment of the measured concentrations followed the prescriptions of the technical rules for hazardous substances 402 and 403 (TRGS 402 and 403). The personnel-related concentrations were clearly under the MAK-values of 100 ppm nitrous oxide and/or 20 ppm enflurane. The time weighted averages were for the personnel-related measurement points, indicated in ppm for nitrous oxide and enflurane, respectively: "surgeon" 28.3/0.25, "anaesthetist" 39.3/0.34 and "auxiliary nurse" 64.6/0.57. At the leakage source "patient's mouth" time weighted averages of 317 ppm nitrous oxide and 3.79 ppm enflurane were measured. Under air-conditioning with a high air change rate, a central scavenging system and low leakage anaesthesia machine low trace concentrations of anaesthetic gases were measured. Despite an average contamination of approx. 300 ppm nitrous oxide at the "patient's mouth" personnel-related values remained clearly under the MAK-values. Outside the mainstream of the air-conditioning system the group "auxiliary nurse" had an approximately 30% higher exposure than the other groups. Under the described conditions, the working environment "operating room" can be classified as a low exposure working area. PMID

  12. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  13. Construction, Shimming and Initial Operation of the Brookhaven Ultraprecise g - 2 Storage Ring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danby, G.

    1997-05-01

    A 1.45 Tesla superferric storage ring with 15 meter diameter superconducting (SC) coils is operating at Brookhaven. This storage ring will be used to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm. This measurement requires a magnetic field of very great uniformity. The field integrated over the muon orbits must be known to 0.1 ppm. A series of adjustable iron shims was provided in the design of the magnet. These iron shims, as well as a matrix of wires for current shimming for very precise field uniformity, will be described and experimental results will be presented. The very large diameter SC ring coils require a very unconventional and delicately balanced support in their cryostats, because of severe spatial constraints. A symmetric force balance is required between very large magnetic forces and suspension hangers. When first operated very large de-stabilizing magnetic forces and mechanical distortions occurred. After modification to the supports completely successful operation resulted to full field without ever quenching. A brief description of a preliminary g - 2 physics commissioning run will be given.

  14. Optimization of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers Using Water-Alternating Gas (WAG) Scheme - Case Study for Utsira Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, R. K.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, C.

    2013-12-01

    For optimization of CO2 storage and reduced CO2 plume migration in saline aquifers, a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimizer has been developed which is combined with the DOE multi-phase flow and heat transfer numerical simulation code TOUGH2. Designated as GA-TOUGH2, this combined solver/optimizer has been verified by performing optimization studies on a number of model problems and comparing the results with brute-force optimization which requires a large number of simulations. Using GA-TOUGH2, an innovative reservoir engineering technique known as water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection has been investigated to determine the optimal WAG operation for enhanced CO2 storage capacity. The topmost layer (layer # 9) of Utsira formation at Sleipner Project, Norway is considered as a case study. A cylindrical domain, which possesses identical characteristics of the detailed 3D Utsira Layer #9 model except for the absence of 3D topography, was used. Topographical details are known to be important in determining the CO2 migration at Sleipner, and are considered in our companion model for history match of the CO2 plume migration at Sleipner. However, simplification on topography here, without compromising accuracy, is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of WAG operation on CO2 migration without incurring excessive computational cost. Selected WAG operation then can be simulated with full topography details later. We consider a cylindrical domain with thickness of 35 m with horizontal flat caprock. All hydrogeological properties are retained from the detailed 3D Utsira Layer #9 model, the most important being the horizontal-to-vertical permeability ratio of 10. Constant Gas Injection (CGI) operation with nine-year average CO2 injection rate of 2.7 kg/s is considered as the baseline case for comparison. The 30-day, 15-day, and 5-day WAG cycle durations are considered for the WAG optimization design. Our computations show that for the simplified Utsira Layer #9 model, the

  15. CLEAN - Large-Scale CO2 Storage for Enhanced Gas Recovery in a depleted German Gasfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Baltrusch, Steffi; Dahmke, Andreas; Förster, Andrea; Großmann, Jochen; Meyer, Robert; Reinicke, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    The joint research project CLEAN is a German research and development (R&D) alliance of 16 partners from science and industry. The main theme of this pilot project is to enhance gas recovery (EGR) by injection of CO2 into an almost depleted natural gas field. The research focus is on the assessment of all processes associated with the injection. At the same time, the CO2 long-term storage safety of Europe's second largest onshore gas field is analysed and evaluated. The CLEAN study site is located in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) and is part of the natural gas field Altmark owned by GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH. Here, the test field Altensalzwedel, which covers an area of 14 km2, represents a structurally and hydraulically enclosed substructure. The structure is characterized in detail by 12 existing deep wells. Fluviatile silt- and sandstones from Upper Rotliegend built the reservoir in around 3,500 metres depth. The caprock above the reservoir consists of massive Zechstein formations with significant deposits of evaporites. These salt layers with average thickness of several hundred metres represent a natural seal of the reservoir. At present the reservoir temperature is about 125 °C and reservoir pressures decreased from initially 425 bar to pressures between 30 and 50 bar, due to the gas production. For the substructure of Altensalzwedel it is assessed that the natural gas reservoir is depleted by 90 %. In the course of the pilot project CLEAN, less than 100,000 tonnes of CO2 will be injected for the EGR measures. An enhanced R&D program is performed to control existing wells, to advance the monitoring, and to improve the process modelling as a solid basis for a decent risk assessment, which is prerequisite for a future large-scale EGR project associated with the injection and storage of CO2. Within this field, some fundamental scientific, ecological and economical questions will be addressed and answered: Which technology is the most efficient and safe one to

  16. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian

    2010-10-01

    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  17. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  18. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  19. Hydrogen storage materials discovery via high throughput ball milling and gas sorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kaye, Steven S; Riley, Conor; Greenberg, Doron; Galang, Daniel; Bailey, Mark S

    2012-06-11

    The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in which candidate materials are synthesized and characterized via highly parallel ball mills and volumetric gas sorption instruments, respectively. The workflow was used to identify mixed imides with significantly enhanced absorption rates relative to Li2Mg(NH)2. The most promising material, 2LiNH2:MgH2 + 5 atom % LiBH4 + 0.5 atom % La, exhibits the best balance of absorption rate, capacity, and cycle-life, absorbing >4 wt % H2 in 1 h at 120 °C after 11 absorption-desorption cycles.

  20. Safe operating conditions for NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Amundsen, C.; Ha, K.; Hussein, A.

    2015-04-02

    The NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends are designed to safely accept the synchrotron radiation fan produced by respective insertion device when the electron beam orbit through the ID is locked inside the predefined Active Interlock Envelope. The Active Interlock is getting enabled at a particular beam current known as AI safe current limit. Below such current the beam orbit can be anywhere within the limits of the SR beam acceptance. During the FE commissioning the beam orbit is getting intentionally disturbed in the particular ID. In this paper we explore safe operating conditions for the Frontends commissioning.

  1. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.; Dilgen, T.; Rose, B.; Gash, W.; Ravindranath, V.; Yeddulla, M.; Papu, J.; Davila, P.; Holub, B.; Tagger, J.; Sikora, R.; Ramirez, G.; Kulpin, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  2. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  3. Simulation of submarine gas hydrate deposits as a sustainable energy source and CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, G.; Hennig, T.; Schlüter, S.; Deerberg, G.

    2012-04-01

    Being aware that conventionally exploitable natural gas resources are limited, research concentrates on the development of new technologies for the extraction of methane from gas hydrate deposits in subsea sediments. The quantity of methane stored in hydrate form is considered to be a promising means to overcome future shortages in energy resources. In combination with storing carbon dioxide (CO2) as hydrates in the deposits chances for sustainable energy supply systems are given. The combustion of hydrate-based natural gas can contribute to the energy supply, but the coupled CO2 emissions cause climate change effects. At present, the possible options to capture and subsequently store CO2 (CCS-Technology) become of particular interest. To develop a sustainable hydrate-based energy supply system, the production of natural gas from hydrate deposits has to be coupled with the storage of CO2. Hence, the simultaneous storage of CO2 in hydrate deposits has to be developed. Decomposition of methane hydrate in combination with CO2 sequestration appears to be promising because CO2 hydrate is stable within a wider range of pressure and temperature than methane hydrate. As methane hydrate provides structural integrity and stability in its natural formation, incorporating CO2 hydrate as substitute for methane hydrate will help to preserve the natural sediments' stability. Regarding the technological implementation, many problems have to be overcome. Especially heat and mass transfer in the deposits are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like

  4. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  5. Gas-liquid separator and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Whitt, David Brandon

    2009-07-14

    A system for gas-liquid separation in electrolysis processes is provided. The system includes a first compartment having a liquid carrier including a first gas therein and a second compartment having the liquid carrier including a second gas therein. The system also includes a gas-liquid separator fluidically coupled to the first and second compartments for separating the liquid carrier from the first and second gases.

  6. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  7. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zimmerle, Daniel J; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Quinn, Casey; Subramanian, R; Duggan, Gerald P; Willson, Bryan; Opsomer, Jean D; Marchese, Anthony J; Martinez, David M; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-08-01

    The recent growth in production and utilization of natural gas offers potential climate benefits, but those benefits depend on lifecycle emissions of methane, the primary component of natural gas and a potent greenhouse gas. This study estimates methane emissions from the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the United States natural gas industry using new data collected during 2012, including 2,292 onsite measurements, additional emissions data from 677 facilities and activity data from 922 facilities. The largest emission sources were fugitive emissions from certain compressor-related equipment and "super-emitter" facilities. We estimate total methane emissions from the T&S sector at 1,503 [1,220 to 1,950] Gg/yr (95% confidence interval) compared to the 2012 Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate of 2,071 [1,680 to 2,690] Gg/yr. While the overlap in confidence intervals indicates that the difference is not statistically significant, this is the result of several significant, but offsetting, factors. Factors which reduce the study estimate include a lower estimated facility count, a shift away from engines toward lower-emitting turbine and electric compressor drivers, and reductions in the usage of gas-driven pneumatic devices. Factors that increase the study estimate relative to the GHGI include updated emission rates in certain emission categories and explicit treatment of skewed emissions at both component and facility levels. For T&S stations that are required to report to the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), this study estimates total emissions to be 260% [215% to 330%] of the reportable emissions for these stations, primarily due to the inclusion of emission sources that are not reported under the GHGRP rules, updated emission factors, and super-emitter emissions. PMID:26195284

  8. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zimmerle, Daniel J; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Quinn, Casey; Subramanian, R; Duggan, Gerald P; Willson, Bryan; Opsomer, Jean D; Marchese, Anthony J; Martinez, David M; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-08-01

    The recent growth in production and utilization of natural gas offers potential climate benefits, but those benefits depend on lifecycle emissions of methane, the primary component of natural gas and a potent greenhouse gas. This study estimates methane emissions from the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the United States natural gas industry using new data collected during 2012, including 2,292 onsite measurements, additional emissions data from 677 facilities and activity data from 922 facilities. The largest emission sources were fugitive emissions from certain compressor-related equipment and "super-emitter" facilities. We estimate total methane emissions from the T&S sector at 1,503 [1,220 to 1,950] Gg/yr (95% confidence interval) compared to the 2012 Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate of 2,071 [1,680 to 2,690] Gg/yr. While the overlap in confidence intervals indicates that the difference is not statistically significant, this is the result of several significant, but offsetting, factors. Factors which reduce the study estimate include a lower estimated facility count, a shift away from engines toward lower-emitting turbine and electric compressor drivers, and reductions in the usage of gas-driven pneumatic devices. Factors that increase the study estimate relative to the GHGI include updated emission rates in certain emission categories and explicit treatment of skewed emissions at both component and facility levels. For T&S stations that are required to report to the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), this study estimates total emissions to be 260% [215% to 330%] of the reportable emissions for these stations, primarily due to the inclusion of emission sources that are not reported under the GHGRP rules, updated emission factors, and super-emitter emissions.

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher E.; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey A.; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, E. C.

    2015-08-11

    A main issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine their field-scale-induced displacements and consequences on the mechanical behavior of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated in an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3/yr-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells was accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area suggests the occurrence of sub-centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with the ASR cycle. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections. The gravity signal reflects deep phenomena and gives additional insight into the repartition of fluids in the subsurface.

  10. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher E.; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey A.; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, E. C.

    2015-08-11

    A main issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine their field-scale-induced displacements and consequences on the mechanical behavior of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated in an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3/yr-1more » into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells was accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area suggests the occurrence of sub-centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with the ASR cycle. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections. The gravity signal reflects deep phenomena and gives additional insight into the repartition of fluids in the subsurface.« less

  11. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  13. The role of sediment structure in gas bubble storage and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wilkinson, J.; Koca, K.; Buchmann, C.; Lorke, A.

    2016-07-01

    Ebullition is an important pathway for methane emission from inland waters. However, the mechanisms controlling methane bubble formation and release in aquatic sediments remain unclear. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the dynamics of methane bubble formation, storage, and release in response to hydrostatic head drops in three different types of natural sediment. Homogenized clayey, silty, and sandy sediments (initially quasi-uniform through the depth of the columns) were incubated in chambers for 3 weeks. We observed three distinct stages of methane bubble formation and release: stage I—microbubble formation-displacing mobile water from sediment pores with negligible ebullition; stage II—formation of large bubbles, displacing the surrounding sediment with concurrent increase in ebullition; and stage III—formation of conduits with relatively steady ebullition. The maximum depth-averaged volumetric gas content at steady state varied from 18.8% in clayey to 12.0% in silty and 13.2% in sandy sediment. Gas storage in the sediment columns showed strong vertical stratification: most of the free gas was stored in an upper layer, whose thickness varied with sediment grain size. The magnitude of individual ebullition episodes was linearly correlated to hydrostatic head drop and decreased from clayey to sandy to silty sediment and was in excess of that estimated from gas expansion alone, indicating the release of pore water methane. These findings combined with a hydrodynamic model capable of determining dominant sediment type and depositional zones could help resolve spatial heterogeneities in methane ebullition at medium to larger scales in inland waters.

  14. Deep gas poses opportunities, challenges to U.S. operators

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.R.; Kuuskraa, J.A.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1998-05-04

    The previous article in this series on emerging natural gas resources introduced deep gas--natural gas in deep onshore sedimentary basins (below 15,000 ft)--by presenting a 1996 US Geological Survey assessment for this resource. The USGS estimated that 114 tcf of technically recoverable conventional and nonconventional deep gas remains to be discovered in the Rocky Mountains (57 tcf), Gulf Coast (27 tcf), Alaska (18 tcf), West Texas/New Mexico (4 tcf), and Midcontinent (3 tcf), among others. This article, third in this series and the second on deep gas, takes a closer look at this large and challenging resource by addressing the following key questions: (1) Where are the locations and what are the differences among the major deep gas basins? (2) How successful and active have the deep gas plays been? (3) What obstacles and rewards are likely for developers of deep gas? This article concludes with reviews and case studies of three specific deep gas basins: the mature Anadarko basin, the emerging Green River basin, and the frontier Wind River basin. Reviews of these basins highlight the challenges in finding and producing deep gas, as well as the results and rewards.

  15. 3-D seismic improves structural mapping of a gas storage reservoir (Paris basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. ); Pinson, C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the Paris basin, anticlinal structures with closure of no more than 80 m and surface area of a few km[sup 2] are used for underground gas storage. At Soings-en-Sologne, a three-dimensional (3-D) survey (13 km[sup 2]) was carried out over such a structure to establish its exact geometry and to detail its fault network. Various reflectors were picked automatically on the migrated data: the top of the Kimmeridgian, the top of the Bathoinian and the base of the Hettangian close to the top of the reservoir. The isochron maps were converted into depth using data from 12 wells. Horizon attributes (amplitude, dip, and azimuth) were used to reconstruct the fault's pattern with much greater accuracy than that supplied by interpretation from previous two-dimensional seismic. The Triassic and the Jurassic are affected by two systems of conjugate faults (N10-N110, inherited from the Hercynian basement and N30-N120). Alternating clay and limestone are the cause of numerous structural disharmonies, particularly on both sides of the Bathonian. Ridges associated with N30-N120 faults suggest compressive movements contemporaneous with the tertiary events. The northern structure in Soings-en-Sologne thus appear to be the result of polyphased tectonics. Its closure (25 m), which is associated either with dips or faults, is described in detail by 3-D seismic, permitting more accurate forecast of the volume available for gas storage.

  16. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Floerchinger, Cody; Tkacik, Daniel S; Mitchell, Austin L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-01

    Equipment- and site-level methane emissions from 45 compressor stations in the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the US natural gas system were measured, including 25 sites required to report under the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program (GHGRP). Direct measurements of fugitive and vented sources were combined with AP-42-based exhaust emission factors (for operating reciprocating engines and turbines) to produce a study onsite estimate. Site-level methane emissions were also concurrently measured with downwind-tracer-flux techniques. At most sites, these two independent estimates agreed within experimental uncertainty. Site-level methane emissions varied from 2-880 SCFM. Compressor vents, leaky isolation valves, reciprocating engine exhaust, and equipment leaks were major sources, and substantial emissions were observed at both operating and standby compressor stations. The site-level methane emission rates were highly skewed; the highest emitting 10% of sites (including two superemitters) contributed 50% of the aggregate methane emissions, while the lowest emitting 50% of sites contributed less than 10% of the aggregate emissions. Excluding the two superemitters, study-average methane emissions from compressor housings and noncompressor sources are comparable to or lower than the corresponding effective emission factors used in the EPA greenhouse gas inventory. If the two superemitters are included in the analysis, then the average emission factors based on this study could exceed the EPA greenhouse gas inventory emission factors, which highlights the potentially important contribution of superemitters to national emissions. However, quantification of their influence requires knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of superemitters across the entire T&S sector. Only 38% of the methane emissions measured by the comprehensive onsite measurements were reportable under the new EPA GHGRP because of a combination of inaccurate emission factors for leakers and

  17. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Floerchinger, Cody; Tkacik, Daniel S; Mitchell, Austin L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-01

    Equipment- and site-level methane emissions from 45 compressor stations in the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the US natural gas system were measured, including 25 sites required to report under the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program (GHGRP). Direct measurements of fugitive and vented sources were combined with AP-42-based exhaust emission factors (for operating reciprocating engines and turbines) to produce a study onsite estimate. Site-level methane emissions were also concurrently measured with downwind-tracer-flux techniques. At most sites, these two independent estimates agreed within experimental uncertainty. Site-level methane emissions varied from 2-880 SCFM. Compressor vents, leaky isolation valves, reciprocating engine exhaust, and equipment leaks were major sources, and substantial emissions were observed at both operating and standby compressor stations. The site-level methane emission rates were highly skewed; the highest emitting 10% of sites (including two superemitters) contributed 50% of the aggregate methane emissions, while the lowest emitting 50% of sites contributed less than 10% of the aggregate emissions. Excluding the two superemitters, study-average methane emissions from compressor housings and noncompressor sources are comparable to or lower than the corresponding effective emission factors used in the EPA greenhouse gas inventory. If the two superemitters are included in the analysis, then the average emission factors based on this study could exceed the EPA greenhouse gas inventory emission factors, which highlights the potentially important contribution of superemitters to national emissions. However, quantification of their influence requires knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of superemitters across the entire T&S sector. Only 38% of the methane emissions measured by the comprehensive onsite measurements were reportable under the new EPA GHGRP because of a combination of inaccurate emission factors for leakers and

  18. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to share non- public, operational information with... facilities used for the transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to share non-...

  19. 76 FR 67177 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; California Independent System Operator... California Independent System Operator Corporation (Respondent), alleging that the application of...

  20. Arsenic release from Floridan Aquifer rock during incubations simulating aquifer storage and recovery operations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Norton, Stuart B; Annable, Michael D; Harris, Willie G

    2016-05-01

    While aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is becoming widely accepted as a way to address water supply shortages, there are concerns that it may lead to release of harmful trace elements such as arsenic (As). Thus, mechanisms of As release from limestone during ASR operations were investigated using 110-day laboratory incubations of core material collected from the Floridan Aquifer, with treatment additions of labile or refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) or microbes. During the first experimental phase, core materials were equilibrated with native groundwater lacking in DO to simulate initial non-perturbed anaerobic aquifer conditions. Then, ASR was simulated by replacing the native groundwater in the incubations vessels with DO-rich ASR source water, with DOM or microbes added to some treatments. Finally, the vessels were opened to the atmosphere to mimic oxidizing conditions during later stages of ASR. Arsenic was released from aquifer materials, mainly during transitional periods at the beginning of each incubation stage. Most As released was during the initial anaerobic experimental phase via reductive dissolution of Fe oxides in the core materials, some or all of which may have formed during the core storage or sample preparation period. Oxidation of As-bearing Fe sulfides released smaller amounts of As during the start of later aerobic experimental phases. Additions of labile DOM fueled microbially-mediated reactions that mobilized As, while the addition of refractory DOM did not, probably due to mineral sorption of DOM that made it unavailable for microbial utilization or metal chelation. The results suggest that oscillations of groundwater redox conditions, such as might be expected to occur during an ASR operation, are the underlying cause of enhanced As release in these systems. Further, ASR operations using DOM-rich surface waters may not necessarily lead to additional As releases.

  1. Arsenic release from Floridan Aquifer rock during incubations simulating aquifer storage and recovery operations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Norton, Stuart B; Annable, Michael D; Harris, Willie G

    2016-05-01

    While aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is becoming widely accepted as a way to address water supply shortages, there are concerns that it may lead to release of harmful trace elements such as arsenic (As). Thus, mechanisms of As release from limestone during ASR operations were investigated using 110-day laboratory incubations of core material collected from the Floridan Aquifer, with treatment additions of labile or refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) or microbes. During the first experimental phase, core materials were equilibrated with native groundwater lacking in DO to simulate initial non-perturbed anaerobic aquifer conditions. Then, ASR was simulated by replacing the native groundwater in the incubations vessels with DO-rich ASR source water, with DOM or microbes added to some treatments. Finally, the vessels were opened to the atmosphere to mimic oxidizing conditions during later stages of ASR. Arsenic was released from aquifer materials, mainly during transitional periods at the beginning of each incubation stage. Most As released was during the initial anaerobic experimental phase via reductive dissolution of Fe oxides in the core materials, some or all of which may have formed during the core storage or sample preparation period. Oxidation of As-bearing Fe sulfides released smaller amounts of As during the start of later aerobic experimental phases. Additions of labile DOM fueled microbially-mediated reactions that mobilized As, while the addition of refractory DOM did not, probably due to mineral sorption of DOM that made it unavailable for microbial utilization or metal chelation. The results suggest that oscillations of groundwater redox conditions, such as might be expected to occur during an ASR operation, are the underlying cause of enhanced As release in these systems. Further, ASR operations using DOM-rich surface waters may not necessarily lead to additional As releases. PMID:26878636

  2. Anisotropic mechanical behaviour of sedimentary basins inferred by advanced radar interferometry above gas storage fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Gambolati, G.; Ferretti, A.

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas is commonly stored underground in depleted oil and gas fields to provide safe storage capacity and deliverability to market areas where production is limited, or to take advantage of seasonal price swings. In response to summer gas injection and winter gas withdrawal the reservoir expands and contracts with the overlying land that moves accordingly. Depending on the field burial depth, a few kilometres of the upper lithosphere are subject to local three-dimensional deformations with the related cyclic motion of the ground surface being both vertical and horizontal. Advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of these seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D poro-mechanical finite-element model of the gas injection/removal occurrence. Model calibration based on the observed cyclic motions, which are on the range of 10-15 mm and 5-10 mm in the vertical and horizontal west-east directions, respectively, helps characterize the nonlinear hysteretic geomechanical properties of the basin. First, using a basin-scale relationship between the oedometric rock compressibility cM in virgin loading conditions versus the effective intergranular stress derived from previous experimental studies, the modeling results show that the ratio s between loading and unloading-reloading cM is about 4, consistent with in-situ expansions measured by the radioactive marker technique in similar reservoirs

  3. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty.

  4. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty. PMID:25041168

  5. Sorption pumps and storage for gases

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Peter; Bethel, Dylan

    2016-08-16

    A method and system for filling gas storage vessels from a source operates by cooling a sorbent, opening a valve to transfer gas by physisorption, regulating the sorbent temperature to achieve the desired degree of filling, closing the valve connecting to the gas source, and warming the tank, sorbent, and gas to provide a predetermined pressure at room temperature.

  6. TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence J. Pekot

    2004-06-30

    Two gas storage fields were studied for this project. Overisel field, operated by Consumer's Energy, is located near the town of Holland, Michigan. Huntsman Storage Unit, operated by Kinder Morgan, is located in Cheyenne County, Nebraska near the town of Sidney. Wells in both fields experienced declining performance over several years of their annual injection/production cycle. In both fields, the presence of hydrocarbons, organic materials or production chemicals was suspected as the cause of progressive formation damage leading to the performance decline. Core specimens and several material samples were collected from these two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

  7. 75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Rulemaking (NPR) in the Federal Register (72 FR 9884). This NPR requested comments on proposed revisions to... Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1010-AD12 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Requirements AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS),...

  8. Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

  9. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

  10. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  11. Real-time terrain storage generation from multiple sensors towards mobile robot operation interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots. PMID:25101321

  12. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is located in the 200 East Area adjacent to B Plant on the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The current WESF mission is to receive and store the cesium and strontium capsules that were manufactured at WESF in a safe manner and in compliance with all applicable rules and regulations. The scope of WESF operations is currently limited to receipt, inspection, decontamination, storage, and surveillance of capsules in addition to facility maintenance activities. The capsules are expected to be stored at WESF until the year 2017, at which time they will have been transferred for ultimate disposition. The WESF facility was designed and constructed to process, encapsulate, and store the extracted long-lived radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, from wastes generated during the chemical processing of defense fuel on the Hanford Site thus ensuring isolation of hazardous radioisotopes from the environment. The construction of WESF started in 1971 and was completed in 1973. Some of the {sup 137}Cs capsules were leased by private irradiators or transferred to other programs. All leased capsules have been returned to WESF. Capsules transferred to other programs will not be returned except for the seven powder and pellet Type W overpacks already stored at WESF.

  13. Real-Time Terrain Storage Generation from Multiple Sensors towards Mobile Robot Operation Interface

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots. PMID:25101321

  14. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  15. Numerical Examination of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes Operated in Charge Storage Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Joseph W., Jr.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of silicon-based avalanche photodiodes (APD's) operated in the charge storage mode is examined. In the charge storage mode, the diodes are periodically biased to a sub-breakdown voltage and then open-circuited. During this integration period, photo-excited and thermally generated carriers are accumulated within the structure. The dynamics of this accumulation and its effects upon the avalanching of the diode warrants a detailed, fully numerical analysis. The salient features of this investigation include device sensitivity to the input photo-current including the self-quenching effect of the diode and its limitations in sensing low light levels, the dependence of the response on the bulk lifetime and hence on the generation current within the device, the initial gain, transient response, dependence of the device uniformity upon performance, and the quantity of storable charge within the device. To achieve these tasks our device simulator, STEBS-2D, was utilized. A modified current-controlled boundary condition is employed which allows for the simulation of the isolated diode after the initial reset bias has been applied. With this boundary condition, it is possible to establish a steady-state voltage on the ohmic contact and then effectively remove the device from the external circuit while still including effects from surface recombination, trapped surface charge, and leakage current from the read-out electronics.

  16. Real-time terrain storage generation from multiple sensors towards mobile robot operation interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots.

  17. Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.

  18. 77 FR 31844 - New Mexico Gas Company, Inc; Notice of Revised Statement of Operating Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Mexico Gas Company, Inc; Notice of Revised Statement of Operating Conditions Take notice that on May 18, 2012, New Mexico Gas Company, Inc. (NMGC) submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC). NMGC...

  19. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs. PMID:26944456

  20. Optimal Operation of a Thermal Energy Storage Tank Using Linear Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civit Sabate, Carles

    In this thesis, an optimization procedure for minimizing the operating costs of a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank is presented. The facility in which the optimization is based is the combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) plant at the University of California, Irvine. TES tanks provide the ability of decoupling the demand of chilled water from its generation, over the course of a day, from the refrigeration and air-conditioning plants. They can be used to perform demand-side management, and optimization techniques can help to approach their optimal use. The proposed optimization approach provides a fast and reliable methodology of finding the optimal use of the TES tank to reduce energy costs and provides a tool for future implementation of optimal control laws on the system. Advantages of the proposed methodology are studied using simulation with historical data.

  1. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  2. Efficient Storage and Querying of Horizontal Tables Using a PIVOT Operation in Commercial Relational DBMSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Hyun; Moon, Yang-Sae; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Sang-Wook

    In recent years, a horizontal table with a large number of attributes is widely used in OLAP or e-business applications to analyze multidimensional data efficiently. For efficient storing and querying of horizontal tables, recent works have tried to transform a horizontal table to a traditional vertical table. Existing works, however, have the drawback of not considering an optimized PIVOT operation provided (or to be provided) in recent commercial RDBMSs. In this paper we propose a formal approach that exploits the optimized PIVOT operation of commercial RDBMSs for storing and querying of horizontal tables. To achieve this goal, we first provide an overall framework that stores and queries a horizontal table using an equivalent vertical table. Under the proposed framework, we then formally define 1) a method that stores a horizontal table in an equivalent vertical table and 2) a PIVOT operation that converts a stored vertical table to an equivalent horizontal view. Next, we propose a novel method that transforms a user-specified query on horizontal tables to an equivalent PIVOT-included query on vertical tables. In particular, by providing transformation rules for all five elementary operations in relational algebra as theorems, we prove our method is theoretically applicable to commercial RDBMSs. Experimental results show that, compared with the earlier work, our method reduces storage space significantly and also improves average performance by several orders of magnitude. These results indicate that our method provides an excellent framework to maximize performance in handling horizontal tables by exploiting the optimized PIVOT operation in commercial RDBMSs.

  3. Theory to boil-off gas cooled shields for cryogenic storage vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.

    2004-03-01

    An intermediate refrigeration with boil-off gas cooled shields using the boil-off gas stream is an alternative method to the conventional intermediate refrigeration with a cryogenic liquid. By using an analytical calculation method relations are derived, which enable complete predictions about the effectiveness of an intermediate refrigeration with boil-off gas cooled shields as a function of the number of shields for the different stored cryogenic liquids. For this theoretical derivation however, the restrictive assumption must be made that the thermal conductivity of the used insulation material has a constant value between the considered temperature boundaries. For purposes of a more exact calculation a numerical method is therefore suggested, which takes into consideration that the thermal conductivity is temperature-dependent. For a liquid hydrogen storage vessel with a perlite-vacuum insulation e.g., the effectiveness of one shield and its equilibrium temperature are given as a function of the position of the shield in the insulation space.

  4. GC/MS Gas Separator Operates At Lower Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Gutnikov, George

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show palladium/silver tube used to separate hydrogen carrier gas from gases being analyzed in gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) system functions satisfactorily at temperatures as low as 70 to 100 degrees C. Less power consumed, and catalytic hydrogenation of compounds being analyzed diminished. Because separation efficiency high even at lower temperatures, gas load on vacuum pump of mass spectrometer kept low, permitting use of smaller pump. These features facilitate development of relatively small, lightweight, portable GC/MS system for such uses as measuring concentrations of pollutants in field.

  5. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  6. A coupled nuclear reactor thermal energy storage system for enhanced load following operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameri, Saeed A.

    Nuclear power plants usually provide base-load electric power and operate most economically at a constant power level. In an energy grid with a high fraction of renewable energy sources, future nuclear reactors may be subject to significantly variable power demands. These variable power demands can negatively impact the effective capacity factor of the reactor and result in severe economic penalties. Coupling the reactor to a large Thermal Energy Storage (TES) block will allow the reactor to better respond to variable power demands. In the system described in this thesis, a Prismatic-core Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PAHTR) operates at constant power with heat provided to a TES block that supplies power as needed to a secondary energy conversion system. The PAHTR is designed to have a power rating of 300 MW th, with 19.75 wt% enriched Tri-Structural-Isotropic UO 2 fuel and a five year operating cycle. The passive molten salt TES system will operate in the latent heat region with an energy storage capacity of 150 MWd. Multiple smaller TES blocks are used instead of one large block to enhance the efficiency and maintenance complexity of the system. A transient model of the coupled reactor/TES system is developed to study the behavior of the system in response to varying load demands. The model uses six-delayed group point kinetics and decay heat models coupled to thermal-hydraulic and heat transfer models of the reactor and TES system. Based on the transient results, the preferred TES design consists of 1000 blocks, each containing 11000 LiCl phase change material tubes. A safety assessment of major reactor events demonstrates the inherent safety of the coupled system. The loss of forced circulation study determined the minimum required air convection heat removal rate from the reactor core and the lowest possible reduced primary flow rate that can maintain the reactor in a safe condition. The loss of ultimate heat sink study demonstrated the ability of the TES

  7. Ethanol, acetone and ammonia gas room temperature operated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Iqbal; Bedi, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    CuO nanocrystalline thick films were fabricated from powder synthesized by a sol-gel auto combustion route at different pH value of the precursor solution. The gas sensing response of thick film samples towards ethanol, acetone and ammonia gases has been tested and response has been found to be higher for ammonia gas. The sensor recovers its original state after ammonia exposure.

  8. Simulation and comparison of different operational strategies for storage utilization in concentrated solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Erdocia, Ioseba

    2016-05-01

    The increase of electric power demand and the wish to protect the environment are leading to a change in the energy sources. Conventional energy plants are losing strength against the renewable energy plants and, in particular, solar energy plants have a huge potential to provide clean energy supply for the increasing world's energy demand. Among the existing solar technologies, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising technologies. One of the major advantages of CSP plants is the technically feasible and cost-effective integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems. To increase the plant dispatchability, it is possible to create different operational strategies defining how such TES system is used. In this work, different strategies with different overall goals have been simulated over a complete year and the results are presented and compared here to demonstrate the capabilities of the operational strategies towards an increased dispatchability and plant economic effectiveness. The analysis shows that different strategies may lead to significant differences in the plant annual production, expected economic incomes, number of power block stops, mean efficiency, etc. Specifically, it has been found that the economic incomes of a plant can be increased (+1.3%) even with a decreased total energy production (-1.5%) if the production is scheduled to follow a demand/price curve. Also, dramatic reduction in the number of turbine stops (-67%) can be achieved if the plant is operated towards this objective. The strategies presented in this study have not been optimized towards any specific objective, but only created to show the potential of well designed operational strategies in CSP plants. Therefore, many other strategies as well as optimized versions of the strategies explained below are possible and will be analyzed in future works.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  10. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhiliang; McGuire, A. David

    2016-06-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  11. CO2 Storage by Sorption on Organic Matter and Clay in Gas Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-10-10

    Simulations of methane production and supercritical carbon dioxide injection were developed that consider competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on both organic matter and montmorillonite. The results were used to assess the potential for storage of CO2 in a hydraulically fractured shale gas reservoir and for enhanced recovery of CH4. Assuming equal volume fractions of organic matter and montmorillonite, amounts of CO2 adsorbed on both materials were comparable, while methane desorption was from clays was two times greater than desorption from organic material. The most successful strategy considered CO2 injection from a separate well and enhanced methane recovery by 73%, while storing 240 kmt of CO2.

  12. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  13. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  14. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Gillett, James E.; Basel, Richard A.; Antenucci, Annette B.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  15. Geochemical Implications of Gas Leakage Associated with Geologic CO2 Storage - A Qualitative Review

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Lee, Gie Hyeon; Amonette, James E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2013-01-01

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is considered the major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of CO2. Different schools of thought exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. We reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of overlying potable aquifers. Results from experimental and modeling studies point to the potential for both beneficial (e.g. contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g. contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion into potable groundwater. However, there are significant discrepancies between studies particularly concerning, what contaminants are of concern and the geochemical processes involved. These discrepancies reflected the lack of a consensus on CO2-induced changes in subsurface geochemical processes and subsequent effects on groundwater chemistry. The development of consistent experimental protocols and the identification of pertinent factors driving CO2-induced geochemical changes in the subsurface were identified as key research needs. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why a standardization of experimental protocols and the consideration of experimental factors such as gas leakage rates, redox status and the influence of co-transported gases are pertinent. The role of analog studies, reactions occurring in the vadose zone, and the influence of organic contaminants are also discussed.

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  17. A Risk Management Method for the Operation of a Supply-Chain without Storage:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Yuuji; Nakata, Norimasa; Kusaka, Satoshi

    A business risk management method has been developed for a supply-chain without a storage function under demand uncertainty. Power supply players in the deregulated power market face the need to develop the best policies for power supply from self-production and reserved purchases to balance demand, which is predictable with error. The proposed method maximizes profit from the operation of the supply-chain under probabilistic demand uncertainty on the basis of a probabilistic programming approach. Piece-wise linear functions are employed to formulate the impact of under-booked or over-booked purchases on the supply cost, and constraints on over-demand probability are introduced to limit over-demand frequency on the basis of the demand probability distribution. The developed method has been experimentally applied to the supply policy of a power-supply-chain, the operation of which is based on a 3-stage pricing purchase contract and on 28 time zones. The characteristics of the obtained optimal supply policy are successfully captured in the numerical results, which suggest the applicability of the proposed method.

  18. Operational Implementation of the MARSSIM Process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, D. C. Jr.; Trujillo, P. A. IV.; Zoller, S. G.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the methodologies behind the operational implementation of the Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Environmental Chemical Corporation (ECC) have implemented the MARSSIM process using various surveys producing raw data. The final remedial status of a survey unit is derived through data reduction, while maintaining a high degree of efficiency in the construction aspects of the remedial action. Data reduction of field measurements is accomplished by merging the data outputs of a Digital Global Positioning System, an exposure rate meter, and laboratory analyses to produce maps which present exposure rates, elevations, survey unit boundaries, direct measurement locations, and sampling locations on a single map. The map serves as a data-posting plot and allows the project team to easily judge the survey unit's remedial status. The operational implementation of the MARSSIM process has been successful in determining the eligibility of survey units for final status surveys at the WISS and also in demonstrating final status radiological and chemical conditions while maintaining an efficient remedial action effort.

  19. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1972-01-01

    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  20. Operation of a Wind Turbine-Flywheel Energy Storage System under Conditions of Stochastic Change of Wind Energy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  1. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  2. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  5. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  6. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  7. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity.

  8. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity. PMID:25363162

  9. Methane Emissions from Leak and Loss Audits of Natural Gas Compressor Stations and Storage Facilities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Environmental Defense Fund's Barnett Coordinated Campaign, researchers completed leak and loss audits for methane emissions at three natural gas compressor stations and two natural gas storage facilities. Researchers employed microdilution high-volume sampling systems in conjunction with in situ methane analyzers, bag samples, and Fourier transform infrared analyzers for emissions rate quantification. All sites had a combined total methane emissions rate of 94.2 kg/h, yet only 12% of the emissions total resulted from leaks. Methane slip from exhausts represented 44% of the total emissions. Remaining methane emissions were attributed to losses from pneumatic actuators and controls, engine crankcases, compressor packing vents, wet seal vents, and slop tanks. Measured values were compared with those reported in literature. Exhaust methane emissions were lower than emissions factor estimates for engine exhausts, but when combined with crankcase emissions, measured values were 11.4% lower than predicted by AP-42 as applicable to emissions factors for four-stroke, lean-burn engines. Average measured wet seal emissions were 3.5 times higher than GRI values but 14 times lower than those reported by Allen et al. Reciprocating compressor packing vent emissions were 39 times higher than values reported by GRI, but about half of values reported by Allen et al. Though the data set was small, researchers have suggested a method to estimate site-wide emissions factors for those powered by four-stroke, lean-burn engines based on fuel consumption and site throughput.

  10. Development of an Operation Control System for Photovoltaics and Electric Storage Heaters for Houses Based on Information in Weather Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    An all-electric home using an electric storage heater with safety and cleaning is expanded. However, the general electric storage heater leads to an unpleasant room temperature and energy loss by the overs and shorts of the amount of heat radiation when the climate condition changes greatly. Consequently, the operation of the electric storage heater introduced into an all-electric home, a storage type electric water heater, and photovoltaics was planned using weather forecast information distributed by a communication line. The comfortable evaluation (the difference between a room-temperature target and a room-temperature result) when the proposed system was employed based on the operation planning, purchase electric energy, and capacity of photovoltaics was investigated. As a result, comfortable heating operation was realized by using weather forecast data; furthermore, it is expected that the purchase cost of the commercial power in daytime can be reduced by introducing photovoltaics. Moreover, when the capacity of the photovoltaics was increased, the surplus power was stored in the electric storage heater, but an extremely unpleasant room temperature was not shown in the investigation ranges of this paper. By obtaining weather information from the forecast of the day from an external service using a communication line, the heating system of the all-electric home with low energy loss and comfort temperature is realizable.

  11. 75 FR 26220 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of a Site Visit April 30, 2010. The staff of the...

  12. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  13. 49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...

  14. 49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...

  15. 49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...

  16. 49 CFR 192.1005 - What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do to implement this subpart? 192.1005 Section 192.1005...) § 192.1005 What must a gas distribution operator (other than a master meter or small LPG operator) do...

  17. Endohedral nitrogen storage in carbon fullerene structures: physisorption to chemisorption transition with increasing gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Barraza, R E; Guirado-López, R A

    2009-06-21

    We present extensive pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the structural properties and chemical reactivity of nitrogen molecules confined in spheroidal (C(82)) and tubelike (C(110)) carbon fullerene structures. For a small number of encapsulated nitrogens, the N(2) species exist in a nonbonded state within the cavities and form well defined molecular conformations such as linear chains, zigzag arrays, as well as both spheroidal and tubular configurations. However, with increasing the number of stored molecules, the interaction among the confined nitrogens as well as between the N(2) species and the fullerene wall is not always mainly repulsive. Actually, at high densities of the encapsulated gas, we found both adsorption of N(2) to the inner carbon surface together with the formation of (N(2))(m) molecular clusters. Total energy DFT calculations reveal that the shape of the interaction potential of a test molecule moving within the carbon cavities strongly varies with the number and proximity of the coadsorbed N(2) from being purely repulsive to having short-range attractive contributions close to the inner wall. In particular, the latter are always found when a group of closely spaced nitrogens is located near the carbon cage (a fact that will naturally occur at high densities of the encapsulated gas), inducing the formation of covalent bonds between the N(2) and the fullerene network. Interestingly, in some cases, the previous nitrogen adsorption to the inner surface is reversible by reducing the gas pressure. The calculated average density of states of our considered carbon compounds reveals the appearance of well defined features that clearly reflect the occurring structural changes and modifications in the adsorption properties in the systems. Our results clearly underline the crucial role played by confinement effects on the reactivity of our endohedral compounds, define this kind of materials as nonideal

  18. The influence of woody encroachment on the nitrogen cycle: fixation, storage and gas loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, F.; Sparks, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Woody encroachment is a pervasive land cover change throughout the tropics and subtropics. Encroachment is frequently catalyzed by nitrogen (N)-fixing trees and the resulting N inputs potentially alter whole-ecosystem N cycling, accumulation and loss. In the southern US, widespread encroachment by legume Prosopis glandulosa is associated with increased soil total N storage, inorganic N concentrations, and net mineralization and nitrification rates. To better understand the effects of this process on ecosystem N cycling, we investigated patterns of symbiotic N fixation, N accrual and soil N trace gas and N2 emissions during Prosopis encroachment into the southern Rio Grande Plains. Analyses of d15N in foliage, xylem sap and plant-available soil N suggested that N fixation rates increase with tree age and are influenced by abiotic conditions. A model of soil N accrual around individual trees, accounting for atmospheric inputs and gas losses, generates lifetimes N fixation estimates of up to 9 kg for a 100-year-old tree and current rates of 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, these N inputs and increased soil cycling rates do not translate into increased N gas losses. Two years of field measurements of a complete suite of N trace gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and other oxidized N compounds) found no difference in flux between upland Prosopis groves and adjacent unencroached grasslands. Total emissions for both land cover types average 0.56-0.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, comparable to other southern US grasslands. Additional lab experiments suggested that N2 losses are low and that field oxygen conditions are not usually conducive to denitrification. Taken together, results suggest that this ecosystem is currently experiencing a period of net N accrual under ongoing encroachment.

  19. Steady-state canopy gas exchange: system design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a commercial growth chamber for canopy photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration measurements. The system was designed to measure transpiration via water vapor fluxes, and the importance of this measurement is discussed. Procedures for continuous measurement of root-zone respiration are described, and new data is presented to dispel myths about sources of water vapor interference in photosynthesis and in the measurement of CO2 by infrared gas analysis. Mitchell (1992) has described the fundamentals of various approaches to measuring photosynthesis. Because our system evolved from experience with other types of single-leaf and canopy gas-exchange systems, it is useful to review advantages and disadvantages of different systems as they apply to various research objectives.

  20. Steady-state canopy gas exchange: system design and operation.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the use of a commercial growth chamber for canopy photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration measurements. The system was designed to measure transpiration via water vapor fluxes, and the importance of this measurement is discussed. Procedures for continuous measurement of root-zone respiration are described, and new data is presented to dispel myths about sources of water vapor interference in photosynthesis and in the measurement of CO2 by infrared gas analysis. Mitchell (1992) has described the fundamentals of various approaches to measuring photosynthesis. Because our system evolved from experience with other types of single-leaf and canopy gas-exchange systems, it is useful to review advantages and disadvantages of different systems as they apply to various research objectives.

  1. The gas electron multiplier (GEM): Operating principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the author in 1997, The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) constitutes a powerful addition to the family of fast radiation detectors; originally developed for particle physics experiments, the device and has spawned a large number of developments and applications; a web search yields more than 400 articles on the subject. This note is an attempt to summarize the status of the design, developments and applications of the new detector.

  2. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  3. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... issuance or amendment of an operating license for a nuclear power reactor under parts 50 and 54 of this chapter, or issuance or amendment of a combined license for a nuclear power reactor under parts 52 and 54... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of...

  4. 10 CFR 51.23 - Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of reactor operation-generic determination of no...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... issuance or amendment of an operating license for a nuclear power reactor under parts 50 and 54 of this chapter, or issuance or amendment of a combined license for a nuclear power reactor under parts 52 and 54... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary storage of spent fuel after cessation of...

  5. Comparative modeling of fault reactivation and seismicity in geologic carbon storage and shale-gas reservoir stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cappa, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The potential for fault reactivation and induced seismicity are issues of concern related to both geologic CO2 sequestration and stimulation of shale-gas reservoirs. It is well known that underground injection may cause induced seismicity depending on site-specific conditions, such a stress and rock properties and injection parameters. To date no sizeable seismic event that could be felt by the local population has been documented associated with CO2 sequestration activities. In the case of shale-gas fracturing, only a few cases of felt seismicity have been documented out of hundreds of thousands of hydraulic fracturing stimulation stages. In this paper we summarize and review numerical simulations of injection-induced fault reactivation and induced seismicity associated with both underground CO2 injection and hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. The simulations were conducted with TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modeling. In this case we employed both 2D and 3D models with an explicit representation of a fault. A strain softening Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model a slip-weakening fault slip behavior, enabling modeling of sudden slip that was interpreted as a seismic event, with a moment magnitude evaluated using formulas from seismology. In the case of CO2 sequestration, injection rates corresponding to expected industrial scale CO2 storage operations were used, raising the reservoir pressure until the fault was reactivated. For the assumed model settings, it took a few months of continuous injection to increase the reservoir pressure sufficiently to cause the fault to reactivate. In the case of shale-gas fracturing we considered that the injection fluid during one typical 3-hour fracturing stage was channelized into a fault along with the hydraulic fracturing process. Overall, the analysis shows that while the CO2 geologic sequestration in deep sedimentary formations are capable of producing notable events (e

  6. The use of fixed bed absorbents for flexible operation on the SAGE gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnell, P.J.H.; Joslin, K.W.; Woodham, P.R.

    1995-11-01

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. operates the SAGE Gas Terminal at St. Fergus, Scotland on behalf of the SAGE partners. This terminal is capable of processing 1,150 MMscfd of sour gas with the sales gas being delivered into the British Gas distribution network and NGL`s exported by pipelines to Shell`s NGL fractionation plant at Mossmorran and BP`s fractionation plant at Kinneil. In order to meet the specifications for the sales gas and NGL produced while processing different mixtures of three separate feed gases produced by three independently operated production platforms the SAGE Gas Terminal has utilized ICI Katalco`s PURASPEC{trademark} processes to provide flexibility and reduce cost. This paper discusses how and where these fixed bed processes are utilized.

  7. Comparison of carbon stripper foils under operational conditions at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Spickerman, Thomas; Borden, Michael J; Macek, Robert J; Sugai, Isao

    2008-01-01

    At the 39{sup th} ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop HB 2006 and the 23{sup rd} INTDS World Conference we reported on first results of a test of nanocrystalline diamond foils developed at ORNL under operational conditions at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). We have continued these tests during the 2006 and 2007 run cycles and have been able to compare the diamond foils with the foils that are normally in use in PSR, which were originally developed by Sugai at KEK. We have gathered valuable information regarding foil lifetime, foil related beam losses and electron emission at the foil. Additional insight was gained under unusual beam conditions where the foiIs are subjected to higher temperatures. In the 2007 run cycle we also tested a Diamond-like-Carbon foil developed at TRIUMF. A Hybrid-Boron-Carbon foil, also developed by Sugai, is presently in use with the PSR production beam. We will summarize our experience with these different foil types.

  8. Operating characteristics of a 0.87 kW-hr flywheel energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Scibbe, H. W.; Parker, R. D.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion is given of the design and loss characteristics of 0.87 kW-hr (peak) flywheel energy storage module suitable for aerospace and automotive applications. The maraging steel flywheel rotor, a 46-cm- (18-in-) diameter, 58-kg (128-lb) tapered disk, delivers 0.65 kW-hr of usable energy between operating speeds of 10,000 and 20,000 rpm. The rotor is supported by 20- and 25-mm bore diameter, deep-groove ball bearings, lubricated by a self-replenishing wick type lubrication system. To reduce aerodynamic losses, the rotor housing was evacuated to vacuum levels from 40 to 200 millitorr. Dynamic rotor instabilities uncovered during testing necessitated the use of an elastometric-bearing damper to limit shaft excursions. Spindown losses from bearing, seal, and aerodynamic drag at 50 millitorr typically ranged from 64 to 193 W at 10,000 and 20,000 rpm, respectively. Discharge efficiency of the flywheel system exceeded 96 percent at torque levels greater than 21 percent of rated torque.

  9. Degradation in the efficiency of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated without external gas supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.

    2015-06-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are particle detectors commonly used by the high energy physics community. Their normal operation requires a constant flow of gas mixture to prevent self-poisoning which reduces the chamber's capability to detect particles. We studied how quickly the efficiency of two RPCs drops when operated in sealed mode, i.e. without refreshing the gas mixture. The test aim is to determine how RPCs could be used as particle detectors in non-laboratory applications, such as those exploiting muon tomography for geological imaging or homeland security. The two sealed RPCs were operated in proportional mode for a period of more than three months, and their efficiencies were recorded continuously and analysed in 8-hours intervals. The results show that the efficiency drops on average by 0.79 ± 0.01 % every 24 hours of operation and returns close to the initial value after purging the old gas mixture and flushing the chambers with fresh gas.

  10. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  11. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  12. N2 Gas Flushing Alleviates the Loss of Bacterial Diversity and Inhibits Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas during the Cold Storage of Bovine Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Alatossava, Tapani; Kublik, Susanne; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Schloter, Michael; Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of raw milk still remains a worldwide challenge. Culture-dependent methods indicated that the continuous N2 gas-flushing of raw milk reduced the bacterial growth during cold storage by up to four orders of magnitude, compared to cold storage alone. This study investigated the influence of N2 gas-flushing on bacterial diversity in bovine raw-milk samples, that were either cold stored at 6°C or additionally flushed with pure N2 for up to one week. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes, derived from amplified cDNA, which was obtained from RNA directly isolated from raw-milk samples, was performed. The reads, which were clustered into 2448 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were phylogenetically classified. Our data revealed a drastic reduction in the diversity of OTUs in raw milk during cold storage at 6°C at 97% similarity level; but, the N2-flushing treatment alleviated this reduction and substantially limited the loss of bacterial diversity during the same cold-storage period. Compared to cold-stored milk, the initial raw-milk samples contained less Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) but more Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceaea, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceaea) and Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroidales). Significant differences between cold-stored and additionally N2-flushed milk were mainly related to higher levels of Pseudomononadaceae (including the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) in cold-stored milk samples; furthermore, rare taxa were better preserved by the N2 gas flushing compared to the cold storage alone. No major changes in bacterial composition with time were found regarding the distribution of the major 9 OTUs, that dominated the Pseudomonas genus in N2-flushed or non-flushed milk samples, other than an intriguing predominance of bacteria related to P. veronii. Overall, this study established that neither bacteria causing milk

  13. N2 Gas Flushing Alleviates the Loss of Bacterial Diversity and Inhibits Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas during the Cold Storage of Bovine Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kublik, Susanne; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Schloter, Michael; Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of raw milk still remains a worldwide challenge. Culture-dependent methods indicated that the continuous N2 gas-flushing of raw milk reduced the bacterial growth during cold storage by up to four orders of magnitude, compared to cold storage alone. This study investigated the influence of N2 gas-flushing on bacterial diversity in bovine raw-milk samples, that were either cold stored at 6°C or additionally flushed with pure N2 for up to one week. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes, derived from amplified cDNA, which was obtained from RNA directly isolated from raw-milk samples, was performed. The reads, which were clustered into 2448 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were phylogenetically classified. Our data revealed a drastic reduction in the diversity of OTUs in raw milk during cold storage at 6°C at 97% similarity level; but, the N2-flushing treatment alleviated this reduction and substantially limited the loss of bacterial diversity during the same cold-storage period. Compared to cold-stored milk, the initial raw-milk samples contained less Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) but more Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceaea, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceaea) and Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroidales). Significant differences between cold-stored and additionally N2-flushed milk were mainly related to higher levels of Pseudomononadaceae (including the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) in cold-stored milk samples; furthermore, rare taxa were better preserved by the N2 gas flushing compared to the cold storage alone. No major changes in bacterial composition with time were found regarding the distribution of the major 9 OTUs, that dominated the Pseudomonas genus in N2-flushed or non-flushed milk samples, other than an intriguing predominance of bacteria related to P. veronii. Overall, this study established that neither bacteria causing milk

  14. N2 Gas Flushing Alleviates the Loss of Bacterial Diversity and Inhibits Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas during the Cold Storage of Bovine Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Alatossava, Tapani; Kublik, Susanne; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Schloter, Michael; Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of raw milk still remains a worldwide challenge. Culture-dependent methods indicated that the continuous N2 gas-flushing of raw milk reduced the bacterial growth during cold storage by up to four orders of magnitude, compared to cold storage alone. This study investigated the influence of N2 gas-flushing on bacterial diversity in bovine raw-milk samples, that were either cold stored at 6°C or additionally flushed with pure N2 for up to one week. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes, derived from amplified cDNA, which was obtained from RNA directly isolated from raw-milk samples, was performed. The reads, which were clustered into 2448 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were phylogenetically classified. Our data revealed a drastic reduction in the diversity of OTUs in raw milk during cold storage at 6°C at 97% similarity level; but, the N2-flushing treatment alleviated this reduction and substantially limited the loss of bacterial diversity during the same cold-storage period. Compared to cold-stored milk, the initial raw-milk samples contained less Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) but more Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceaea, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceaea) and Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroidales). Significant differences between cold-stored and additionally N2-flushed milk were mainly related to higher levels of Pseudomononadaceae (including the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) in cold-stored milk samples; furthermore, rare taxa were better preserved by the N2 gas flushing compared to the cold storage alone. No major changes in bacterial composition with time were found regarding the distribution of the major 9 OTUs, that dominated the Pseudomonas genus in N2-flushed or non-flushed milk samples, other than an intriguing predominance of bacteria related to P. veronii. Overall, this study established that neither bacteria causing milk

  15. Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

  16. Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an H/sub 2/S environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, M.W.; Hodgson, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and H/sub 2/S in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

  17. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Productive wells include producing wells and wells mechanically capable of production. (4) Undeveloped... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties,...

  18. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Productive wells include producing wells and wells mechanically capable of production. (4) Undeveloped... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties,...

  19. [Intestinal gas explosion during operation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Bouhours, G; Tesson, B; De Bourmont, S; Lorimier, G; Granry, J-C

    2003-04-01

    A case of intestinal gas explosion during the course of carcinologic surgery in a 51-year-old patient is reported. This accident, often dramatic, has become exceptional since the use of mannitol for colonic preparation has disappeared. This incident occurred during the course of a total pelvic exenteration performed under general anaesthesia with inhalation of both a mixture oxygen-nitrous oxide and volatile agents. The colon incision with an electrocautery was contemporaneous with a violent deflagration accountable for organic lesions. This case report reminds us that the risk of a dangerous explosion persists in relation with surgical, anaesthetic and individual risk factors. PMID:12818332

  20. [Intestinal gas explosion during operation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Bouhours, G; Tesson, B; De Bourmont, S; Lorimier, G; Granry, J-C

    2003-04-01

    A case of intestinal gas explosion during the course of carcinologic surgery in a 51-year-old patient is reported. This accident, often dramatic, has become exceptional since the use of mannitol for colonic preparation has disappeared. This incident occurred during the course of a total pelvic exenteration performed under general anaesthesia with inhalation of both a mixture oxygen-nitrous oxide and volatile agents. The colon incision with an electrocautery was contemporaneous with a violent deflagration accountable for organic lesions. This case report reminds us that the risk of a dangerous explosion persists in relation with surgical, anaesthetic and individual risk factors.