Science.gov

Sample records for gas storage operations

  1. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  2. Basic gas storage reservoir operations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    Operation and performance analysis of gas storage reservoirs is described in very basic and general terms. Reservoir selection criteria (capacity, deliverability, location, field type, trap type) are reviewed. Well construction considerations and practices (casing sizing, placement, and cementing) are highlighted with regard to the need for long-lived safe operation. Deliverability estimation and prediction and gas inventory methodologies are described. The benefits of high density, high quality data on gas pressure and composition, production rates and volumes, and geologic information to reservoir performance evaluation and prediction are demonstrated.

  3. Gas storage project development, operation, and analysis: Basis guidelines for gas storage project development, operation, and operations analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F.

    1995-09-01

    Reservoir selection matches location, capacity, and deliverability to market demand; gathering, processing, compression, land acquisition, and pipeline connection significantly impact economics. Geologic considerations include field-wide variations in permeability, porosity, pay thickness. Well deliverability, and the number of wells required to meet targeted field deliverability can be estimated from kh or {phi}h. Analogous reservoir types can be used to estimate kh, {phi}h ranges for particular fields. Capillary pressure data define pore size distribution and gas-water threshold pressure. Existing well location and log data are essential in mapping subtle stratigraphic relationships. Definitions of field type, trap type, and liquid phases are important to the economics of storage development and operations, since safe high pressure storage is of greater benefit. Well construction considerations include location, type (vertical/slant/horizontal), and completion type to maximize drainage and deliverability; casing sizing to eliminate frictional pressure loss; and casing cementing for long-term mechanical integrity. Deliverability prediction uses well/gathering system nodal pressure data. The importance of deliverability maintenance/enhancement is increasing as markets demand ever greater deliverability. By design, a field allows cycling of an expected volume; loss of potential decreases efficiently. Inventory verification relies on well pressure and fluid data, accurate metering, and estimation of losses or leaks and fuel use. Data quality, quantity and management affect results in all these major areas of storage operations.

  4. Relevance of trapping mechanisms in certain Michigan formation stray sandstone gas reservoirs to gas storage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    The Stray sandstones of the Michigan Formation were early exploration targets in the Michigan basin. Subsequent to primary production, some of these reservoirs were converted to gas storage. Many of the Stray fields were discovered in an underpressured state, whereas peak storage pressures often exceed native brine gradients. It can be demonstrated that the Stray sandstones exist in sheets and lenses throughout the central basin area, and that gas/water contacts exist in the gas reservoirs but behave volumetrically. Various indirect and direct evidence indicates that gas is trapped structurally by the antiformal geometry of the sandstone bodies, by probable fracture-controlled porosity, stratigraphically by the isolation of parts of the sand bodies due to depositional and diagenetic influences, and by structurally controlled stratigraphic relationships. The understanding of the trapping mechanisms allows successful high pressure-gradient gas storage and leads to understanding reservoir behavior, which should result in efficient storage development and operation. Additional direct and secondary benefits of understanding Stray sandstone structure and stratigraphy are demonstrated for gas storage operation nuisances such as water production, and for use of the Stray as a window to or a type for deeper formations.

  5. Methodology for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, J.C.; Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center is pursuing the development of a methodology that uses geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. Several Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) will serve as the vehicle to implement this product. CRADAs have been signed with National Fuel Gas and Equitrans, Inc. A geologic model is currently being developed for the Equitrans CRADA. Results from the CRADA with National Fuel Gas are discussed here. The first phase of the CRADA, based on original well data, was completed last year and reported at the 1993 Natural Gas RD&D Contractors Review Meeting. Phase 2 analysis was completed based on additional core and geophysical well log data obtained during a deepening/relogging program conducted by the storage operator. Good matches, within 10 percent, of wellhead pressure were obtained using a numerical simulator to history match 2 1/2 injection withdrawal cycles.

  6. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  7. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  8. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  9. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  10. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  11. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  12. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  13. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  14. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  15. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  16. ANR Pipeline Company Experience in secondary liquids recovery resulting from gas storage operations in three Michigan reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    ANR Pipeline Company operates 16 gas storage fields in Michigan, three of which produce significant quantities of secondary hydrocarbon liquid. This discussion reviews the basic geologic framework at Loreed (Reed City oil field) gas storage field and the 30-yr history of gas cycling and secondary oil and gasoline liquids production. The high-density well pattern and extensive data acquisition programs of ANR Pipeline Company contribute to identification of the most poorly drained zones and aid the efficiency and probable maximizing of liquids recovery from Loreed. The performance thus far is compared to prestorage estimates of probable recovery, which have been exceeded. Similarly, geologic frameworks and liquids production histories are presented for the Niagaran reef reservoirs Central Charlton 1 and South Chester 15, with comments as to the efficiency of natural gas cycling as a means of secondary condensate recovery and the use of gas composition as an indication of relative cleanup of native hydrocarbons in the storage-affected area of the reservoir. The degree of porosity/permeability stratification in all three reservoirs is perhaps the dominant factor affecting additional secondary recovery.

  17. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  18. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  19. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  20. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  1. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  2. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  3. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  4. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  5. Coiled tubing applications for underground gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.; Holcombe, D.

    1994-12-31

    Technological advances in coiled tubing (CT), CT handling equipment, and application techniques have provided new opportunities for the effective, economic use of CT for gas storage and retrieval. This paper presents a review of the CT capabilities that can be used for improving the performance of gas storage wells and discusses applications that could be performed with CT in the near future. For more than 25 years, coiled tubing has been use as an effective, economic means of performing remedial well services. In response to the demand for better horizontal drilling equipment, the strength and diameter of CT has been increased, while surface equipment and downhole tools have become more sophisticated. CT is also widely used in well servicing after initial completion, especially since declining oil prices have made it imperative that operators find more cost-effective methods of increasing production and reducing maintenance costs. The gas storage industry can effectively take advantage of the many recent advancements in CT technology.

  6. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  7. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  8. Gas storage and transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, M.R.; Gilmour, R.B.

    1982-02-16

    According to this scheme, associated gas that has been liquefied on an offshore platform or barge and transported under pressure (to reduce cooling requirements) could be received by a land terminal for storage under atmospheric pressure and subsequent vaporization. The pressurized LNG, having a temperature above its ambient-pressure bubble point, passes from the carrier through a heat exchanger where it cools to its ambient-pressure liquefaction temperature; it then flows through a pressure-reduction valve before entering the storage tank. Meanwhile, LNG from the storage tank is pumped up to pipeline pressure and passed through a second heat exchanger for warming before entering the baseload vaporizer. A nitrogen refrigerant circuit acts as the heat-exchange medium between the two exchangers.

  9. 77 FR 10490 - Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 13, 2012, Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to further define...

  10. 78 FR 16495 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2013, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  11. 77 FR 6107 - Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on January 30, 2012, Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC filed a Statement of Operating Conditions to set forth the addition...

  12. 77 FR 14514 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC: Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 2, 2012, Bay Gas Storage, LLC filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, Mark P.; Kedl, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  14. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  15. Storage service helps stabilize gas supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-13

    Underground natural gas storage service is proving to be a successful venture for ANR Storage Company, a subsidiary of American Natural Resources Company. Most of the storage being developed by ANR Storage is in depleted gas fields in the Niagaran reef trend in the northern part of Michigan's lower peninsula. Potential exists in the area to develop 200 billion cu ft of storage capacity in the next few years. The geologic characteristics of the pinnacle reef reservoirs of north Michigan result in highly efficient storage fields, ideally suited to the injection and quick withdrawal of large volumes of gas. According to ANR, base or cushion gas requirements are approximately 1 MCF for each 6 MCF of working storage, substantially less than the requirements of storage fields in other areas of the country.

  16. Gas storage using fullerene based adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor); Lu, Xiao-Chun (Inventor); Li, Weijiong (Inventor); Mikhael, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention is directed to the synthesis of high bulk density high gas absorption capacity adsorbents for gas storage applications. Specifically, this invention is concerned with novel gas absorbents with high gravimetric and volumetric gas adsorption capacities which are made from fullerene-based materials. By pressing fullerene powder into pellet form using a conventional press, then polymerizing it by subjecting the fullerene to high temperature and high inert gas pressure, the resulting fullerene-based materials have high bulk densities and high gas adsorption capacities. By pre-chemical modification or post-polymerization activation processes, the gas adsorption capacities of the fullerene-based adsorbents can be further enhanced. These materials are suitable for low pressure gas storage applications, such as oxygen storage for home oxygen therapy uses or on-board vehicle natural gas storage. They are also suitable for storing gases and vapors such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

  17. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is

  18. 75 FR 53284 - Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; New York State Electric & Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Consolidated)] Chevron Keystone Gas Storage, LLC; Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; New York State Electric & Gas... Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act...

  19. 76 FR 25328 - Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 27, 2011, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC (Worsham-Steed) filed pursuant to section 284.123(e) of the Commission's regulations, a revised Statement of Operating Conditions for Gas Storage and...

  20. 75 FR 35780 - ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Storage Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act...

  1. 77 FR 2715 - D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 29, 2011, D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC (D'Lo), 1002 East St. Mary Blvd., Lafayette, Louisiana 70503, filed in... D'Lo to construct, operate, and maintain a new natural gas storage project to be located in...

  2. 75 FR 2130 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...) Authorization to construct, own, operate, and maintain a nearly depleted reservoir natural gas storage facility that will accommodate the injection, storage, and subsequent withdrawal of natural gas for redelivery... Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application January 6, 2010....

  3. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-02-27

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Activities during this time period were: (1) Nomination and election of Executive Council members for 2006-07 term, (2) Release the 2006 GSTC request-for-proposals (RFP), (3) Recruit and invoice membership for FY2006, (4) Improve communication efforts, and (5) Continue planning the GSTC spring meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006.

  4. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2005-10-24

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) receiving proposals in response to the RFP, and (2) organizing and hosting the proposal selection meeting on August 30-31, 2005.

  5. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Task 2. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    New opportunities have been created for underground gas storage as a result of recent regulatory developments in the energy industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 directly changed the economics of gas storage nationwide. This paper discusses the storage of natural gas, storage facilities, and factors affecting the current, and future situation for natural gas storage.

  6. Multilateral well enhances gas storage deliverability

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, M.C.; Whims, M.J.

    1995-12-25

    Multiple lateral drilling from an existing well bore can limit environmental exposure and overall drilling risk while optimizing gas storage field performance. In 1994, an existing high-angle directional well was reentered, and five nearly horizontal fingers were created. The Excelsior 6 gas storage field in Michigan comprises two Niagaran pinnacle reefs which are pressure connected through an interreef facies of low permeability. Each reef, known as the Excelsior 6 gas field (EX6) and the East Kalkaska 1 gas field (EK1), independently produced native gas through pressure-depletion drive. In 1980, seven wells, six of which are in the EX6 field and one in the EK1, were drilled to convert both fields to gas storage service. Two additional wells were added to the EK1 in 1990. The article describes the geology of the fields, well design, drilling program, and results.

  7. 30 CFR 550.123 - Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 550.123 Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased...

  8. 30 CFR 550.123 - Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 550.123 Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased...

  9. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands...

  10. 30 CFR 550.123 - Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 550.123 Will BOEM allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased...

  11. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  12. Topping pressure for gas-storage cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haben, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    With charts derived from gas-storage system model, required topping pressure can be determined from initial cylinder pressure and temperature of gas entering cylinder. Charts are available for hydrogen and oxygen and can be developed for other important industrial gases as well.

  13. 75 FR 63465 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC (Hill-Lake) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) for its Storage Services, proposing substantive revisions to its tariff...

  14. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage

  15. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  16. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S.

    1993-03-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  17. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  18. Regulatory, technical pressures prompt more U. S. salt-cavern gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.F. )

    1994-09-12

    Natural-gas storage in US salt caverns is meeting the need for flexible, high delivery and injection storage following implementation Nov. 1, 1993, of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. This ruling has opened the US underground natural-gas storage market to more participants and created a demand for a variety of storage previously provided by pipelines as part of their bundled sales services. Many of these new services such as no-notice and supply balancing center on use of high-delivery natural gas storage from salt caverns. Unlike reservoir storage, nothing restricts flow in a cavern. The paper discusses the unique properties of salt that make it ideal for gas storage, choosing a location for the storage facility, cavern depth and shape, cavern size, spacing, pressures, construction, conversion or brine or LPG storage caverns to natural gas, and operation.

  19. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may...

  20. 76 FR 47569 - Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 19, 2011 and July 26, 2011, Arcadia Gas Storage, LLC submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act...

  1. 75 FR 47587 - Wabash Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Nevins storage facilities for natural gas storage, all as more fully set forth in the application which... Energy Regulatory Commission Wabash Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application July 30, 2010. Take notice that on July 29, 2010, Wabash Gas Storage LLC (Petitioner), 1044 North 115th Street, Suite 400,...

  2. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Rogers, Michael Ray; Judkins, Roddie R.

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  3. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Judkins, R.R.

    2000-07-18

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  4. Storage peak gas-turbine power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinkotski, B.

    1980-01-01

    A storage gas-turbine power plant using a two-cylinder compressor with intermediate cooling is studied. On the basis of measured characteristics of a .25 Mw compressor computer calculations of the parameters of the loading process of a constant capacity storage unit (05.3 million cu m) were carried out. The required compressor power as a function of time with and without final cooling was computed. Parameters of maximum loading and discharging of the storage unit were calculated, and it was found that for the complete loading of a fully unloaded storage unit, a capacity of 1 to 1.5 million cubic meters is required, depending on the final cooling.

  5. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  6. Introducing nanovalve technique for natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Kirby L.

    In order for natural gas vehicles to be economically feasible in residential consumer sector, the limitations of the current natural storage approaches (Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas) must be overcome. Advances in the Adsorbed Natural Gas storage approach have been made, however, these advances do not fit within the parameters (storage pressure of 35 bar) set by Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The research presented here establishes a novel technique to effectively store methane. This nanovalved technique involves loading a pelleted adsorbent at high pressure, sealing a layer coated on the adsorbent pellet, and reducing the storage vessel to a low pressure. Using zeolite 5A beads as a model adsorbent and MCM-48 as a nanovalving layer, >50% of the maximum methane capacity of zeolite 5A (73 V/V) was able to be maintained after being reduced to a pressure of 1 bar. After establishing the feasibility of the nanovalving technique with MCM-48, again using zeolite 5A beads a model adsorbent, the impact of coordinating metal of MOF nanovalve layers was assessed. This study was to aid in designating material properties of the nanovalving layer that allow for better sealing and better performance. Aluminum was established as a desirable component in the nanovalving layer (two layers of Al-MOF on zeolite 5A beads was able to maintain 46% of the maximum methane capacity). The work herein illustrates the nanovalving technique can store a high percentage of loaded methane at low pressure. With a high methane capacity adsorbent and an optimized nanovalving layer, the possibility of achieving the storage targets set by ARPA-E is promising.

  7. High winter gas demand met by Michigan`s Blue Lake storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, E.R.

    1996-10-21

    During February 1996, ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit, used its capacity in the recently completed Blue Lake 18A natural-gas storage field to meet record gas demand in the Midwest market area. The Blue Lake gas-storage field, with 46 bcf of working gas and 7.5 bcf base gas, is the largest combination gas-storage withdrawal/refrigeration processing plant in the US. Daily throughput can reach 690 MMscfd. The facility is fully automated and operated around the clock by only two shifts of three employees. The totally automated controls system, the extensive and accurate surface facilities and reservoir design, the experienced project management team, and the engineering enhancements since the first gas withdrawal in the 1993--1994 winter contributed to the successful gas-storage operation.

  8. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  9. Techniques and problems associated with the storage of natural gas in coal mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, H.D. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Six of Texas Gas's 10 storage fields along its pipeline system have coal-mining operations going on above the reservoirs; consequently, Texas Gas has cooperated closely with the coal industry to attain the maximum possible degree of safety and protection while meeting the mutual objectives of conservation and production. After discussing some of the problems encountered and the day-to-day obstacles to expect, Texas Gas concludes that intimate coordination between the coal and storage operations is the only real solution.

  10. 75 FR 70727 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC ; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... approved natural gas storage Cavern Well 1 certificated in Docket No. CP09-418-000. Perryville avers the... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC ; Notice of Application November 10, 2010. Take notice that on November 5, 2010, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite...

  11. 75 FR 21288 - Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... characteristics and the feasibility of developing the Cote Blanche Island salt dome for natural gas storage in St... Energy Regulatory Commission Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 5, 2010, Henry Gas Storage LLC (HGS), 1010 Lamar, Suite 1720, Houston, Texas 77002,...

  12. 75 FR 36376 - Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Tallulah salt dome for natural gas storage and the feasibility of brine disposal, all as more fully set... Energy Regulatory Commission Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, Tallulah Gas Storage LLC (Petitioner), 10370 Richmond Avenue, Suite 510,...

  13. 75 FR 57011 - Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... natural gas storage facility and pipeline facilities connecting with Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC... maintain a new underground natural gas salt cavern storage facility consisting of three caverns, each with... Energy Regulatory Commission Tallulah Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application September 9, 2010....

  14. Sonar surveys used in gas-storage cavern analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, N.G.

    1998-05-04

    Natural-gas storage cavern internal configuration, inspection information, and cavern integrity data can be obtained during high-pressure operations with specialized gas-sonar survey logging techniques. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., has successfully performed these operations on several of its deepest and highest pressurized caverns. The data can determine gas-in-place inventory and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes can result from cavern creep, shrinkage, or closure or from various downhole abnormalities such as fluid infill or collapse of the sidewall or roof. The paper discusses conventional surveys with sonar, running surveys in pressurized caverns, accuracy of the sonar survey, initial development of Cavern 5, a roof fall, Cavern 4 development, and a damaged string.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  19. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  20. Avoca, New York Salt Cavern Gas Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morrill, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    The first salt cavern natural gas storage facility in the northeastern United States designed to serve the interstate gas market is being developed by J Makowski Associates and partners at Avoca in Steuben County, New York. Multiple caverns will be leached at a depth of about 3800 ft from an approximately 100 ft interval of salt within the F unit of the Syracuse Formation of the Upper Silurian Salina Group. The facility is designed to provide 5 Bcf of working gas capacity and 500 MMcfd of deliverability within an operating cavern pressure range between 760 psi and 2850 psi. Fresh water for leaching will be obtained from the Cohocton River aquifer at a maximum rate of 3 million gallons per day and produced brine will be injected into deep permeable Cambrian age sandstones and dolostones. Gas storage service is anticipated to commence in the Fall of 1997 with 2 Bcf of working gas capacity and the full 5 Bcf or storage service is scheduled to be available in the Fall of 1999.

  1. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  2. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  3. 77 FR 3766 - Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... interested parties to discuss issues related to natural gas storage development in the southwestern United... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference Notice of Public Conference On... interests associated with storage development. In addition, staff has reached out to other...

  4. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and rcontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at LANL TA-54 Area L. This report summarizes the operation. This is Volume 2 of five volumes.

  5. Gas pipeline adjusts operations to meet Order 636

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, J.D. )

    1994-04-18

    Responding to US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636, Texas Gas Transmission Corp., Owensboro, Ky., has instituted an allocation procedure for unbundled supply, pipeline transportation, and storage while maintaining system security and providing required services to each customer. FERC Order 636 requires federally regulated natural-gas pipelines to separate, or unbundle,' such traditional sales services as supply, transportation, and storage. Formerly, these services could be offered as a package, an arrangement the commission felt discouraged competition. Because Texas Gas has always relied heavily on bundled operation to provide efficient service to end users, the order has profoundly affected projected design and operational strategies. The greatest challenge has been to maintain or exceed current levels of safety, reliability, and efficiency. The paper describes the Texas Gas system, allocation, developing profiles, supply-area operation, and an example of the method used by Texas Gas.

  6. 76 FR 22092 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on March 30, 2011, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  7. 76 FR 13611 - Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 28, 2011, Bay Gas Storage, LLC (Bay Gas) filed pursuant to Section 12.2.4 of its Statement of...

  8. 77 FR 74838 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on December 3, 2012, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  9. 76 FR 48841 - Liberty Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 25, 2011, Liberty Gas Storage, LLC (Liberty) submitted a request for confirmation that it is not required to file... is applicable only when a natural gas company is obligated to file a Form 2-A, Liberty...

  10. 77 FR 31840 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on May 11, 2012, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite 1350, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  11. 75 FR 45610 - Liberty Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on July 26, Liberty Gas Storage LLC (``Liberty''), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, CA 92101, filed in the above referenced docket, an application pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to amend its Application...

  12. 77 FR 8248 - Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 27, 2012, Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC (Bluewater), 333 Clay Street, Suite 1500, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP12-51-000 under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA),...

  13. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Denholm; Tracey Holloway

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO{sub 2} and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions 'accounting' might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO2 and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation.

  15. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim; ,

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  16. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  17. Salt deposits in Arizona promise gas-storage opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauzi, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Massive salt formations and their proximity to pipeline systems and power plants make Arizona attractive for natural gas storage. Caverns dissolved in subsurface salt are used to store LPG at Ferrellgas Partners LP facility near Holbrook and the AmeriGas Partners LP facility near Glendale. Three other companies are investigating the feasibility of storing natural gas in Arizona salt: Copper Eagle Gas Storage LLC, Desert Crossing Gas Storage and Transportation System LLC, and Aquila Inc. The most extensive salt deposits are in the Colorado Plateau Province. Marine and nonmarine salt deposits are present in Arizona.

  18. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Workers in the Operations and Checkout Building stand by while one of four gas tanks is moved toward the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  19. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- An overhead crane in the Operations and Checkout Building lowers one of four gas tanks onto the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet while workers help guide it. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  20. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, workers check out the placement of one of four gas tanks on the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS- 104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  1. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  2. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. 76 FR 6457 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings January 31, 2011... of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of...

  4. 76 FR 7186 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filings February 2, 2011... of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of...

  5. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  6. Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amawd, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

  7. Compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs: effects of porous media and gas mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4

  8. 77 FR 17471 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of... Choctaw Hub Expansion Project (Project) proposed by PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics) in the above-referenced docket. PetroLogistics requests authorization to build and operate...

  9. 75 FR 26220 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Leader One Gas Storage Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of a Site Visit... an environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Leader One Gas Storage Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader...

  10. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  11. 71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ON SLC-3W LIQUID OXYGEN APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  13. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  14. Task 4 - natural gas storage - end user interaction

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-18

    New opportunities have been created for underground gas storage as a result of recent regulatory developments in the energy industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 directly changed the economics of gas storage nationwide. Pipelines have been required to {open_quotes}unbundle{close_quotes} their various services so that pipeline users can select only what they need from among the transportation, storage, balancing and the other traditional pipeline services. At the same time, the shift from Modified Fixed Variable (MFV) rate design to Straight Fixed Variable (SFV) rate design has increased the costs of pipeline capacity relative to underground storage and other supply options. Finally, the ability of parties that have contracted for pipeline and storage services to resell their surplus capacities created by Order 636 gives potential gas users more flexibility in assembling combinations of gas delivery services to create reliable gas deliverability. In response to Order 636, the last two years have seen an explosion in proposals for gas storage projects.

  15. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  16. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  17. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Gas Storage in Porous Liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Yang, Fengchang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2016-07-28

    The recent synthesis of organic molecular liquids with permanent porosity opens up exciting new avenues for gas capture, storage, and separation. Using molecular simulations, we study the thermodynamics and kinetics for the storage of CH4, CO2, and N2 molecules in porous liquids consisting of crown-ether-substituted cage molecules in a 15-crown-5 solvent. It is found that the intrinsic gas storage capacity per cage molecule follows the order CH4 > CO2 > N2, which does not correlate simply with the size of gas molecules. Different gas molecules are stored inside the cage differently; e.g., CO2 molecules prefer the cage's core whereas CH4 molecules favor both the core and the branch regions. All gas molecules considered can enter the cage essentially without energy barriers and leave the cage on a nanosecond time scale by overcoming a modest energy penalty. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are clarified.

  18. The oil and gas joint operating agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: introduction to the AAPL model form operating agreement; property provisions of the operating agreement; Article 6---the drilling and development article; duties and obligations revisited---who bear what risk of loss; operator's liens; accounting procedure joint operations; insurance; taking gas in kind absent a balancing agreement; RMMLF Form 5 Gas Balancing Agreement; tax partnerships for nontax professionals; alternative agreement forms.

  19. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  20. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  1. Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

  2. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  3. Hydrogen gas storage in fluorinated ultramicroporous tunnel crystal.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Katagiri, Toshimasa

    2012-08-21

    We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder.

  4. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2016-07-12

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  5. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2015-05-04

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  6. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  7. 77 FR 50101 - Cadeville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... to construct an additional natural gas storage and injection well at Cadeville's natural gas storage... Energy Regulatory Commission Cadeville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization On July 27, 2012, Cadeville Gas Storage LLC (Cadeville) filed with the Federal Energy...

  8. 78 FR 77445 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Palacios to abandon up to 22.9 Bcf of working gas storage capacity in its salt cavern natural gas storage... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 6, 2013, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (Tres Palacios) 700 Louisiana Street, Suite 2060,...

  9. Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Hindes, Clyde J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

  10. Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed gas is piped via seafloor pipeline from a nearby gas production facility. The barge is arranged with personnel accommodation forward, LNG storage midships, and gas liquefaction processing equipment aft. A flare boom is cantilevered off the barge's stern. The basis of design stipulates feed gas properties, area environmental data, gas liquefaction process, LNG storage tank type plus other parameters desirable in a floating process plant. The latter were concerned with safety, low maintenance characteristics, and the fact that the process barge also would serve as an offshore port where LNG export tankers would moor periodically. A brief summary of results for a barge-mounted methanol plant from an earlier study is followed then by a comparison of LNG and methanol alternatives.

  11. 78 FR 30918 - Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... feet of base gas as working gas in Cavern PGS-1 at Perryville's natural gas storage facility in... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 3, 2013, Perryville Gas Storage LLC (Perryville), Three Riverway, Suite...

  12. Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

  13. A universial gas absorber for sealed alkaline storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tsenter, B.I.; Laurenov, V.M.

    1986-02-01

    The authors describe a universal gas absorber for all types of sealed alkaline storage batteries. The absorber is illustrated and consists of matrix-type nickel-gas cells which are connected in series, have a common gas compartment, and are electrolytically insulated from each other. The gas electrode of the nickel gas cell is bifunctional; it functions in oxygen ionization and in hydrogen ionization. The solid-phase nickel-oxide electrode is a powder-metallurgical design. Absorbers of the present type are universal, both in the sense that they will absorb oxygen, hydrogen, or a mixture of these gases, and in the sense that they can be used for sealed alkaline storage batteries of any type.

  14. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and recontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at Los Alamos TA-54 Area L. A vapor containment structure was erected. A total of 179 cylinders was processed; 39 were repackaged; and 55 were decommissioned. This report summarizes the operation; this is Volume 1 of five volumes.

  15. Erecting Gas Storage Facilities and Oil Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-21

    the amount of bracing . In such cases the design system is considered to be made up of two diametrically opposed inclined beams , which, with the...pillars are connected with stiff collar beams , 1, (fig. 5.2) as well as by a system of diagonal ties 2. Platforms for inspec- ting the storage tank...vertical wall struts, and are tied together with multisided rings 139 - ■ - - - --- MM and diagonals . At the cover perimeter the trusses are tied to

  16. Methane storage in dry water gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixing; Bray, Christopher L; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2008-09-03

    Dry water stores 175 v(STP)/v methane at 2.7 MPa and 273.2 K in a hydrate form which is close to the Department of Energy volumetric target for methane storage. Dry water is a silica-stabilized free-flowing powder (95% wt water), and fast methane uptakes were observed (90% saturation uptake in 160 min with no mixing) as a result of the relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of this material.

  17. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, JA; Veenstra, M; Long, JR

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have received significant attention as a new class of adsorbents for natural gas storage; however, inconsistencies in reporting high-pressure adsorption data and a lack of comparative studies have made it challenging to evaluate both new and existing materials. Here, we briefly discuss high-pressure adsorption measurements and review efforts to develop metal-organic frameworks with high methane storage capacities. To illustrate the most important properties for evaluating adsorbents for natural gas storage and for designing a next generation of improved materials, six metal-organic frameworks and an activated carbon, with a range of surface areas, pore structures, and surface chemistries representative of the most promising adsorbents for methane storage, are evaluated in detail. High-pressure methane adsorption isotherms are used to compare gravimetric and volumetric capacities, isosteric heats of adsorption, and usable storage capacities. Additionally, the relative importance of increasing volumetric capacity, rather than gravimetric capacity, for extending the driving range of natural gas vehicles is highlighted. Other important systems-level factors, such as thermal management, mechanical properties, and the effects of impurities, are also considered, and potential materials synthesis contributions to improving performance in a complete adsorbed natural gas system are discussed.

  18. [Raman spectroscopic investigation of hydrogen storage in nitrogen gas hydrates].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-guo; Liu, Chang-ling; Ye, Yu-guang; Li, Cheng-feng

    2012-08-01

    Recently, hydrogen storage using clathrate hydrate as a medium has become a hotspot of hydrogen storage research In the present paper, the laser Raman spectroscopy was used to study the hydrogen storage in nitrogen hydrate. The synthetic nitrogen hydrate was reacted with hydrogen gas under relatively mild conditions (e.g., 15 MPa, -18 degrees C). The Raman spectra of the reaction products show that the hydrogen molecules have enclathrated the cavities of the nitrogen hydrate, with multiple hydrogen cage occupancies in the clathrate cavities. The reaction time is an important factor affecting the hydrogen storage in nitrogen hydrate. The experimental results suggest that nitrogen hydrates are expected to be an effective media for hydrogen storage.

  19. Microporous organic polymers for gas storage and separation applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ze; Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chen, Qiang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-04-21

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs), an emerging class of functional porous materials featured with the pure organic component have been widely studied in recent years. These materials have potential uses in areas such as storage, separation, and catalysis. In this Perspective, we focused on the gas storage and separation of MOPs. The targeted design and synthesis of MOPs toward the enhancement of gas capacity and selectivity are discussed. Furthermore, special emphasis is given to the post-synthesis modification of MOPs which have been proved to be effective methods to accurately tune the desired properties.

  20. Overview of geologic storage of natural gas with an emphasis on assessing the feasibility of storing hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Anna Snider

    2009-09-01

    In many regions across the nation geologic formations are currently being used to store natural gas underground. Storage options are dictated by the regional geology and the operational need. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in understanding theses various geologic storage options, the advantages and disadvantages, in the hopes of developing an underground facility for the storage of hydrogen as a low cost storage option, as part of the hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Currently, depleted gas/oil reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground natural gas storage in use today. The other storage options available currently and in the near future, such as abandoned coal mines, lined hard rock caverns, and refrigerated mined caverns, will become more popular as the demand for natural gas storage grows, especially in regions were depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and salt deposits are not available. The storage of hydrogen within the same type of facilities, currently used for natural gas, may add new operational challenges to the existing cavern storage industry, such as the loss of hydrogen through chemical reactions and the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement. Currently there are only three locations worldwide, two of which are in the United States, which store hydrogen. All three sites store hydrogen within salt caverns.

  1. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250....119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage...: (a) Show that the subsurface storage of gas will not result in undue interference with...

  2. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  3. Optimizing nanoporous materials for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Cory M; Kim, Jihan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Martin, Richard L; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2014-03-28

    In this work, we address the question of which thermodynamic factors determine the deliverable capacity of methane in nanoporous materials. The deliverable capacity is one of the key factors that determines the performance of a material for methane storage in automotive fuel tanks. To obtain insights into how the molecular characteristics of a material are related to the deliverable capacity, we developed several statistical thermodynamic models. The predictions of these models are compared with the classical thermodynamics approach of Bhatia and Myers [Bhatia and Myers, Langmuir, 2005, 22, 1688] and with the results of molecular simulations in which we screen the International Zeolite Association (IZA) structure database and a hypothetical zeolite database of over 100,000 structures. Both the simulations and our models do not support the rule of thumb that, for methane storage, one should aim for an optimal heat of adsorption of 18.8 kJ mol(-1). Instead, our models show that one can identify an optimal heat of adsorption, but that this optimal heat of adsorption depends on the structure of the material and can range from 8 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The different models we have developed are aimed to determine how this optimal heat of adsorption is related to the molecular structure of the material.

  4. NEW AND NOVEL FRACTURE STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF EXISTING GAS STORAGE WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-12-01

    Gas storage wells are prone to continued deliverability loss at a reported average rate of 5% per annum (in the U.S.). This is a result of formation damage due to the introduction of foreign materials during gas injection, scale deposition and/or fines mobilization during gas withdrawal, and even the formation and growth of bacteria. As a means to bypass this damage and sustain/enhance well deliverability, several new and novel fracture stimulation technologies were tested in gas storage fields across the U.S. as part of a joint U.S. Department of Energy and Gas Research Institute R&D program. These new technologies include tip-screenout fracturing, hydraulic fracturing with liquid CO{sub 2} and proppant, extreme overbalance fracturing, and high-energy gas fracturing. Each of these technologies in some way address concerns with fracturing on the part of gas storage operators, such as fracture height growth, high permeability formations, and fluid sensitivity. Given the historical operator concerns over hydraulic fracturing in gas storage wells, plus the many other unique characteristics and resulting stimulation requirements of gas storage reservoirs (which are described later), the specific objective of this project was to identify new and novel fracture stimulation technologies that directly address these concerns and requirements, and to demonstrate/test their potential application in gas storage wells in various reservoir settings across the country. To compare these new methods to current industry deliverability enhancement norms in a consistent manner, their application was evaluated on a cost per unit of added deliverability basis, using typical non-fracturing well remediation methods as the benchmark and considering both short-term and long-term deliverability enhancement results. Based on the success (or lack thereof) of the various fracture stimulation technologies investigated, guidelines for their application, design and implementation have been

  5. Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, T.S.; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-10-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  6. Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T; Melin, Staffan

    2009-11-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO(2) and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH(4) emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  7. Hydrogen gas storage in fluorinated ultramicroporous tunnel crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Katagiri, Toshimasa

    2012-07-01

    We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder.We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 246922. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30940h

  8. Development of a Solar Storage Operations Center (SSOC)

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sanjeev; Dobbs, Daniel

    2016-04-05

    This report highlights the achievements and milestones made, prior to early termination of the award, toward development of a monitoring and controls operations center to manage solar + storage projects.

  9. Gas chromatographic column for the storage of sample profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimandja, J. M.; Valentin, J. R.; Phillips, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a sample retention column that preserves the true time profile of an analyte of interest is studied. This storage system allows for the detection to be done at convenient times, as opposed to the nearly continuous monitoring that is required by other systems to preserve a sample time profile. The sample storage column is essentially a gas chromatography column, although its use is not the separation of sample components. The functions of the storage column are the selective isolation of the component of interest from the rest of the components present in the sample and the storage of this component as a function of time. Using octane as a test substance, the sample storage system was optimized with respect to such parameters as storage and readout temperature, flow rate through the storage column, column efficiency and storage time. A 3-h sample profile was collected and stored at 30 degrees C for 20 h. The profile was then retrieved, essentially intact, in 5 min at 130 degrees C.

  10. Thermodynamics and kinetics of gas storage in porous liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fei; Yang, Fengchang; Huang, Jingsong; ...

    2016-07-05

    The recent synthesis of organic molecular liquids with permanent porosity (Giri et al., Nature, 2015, 527, 216) opens up exciting new avenues for gas capture, storage, and separation. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the thermodynamics and kinetics for the storage of CH4, CO2, and N2 molecules in porous liquids consisting of crown-ether substituted cage molecules in a 15-crown-5 solvent. It is found that the gas storage capacity per cage molecule follows the order of CH4 > CO2 > N2, which does not correlate simply with the size of gas molecules. Different gas molecules are stored inside the cage differently,more » e.g., CO2 molecules prefer the cage s core while CH4 molecules favor both the core and the branch regions. All gas molecules considered can enter the cage essentially without energy barriers, and their dynamics inside the cage are only slightly hindered by the nanoscale confinement. In addition, all gas molecules can leave the cage on nanosecond time scale by overcoming a modest energy penalty. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are clarified.« less

  11. Thermodynamics and kinetics of gas storage in porous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fei; Yang, Fengchang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Qiao, Rui

    2016-07-05

    The recent synthesis of organic molecular liquids with permanent porosity (Giri et al., Nature, 2015, 527, 216) opens up exciting new avenues for gas capture, storage, and separation. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the thermodynamics and kinetics for the storage of CH4, CO2, and N2 molecules in porous liquids consisting of crown-ether substituted cage molecules in a 15-crown-5 solvent. It is found that the gas storage capacity per cage molecule follows the order of CH4 > CO2 > N2, which does not correlate simply with the size of gas molecules. Different gas molecules are stored inside the cage differently, e.g., CO2 molecules prefer the cage s core while CH4 molecules favor both the core and the branch regions. All gas molecules considered can enter the cage essentially without energy barriers, and their dynamics inside the cage are only slightly hindered by the nanoscale confinement. In addition, all gas molecules can leave the cage on nanosecond time scale by overcoming a modest energy penalty. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are clarified.

  12. 78 FR 58529 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 4, 2013, Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC (Floridian Gas Storage... application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's...

  13. Grain-based activated carbons for natural gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengyan; Walawender, Walter P; Fan, L T

    2010-03-01

    Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand and environmental concerns. An investigation was undertaken to explore the technical feasibility of implementing the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles with activated carbons from biomass, e.g., sorghum and wheat. The grain-based activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation; the experimental parameters were varied to identify the optimum conditions. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was evaluated through nitrogen adsorption; and the storage capacity, through methane adsorption. A comparative study was also carried out with commercial activated carbons from charcoal. The highest storage factor attained was 89 for compacted grain-based activated carbons from grain sorghum with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm(3), and the highest storage factor attained is 106 for compacted commercial activated carbons (Calgon) with a bulk density of 0.70 g/cm(3). The storage factor was found to increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density and to be independent of the extent of compaction. This implies that the grain-based activated carbons are the ideal candidates for the ANG storage.

  14. Storage tank for cryogenic liquefied gas

    SciTech Connect

    Guilhem, J. R.

    1985-02-12

    The invention is related to a tank designed to contain a cryogenic liquefied gas and formed in addition to the main tank by two other tight walls. In the upper part of this tank an aperture duct connects the ceiling of the tank to the exterior of the tank, a holder supporting a device sensing in various areas wall temperatures of the tank, can be fitted into this aperture duct, a remote temperature sensor is actually hold by this support and is introduced into the tank. The invention finds an application as a means to easily localize leaking failures of the intermediate wall.

  15. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  16. Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.

    1993-12-31

    A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

  17. U. S. gas pipelines improve operations

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1990-11-26

    This paper discusses how operations for regulated U.S. interstate natural-gas pipeline companies showed increased efficiency last year as incomes leaped despite flat revenues. Net incomes for these companies gained more than $900 million in 1989, while operating revenues declined a negligible 1.2%. Common-carrier oil pipelines, on the other hand, continued to operate in the doldrums with incomes declining for the third straight year and revenues dropping for the sixth year in a row.

  18. Study on propane-butane gas storage by hydrate technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Nurkholis; Wijayanti, Widya; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2016-03-01

    Different technology has been applied to store and transport gas fuel. In this work the storage of gas mixture of propane-butane by hydrate technology was studied. The investigation was done on the effect of crystallizer rotation speed on the formation of propane-butane hydrate. The hydrates were formed using crystallizer with rotation speed of 100, 200, and 300 rpm. The formation of gas hydrates was done at initial pressure of 3 bar and temperature of 274K. The results indicated that the higher rotation speed was found to increase the formation rate of propane-butane hydrate and improve the hydrates stability.

  19. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2015-12-18

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) finalized procurement targets and other requirements to its jurisdictional utilities for a minimum of 1,325 MW of 'viable and cost-effective' energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to explore several aspects of grid operations in California and the Western Interconnection resulting from meeting the CPUC storage targets. We perform this analysis using a set of databases and grid simulation tools developed and implemented by the CPUC, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), and the California Energy Commission (CEC) for the CPUC's Long-term Procurement Plan (LTPP). The 2014 version of this database contains information about generators, storage, transmission, and electrical demand, for California in the year 2024 for both 33% and 40% renewable energy portfolios. We examine the value of various services provided by energy storage in these scenarios. Sensitivities were performed relating to the services energy storage can provide, the capacity and duration of storage devices, export limitations, and negative price floor variations. Results show that a storage portfolio, as outlined by the CPUC, can reduce curtailment and system-wide production costs for 33% and 40% renewable scenarios. A storage device that can participate in energy and ancillary service markets provides the grid with the greatest benefit; the mandated storage requirement of 1,325 MW was estimated to reduce the total cost of production by about 78 million per year in the 33% scenario and 144 million per year in the 40% scenario. Much of this value is derived from the avoided start and stop costs of thermal generators and provision of ancillary services. A device on the 2024 California grid and participating in only ancillary service markets can provide the system with over 90% of the value as the energy and ancillary service device. The analysis points to the challenge of new storage providing regulation

  20. Numerical Simulation of Gas Leaking Diffusion from Storage Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongjun; Jing, Jiaqiang

    Over 80 percents of storage tank accidents are caused by gas leaking. Since traditional empirical calculation has great errors, present work aims to study the gas leaking diffusion under different wind conditions by numerical simulation method based on computational fluid dynamics theory. Then gas concentration distribution was obtained to determine the scope of the security zone. The results showed that gas diffused freely along the axis of leaking point without wind, giving rise to large range of hazardous area. However, wind plays the role of migrating and diluting the leaking gas. The larger is the wind speed, the smaller is the damage and the bigger is the security zone. Calculation method and results can provide some reference to establish and implement rescue program for accidents.

  1. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  2. Use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (emats) for Cement Bond Logging of Gas Storage Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakov, A. O.; Domangue, E. J.; Barolak, J. G.; Patterson, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    According to the Department of Energy (DOE), there are approximately 110 operators maintaining more than 17,000 gas storage wells in over 415 underground storage facilities across the USA. In virtually every application, steel casing, cemented into place, serves to isolate the well from the underground formations. The process of cementing wellbore casing provides two major benefits: 1) cement prevents gas migration between the casing and formation; 2) cement transfers stress from the casing to the formation, increasing the effective strength and working pressure of the casing. Current cement evaluation techniques use an acoustic wave generated and received by a logging tool within the wellbore to detect cement placed outside the casing. These techniques rely on fluid in the casing to provide acoustic coupling between the logging tool and the casing and therefore are unable to operate in gas-filled boreholes. This paper details efforts to confirm the validity and applicability of the use of EMATs for evaluating cement in gas-filled boreholes. The methods and techniques proposed for the cement bond logging using EMATs are confirmed and validated based on the results obtained from the numerical modeling and experiments with physical cement models. Partial funding for this investigation was provided by the DOE and Gas Storage Technology Consortium.

  3. Influences of operational practices on municipal solid waste landfill storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hai-Long; Cleall, Peter John; Ke, Han; Bian, Xue-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    The quantitative effects of three operational factors, that is initial compaction, decomposition condition and leachate level, on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill settlement and storage capacity are investigated in this article via consideration of a hypothetical case. The implemented model for calculating landfill compression displacement is able to consider decreases in compressibility induced by biological decomposition and load dependence of decomposition compression for the MSW. According to the investigation, a significant increase in storage capacity can be achieved by intensive initial compaction, adjustment of decomposition condition and lowering of leachate levels. The quantitative investigation presented aims to encourage landfill operators to improve management to enhance storage capacity. Furthermore, improving initial compaction and creating a preferential decomposition condition can also significantly reduce operational and post-closure settlements, respectively, which helps protect leachate and gas management infrastructure and monitoring equipment in modern landfills.

  4. Operational Benefits of Meeting California’s Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued rules for its jurisdictional utilities to procure a minimum of 1,325 megawatts (MW) of energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to examine the operational value of this storage portfolio in California and the rest of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Modeled results show that the storage portfolio, when providing energy and operating reserves, reduces the total WECC-wide production costs by $78 million per year in the 33% scenario. This value increases to $144 million per year in the 40% scenario, primarily because of the increase in off-peak and peak price differences that are due to additional solar generation. These values are equivalent to $59/kW-year for the storage portfolio for the 33% scenario and $109/kW-year for the 40% scenario.

  5. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2016-05-01

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) finalized procurement targets and other requirements to its jurisdictional utilities for a minimum of 1,325 MW of 'viable and cost-effective' energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to explore several aspects of grid operations in California and the Western Interconnection resulting from meeting the CPUC storage targets. We perform this analysis using a set of databases and grid simulation tools developed and implemented by the CPUC, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), and the California Energy Commission (CEC) for the CPUC's Long-term Procurement Plan (LTPP). The 2014 version of this database contains information about generators, storage, transmission, and electrical demand, for California in the year 2024 for both 33 percent and 40 percent renewable energy portfolios. We examine the value of various services provided by energy storage in these scenarios. Sensitivities were performed relating to the services energy storage can provide, the capacity and duration of storage devices, export limitations, and negative price floor variations. Results show that a storage portfolio, as outlined by the CPUC, can reduce curtailment and system-wide production costs for 33 percent and 40 percent renewable scenarios.

  6. 75 FR 59705 - SourceGas Distribution LLC; Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Dow Intrastate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Distribution LLC; Bay Gas Storage, LLC; Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Dow Intrastate Gas Company; ONEOK Field Services Company, L.L.C.; Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filings September 21,...

  7. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  8. Technical and economic barriers to innovative gas storage. Final report, November 1991-July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Feinberg, D.A.; Hastings, G.A.

    1993-03-01

    To evaluate the technical and economic barriers to innovative natural gas storage technologies, advantages and disadvantages of several end use applications were analyzed, including on-grid deliverability of natural gas, transporting natural gas to off-grid end users, and storage of natural gas at an off-grid end user's site. Three basic innovative approaches were investigated: (1) separation of the higher molecular weight components of the pipeline gas and storage of the separated ethane, propane, butane, etc., as a liquid; (2) separation of the components with storage in the separating media; and (3) storage of the pipeline gas without changing its composition.

  9. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-02

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  10. 75 FR 8051 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application February 12, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas..., Vice President and Regulatory Counsel, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston,...

  11. 75 FR 35007 - Wyckoff Gas Storage Company LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wyckoff Gas Storage Company LLC; Notice of Application June 15, 2010. On June 10, 2010, Wyckoff Gas Storage Company, LLC, (``Wyckoff''), 6733 South Yale, Tulsa, OK 74136... application should be directed to John A. Boone, Wyckoff Gas Storage Company, LLC, 6733 South Yale, Tulsa,...

  12. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250... Performance Standards § 250.119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS...

  13. 77 FR 24190 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on April 6, 2012, East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC (East Cheyenne), 10901 W. Toller Drive, Suite 200... Cheyenne requests authorization to make certain changes to its certificated gas storage project,...

  14. 77 FR 9233 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 31, 2012, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest), P.O. Box 4967... directed to Stephen Veatch, Senior Director of Certificates and Tariffs, Southwest Gas Storage Company,...

  15. 30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550... § 550.119 Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. The Regional Supervisor...

  16. 76 FR 81924 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on December 16, 2011, East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC (East Cheyenne), 10901 W. Toller Drive, Suite... reservoir pressure for the D Sand zone in the West Peetz Field of its East Cheyenne Gas Storage Project to...

  17. 30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550... § 550.119 Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. The Regional Supervisor...

  18. 75 FR 71101 - Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application November 12, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC (Monroe), 3773 Cherry Creek... about 12.0 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of high-deliverability working gas storage capacity, with about...

  19. 30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550... § 550.119 Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. The Regional Supervisor...

  20. 76 FR 12095 - Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC (Monroe), 3773 Cherry Creek North Drive, Suite 1000... changes to the certificated design of the Monroe Gas Storage Project. Specifically, through...

  1. 77 FR 789 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 20, 2011, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (Tres Palacios), Two Brush Creek Boulevard, Kansas City... gas processing plant as a receipt point on its storage facility header pipeline system by:...

  2. 78 FR 13657 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    .... Southwest seeks authorization to construct, modify and abandon certain natural gas storage facilities at the... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On February 8, 2013, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest) filed a prior notice...

  3. 76 FR 54760 - Perryville Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... certificated (Docket No. CP09-418-000) natural gas storage caverns by 2.5 billion-cubic-feet each; and install... Energy Regulatory Commission Perryville Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Crowville Gas Storage Project Amendment The staff of the Federal...

  4. 75 FR 57747 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... the certificated capacities of its three in-service natural gas storage caverns to the actual... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (Tres Palacios), 53...

  5. 75 FR 61478 - D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... formation for natural gas storage, all as more fully set forth in the application, which is on file with the... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Petition September 24, 2010. Take notice that on September 21, 2010, D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC (Petitioner), 1002 East St. Mary...

  6. 75 FR 26222 - Cadeville Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... natural gas storage facility located in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana. The EA assesses the potential... Energy Regulatory Commission Cadeville Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cadeville Gas Storage Project April 30, 2010. The staff of the Federal...

  7. Sub-tropical freshwater storage catchments: major greenhouse gas sinks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were

  8. Modelling the deployment of CO₂ storage in U.S. gas-bearing shales

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation's gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO₂ into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO₂ storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO₂ adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH₄ recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO₂ than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO₂-enhanced gas recovery (CO₂-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO₂ for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO₂. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO₂ storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO₂ storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO₂. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO₂ storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental recovery; modeling the low revenue case resulted in only five shale-based projects, while under the high

  9. Modelling the deployment of CO₂ storage in U.S. gas-bearing shales

    DOE PAGES

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; ...

    2014-12-31

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation's gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO₂ into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO₂ storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO₂ adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH₄more » recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO₂ than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO₂-enhanced gas recovery (CO₂-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO₂ for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO₂. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO₂ storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO₂ storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO₂. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO₂ storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental recovery; modeling the low revenue case resulted in only five shale-based projects, while under

  10. Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, N.G.

    1996-02-19

    Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

  11. Dynamic simulation of an underground gas storage injection-production network .

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanbi; Liu, Enbin; Xian, Weiwei; Wang, Di; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-07-01

    Underground gas storage is a well-known strategic practice to seasonal peak shaving and emergency facility. The changing operation conditions of injection-production network directly affects the reliability of downstream gas supply of the city. In the present study, a model of injection-production network on the basis of field data analysis and research was established. By comparing the actual node pressure and simulation results, the reliability of model was verified. Based on the volume of underground gas storage and downstream gas consumption, the best seasonal peak-shaving schedule of the whole year was set. According to dynamic analysis of network, 20% increase in downstream demand could be fulfilled. Besides, the study also analyzed the well pressure and flow rate changes after shutdown of gas well, which is most likely to fail, and concludes that the best rescue time should be within 4 hr after gas supply interruption. The results would help in making decisions about the operation of injection-production network, which have important significance in the environmental protection.

  12. The significance of gas for offshore operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, G. C.; Wheeler, S. J.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the physical behaviour of a seabed containing undissolved gas in the light of laboratory simulations undertaken at Oxford, Belfast and Sheffield Universities. This physical behaviour is significant for offshore operations in several ways. Gas may exist in high pressure pockets, trapped beneath low permeability clays, which form a blow out hazard during drilling. In fine-grained soils, it exists in voids distributed through the soil, at pressures only a little greater than te ambient water pressure. In this condition, it is unlikely to induced casastrophic failure, but will affect the foundation behaviour through changes in compressibility and strength. In sands, gas may be present in pores between particles, replacing water but not affecting the soil structure. There are common features in all these cases, in that the gas-water interaction occurs through surface tension, acting in menisci whose curvature is affected by the soil particle sizes, shapes and packing. These menisci determine the differences between gas and water pressure that may exist in the soil. Results are presented to show that the compressibility and undrained shear strength of a fine-grained soil are reduced by the presence of gas in a predictable manner, with a similar conclusion for the undrained strength of a gassy sand.

  13. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  14. 75 FR 20591 - Bay Gas Storage Company, Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage Company, Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval April 13, 2010. Take notice that on April 8, 2010, Bay Gas Storage Company, Ltd. (Bay Gas) ] filed a petition for... facilities, Bay Gas proposes firm and interruptible transportation rates on its newly constructed...

  15. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  16. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  17. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, R.J.

    1982-09-30

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer there between. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  18. Modeling of information flows in natural gas storage facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbari, Leyla; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers the natural-gas storage valuation based on the information-based pricing framework of Brody-Hughston-Macrina (BHM). As opposed to many studies which the associated filtration is considered pre-specified, this work tries to construct the filtration in terms of the information provided to the market. The value of the storage is given by the sum of the discounted expectations of the cash flows under risk-neutral measure, conditional to the constructed filtration with the Brownian bridge noise term. In order to model the flow of information about the cash flows, we assume the existence of a fixed pricing kernel with liquid, homogenous and incomplete market without arbitrage.

  19. U.S. Natural Gas Storage Risk-Based Ranking Methodology and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, Steve; Portante, Edgar; Shamsuddin, Shabbir; Tompkins, Angeli; Talaber, Leah; McLamore, Mike; Kavicky, Jim; Conzelmann, Guenter; Levin, Todd

    2016-10-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and models developed to assess the risk to energy delivery from the potential loss of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities located within the United States. The U.S. has a total of 418 existing storage fields, of which 390 are currently active. The models estimate the impacts of a disruption of each of the active UGS facilities on their owners/operators, including (1) local distribution companies (LDCs), (2) directly connected transporting pipelines and thus on the customers in downstream States, and (3) third-party entities and thus on contracted customers expecting the gas shipment. Impacts are measured across all natural gas customer classes. For the electric sector, impacts are quantified in terms of natural gas-fired electric generation capacity potentially affected from the loss of a UGS facility. For the purpose of calculating the overall supply risk, the overall consequence of the disruption of an UGS facility across all customer classes is expressed in terms of the number of expected equivalent residential customer outages per year, which combines the unit business interruption cost per customer class and the estimated number of affected natural gas customers with estimated probabilities of UGS disruptions. All models and analyses are based on publicly available data. The report presents a set of findings and recommendations in terms of data, further analyses, regulatory requirements and standards, and needs to improve gas/electric industry coordination for electric reliability.

  20. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-04-11

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas.

  1. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  2. 75 FR 14590 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...) from an affiliate, and convert it into a natural gas storage cavern. The proposed facilities would...'s firm natural gas storage capacity to meet anticipated growing demand for storage services in the... include: Existing Cavern 12A to be converted from brine storage to natural gas storage; New...

  3. Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has been publishing monthly storage information for years. In order to address the need for more timely information, in 1994 the American Gas Association (AGA) began publishing weekly storage levels. Both the EIA and the AGA series provide estimates of the total working gas in storage, but use significantly different methodologies.

  4. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  5. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  6. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  7. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  8. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil... subsurface storage of oil or gas, irrespective of the lands from which production is initially obtained....

  9. Improving Gas Storage Development Planning Through Simulation-Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.M.; Ammer, J.; Trick, M.D.

    2000-07-25

    This is the first of two papers describing the application of simulator-optimization methods to a natural gas storage field development planning problem. The results presented here illustrate the large gains in cost-effectiveness that can be made by employing the reservoir simulator as the foundation for a wide-ranging search for solutions to management problems. The current paper illustrates the application of these techniques given a deterministic view of the reservoir. A companion paper will illustrate adaptations needed to accommodate uncertainties regarding reservoir properties.

  10. 75 FR 12231 - Bay Gas Storage Company, Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage Company, Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval March 8, 2010. Take notice that on February 26, 2010, Bay Gas Storage Company, Ltd. (Bay Gas) submitted...

  11. 76 FR 41235 - Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 5, 2011, Tres Palacios Gas Storage LLC (TPGS), Two Brush Creek Blvd., Suite 200, Kansas City, Missouri 64112, filed pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and part 157 the...

  12. 43 CFR 3107.9-2 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3107.9... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.9-2 Subsurface storage of oil and gas. See § 3105.5-4 of this title....

  13. 43 CFR 3107.9-2 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3107.9... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.9-2 Subsurface storage of oil and gas. See § 3105.5-4 of this title....

  14. 75 FR 66077 - Bay Gas Storage Company Ltd.; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bay Gas Storage Company Ltd.; Notice of Compliance Filing October 20, 2010. Take notice that on October 13, 2010, Bay Gas Storage Company Ltd. (Bay Gas) filed its Refund...

  15. 43 CFR 3107.9-2 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3107.9... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.9-2 Subsurface storage of oil and gas. See § 3105.5-4 of this title....

  16. 43 CFR 3105.5 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3105.5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions § 3105.5 Subsurface storage of oil and gas....

  17. 43 CFR 3107.9-2 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3107.9... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.9-2 Subsurface storage of oil and gas. See § 3105.5-4 of this title....

  18. 43 CFR 3105.5 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3105.5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions § 3105.5 Subsurface storage of oil and gas....

  19. 75 FR 76970 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Amendment December 3, 2010. Take notice that on November 19, 2010, East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC (East Cheyenne), 10901 W. Toller Drive... the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended, and part 157 of the Commission's ] regulations for an...

  20. 78 FR 63179 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Petal Gas Storage, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Petal Gas Storage, LLC. Take notice that on October 9, 2013, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston....214 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended,...

  1. 43 CFR 3105.5 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3105.5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions § 3105.5 Subsurface storage of oil and gas....

  2. 43 CFR 3105.5 - Subsurface storage of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsurface storage of oil and gas. 3105.5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions § 3105.5 Subsurface storage of oil and gas....

  3. 75 FR 49917 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application August 3, 2010. Take notice that on July 21, 2010, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics), 4470... section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting...

  4. 76 FR 544 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application December 28, 2010. Take notice that on December 14, 2010, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's...

  5. 77 FR 23241 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 30, 2012, Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC (FGS), 1000 Louisiana Street... section 7 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations to amend...

  6. 75 FR 8318 - Petrologistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petrologistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application February 17, 2010. Take notice that on February 12, 2010, Petrologistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (Petrologistics... to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to amend its Certificate of Public Convenience...

  7. 77 FR 5788 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 27, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics), 4470 Bluebonnet... section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, to amend...

  8. 77 FR 20618 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 22, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics), 4470 Bluebonnet Blvd...) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, to amend its...

  9. 76 FR 48854 - Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 29, 2011 Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC (Monroe), Three Riverway, Suite... Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization to modify a previously approved...

  10. CO2 geological storage into a lateral aquifer of an offshore gas field in the South China Sea: storage safety and project design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Dexiang; Ezekiel, Justin; Zhang, Weidong; Mi, Honggang; Ren, Shaoran

    2015-06-01

    The DF1-1 gas field, located in the western South China Sea, contains a high concentration of CO2, thus there is great concern about the need to reduce the CO2 emissions. Many options have been considered in recent years to dispose of the CO2 separated from the natural gas stream on the Hainan Island. In this study, the feasibility of CO2 storage in the lateral saline aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field is assessed, including aquifer selection and geological assessment, CO2 migration and storage safety, project design, and economic analysis. Six offshore aquifers have been investigated for CO2 geological storage. The lateral aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field has been selected as the best target for CO2 injection and storage because of its proven sealing ability, and the large storage capacity of the combined aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir geological structure. The separated CO2 will be dehydrated on the Hainan Island and transported by a long-distance subsea pipeline in supercritical or liquid state to the central platform of the DF1-1 gas field for pressure adjustment. The CO2 will then be injected into the lateral aquifer via a subsea well-head through a horizontal well. Reservoir simulations suggest that the injected CO2 will migrate slowly upwards in the aquifer without disturbing the natural gas production. The scoping economic analysis shows that the unit storage cost of the project is approximately US26-31/ton CO2 with the subsea pipeline as the main contributor to capital expenditure (CAPEX), and the dehydration system as the main factor of operating expenditure (OPEX).

  11. Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2013-04-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production

  12. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  13. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas injection].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The liquid phase of different units of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas injection was studied with respect to its hydrochemical composition and characterized microbiologically. The presence of viable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was revealed in the UGS stratal and associated waters. An important source of microorganisms and biogenic elements in the ecosystem studied is water and various technogenic admixtures contained in trace amounts in the gas entering from the gas main in the period of gas injection into the storage. Owing to this fact, the bacterial functional diversity, number, and activity are maximal in the system of gas treatment and purification and considerably lower in the observation well zone. At the terminal stages, the anaerobic transformation of organic matter in the UGS aqueous media occurs via sulfate reduction and methanogenesis; exceptionally high rates of these processes (up to 4.9 x 10(5) ng S(2-)l(-1) day(-1) and 2.8 x 10(6) nl CH4 l(-1) day(-1), respectively) were recorded for above-ground technological equipment.

  14. Bit storage and bit flip operations in an electromechanical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, I; Yamaguchi, H

    2008-05-01

    The Parametron was first proposed as a logic-processing system almost 50 years ago. In this approach the two stable phases of an excited harmonic oscillator provide the basis for logic operations. Computer architectures based on LC oscillators were developed for this approach, but high power consumption and difficulties with integration meant that the Parametron was rendered obsolete by the transistor. Here we propose an approach to mechanical logic based on nanoelectromechanical systems that is a variation on the Parametron architecture and, as a first step towards a possible nanomechanical computer, we demonstrate both bit storage and bit flip operations.

  15. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage plant: Ten years operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    Operational experience at the 1 530 MW Raccoon Mountain underground pumped-storage plant can be relevant to other large hydro facilities. A number of unusual features were incorporated and individual unit size was only recently overtaken elsewhere. Direct water cooling of rotor and stator winding has been successfully applied to salient pole machines. A number of problems, including difficulties with oil-filled 161 kV current transformers, and some mechanical aspects, are reported. Designed for remote supervisory control, the plant has required closer attention. Operating statistics are included.

  16. Method for operating a flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, R.; Weinzierl, K.

    1983-02-01

    A method of operating a flue gas desulfurization with a steam power plant heated with fossil fuels. The sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas is removed in a wash tower by means of an excess of milk of lime or limestone, and the resulting sulfite is oxidized with air at a low ph-value into calcium sulfate. The non-converted milk of lime or limestone is neutralized at least partially by an addition of acid waste waters from a complete desalination plant for the supply water, and/or by an addition of acid condensate from the flue or chimney of the steam power plant. An installation for carrying out the method of the present invention includes a wash tower having flue gas flowing therethrough, an oxidation tower having air flowing therethrough, milk of lime or limestone supply into the wash tower, and a delivery device for the wash liquid in the wash tower and in the oxidation tower, with the device having a pump for liquid drawn off from the sump of the wash tower. The sump of the wash tower is connected with a supply line for acid waste water from a complete desalination plant, and/or with a supply line for acid condensate from the chimney or flue of the steam power plant.

  17. The potential strategic, operating and environmental benefits of TVA's compressed air energy storage (CAES) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, D.T.; Brewer, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority is currently looking at compressed air energy storage (CAES), a new but mature technology, as a new capacity option. The technology is mature because all pieces/components have been in existence and use for over 50 years. The compressors are standard components for the gas industry, and the turbo expander and motor generator are standard components in the utility business. The newness of the CAES technology is due to the integration of these components and the use of underground storage of air in porous media or possibly in abandoned mines. Although the integration of these components is new to the Untied States, they have been demonstrated in Germany for over 10 years in the 290 MWe CAES unit located in a salt cavern near Huntorf, Germany. The CAES unit has been very successful, operating with a 99% start-up reliability, and has been operated remotely.

  18. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  19. Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.

  20. CO2 Utilization and Storage in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; Glezakou, V.; Owen, T.; Miller, Q.; Loring, J.; Davidson, C.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Surging natural gas production from fractured shale reservoirs and the emerging concept of utilizing anthropogenic CO2 for secondary recovery and permanent storage is driving the need for understanding fundamental mechanisms controlling gas adsorption and desorption processes, mineral volume changes, and impacts to transmissivity properties. Early estimates indicate that between 10 and 30 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity may exist in the 24 shale gas plays included in current USGS assessments. However, the adsorption of gases (CO2, CH4, and SO2) is not well understood and appears unique for individual clay minerals. Using specialized experimental techniques developed at PNNL, pure clay minerals were examined at relevant pressures and temperatures during exposure to CH4, CO2, and mixtures of CO2-SO2. Adsorbed concentrations of methane displayed a linear behavior as a function of pressure as determined by a precision quartz crystal microbalance. Acid gases produced differently shaped adsorption isotherms, depending on temperature and pressure. In the instance of kaolinite, gaseous CO2 adsorbed linearly, but in the presence of supercritical CO2, surface condensation increased significantly to a peak value before desorbing with further increases in pressure. Similarly shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms derived from natural shale samples and coal samples have been reported in the literature. Adsorption steps, determined by density functional theory calculations, showed they were energetically favorable until the first CO2 layer formed, corresponding to a density of ~0.35 g/cm3. Interlayer cation content (Ca, Mg, or Na) of montmorillonites influenced adsorbed gas concentrations. Measurements by in situ x-ray diffraction demonstrate limited CO2 diffusion into the Na-montmorillonite interlayer spacing, with structural changes related to increased hydration. Volume changes were observed when Ca or Mg saturated montmorillonites in the 1W hydration state were exposed to

  1. 76 FR 15971 - Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage, LLC and LA Storage, LLC; Notice of Joint... Regulatory Commission (Commission) a joint application under section 7 for (i) Authorization from the.... Questions regarding the joint application may be directed to William Rapp, Counsel for Liberty and...

  2. First operation of a Hoop Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.C.; Han, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Chung, K.H.; Moon, T.S.; Cho, C.H.

    1999-09-01

    Energy storage systems are needed in industrialized countries to achieve diurnal load leveling of the electric power utility. A study of the design, fabrication and operational characteristics of a Hoop Energy Storage System (HESS) has been done. For the magnetic levitation of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet, the magnetic force calculation and dynamic analysis of the rotational stability were included in the design and operation of HESS. 2564 Nd-Fe-B magnets which has the dimension of 2in. x 2in. x lin. were assembled for the levitation of a 3.7 ton-carbon fiber composite hoop. A computer simulation of rotation under magnetic force and torque due to both the vertical stabilization magnetic set and the radial stabilization magnet set showed that the rotation of the hoop's spin axis induced by the torque of the levitated rotor magnets reduces the additional active control. The fabrication of a 6m-diameter carbon fiber composite hoop was completed and the ANSYS code was used to study its stress analysis. The study showed that the strength of the hoop material is high enough for the 600MJ-energy storage. A performance test of the HESS at a low speed rotation is reported.

  3. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  4. TRC (Texas Railroad Commission) rejects gas storage project financing plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-11

    TRC has rejected Valero Transmission Co.'s plan to finance a 5 billion cu ft underground storage facility already under construction in Wharton County, TX. The fee application, dismissed without prejudice to Valero's filing another application, would have added $0.015/1000 cu ft for the first nine years of operation before dropping to $0.014/1000 cu ft in the tenth year. The TRC commissioners decided that the costs underlying this proposed fee schedule were too speculative to be passed on to pipeline customers.

  5. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned

  6. Well Integrity for Natural Gas Storage in Depleted Reservoirs and Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Jordan, Preston; Pan, Lehua; Perfect, Scott; Morris, Joseph; White, Joshua; Bauer, Stephen; Blankenship, Douglas; Roberts, Barry; Bromhal, Grant; Glosser, Deborah; Wyatt, Douglas; Rose, Kelly

    2016-09-02

    National Laboratories Well Integrity Work Group One of the primary areas that the Task Force is studying is integrity of natural gas wells at storage facilities. The DOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) took the lead in this area and asked scientists and engineers from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)) to form a Work Group to address this area. This Work Group is an expansion of the original “Lab Team” comprising scientists and engineers from SNL, LLNL, and LBNL which was formed to support the State of California’s response to the Aliso Canyon incident and operated under the Governor of California’s Aliso Canyon Emergency Order (1/6/2016). The Lab Team played a key role in advising the State of California’s Department of Conservation (DOC) in its oversight of SoCalGas during and after the incident.

  7. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the market for natural gas storage that will provide for rigorous evaluation of federal research and development opportunities in storage technologies. The project objectives are: (1) to identify market areas and end use sectors where new natural gas underground storage capacity can be economically employed; (2) to develop a storage evaluation system that will provide the analytical tool to evaluate storage requirements under alternate economic, technology, and market conditions; and (3) to analyze the economic and technical feasibility of alternatives to conventional gas storage. An analytical approach was designed to examine storage need and economics on a total U.S. gas system basis, focusing on technical and market issues. Major findings of each subtask are reported in detail. 79 figs.

  8. A Feasibility Study on Operating Large Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage in Porous Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Pfeiffer, W. T.; Li, D.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations has been considered as one promising option of large scale energy storage for decades. This study, hereby, aims at analyzing the feasibility of operating large scale CAES in porous formations and evaluating the performance of underground porous gas reservoirs. To address these issues quantitatively, a hypothetic CAES scenario with a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was numerically simulated. Because of the rapid growth in photovoltaics, the period of extraction in a daily cycle was set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. The gas turbine scenario was defined referring to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant. The numerical simulations involved two stages, i.e. initial fill and cyclic operation, and both were carried out using the Eclipse E300 simulator (Schlumberger). Pressure loss in the gas wells was post analyzed using an analytical solution. The exergy concept was applied to evaluate the potential energy amount stored in the specific porous formation. The simulation results show that porous formations prove to be a feasible solution of large scale CAES. The initial fill with shut-in periods determines the spatial distribution of the gas phase and helps to achieve higher gas saturation around the wells, and thus higher deliverability. The performance evaluation shows that the overall exergy flow of stored compressed air is also determined by the permeability, which directly affects the deliverability of the gas reservoir and thus the number of wells required.

  9. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; ...

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore » associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  10. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage facility operational fish monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.P.; Pasch, R.W.; Smith, A.O.; Swor, C.T.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-09-01

    The impact of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Facility operations on fisheries resources in the Nickajack Reservoir was investigated. Analyses of data collected from 1979 through 1981 on population status and distribution of adults, larvae and eggs are presented with comparisons of preoperational fisheries monitoring data collected by the TVA from 1977 through 1978. Although minor differences in composition of dominant species, and slight declines in standing stock of some species were noted, no major impacts were identified. Appendix B contains a short report entitled Nickajack Reservoir Ictiobine Study 1979 by Edwin Scott Jr. 7 references, 46 figures, 31 tables.

  11. Evidence for Working Memory Storage Operations in Perceptual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K.; Gratton, Caterina; Vytlacil, Jason; D’Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Isolating the short-term storage component of working memory (WM) from the myriad of associated executive processes has been an enduring challenge. Recent efforts have identified patterns of activity in visual regions that contain information about items being held in WM. However, it remains unclear (i) whether these representations withstand intervening sensory input and (ii) how communication between multimodal association cortex and unimodal perceptual regions supporting WM representations is involved in WM storage. We present evidence that the features of a face held in WM are stored within face processing regions, that these representations persist across subsequent sensory input, and that information about the match between sensory input and memory representation is relayed forward from perceptual to prefrontal regions. Participants were presented with a series of probe faces and indicated whether each probe matched a Target face held in WM. We parametrically varied the feature similarity between probe and Target faces. Activity within face processing regions scaled linearly with the degree of feature similarity between the probe face and the features of the Target face, suggesting that the features of the Target face were stored in these regions. Furthermore, directed connectivity measures revealed that the direction of information flow that was optimal for performance was from sensory regions that stored the features of the Target face to dorsal prefrontal regions, supporting the notion that sensory input is compared to representations stored within perceptual regions and relayed forward. Together, these findings indicate that WM storage operations are carried out within perceptual cortex. PMID:24436009

  12. 75 FR 18829 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... reservoirs in Logan County, Colorado to natural gas storage. The purpose of the project is to provide natural gas storage capacity to interstate shippers of natural gas. The EA assesses the potential... Energy Regulatory Commission East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the...

  13. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    fluid, but it results in a complex cavern shape. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the ability of storage caverns produced by the acid-dissolution method to store natural gas. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate cavern stability during gas injection and withdrawal from storage caverns created in carbonate formations by the acid-dissolution method. The stability analyses were conducted using FLAC2D, a commercially available geotechnical analysis and design software. The analyses indicate that a tall cylindrical cavern with a domed roof and floor will be stable under the expected range of in situ and operational conditions. This result suggests that it should be feasible to avoid mechanical instabilities that could potentially diminish the effectiveness of the storage facility. The feasibility of using pressure transients measured at the ground surface was investigated as a means to evaluate (Abstract truncated)

  14. Spatial and intertemporal arbitrage in the California natural gas transportation and storage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio

    Intertemporal and spatial price differentials should provide the necessary signals to allocate a commodity efficiently inside a network. This dissertation investigates the extent to which decisions in the California natural gas transportation and storage system are taken with an eye on arbitrage opportunities. Daily data about flows into and out of storage facilities in California over 2002-2006 and daily spreads on the NYMEX futures market are used to investigate whether the injection profile is consistent with the "supply-of-storage" curve first observed by Working for wheat. Spatial price differentials between California and producing regions fluctuate throughout the year, even though spot prices at trading hubs across North America are highly correlated. In an analysis of "residual supply", gas volumes directed to California are examined for the influence of those fluctuations in locational differentials. Daily storage decisions in California do seem to be influenced by a daily price signal that combines the intertemporal spread and the locational basis between California and the Henry Hub, in addition to strong seasonal and weekly cycles. The timing and magnitude of the response differs across storage facilities depending on the regulatory requirements they face and the type of customers they serve. In contrast, deviations in spatial price differentials from the levels dictated by relative seasonality in California versus competing regions do not trigger significant reallocations of flows into California. Available data for estimation of both the supply-of-storage and residual-supply curves aggregate the behavior of many individuals whose motivations and attentiveness to prices vary. The resulting inventory and flow profiles differ from those that a social planner would choose to minimize operating costs throughout the network. Such optimal allocation is deduced from a quadratic programming model, calibrated to 2004-2005, that acknowledges relative seasonality

  15. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000,...

  16. 75 FR 63452 - ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Baseline Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on October 1, 2010, ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C. submitted a revised baseline filing of...

  17. 75 FR 80758 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under OMB Control No. 1902-0169. The Form No. 549 reporting... exemption). (1) The identity of each customer injecting gas into storage and/or withdrawing gas from storage (including, for interstate pipelines, any affiliate relationship), (2) the rate schedule (for...

  18. 75 FR 52937 - Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application August 20, 2010. Take notice that on August 6, 2010, Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC (Turtle Bayou), One Office... caverns and related facilities to be located in Chambers and Liberty Counties, Texas. Turtle Bayou...

  19. 76 FR 58741 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... reports by the two sets of pipelines must include: (1) The identity of each customer injecting gas into... relationship), (2) The rate schedule (for interstate pipelines) or docket number (for intrastate pipelines... withdrawal quantity applicable to each storage customer, (4) For each storage customer, the volume of gas...

  20. Gas storage cylinder formed from a composition containing thermally exfoliated graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A gas storage cylinder or gas storage cylinder liner, formed from a polymer composite, containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(exp 2)/g to 2600 m(exp 2)2/g.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-3 Section 75.1106-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  2. 78 FR 2982 - Steuben Gas Storage Company (Steuben); Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Steuben Gas Storage Company (Steuben); Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 19, 2012, Steuben Gas Storage Company (Steuben) submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  3. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. The provisions of § 211.22 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....

  4. 76 FR 28970 - Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 12, 2011, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC filed to update its address in its Statement of...

  5. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. The provisions of § 211.22 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....

  6. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. The provisions of § 211.22 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....

  7. 75 FR 18200 - Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing April 1, 2010. Take notice that on March 23, 2010, Monroe Gas Storage Company, LLC (Monroe), submitted a...

  8. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. The provisions of § 211.22 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....

  9. 77 FR 28869 - Worsham Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Worsham Steed Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2012, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, LLC filed ] an updated market power analysis to...

  10. 25 CFR 212.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 212.22... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. The provisions of § 211.22 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....

  11. A 2D mesoporous imine-linked covalent organic framework for high pressure gas storage applications.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mohammad Gulam; Sekizkardes, Ali Kemal; Kahveci, Zafer; Reich, Thomas E; Ding, Ransheng; El-Kaderi, Hani M

    2013-03-04

    Hole-some mixture: A 2D mesoporous covalent organic framework (see figure) featuring expanded pyrene cores and linked by imine linkages has a high surface area (SA(BET) = 2723 m(2)  g(-1)) and exhibits significant gas storage capacities under high pressure, which make this class of material very promising for gas storage applications.

  12. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  13. Investigation of Isotope Effects in the Gas Streams Supplied by a 1:1 ITER Storage Bed Using a Micro Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Wagner, R.; Fanghaenel, E.; Gruenhagen, S.

    2005-07-15

    In the present design of the Storage and Delivery System of the ITER Tritium Plant deuterium, tritium and their mixtures are stored in hydrogen storage beds with a storage capacity of 100 g. During plasma operation it is required that deuterium-tritium gases with well defined ratios of D/T are supplied by the different hydrogen storage beds. Due to the isotope effects the composition of the hydrogen gas mixture supplied by the getter bed may be different from the one absorbed in the getter and may even change during unloading of the bed depending on the variation of the isotope effect with the actual amount of hydrogen isotopes stored in the bed.At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe a 1:1 prototype of ITER hydrogen storage bed with a capacity of 100 g tritium and a target supply rate of up to 200 Pam3s-1 was designed and manufactured. The getter bed is currently filled with zirconium-cobalt and is installed in an experimental rig coupled with a micro gas chromatograph in order to perform texts under different operation conditions and to characterize the possible isotope effects. In this work a first data on the isotope effect during loading and unloading of the getter bed with the different hydrogen-deuterium mixtures is presented.

  14. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz; K.E. Brown

    2003-02-01

    There are four primary goals of contract DE-FG26-99FT40703: (1) We seek to better understand how and why two damage mechanisms--(1) inorganic precipitants, and (2) hydrocarbons and organic residues, occur at the reservoir/wellbore interface in gas storage wells. (2) We plan on testing potential prevention and remediation strategies related to these two damage mechanisms in the laboratory. (3) We expect to demonstrate in the field, cost-effective prevention and remediation strategies that laboratory testing deems viable. (4) We will investigate new technology for the gas storage industry that will provide operators with a cost effective method to reduce non-darcy turbulent flow effects on flow rate. For the above damage mechanisms, our research efforts will demonstrate the diagnostic technique for determining the damage mechanisms associated with lost deliverability as well as demonstrate and evaluate the remedial techniques in the laboratory setting and in actual gas storage reservoirs. We plan on accomplishing the above goals by performing extensive lab analyses of rotary sidewall cores taken from at least two wells, testing potential remediation strategies in the lab, and demonstrating in the field the applicability of the proposed remediation treatments. The benefits from this work will be quantified from this study and extrapolated to the entire storage industry. The technology and project results will be transferred to the industry through DOE dissemination and through the industry service companies that work on gas storage wells. Achieving these goals will enable the underground gas storage industry to more cost-effectively mitigate declining deliverability in their storage fields. Work completed to date includes the following: (1) Solicited potential participants from the gas storage industry; (2) Selected one participant experiencing damage from inorganic precipitates; (3) Developed laboratory testing procedures; (4) Collected cores from National Fuel Gas

  16. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  17. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin

  18. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  19. 77 FR 28870 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Floridian Natural Gas Amendment Project and Request for Comments on... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Floridan Natural Gas...

  20. 76 FR 30980 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The Pacific Gas and Electric letter HIL-10-005 which... September 8, 2010, a license amendment application from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E),...

  1. Thermal management of the adsorption-based vessel for hydrogeneous gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, L. L.; Kanonchik, L. E.; Babenko, V. A.

    2012-09-01

    Thermal management is a design bottleneck in the creation of rational gas storage sorption systems. Inefficient heat transfer in a sorption bed is connected with a relatively low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5 W/(mṡK)) and an appreciable sorption heat of activated gas storage materials. This work is devoted to the development of a thermally regulated onboard system of hydrogenous gas (methane and hydrogen) storage with the use of novel carbon sorbents. A hydrogenous gas storage system based on combined gas adsorption and compression at moderate pressures (3-6 MPa) and low temperatures (from the temperature of liquid nitrogen of about 77 K to a temperature of 273 K) is suggested.

  2. Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks for Gas Storage and Separation: What, How, and Why?

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wen, Hui-Min; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin

    2014-10-16

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been emerging as promising multifunctional materials and have shown particularly useful applications for gas storage and separation. We have briefly outlined the early development of this very active research field to provide us a clear picture on what are MOFs and how the research endeavor has been initiated and explored. Following that, we have demonstrated why MOFs are so unique for gas storage and separation: high porosities, tunable framework structures, and immobilized functional sites to fully make use of pore space for gas storage, to optimize their sieving effects, and to differentiate their interactions with gas molecules. Finally, we have provided a perspective on further development of porous MOFs for gas storage and separation.

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  4. Operational adaptability evaluation index system of pumped storage in UHV receiving-end grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Feng, Junshu

    2017-01-01

    Pumped storage is an effective solution to deal with the emergency reserve shortage, renewable energy accommodating and peak-shaving problems in ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission receiving-end grids. However, governments and public opinion in China tend to evaluate the operational effectiveness of pumped storage using annual utilization hour, which may result in unreasonable and unnecessary dispatch of pumped storage. This paper built an operational adaptability evaluation index system for pumped storage in UHV-receiving end grids from three aspects: security insurance, peak-shaving and renewable energy accommodating, which can provide a comprehensive and objective way to evaluate the operational performance of a pumped storage station.

  5. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  6. Hydrogen Energy Storage and Power-to-Gas: Establishing Criteria for Successful Business Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua; Melaina, Marc

    2015-10-27

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility, sufficient capacity and greater concern for overgeneration. As a result there is growing interest in exploring the role of energy storage and demand response technologies to support grid needs. Hydrogen is a versatile feedstock that can be used in a variety of applications including chemical and industrial processes, as well as a transportation fuel and heating fuel. Traditionally, hydrogen technologies focus on providing services to a single sector; however, participating in multiple sectors has the potential to provide benefits to each sector and increase the revenue for hydrogen technologies. The goal of this work is to explore promising system configurations for hydrogen systems and the conditions that will make for successful business cases in a renewable, low-carbon future. Current electricity market data, electric and gas infrastructure data and credit and incentive information are used to perform a techno-economic analysis to identify promising criteria and locations for successful hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas projects. Infrastructure data will be assessed using geographic information system applications. An operation optimization model is used to co-optimizes participation in energy and ancillary service markets as well as the sale of hydrogen. From previous work we recognize the great opportunity that energy storage and power-to-gas but there is a lack of information about the economic favorability of such systems. This work explores criteria for selecting locations and compares the system cost and potential revenue to establish competitiveness for a variety of equipment configurations. Hydrogen technologies offer unique system flexibility that can enable interactions between multiple energy sectors including electric, transport, heating fuel and industrial. Previous research established that

  7. Natural gas storage and end user interaction: A progress report, September 30, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, L.R. Jr.; Reich, S.; Godec, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    In late 1994, ICF Resources began a contract with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to conduct a study of natural gas storage and end user interaction. This study is being conducted in three phases: the first phase is an assessment of the market requirements for natural gas storage and in particular to identify those end user requirements for storage that could benefit from METC-sponsored research and development (R&D) in storage technology; the second phase will address the particular technical and economic feasibility for expanding conventional storage; and the third phase will address alternative, unconventional technologies. ICF is approaching the conclusion of the first phase of the study and the second phase has begun. This paper summarizes the scope of the study and reports some of the preliminary findings of the first phase. We begin by providing an overview of the goals of the effort and of natural gas storage. We will address the evolving market requirements for storage and the regulatory and institutional changes that are having a major impact on the use of natural gas storage. We address the demand for storage and the alternatives for meeting this demand, with specific reference to regional and end use issues.

  8. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    experts represented a range of disciplines and hailed from North America and Europe. Major findings of the study are that compression and transport of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes in the United States has shown that impurities are not likely to cause transport problems if CO2 stream composition standards are maintained and pressures are kept at 10.3 MPa or higher. Cyclic, or otherwise intermittent, CO2 supplies historically have not impacted in-field distribution pipeline networks, wellbore integrity, or reservoir conditions. The U.S. EOR industry has demonstrated that it is possible to adapt to variability and intermittency in CO2 supply through flexible operation of the pipeline and geologic storage facility. This CO2 transport and injection experience represents knowledge that can be applied in future CCS projects. A number of gaps in knowledge were identified that may benefit from future research and development, further enhancing the possibility for widespread application of CCS. This project was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  9. 77 FR 70434 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on November 8, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg), filed a Stipulation and Agreement...

  10. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046, filed...

  11. Improving Deliverability in Gas Storage Fields by Identifying the Timing and Sources of Damage Using Smart Well Technology

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; J.P. Spivey

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DE-FC26-03NT41743. The primary objective of this study was to develop tools that would allow Underground Gas Storage (UGS) operators to use wellhead electronic flow measurement (EFM) data to quickly and efficiently identify trends in well damage over time, thus aiding in the identification of potential causes of the damage. Secondary objectives of this work included: (1) To assist UGS operators in the evaluation of hardware and software requirements for implementing an EFM system similar to the one described in this report, and (2) To provide a cost-benefit analysis framework UGS operators can use to evaluate economic benefits of installing wellhead EFM systems in their particular fields. Assessment of EFM data available for use, and selection of the specific study field are reviewed. The various EFM data processing tasks, including data collection, organization, extraction, processing, and interpretation are discussed. The process of damage assessment via pressure transient analysis of EFM data is outlined and demonstrated, including such tasks as quality control, semi-log analysis, and log-log analysis of pressure transient test data extracted from routinely collected EFM data. Output from pressure transient test analyses for 21 wells is presented, and the interpretation of these analyses to determine the timing of damage development is demonstrated using output from specific study wells. Development of processing and interpretation modules to handle EFM data interpretation in horizontal wells is also a presented and discussed. A spreadsheet application developed to aid underground gas storage operators in the selection of EFM equipment is presented, discussed, and used to determine the cost benefit of installing EFM equipment in a gas storage field. Recommendations for future work related to EFM in gas storage fields are presented and discussed.

  12. Porous ctn-type boron imidazolate framework for gas storage and separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Xia; Fu, Hong-Ru; Li, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2013-08-26

    BIFing it up: The assembly between triangular HB(mim)3 units and tetrahedral Zn centers (see graphic) leads to the formation of a ctn-type BIF material with high porosity for gas storage and separation (mim = 2-methylimidazolate).

  13. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  14. Relevance of Underground Natural Gas Storage to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Many of the experiences from storing natural gas in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are relevant to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration in spite of the different physical and chemical properties of the two gases. The first successful natural gas storage project in depleted reservoirs was in Canada in 1915, and in the US in 1916. Until about 1950, essentially all subsurface natural gas storage was in partially or fully depleted gas reservoirs. Presently there more than 450 underground storage sites in the US and Canada. According to 1998 figures, the gas is stored in 372 depleted reservoirs, 51 aquifers and 40 salt caverns. About 138 million metric tons (Mt) of natural gas were stored in subsurface formations in the US at the end of November 2000 (49 Mt as working or active gas and 89 Mt as base gas). The status of underground natural gas storage projects, as well as risk assessment, risk management, and risk mitigation issues pertinent to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration are reviewed.

  15. Modelling gas exchange during platelet storage without agitation.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Tormey, C A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model of oxygen distribution within platelet storage bags to evaluate implications of reduced agitation approaches. Based on our model, platelet concentration and surface area most affect internal partial pressure of oxygen, while temperature modifications have least effect, indicating primary potential approaches for optimization of platelet storage with reduced or absent agitation.

  16. 77 FR 7575 - Southwestern Gas Storage Technical Conference; Notice of Revised Agenda and Transcript Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... convene a technical conference with interested parties to discuss issues related to natural gas storage... Wright, Director, 9:45 Office of Energy Projects. Geology of the Southwest Todd Ruhkamp, Office 10:15 (Storage Applicability). of Energy Projects, Division of Pipeline Certificates; Tom Shaw, Vice...

  17. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  18. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Fountain, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  19. Effect of natural gas exsolution on specific storage in a confined aquifer undergoing water level decline.

    PubMed

    Yager, R M; Fountain, J C

    2001-01-01

    The specific storage of a porous medium, a function of the compressibility of the aquifer material and the fluid within it, is essentially constant under normal hydrologic conditions. Gases dissolved in ground water can increase the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer, however, during water level declines. This causes a reduction in pore pressure that lowers the gas solubility and results in exsolution. The exsolved gas then displaces water from storage, and the specific storage increases because gas compressibility is typically much greater than that of water or aquifer material. This work describes the effective specific storage of a confined aquifer exsolving dissolved gas as a function of hydraulic head and the dimensionless Henry's law constant for the gas. This relation is applied in a transient simulation of ground water discharge from a confined aquifer system to a collapsed salt mine in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Results indicate that exsolution of gas significantly increased the effective specific storage in the aquifer system, thereby decreasing the water level drawdown.

  20. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. The performance optimization of a gas turbine cogeneration/heat pump facility with thermal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Spakovsky, M.R. von; Curti, V.; Batato, M.

    1995-01-01

    With the push for greater energy conservation, the need for heating and/or power production is being filled by cogeneration facilities. Thus, the search for the best performance at the least cost for such multipurpose plants is made much more difficult by the fact that such facilities must meet differing goals or demands. Such a facility exists at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and has been studied in order to find the optimum modes of operation as a function of time for variations in both the heating and electrical demands this facility must meet. The results of this study are presented here. The plant itself provides heat and electricity for both the EPFL and the University of Lausanne and is projected to supply electricity to the exterior utility grid provided it can be shown to be economically viable. The plant`s primary components include two gas turbines, a heat recovery system, two heat pumps, a set of heat storage tanks, and both medium and low-temperature district heating networks. In order to find the optimum mode of operation, a mixed-integer linear programming approach was used, which balances the competing costs of operation and minimizes these costs subject to the operational constraints placed on the system. The effects of both the cost of the fuel and the costs of electricity sold and bought on the best performance of the system are evaluated. In addition, the important features of the modeling process are discussed, in particular the heat storage tanks, which complicate the optimization of the series of steady-state models used to model the overall quasi-steady-state behavior of the system.

  2. 77 FR 36248 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...-0871; FRL-9688-8] RIN 2060-AR00 National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent Systems and Control Devices; and Revisions to the National... Emission Standards for Storage Vessels and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent...

  3. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  4. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  5. Safe storage and effective monitoring of CO2 in depleted gas fields.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Charles R; Cook, Peter J; Ennis-King, Jonathan; Undershultz, James; Boreham, Chris; Dance, Tess; de Caritat, Patrice; Etheridge, David M; Freifeld, Barry M; Hortle, Allison; Kirste, Dirk; Paterson, Lincoln; Pevzner, Roman; Schacht, Ulrike; Sharma, Sandeep; Stalker, Linda; Urosevic, Milovan

    2012-01-10

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is vital to reduce CO(2) emissions to the atmosphere, potentially providing 20% of the needed reductions in global emissions. Research and demonstration projects are important to increase scientific understanding of CCS, and making processes and results widely available helps to reduce public concerns, which may otherwise block this technology. The Otway Project has provided verification of the underlying science of CO(2) storage in a depleted gas field, and shows that the support of all stakeholders can be earned and retained. Quantitative verification of long-term storage has been demonstrated. A direct measurement of storage efficiency has been made, confirming that CO(2) storage in depleted gas fields can be safe and effective, and that these structures could store globally significant amounts of CO(2).

  6. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Knoxville, TN

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  7. 76 FR 30338 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 101 (Wednesday, May 25, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 30338] [FR Doc No: 2011-12864] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-110-000] Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 13, 2011, Hill-Lake Gas...

  8. 78 FR 56944 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY... finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for an amendment request submitted by Pacific Gas and Electric... Installation (ISFSI). ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2011-0115 when contacting the ] NRC about...

  9. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  10. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  11. Operation of NRL Homopolar Generator into Parallel Energy Storage Inductor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    and inertial energy storage. In this system a self-excited homopolar generator (HPG) serves to transfer rotational energy from flywheels to...magnetic energy in the storage inductor. A single 1.4-rnH solenoid inductor enclosing the flywheels can be energized to 60 kA and serves both as energy...the energy storage circuit time constant were 1 s, an energy of 2 MJ could be obtained with an initial flywheel speed of 260 rps. As a consequence

  12. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage-Radiator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupta, Ian

    2005-01-01

    High-energy-density regenerative fuel cell systems that are used for energy storage require novel approaches to integrating components in order to preserve mass and volume. A lightweight unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) energy storage system concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system minimizes mass by using the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes, which are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different-sized commercial-grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage tank-radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. In the future, the results will be incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, spacerated carbon composite tanks.

  13. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1977-01-01

    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  14. Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-10 - Operations and Storage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nature occasioned by the Contractor's performance. (b) Temporary buildings (e.g., storage sheds, shops... recommended by the manufacturer of the vehicle or prescribed by any Federal, State, or local law or...

  16. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  17. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  18. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  19. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  20. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  1. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  2. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  3. 78 FR 53745 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Gulf... (Gulf South) and Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) filed jointly with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an abbreviated application under section 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  4. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  5. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  6. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  7. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage/Radiator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakupca, Ian; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    The ancillary components for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system is unique in that it uses the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes. The heat pipes are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive layer of carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different sized commercial grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. The results were incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, space rated carbon composite tanks.

  8. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  9. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2014-02-24

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  10. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    ScienceCinema

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2016-07-12

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  11. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  12. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  13. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer

    2006-09-01

    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  14. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  15. Natural Gas Storage in the United States in 2001: A Current Assessment and Near-Term Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the large decline of underground natural gas storage inventories during the 2000-2001 heating season and the concern that the nation might run out of working gas in storage prior to the close of the heating season on March 31, 2001. This analysis also looks at the current profile and capabilities of the U.S. natural gas underground storage sector.

  16. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  17. Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  19. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  20. Gas Hydrate Research Coring and Downhole Logging Operational Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Riedel, M.; Malone, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent gas hydrate deep coring and downhole logging projects, including ODP Leg 204, IODP Expedition 311, and the India NGHP-01 effort have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate. These projects have also built on the relatively sparse history of gas hydrate drilling experience to collectively develop a unique operational protocol to examine and sample gas hydrate in nature. The ideal gas hydrate research drill site in recent history, consists of at least three drill holes, with the first hole dedicated to LWD/MWD downhole logging in order to identify intervals to be pressurized cored and to collect critical petrophysical data. The second hole is usually dedicated for continuous coring operations. The third hole is used for special downhole tool measurements such as pressure coring and wire line logging. There is a strong scientific need to obtain LWD/MWD data prior to coring. The coring operations are complemented by frequent deployment of the PCS/HYACINTH pressure core systems. It is essential to know what the gas hydrate concentrations and vertical distribution are before deploying the available pressure core systems in order to choose the optimum depths for pressure coring operations. The coring operations are also complemented by frequent sampling for interstitial water, headspace gas, and microbiological analyses. Although those samples will be taken at relatively regular depths, the sampling frequency can be adjusted if gas hydrate concentrations and distribution can be forward predicted through the analysis of the LWD/MWD pre-core logging surveys. After completing the LWD/MWD logging program, usually as a dedicated drilling leg, field efforts will switch to conventional and pressure-controlled coring operations at each of the sites drilled during the LWD/MWD campaign. The standard continuous core hole will usually include APC coring to an expected refusal depth of ~100 mbsf; each hole is usually

  1. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-11-10

    This technical report is a summary of the progress made for "A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators". During this quarter, the document received continued review and editing in an elec-tronic format to satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Comments received from oil and gas operators reviewing this document prompted contact to be made with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to develop an addendum section to provide better explanation of USEPA requirements for Class II injection wells in Kentucky.

  2. Postextraction Separation, On-Board Storage, and Catalytic Conversion of Methane in Natural Gas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipendu; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Chakraborty, Amlan; Orkoulas, Gerassimos

    2016-10-12

    In today's perspective, natural gas has gained considerable attention, due to its low emission, indigenous availability, and improvement in the extraction technology. Upon extraction, it undergoes several purification protocols including dehydration, sweetening, and inert rejection. Although purification is a commercially established technology, several drawbacks of the current process provide an essential impetus for developing newer separation protocols, most importantly, adsorption and membrane separation. This Review summarizes the needs of natural gas separation, gives an overview of the current technology, and provides a detailed discussion of the progress in research on separation and purification of natural gas including the benefits and drawbacks of each of the processes. The transportation sector is another growing sector of natural gas utilization, and it requires an efficient and safe on-board storage system. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are the most common forms in which natural gas can be stored. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an alternate storage system of natural gas, which is advantageous as compared to CNG and LNG in terms of safety and also in terms of temperature and pressure requirements. This Review provides a detailed discussion on ANG along with computation predictions. The catalytic conversion of methane to different useful chemicals including syngas, methanol, formaldehyde, dimethyl ether, heavier hydrocarbons, aromatics, and hydrogen is also reviewed. Finally, direct utilization of methane onto fuel cells is also discussed.

  3. Study of the modifications needed for effective operation NASTRAN on IBM virtual storage computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, C. W.; Render, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    The necessary modifications were determined to make NASTRAN operational under virtual storage operating systems (VS1 and VS2). Suggested changes are presented which will make NASTRAN operate more efficiently under these systems. Estimates of the cost and time involved in design, coding, and implementation of all suggested modifications are included.

  4. Defining Noble Gas Partitioning for Carbon Capture and Storage Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, O.; Masters, A.; Rochelle, C.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    For viable CCS implementation variables such as CO2 dissolution rates, reactions with the host rock and the extent of groundwater interaction must be accurately constrained. Noble gases play an important role in these systems [e.g. 1,2]. Their application, however, requires accurate Henry's constants within dense CO2-H2O systems. Current interpretations use pure noble gas-H2O partitioning data [3,4] and assume CO2-noble gas interactions are negligible, even at high (>700 kg/m3) CO2 densities [2]. To test this assumption we experimentally determined noble gas CO2-H2O partitioning for the 170-656 kg/m3 CO2 density range; representative of most CCS environments. Contrary to assumption, CO2 density significantly affected noble gas partition coefficients. For helium, increasing CO2 density resulted in a negative deviation trend from CO2-free values whilst for argon, krypton and xenon strong, positive deviations were observed. At 656 kg/m3 these deviations were -35%, 74%, 114% and 321% respectively. This is interpreted as the CO2 phase acting as a polar solvent inducing polarisation in the noble gases. Deviation trends are well defined using a 2nd order polynomial. The effect of a dense CO2 phase can now be incorporated into existing noble gas models. We also present results from a Gibbs-Ensemble Monte Carlo molecular simulation to model partitioning for this binary system. This fundamental technique makes predictions based on the pair-potentials of interaction between the molecules. Here it gives the phase compositions and Henry coefficients for noble gases. With a proven ability in accurately replicating both the CO2-H2O system and low pressure noble gas Henry constants the focus is now on fully optimising the model to match high pressure observations. [1] Gilfillan et al. (2009) Nature 458 614-618 [2] Gilfillan et al. (2008) GCA 72 1174-1198 [3] Crovetto et al. (1982) J.Chem.Phys. 76 1077-1086 [4] Ballentine et al. in Porcelli et al. (eds.) (2002) Rev.Min.Geo. 47 539-614.

  5. A dual output pressure, high reliability, long storage life gas delivery vessel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maya, Isaac; Mckee, Joe; Rajpurkar, Rajiv

    1993-01-01

    A Gas Vessel Assembly has been developed that delivers purified, very low moisture content gas at two different output pressures. High pressure gas is delivered at up to 6,700 psi, and low pressure gas regulated to 130 psi is also delivered via a second outlet over a wide range of flow rates. The device is extremely lightweight (less than 1 lb) and compact, affords maximum mechanical integrity, high reliability (0.9999 at 95 percent confidence level), and offers extremely long storage life. Specialized design and fabrication techniques are employed that guarantee gas purity and negligible leakage for more than 20 years, in widely varying conditions of storage temperature, humidity, altitude, and vibration environments. The technology offers unique advantages in fast, high pressure discharge applications. For example, when combined with a cryostat, cryogenic temperatures can be achieved such as those used in missile seeker technology. The technology has many additional applications such as: emergency power sources for safety devices such as those needed in nuclear power plants, refineries, collision cushioning devices, superconductor cooling devices, emergency egress systems, miniature mechanical devices that employ gas bearings, and other areas where long storage, extremely high reliability and/or high energy density sources are required.

  6. Use of nuclear explosions to create gas condensate storage in the USSR. LLL Treaty Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-23

    The Soviet Union has described industrial use of nuclear explosions to produce underground hydrocarbon storage. To examples are in the giant Orenburg gas condensate field. There is good reason to believe that three additional cavities were created in bedded salt in the yet to be fully developed giant Astrakhan gas condensate field in the region of the lower Volga. Although contrary to usual western practice, the cavities are believed to be used to store H/sub 2/S-rich, unstable gas condensate prior to processing in the main gas plants located tens of kilometers from the producing fields. Detonations at Orenburg and Astrakhan preceded plant construction. The use of nuclear explosions at several sites to create underground storage of highly corrosive liquid hydrocarbons suggests that the Soviets consider this time and cost effective. The possible benefits from such a plan include degasification and stabilization of the condensate before final processing, providing storage of condensate during periods of abnormally high natural gas production or during periods when condensate but not gas processing facilities are undergoing maintenance. Judging from information provided by Soviet specialists, the individual cavities have a maximum capacity on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  7. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  8. Modelling the Deployment of CO2 Storage in U.S. Gas-bearing Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nation’s gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO2 into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO2 storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO2 adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH4 recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO2 than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO2-enhanced gas recovery (CO2-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO2 for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO2. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another “early opportunity” storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO2 storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO2 storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO2. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO2 storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental

  9. Effectiveness of purging on preventing gas emission buildup in wood pellet storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, Choon Jim; Lau, Anthony; Bi, Xiaotao

    2015-04-24

    Storage of wood pellets has resulted in deadly accidents in connection with off-gassing and self-heating. A forced ventilation system should be in place to sweep the off-gases and control the thermal conditions. In this study, multiple purging tests were conducted in a pilot scale silo to evaluate the effectiveness of a purging system and quantify the time and volume of the gas needed to sweep the off-gases. To identify the degree of mixing, residence time distribution of the tracer gas was also studied experimentally. Large deviations from plug flow suggested strong gas mixing for all superficial velocities. As the velocity increased, the system dispersion number became smaller, which indicated less degree of mixing with increased volume of the purging gas. Finally, one-dimensional modelling and numerical simulation of the off-gas concentration profile gave the best agreement with the measured gas concentration at the bottom and middle of the silo.

  10. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  11. Occupation Competency Profile: Gas Utility Operator Certificate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the gas utility operator certificate program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the occupation committee and its members; the Alberta…

  12. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  13. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  14. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  15. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  16. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bulk storage. 127.313 Section...

  17. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  18. Massive preparation of pitch-based organic microporous polymers for gas storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenqing; Zhang, Aijuan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Mingjie; Liu, Anhua; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-02-14

    A general challenge for preparing organic microporous polymers (MOPs) is to use cheap and sustainable building blocks while retaining the advanced functions. We demonstrate a strategy to massively prepare pitch-based MOPs, which are thermally and chemically stable. A maximum BET surface area of 758 m(2) g(-1) and high gas storage capacity were achieved.

  19. High pressure gas storage capacities. Example of a solution using filament windings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, A.; Lamalle, J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of epoxy resin fiber glass and economic factors affecting the choice of materials for gas storage are discussed. The physical nature of the filament windings are described together with the results obtained. It is demonstrated that a substantial reduction in mass and an enhanced level of safety can be assured at a competitive cost by storing gases in this way.

  20. 75 FR 28602 - Bully Camp Gas Storage Project; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bully Camp Gas Storage Project; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Bully Camp Gas Storage Project May 14, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Bully...

  1. 78 FR 18329 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of..., Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046, and Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite...

  2. 75 FR 9404 - Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Amended Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turtle Bayou Gas Storage Company, LLC; Amended Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Turtle Bayou Natural Gas Storage Project and Request for... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Turtle Bayou Natural...

  3. 78 FR 18974 - ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on March 14, 2013, ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C. filed a Rate Election pursuant to...

  4. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-06-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by

  5. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  6. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  7. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ∼10(6) m s(-1). Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.

  8. Phthalocyanine-based organometallic nanocages: properties and gas storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guizhi; Li, Yawei; Lü, Kun; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-13

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) molecules are well-known flexible structural units for 1D nanotubes and 2D nanosheets. First-principles calculations combined with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain the geometries, electronic structures, optical properties, and hydrogen-storage capacities of nanocages consisting of six Pc molecules with six Mg or Ca atoms. The primitive Pc cage has Th symmetry with twofold degeneracy in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and threefold degeneracy in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO); the corresponding HOMO-LUMO gap is found to be 0.97 eV. The MgPc and CaPc cages have Oh symmetry with a HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.24 and 1.13 eV, respectively. Optical absorption spectra suggest that the Pc-based cages can absorb infrared light, which is different from the visible-light absorption in Pc molecules. We further show that the excess uptake of hydrogen on MgPc and CaPc cages at 298 K and 100 bar (1 bar=0.1 MPa) is about 3.49 and 4.74 wt%, respectively. The present study provides new insight into Pc-based nanostructures with potential applications.

  9. Certification Testing and Demonstration of Insulated Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Hydrogen and Natural Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Schaffer, R; Clapper, W

    2002-05-22

    We are working on developing an alternative technology for storage of hydrogen or natural gas on light-duty vehicles. This technology has been titled insulated pressure vessels. Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can accept either liquid fuel or ambient-temperature compressed fuel. Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of cryogenic liquid fuel tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (fuel flexibility, lower energy requirement for fuel liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). The work described in this paper is directed at verifying that commercially available pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen or LNG. The use of commercially available pressure vessels significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the insulated pressure vessel development effort. This paper describes a series of tests that have been done with aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped vessels to evaluate the damage caused by low temperature operation. All analysis and experiments to date indicate that no significant damage has resulted. Future activities include a demonstration project in which the insulated pressure vessels will be installed and tested on two vehicles. A draft standard will also be generated for obtaining insulated pressure vessel certification.

  10. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  11. International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sacuta, Norm; Young, Aleana; Worth, Kyle

    2015-12-22

    The IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project (WMP) began in 2000 with the first four years of research that confirmed the suitability of the containment complex of the Weyburn oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan as a storage location for CO₂ injected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The first half of this report covers research conducted from 2010 to 2012, under the funding of the United States Department of Energy (contract DEFE0002697), the Government of Canada, and various other governmental and industry sponsors. The work includes more in-depth analysis of various components of a measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) program through investigation of data on site characterization and geological integrity, wellbore integrity, storage monitoring (geophysical and geochemical), and performance/risk assessment. These results then led to the development of a Best Practices Manual (BPM) providing oilfield and project operators with guidance on CO₂ storage and CO₂-EOR. In 2013, the USDOE and Government of Saskatchewan exercised an optional phase of the same project to further develop and deploy applied research tools, technologies, and methodologies to the data and research at Weyburn with the aim of assisting regulators and operators in transitioning CO₂-EOR operations into permanent storage. This work, detailed in the second half of this report, involves seven targeted research projects – evaluating the minimum dataset for confirming secure storage; additional overburden monitoring; passive seismic monitoring; history-matched modelling; developing proper wellbore design; casing corrosion evaluation; and assessment of post CO₂-injected core samples. The results from the final and optional phases of the Weyburn-Midale Project confirm the suitability of CO₂-EOR fields for the injection of CO₂, and further, highlight the necessary MMV and follow-up monitoring required for these operations to be considered

  12. Flammable gas/slurry growth unreviewed safety question:justification for continued operation for the tank farms at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) provides a basis for continued operation in 176 high level waste tanks, double contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, 244-AR Vault, 242-S and 242-T Evaporators and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) relative to flammable gas hazards. Required controls are specified.

  13. Do We Really Need Storage to Operate the Renewable Grid of the Future?

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul

    2016-03-08

    While it may seem obvious that wind and solar 'need' energy storage to be successfully integrated into the world's electricity grids, both detailed integration studies and real-world experience have shown that storage is only one of many options that could enable substantially increased growth of these renewable resources. This talk will discuss the potential role of energy storage in the integrating wind and solar, demonstrating that in the near term perhaps less exciting -- but often more cost-effective -- alternatives will likely provide much of the grid flexibility needed to add renewable resources. The talk will also demonstrate that the decreasing value of PV and wind and at increased penetration creates greater opportunities for storage. It also demonstrates the fact that 'the sun doesn't always shine and the wind always doesn't blow' is only one reason why energy storage may be an increasingly attractive solution to the challenges of operating the grid of the future.

  14. Thermal Analysis of of Near-Isothermal Compressed Gas Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, alternative system configurations for a novel Ground-Level Integrated Diverse Energy Storage (GLIDES) system, which can store energy via input of electricity and heat and deliver dispatchable electricity, is presented. The proposed system is low-cost and hybridizes compressed air and pumped hydro storage approaches that will allow for the off-peak storage of intermittent renewable energy for use during peak times. This study reveals that implementing direct-contact low grade heat exchange via sprayed falling droplets to cool the gas during charging (compression) and warm the gas during discharging (expansion) can be achieved through a secondary recirculating loop of liquid. This study shows that if the recirculating liquid loop is pre-conditioned with waste-heat prior to spraying during gas expansion and considering all the round trip conversion losses from standard 120 V 60 HZ electricity input and output with utilization of low grade heat at 90 C the alternative system design leads to a 16% boost in round trip efficiency of the electricity storage to elec = 82% with an energy density of ED = 3.59 MJ/m3.

  15. Thermal Analysis of of Near-Isothermal Compressed Gas Energy Storage System

    DOE PAGES

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; ...

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, alternative system configurations for a novel Ground-Level Integrated Diverse Energy Storage (GLIDES) system, which can store energy via input of electricity and heat and deliver dispatchable electricity, is presented. The proposed system is low-cost and hybridizes compressed air and pumped hydro storage approaches that will allow for the off-peak storage of intermittent renewable energy for use during peak times. This study reveals that implementing direct-contact low grade heat exchange via sprayed falling droplets to cool the gas during charging (compression) and warm the gas during discharging (expansion) can be achieved through a secondary recirculating loop of liquid.more » This study shows that if the recirculating liquid loop is pre-conditioned with waste-heat prior to spraying during gas expansion and considering all the round trip conversion losses from standard 120 V 60 HZ electricity input and output with utilization of low grade heat at 90 C the alternative system design leads to a 16% boost in round trip efficiency of the electricity storage to elec = 82% with an energy density of ED = 3.59 MJ/m3.« less

  16. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years it has become generally accepted that gas hydrates represent a potential important future energy resource, a significant drilling and production hazard, a potential contributor to global climate change, and a controlling factor in seafloor stability and landslides. Research drilling and coring programs carried out by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), government agencies, and several consortia have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in marine and permafrost environments. For the most part, each of these field projects were built on the lessons learned from the projects that have gone before them. One of the most important factors contributing to the success of some of the more notable gas hydrate field projects has been the close alignment of project goals with the processes used to select the drill sites and to develop the project’s operational research plans. For example, IODP Expedition 311 used a transect approach to successfully constrain the overall occurrence of gas hydrate within the range of geologic environments within a marine accretionary complex. Earlier gas hydrate research drilling, including IODP Leg 164, were designed primarily to assess the occurrence and nature of marine gas hydrate systems, and relied largely on the presence of anomalous seismic features, including bottom-simulating reflectors and “blanking zones”. While these projects were extremely successful, expeditions today are being increasingly mounted with the primary goal of prospecting for potential gas hydrate production targets, and site selection processes designed to specifically seek out anomalously high-concentrations of gas hydrate are needed. This approach was best demonstrated in a recently completed energy resource focused project, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II), which featured the collection of a

  17. Improved operation of magnetic bearings for flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis and operation of prototype 500-Wh flywheel at low speeds have shown that many factors affect the correct functioning of the magnetic bearings. An examination is made of a number of these, including magnetic bearing control system nonlinearities and displacement transducer positioning, and their effects upon the successful operation of the suspension system. It is observed that the bearing control system is extremely sensitive to actuator parameters such as coil inductance. As a consequence of the analysis of bearing relaxation oscillations, the bearing actuator design methodology which has previously been used, where coil parameter selection is based upon static considerations, has been revised. Displacement transducer sensors which overcome the collocation problem are discussed.

  18. Technique for Low Amperage Potline Operation for Electricity Grid Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark P.; Chen, John J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Following a critical review and analysis of steady-state energy balance windows for large modern cell technologies [ Taylor et al ., Met. Mat. Transactions E, 9th Sept. 2014], the issue of a substantial reduction in energy input and heat output to a specific cell technology is addressed in this paper. To investigate the feasibility of such a reduction, the dynamic response to substantial changes in cell amperage and energy input must be quantified. If large amperage reductions can be shown to be feasible and to have no major detrimental affects, a flexible amperage operating philosophy would allow the use of smelting cells as an energy reservoir in the following way: in times of high electricity demand the cells would operate at reduced amperage, releasing electricity to the grid, while in times of low demand or an over-supply of electricity on the grid, the cells would store the surplus electricity in the form of additional aluminum metal. However, to take the above concept out of the realms of the theoretical, it will first be necessary to demonstrate an ability to predict and control the response of the cell to such changes in energy input through regulating the heat losses from the cell. The process of regulation of cell heat loss is quite foreign to operators of aluminum smelters, because the technology to regulate heat loss from smelting cells has not existed previously. This technology does now exist in the form of patented heat exchangers [ Taylor et al ., US Patent 7,901,617 B2, Mar. 8, 2011], but its impact on smelter cell walls must be examined in a dynamic analysis to determine the effect on the molten bath temperature and liquid mass within the cell. The objective of this paper therefore is to perform a first-order analysis of this problem, and to identify the key scientific issues in regulating cell heat loss and in the operating philosophy of heat loss regulation.

  19. Energy Storage Sizing Taking Into Account Forecast Uncertainties and Receding Horizon Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Kyri; Hug, Gabriela; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESS) have the potential to be very beneficial for applications such as reducing the ramping of generators, peak shaving, and balancing not only the variability introduced by renewable energy sources, but also the uncertainty introduced by errors in their forecasts. Optimal usage of storage may result in reduced generation costs and an increased use of renewable energy. However, optimally sizing these devices is a challenging problem. This paper aims to provide the tools to optimally size an ESS under the assumption that it will be operated under a model predictive control scheme and that the forecast of the renewable energy resources include prediction errors. A two-stage stochastic model predictive control is formulated and solved, where the optimal usage of the storage is simultaneously determined along with the optimal generation outputs and size of the storage. Wind forecast errors are taken into account in the optimization problem via probabilistic constraints for which an analytical form is derived. This allows for the stochastic optimization problem to be solved directly, without using sampling-based approaches, and sizing the storage to account not only for a wide range of potential scenarios, but also for a wide range of potential forecast errors. In the proposed formulation, we account for the fact that errors in the forecast affect how the device is operated later in the horizon and that a receding horizon scheme is used in operation to optimally use the available storage.

  20. Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

  1. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas

    1999-10-28

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments toward completion of ''A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators.'' During this quarter, the document received continued review and editing in an electronic format to satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Comments received from oil and gas operators reviewing this document prompted contact to be made with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to develop an addendum section to provide better explanation of USEPA requirements for Class II injection wells in Kentucky. During February of this year the consultant hired to develop the Class II, UIC addendum section to the Guidance Document met with the USEPA and state personnel responsible for regulation of the Class II, UIC program in Kentucky. At this meeting a review of the federal and state regulatory procedures used for administration of the UIC program was made. Emphasis was directed to summarizing the addendum section in a format usable b y the small oil and gas operators in Kentucky. A draft of the addendum section is underway incorporating the ideas and comments received during this meeting. During the next quarter, a meeting of the subcommittee and Region IV of the USEPA will be scheduled. A review of a draft of the addendum section of the document will be made and necessary revisions incorporated toward final completion of the Guidance Document.

  2. Field testing the Raman gas composition sensor for gas turbine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, Michael P.; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Mullen, Jessica C.; Ranalli, Joseph A.; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-06-01

    A gas composition sensor based on Raman spectroscopy using reflective metal lined capillary waveguides is tested under field conditions for feed-forward applications in gas turbine control. The capillary waveguide enables effective use of low powered lasers and rapid composition determination, for computation of required parameters to pre-adjust burner control based on incoming fuel. Tests on high pressure fuel streams show sub-second time response and better than one percent accuracy on natural gas fuel mixtures. Fuel composition and Wobbe constant values are provided at one second intervals or faster. The sensor, designed and constructed at NETL, is packaged for Class I Division 2 operations typical of gas turbine environments, and samples gas at up to 800 psig. Simultaneous determination of the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and propane plus CO, CO2, H2O, H2, N2, and O2 are realized. The capillary waveguide permits use of miniature spectrometers and laser power of less than 100 mW. The capillary dimensions of 1 m length and 300 μm ID also enable a full sample exchange in 0.4 s or less at 5 psig pressure differential, which allows a fast response to changes in sample composition. Sensor operation under field operation conditions will be reported.

  3. Field testing the Raman gas composition sensor for gas turbine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Chorpening, B.; Mullem, J.; Ranalli, J.; Woodruff, S.

    2012-01-01

    A gas composition sensor based on Raman spectroscopy using reflective metal lined capillary waveguides is tested under field conditions for feed-forward applications in gas turbine control. The capillary waveguide enables effective use of low powered lasers and rapid composition determination, for computation of required parameters to pre-adjust burner control based on incoming fuel. Tests on high pressure fuel streams show sub-second time response and better than one percent accuracy on natural gas fuel mixtures. Fuel composition and Wobbe constant values are provided at one second intervals or faster. The sensor, designed and constructed at NETL, is packaged for Class I Division 2 operations typical of gas turbine environments, and samples gas at up to 800 psig. Simultaneous determination of the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and propane plus CO, CO2, H2O, H2, N2, and O2 are realized. The capillary waveguide permits use of miniature spectrometers and laser power of less than 100 mW. The capillary dimensions of 1 m length and 300 μm ID also enable a full sample exchange in 0.4 s or less at 5 psig pressure differential, which allows a fast response to changes in sample composition. Sensor operation under field operation conditions will be reported.

  4. High-Performance of Gas Hydrates in Confined Nanospace for Reversible CH4 /CO2 Storage.

    PubMed

    Casco, Mirian E; Jordá, José L; Rey, Fernando; Fauth, François; Martinez-Escandell, Manuel; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Ramos-Fernández, Enrique V; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín

    2016-07-11

    The molecular exchange of CH4 for CO2 in gas hydrates grown in confined nanospace has been evaluated for the first time using activated carbons as a host structure. The nano-confinement effects taking place inside the carbon cavities and the exceptional physicochemical properties of the carbon structure allows us to accelerate the formation and decomposition process of the gas hydrates from the conventional timescale of hours/days in artificial bulk systems to minutes in confined nanospace. The CH4 /CO2 exchange process is fully reversible with high efficiency at practical temperature and pressure conditions. Furthermore, these activated carbons can be envisaged as promising materials for long-distance natural gas and CO2 transportation because of the combination of a high storage capacity, a high reversibility, and most important, with extremely fast kinetics for gas hydrate formation and release.

  5. Gas storage potential of ExBox⁴⁺ and its Li-decorated derivative.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranjita; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2014-10-28

    The newly synthesized compound ExBox(4+) is investigated for possible gas storage ability. The presence of high charge as well as aromatic rings which are some of the anticipated criteria for favorable gas storage makes ExBox(4+) a promising compound for gas adsorption. Considering the two important problems being faced by humankind, viz., energy and environment, possible adsorption of H2 and CO respectively on recently synthesized compound ExBox(4+) is studied with the help of density functional theory (DFT). Endohedral hydrogen molecules interact more strongly than exohedral molecules. The hydrogen storage capacity appears to be ∼4.3 wt% which is close to that of some recently studied materials like ZIF and PAF. The endohedral CO sorption is also analyzed with the help of DFT. The dynamics of the gas bound compound are studied with the help of ADMP simulation. The effects of counter ions on the adsorption energy and bonding interaction are also investigated. The first principle DFT calculation and MD simulation are performed to investigate the effect of lithium doping on the gas adsorbing capacity and adsorption enthalpy as well as adsorption energy of ExBox(4+). The Li decorated ExBox(4+) is capable of adsorbing 6.23 wt% of hydrogen which almost satisfies the goal of DOE. Adsorption of CO on the metal decorated ExBox(4+) is also studied. The nature of the bonding interaction between the gas molecule and the adsorbent is studied with the help of AIM and EDA as well as charge decomposition analysis is performed.

  6. 77 FR 11530 - Port Barre Investments, L.L.C. (d/b/a Bobcat Gas Storage); Notice of Request Under Blanket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Port Barre Investments, L.L.C. (d/b/a Bobcat Gas Storage); Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 6, 2012 Bobcat Gas Storage (Bobcat), 5400... Manager, Rates & Certificates, Bobcat Gas Storage, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642 at (713)...

  7. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  8. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  9. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secures all other lines, pumps, manways, and ancillary equipment; and (ii) Empties those USTs and UST... functioning; and caps and secures all other lines, pumps, manways, and ancillary equipment. (3) If another...) Continue operation and maintenance of corrosion protection in accordance with § 280.31; (B)...

  10. Treatment of waste gas from the breather vent of a vertical fixed roof p-xylene storage tank by a trickle-bed air biofilter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Hsu, Shihchieh; Lai, How-Tsan; Shang, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Yeong-Song; Cho, Chi-Huang; Chen, Sheng-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study applied a pilot-scale trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) system for treating waste gas emitted from the breather vent of a vertical fixed roof storage tank containing p-xylene (p-X) liquid. The volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of the waste gas was related to ambient temperature as well as solar radiation, peaking at above 6300 ppmv of p-X and 25000 ppmv of total hydrocarbons during the hours of 8 AM to 3 PM. When the activated carbon adsorber was employed as a VOC buffer, the peak waste gas VOC concentration was significantly reduced resulting in a stably and efficiently performing TBAB system. The pressure drop appeared to be low, reflecting that the TBAB system could be employed in the prolonged operation with a low running penalty. These advantages suggest that the TBAB system is a cost-effective treatment technology for VOC emission from a fixed roof storage tank.

  11. Gas storage in porous metal-organic frameworks for clean energy applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-01-07

    Depletion of fossil oil deposits and the escalating threat of global warming have put clean energy research, which includes the search for clean energy carriers such as hydrogen and methane as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, on the urgent agenda. A significant technical challenge has been recognized as the development of a viable method to efficiently trap hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide gas molecules in a confined space for various applications. This issue can be addressed by employing highly porous materials as storage media, and porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which have exceptionally high surface areas as well as chemically-tunable structures are playing an unusual role in this respect. In this feature article we provide an overview of the current status of clean energy applications of porous MOFs, including hydrogen storage, methane storage and carbon dioxide capture.

  12. Hydrocarbon Release During Fuel Storage and Transfer at Gas Stations: Environmental and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Mora, Bernat Adria; Ni, Jian; Rule, Ana M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-12-01

    At gas stations, fuel is stored and transferred between tanker trucks, storage tanks, and vehicle tanks. During both storage and transfer, a small fraction of unburned fuel is typically released to the environment unless pollution prevention technology is used. While the fraction may be small, the cumulative release can be substantial because of the large quantities of fuel sold. The cumulative release of unburned fuel is a public health concern because gas stations are widely distributed in residential areas and because fuel contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. We review the pathways through which gasoline is chronically released to atmospheric, aqueous, and subsurface environments, and how these releases may adversely affect human health. Adoption of suitable pollution prevention technology should not only be based on equipment and maintenance cost but also on energy- and health care-saving benefits.

  13. In-situ Down Hole Gas Measurements During Geological Storage of CO2 at Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, Chr.; Co2-Sink Group

    2009-04-01

    The continuous investigation and direct determination of the gas composition in the storage horizon during and after the injection of CO2 is needed to understand the behaviour of CO2, to trace the fate of the injected gas and to critical test the geological field models. Therefore, we developed and applied a new, innovative geochemical monitoring tool for the real time and in-situ determination of CO2 and other gases in the underground and in bore holes. The method uses a phase separating silicone membrane, permeable for gases, in order to extract gases dissolved in borehole fluids, water and brines. Argon is used as a carrier gas to conduct the collected gases through capillaries to the surface. Here, the gas phase is analyzed in real-time with a portable mass spectrometer for all permanent gases. In addition, gas samples were collected for more detailed investigations in the laboratory. Down hole extraction and on-line determination of gases dissolved in brines using this gas membrane sensor technique was successful applied at the scientific CO2 storage test site in Ketzin, Germany. The dissolved CO2-concentration in the natural formation water at depth was quantified and changes in the reservoir gas concentrations of helium, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen during CO2 injection were continuously monitored. The arrival of injected krypton tracer gas at the observation well was detected and changes in hydraulic pressure and temperature were recorded. The breakthrough of CO2 into the observation well, in 50m distance, was observed after the injection of 531.5t CO2.

  14. Gas bremsstrahlung studies for medium energy electron storage rings using FLUKA Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahani, Prasanta Kumar; Haridas, G.; Sinha, Anil K.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    Gas bremsstrahlung is generated due to the interaction of the stored electron beam with residual gas molecules of the vacuum chamber in a storage ring. As the opening angle of the bremsstrahlung is very small, the scoring area used in Monte Carlo simulation plays a dominant role in evaluating the absorbed dose. In the present work gas bremsstrahlung angular distribution and absorbed dose for the energies ranging from 1 to 5 GeV electron storage rings are studied using the Monte Carlo code, FLUKA. From the study, an empirical formula for gas bremsstrahlung dose estimation was deduced. The results were compared with the data obtained from reported experimental values. The results obtained from simulations are found to be in very good agreement with the reported experimental data. The results obtained are applied in estimating the gas bremsstrahlung dose for 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, India. The paper discusses the details of the simulation and the results obtained.

  15. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  16. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the

  17. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Charles E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  18. Thermo-mechanical modelling of cyclic gas storage applications in salt caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Watanabe, Norihiro; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Kolditz, Olaf; Nagel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the growing importance of renewable energy sources it becomes more and more necessary to investigate energy storage potentials. One major way to store energy is the power-to-gas concept. Excessive electrical energy can be used either to produce hydrogen or methane by electrolysis or methanation or to compress air, respectively. Those produced gases can then be stored in artificial salt caverns, which are constructed in large salt formations by solution mining. In combination with renewable energy sources, the power-to-gas concept is subjected to fluctuations. Compression and expansion of the storage gases lead to temperature differences within the salt rock. The variations can advance several metres into the host rock, influencing its material behaviour, inducing thermal stresses and altering the creep response. To investigate the temperature influence on the cavern capacity, we have developed a numerical model to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. The model considers the thermodynamic behaviour of the stored gases as well as the heat transport and the temperature dependent material properties of the host rock. Therefore, we utilized well-known constitutive thermo-visco-plastic material models, implemented into the open source-scientific software OpenGeoSys. Both thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, connected via a staggered coupling scheme. The model allows the assessment of the structural safety as well as the convergence of the salt caverns.

  19. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  20. Three-dimensional seasonal deformations induced by underground gas storage. Monitoring by PSI and modeling by FE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Lovison, A.; Janna, C.; Ferretti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Land subsidence and uplift due to the production/injection of fluids from/into the subsurface have been widely observed worldwide over the last decades and occur for a variety of purposes such as groundwater pumping, aquifer system recharge, gas/oil field development, enhanced oil recovery, geologic CO2 sequestration, underground gas storage and waste disposal. The need for a reliable prediction of these processes has led to a continuous improvement of the numerical tools employed in poromechanics. However, although sophisticated poro-visco-plastic 3D codes have been developed, the lack of accurate measurements of the ground surface displacements has rarely allowed an accurate calibration of the geomechanical models. Recently, advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D transversally isotropic poromechanical finite-element model which satisfactorily reproduces the seasonal deformation due to gas injection/removal. An accurate calibration of the finite element model to the interferometry data is performed by combining metamodeling techniques such as Kriging and global optimization strategies specifically designed for handling uncertain measurements. Furthermore, it is also possible to estimate the functional dependence of physically relevant quantities, e.g., the maximum vertical seasonal displacement, with respect to operational parameters (e

  1. Residual gas analysis for long-pulse, advanced tokamak operation.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Hillis, D L; Bucalossi, J; Douai, D; Oddon, P; Vartanian, S; Colas, L; Manenc, L; Pégourié, B

    2010-10-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer (RGA) system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This "diagnostic RGA" has been used in long-pulse (up to 6 min) discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H(2)/D(2) isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H(2) injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses (>4 min) absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H(2) could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components.

  2. Thermodynamic stability, spectroscopic identification, and gas storage capacity of CO2-CH4-N2 mixture gas hydrates: implications for landfill gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Hoon; Ahn, Sook-Hyun; Nam, Byong-Uk; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Gang-Woo; Moon, Donghyun; Shin, Hyung Joon; Han, Kyu Won; Yoon, Ji-Ho

    2012-04-03

    Landfill gas (LFG), which is primarily composed of CH(4), CO(2), and N(2), is produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic materials. To investigate the feasibility of the storage and transportation of LFG via the formation of hydrate, we observed the phase equilibrium behavior of CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrates. When the specific molar ratio of CO(2)/CH(4) was 40/55, the equilibrium dissociation pressures were gradually shifted to higher pressures and lower temperatures as the mole fraction of N(2) increased. X-ray diffraction revealed that the CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrate prepared from the CO(2)/CH(4)/N(2) (40/55/5) gas mixture formed a structure I clathrate hydrate. A combination of Raman and solid-state (13)C NMR measurements provided detailed information regarding the cage occupancy of gas molecules trapped in the hydrate frameworks. The gas storage capacity of LFG hydrates was estimated from the experimental results for the hydrate formations under two-phase equilibrium conditions. We also confirmed that trace amounts of nonmethane organic compounds do not affect the cage occupancy of gas molecules or the thermodynamic stability of LFG hydrates.

  3. Effect of enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation and gas extraction on greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Sonia

    The bioreactor/ enhanced leachate recirculated (ELR) landfill operation with the addition of moisture/ leachate to the landfill, accelerate the process of landfill waste decomposition; and increase the generation of LFG over a shorter period of time. Since emissions from the landfills are directly related to the gas generation, the increase in gas generation might also increase the emission from the landfill. On the contrary, the presence of gas extraction is suggested to mitigate the fugitive emissions from the landfills. Therefore, the motivation of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ELR operation as well as the gas extraction on the greenhouse gas emissions from the landfill. The current study was conducted in the City of Denton Landfill, Texas. Methane emission was investigated using a portable FID and static flux chamber technique from the landfill surface. Emission was measured from an ELR operated cell (cell 2) as well as a conventional cell (cell 0) in the City of Denton Landfill. Methane emission for cell 2 varied from 9544.3 ppm to 0 ppm while for cell 0, it varied from 0 ppm to 47 ppm. High spatial variations were observed during monitoring from both cells 0 and cell 2 which could be recognized as the variation of gas generation below the cover soil. The comparison between emissions from the slope and surface of the landfill showed that more methane emission occurred from the slopes than the top surface. In addition, the average landfill emission showed an increasing trend with increase in temperature and decreasing trend with increasing precipitation. The effect of ELR operation near the recirculation pipes showed a lag period between the recirculation and the maximum emission near the pipe. The emission near the pipe decreased after 1 day of recirculation and after the initial decrease, the emission started to increase and continued to increase up to 7 days after the recirculation. However, approximately after 10 days of recirculation, the

  4. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the highly

  5. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 2: Operation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Burroughs, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive computer program (SIMWEST) developed for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic) is described. Features of the program include: a precompiler which generates computer models (in FORTRAN) of complex wind source/storage/application systems, from user specifications using the respective library components; a program which provides the techno-economic system analysis with the respective I/O the integration of system dynamics, and the iteration for conveyance of variables; and capability to evaluate economic feasibility as well as general performance of wind energy systems. The SIMWEST operation manual is presented and the usage of the SIMWEST program and the design of the library components are described. A number of example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation is given along with a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  6. Evaluation of Geological Risks Associated with Withdrawal and Storage of Gas: Geomechanical Modeling of a Storage Facility in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, F.; Picotti, V.; Antonellini, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The withdrawal and the injection of gas or others fluids from/in porous media in the subsurface involves the deformation of the reservoir by normal compaction and poroelastic perturbations. Such deformations are often accompanied by phenomena of subsidence, instability of the infrastructure, and in some cases also by induced and activated seismic activity, related to variations in the effective stress in the rocks of the reservoir, and in those of seal. In our work we use data from a 26-year leveling-monitoring of land subsidence above a reservoir, managed by Edison ®, consisting of 2 levels, approximately 10 meters thick, separated by clay layers and hydraulically separated, localized to the core of a gentle anticline at the most external structure of the Alpine front in the North East of Italy, at approximately 1400 meters depth. During about 15 years of field development, there has been a relative mean subsidence of about 10 mm, in correspondence to a drop in pore pressure of about 15 MPa in the levels of the reservoir. The reservoir has been converted to natural gas storage site since 1993, and a double monitoring in 2006 showed a relative uplift on the surface topography of about 2 mm, between the extraction phase and the gas injection. The production data, the pressure of the reservoir and the subsidence have been used to derive the variations of the pore volume of the reservoir, allowing to determine its volumetric deformation; this parameter is used as input data to perform a modeling of the deformations induced by the field development and by storage cycling, that takes advantage of the use of the method of Eshelby's inclusion for inclusions with ellipsoidal shape with elastic parameters different from those of the surrounding material (inhomogeneity problem), with a semi-analytical approach. The elastic fields are derived (stress, strain and displacement) in an infinite space in the neighborhood of the reservoir: the vertical displacement data are used

  7. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  8. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  9. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; ...

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, atmore » 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

  10. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Natural Gas Contaminants on Corrosion in Compressed Natural Gas Storage Systems - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, F.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the composition ranges of contaminants in natural gases; and to obtain information regarding corrosion damage of CNG cylinders and cylinder materials. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were performed on the cylinder materials most widely used in CNG cylinders in the United States (4130X and 15B30 steels and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy). Tests were conducted in: natural gases from several producing wells and from an interstate pipeline; and in aqueous solutions saturated with varying concentrations of natural gas contaminants. Also, metallurgical analyses of nine (eight steel and one aluminum), used CNG cylinders were performed. Limiting concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and other CNG contaminants necessary to prevent internal corrosion of CNG fuel and storage cylinders were defined. This knowledge will minimize potential hazards of using CNG as a vehicle fuel. It should also lead to reduced costs of CNG use, since it has been shown that reduction of contaminants to the very low levels currently specified by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Canadian Transport Commission (CTC) is not necessary. A gas-quality standard based on program results is recommended. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has adopted the recommended gas-quality standard.

  12. Large storage operations under climate change: expanding uncertainties and evolving tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Vu, Phuong Nam; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    In a changing climate and society, large storage systems can play a key role for securing water, energy, and food, and rebalancing their cross-dependencies. In this letter, we study the role of large storage operations as flexible means of adaptation to climate change. In particular, we explore the impacts of different climate projections for different future time horizons on the multi-purpose operations of the existing system of large dams in the Red River basin (China-Laos-Vietnam). We identify the main vulnerabilities of current system operations, understand the risk of failure across sectors by exploring the evolution of the system tradeoffs, quantify how the uncertainty associated to climate scenarios is expanded by the storage operations, and assess the expected costs if no adaptation is implemented. Results show that, depending on the climate scenario and the time horizon considered, the existing operations are predicted to change on average from -7 to +5% in hydropower production, +35 to +520% in flood damages, and +15 to +160% in water supply deficit. These negative impacts can be partially mitigated by adapting the existing operations to future climate, reducing the loss of hydropower to 5%, potentially saving around 34.4 million US year-1 at the national scale. Since the Red River is paradigmatic of many river basins across south east Asia, where new large dams are under construction or are planned to support fast growing economies, our results can support policy makers in prioritizing responses and adaptation strategies to the changing climate.

  13. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) and associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural

  14. High capacity gas storage in corrugated porous graphene with a specific surface area-lossless tightly stacking manner.

    PubMed

    Ning, Guoqing; Xu, Chenggen; Mu, Liang; Chen, Guangjin; Wang, Gang; Gao, Jinsen; Fan, Zhuangjun; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei

    2012-07-11

    We report for the first time an experimental investigation of gas storage in porous graphene with nanomeshes. High capacity methane storage (236 v(STP)/v) and a high selectivity to carbon dioxide adsorption were obtained in the nanomesh graphene with a high specific surface area (SSA) and a SSA-lossless tightly stacking manner.

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  16. Effectiveness of purging on preventing gas emission buildup in wood pellet storage

    DOE PAGES

    Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, Choon Jim; ...

    2015-04-24

    Storage of wood pellets has resulted in deadly accidents in connection with off-gassing and self-heating. A forced ventilation system should be in place to sweep the off-gases and control the thermal conditions. In this study, multiple purging tests were conducted in a pilot scale silo to evaluate the effectiveness of a purging system and quantify the time and volume of the gas needed to sweep the off-gases. To identify the degree of mixing, residence time distribution of the tracer gas was also studied experimentally. Large deviations from plug flow suggested strong gas mixing for all superficial velocities. As the velocitymore » increased, the system dispersion number became smaller, which indicated less degree of mixing with increased volume of the purging gas. Finally, one-dimensional modelling and numerical simulation of the off-gas concentration profile gave the best agreement with the measured gas concentration at the bottom and middle of the silo.« less

  17. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  18. Assessment of the chemical changes during storage of phenol-formaldehyde resins pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, inverse gas chromatography and Fourier transform infra red methods.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A; Zięba-Palus, J; Lachowicz, T

    2014-09-12

    The chemical changes occurring in the phenol-formaldehyde resins (resol and novolac type) during their storage were investigated. In this paper the FT-IR, py-GCMS and inverse gas chromatography methods were applied for assessment of the changes occurring during storage of the phenolic resins. We have found that during storage some examined resins occurred partial curing. The results from all techniques applied are consistent. Py-GCMS is useful technique for screening the storage processes but IGC seems to be most sensitive one.

  19. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bender Rick

    1999-10-28

    This technical report is a summary of the accomplishments toward completion of ''A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators''. During this quarter, the document received continued review and editing in an electronic format to satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Comments received from oil and gas operators reviewing this document prompted contact to be made with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U. S. EPA) to develop an addendum section to provide better explanation of U.S. EPA requirements for Class II injection wells in Kentucky. During May of this year the consultant hired to develop the Class II, UIC addendum section to the guidance document met a second time with the U.S. EPA and state personnel responsible for regulation of the Class II, UIC program in Kentucky, to review a draft of the document. This draft was discussed during the meeting with the U.S. EPA and will receive additional editing and comment during the next quarter.

  20. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  1. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making.

  2. Fate and persistence of glutaraldehyde and retention lagoon diversity of life at a natural gas storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, R.M.; Morris, E.A. III; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    In view of increasingly stringent environmental regulations concerning Produced water disposal, the natural gas industry needs to approximate the maximum amount of biocide which can be applied downhole and not adversely impact the local biology in retention lagoons receiving produced waters. Biocide treatment data from a microbially sour aquifer-storage natural gas facility, archived by the operations personnel, were incorporated into a study sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Chicago, Illinois along with additional data from focused field sampling. The sandy assessed the persistence and fate of glutaraldehyde and its possible effects on diversity of life in the produced water system and outfall areas which receive the lagoon discharge under a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed that incorporated experimentally-determined glutaraldehyde persistence, wellhead Outaraldehyde residuals, rates of water production, and lagoon specifications. The model was used to calculate the levels of glutaraldehyde in the lagoons as a function of time, based on the amount of glutaraldehyde applied downhole. The modeled results were used to assess the potential impacts of various levels of downhole treatment using glutaraldehyde and confirmed that the current treatment regime provided little potential for adverse environmental effects in the retention lagoons or the lagoon outfall areas. Chemical and biological sampling and diversity of life analyses were performed in the retention lagoon system and outfall areas to further test for environmental impacts relating to biocide use; no evidence of adverse effects was found.

  3. Hydrogen storage materials discovery via high throughput ball milling and gas sorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kaye, Steven S; Riley, Conor; Greenberg, Doron; Galang, Daniel; Bailey, Mark S

    2012-06-11

    The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in which candidate materials are synthesized and characterized via highly parallel ball mills and volumetric gas sorption instruments, respectively. The workflow was used to identify mixed imides with significantly enhanced absorption rates relative to Li2Mg(NH)2. The most promising material, 2LiNH2:MgH2 + 5 atom % LiBH4 + 0.5 atom % La, exhibits the best balance of absorption rate, capacity, and cycle-life, absorbing >4 wt % H2 in 1 h at 120 °C after 11 absorption-desorption cycles.

  4. Relaxation rates of low-field gas-phase ^129Xe storage cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limes, Mark; Saam, Brian

    2010-10-01

    A study of longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates T1 of ^129Xe and Xe-N2 mixtures in a magnetic field of 3.8 mT is presented. In this regime, intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the intramolecular spin-rotation interaction due to persistent xenon dimers, a mechanism that can be quelled by introducing large amounts of N2 into the storage cell. Extrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by the wall-relaxation rate, which is the primary quantity of interest for the various low-field storage cells and coatings that we have tested. Previous group work has shown that extremely long gas-phase relaxation times T1 can be obtained, but only at large magnetic fields and low xenon densities. The current work is motivated by the practical benefits of retaining hyperpolarized ^129Xe for extended periods of time in a small magnetic field.

  5. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  6. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  7. Effect of gas environment and sorbate addition on flavor characteristics of irradiated apple cider during storage.

    PubMed

    Crook, Loretta R; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A

    2004-11-17

    Apple cider, with (0.1%) and without potassium sorbate, was packaged in polystyrene containers and exposed to three different gas environments: oxygen flush, nitrogen flush, and atmospheric air. To evaluate the effects of irradiation (2 kGy) and storage on flavor and microbial quality, these irradiated apple cider samples were compared to a control, unirradiated sample exposed to atmospheric air. Volatile compounds, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and microbiological counts were determined weekly throughout 7 weeks of refrigerated (4 degrees C) storage. Cider irradiated and stored in atmospheric air or nitrogen-flush environments had lower rates of loss for characteristic flavor volatiles compared to unirradiated apple cider and cider irradiated and stored in an oxygen-flush environment. The addition of potassium sorbate to the apple cider resulted in lower counts of yeasts and aerobic microorganisms, reduced fermentation of sugars to organic acids, and improved retention of volatile compounds characteristic of apple cider.

  8. Simulation of submarine gas hydrate deposits as a sustainable energy source and CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, G.; Hennig, T.; Schlüter, S.; Deerberg, G.

    2012-04-01

    Being aware that conventionally exploitable natural gas resources are limited, research concentrates on the development of new technologies for the extraction of methane from gas hydrate deposits in subsea sediments. The quantity of methane stored in hydrate form is considered to be a promising means to overcome future shortages in energy resources. In combination with storing carbon dioxide (CO2) as hydrates in the deposits chances for sustainable energy supply systems are given. The combustion of hydrate-based natural gas can contribute to the energy supply, but the coupled CO2 emissions cause climate change effects. At present, the possible options to capture and subsequently store CO2 (CCS-Technology) become of particular interest. To develop a sustainable hydrate-based energy supply system, the production of natural gas from hydrate deposits has to be coupled with the storage of CO2. Hence, the simultaneous storage of CO2 in hydrate deposits has to be developed. Decomposition of methane hydrate in combination with CO2 sequestration appears to be promising because CO2 hydrate is stable within a wider range of pressure and temperature than methane hydrate. As methane hydrate provides structural integrity and stability in its natural formation, incorporating CO2 hydrate as substitute for methane hydrate will help to preserve the natural sediments' stability. Regarding the technological implementation, many problems have to be overcome. Especially heat and mass transfer in the deposits are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like

  9. Towards sustainability in offshore oil and gas operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Ibrahim

    acceptable, economically profitable and socially responsible. This dissertation discusses the framework of true 'sustainability' for practically all aspects oil and gas operations and nature-based resource operations. Sustainability of existing offshore oil and gas operations techniques are analyzed and new nature-based technologies are proposed. Also evaluated are the fate and effect, environmental impact, risk factors, and the green supply chain in the case of seismic, drilling, production and decommissioning of oil operations. It is demonstrated with detailed examples that using the new approach will be economically more beneficial than the conventional approach, even in the short-term. The dissertation also examines the present status of petroleum operations with respect to waste generation, improper resource management, and the usage of toxic compounds in the overall lifecycle. To achieve true sustainability, some innovative models and technologies are presented. They include achievement of zero emissions, zero waste of resources, zero waste in activities, zero use of toxics, and zero waste in product life-cycle. This dissertation also discusses the environmental and technological problems of the petroleum sector and provides guidelines to achieve overall sustainability in oil company activities. Finally, this dissertation shows that inherent sustainability can be achieved by the involvement of community participation. The new screening tool proposed in this dissertation provides proper guidelines to achieve true sustainability in the technology development and other resource development operations.

  10. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-03-15

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing < 1.5 g/l, maximum safe storage times from 4 weeks to 12 months are proposed. The maximum safe storage times vary depending upon the plutonium concentration in the solution. Low concentration plutonium solutions can be stored safely for longer periods of time than high concentration plutonium solutions. For solutions containing > 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed.

  11. Gas Release During Saltwell Pumping: Interpretation of Operational Data

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Huckaby; L.M. Peurrung; P.A. Gauglitz

    1999-09-16

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive waste that is a complex mix of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid into the surrounding soil, while 82 are considered sound (Hanlon 1999). To minimize the amount of material that potentially could leak into the surrounding soil, all of the SSTs are scheduled to have drainable liquid removed and to be designated as interim stabilized. Of the SSTs, 119 have been declared stabilized, and only 30 require further processing (Hanlon 1999). Many of the tanks have been declared stabilized administratively, with only 45 tanks having had drainable liquid removed. The pending consent decree between the Washington State Department of Ecology and the Office of River Protection. (U.S. District Court Eastern District of Washington, 1999) sets a milestone to complete interim stabilization by September 2004. While process equipment exists for removing drainable liquid, and its operation is well known from previous pumping campaigns, a number of safety issues associated with the release and potential ignition of flammable gases within the tanks needs to be addressed. The safety concerns associated with flammable gases stem from the observation that some of the waste in the SSTs generates and retains hazardous quantities of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Of the 30 SSTs remaining to be declared interim stabilized, 29 need to have drainable liquid removed by saltwell pumping (waste in tank 241-C-106 will be removed by sluicing), and 16 of these are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) (Hopkins 1995; Hanlon 1999). Most of these tanks are in Facility Group 2 (Noorani 1997); that is, it is believed that tank operations may induce the release of significant quantities of flammable gas, but gas release does not occur spontaneously. In particular, saltwell pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause

  12. Analysis of an activated-carbon sorption compressor operating with gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, N.; Grossman, G.

    2012-10-01

    Sorption compressors elevate the pressure of gases and can provide a more or less continuous mass flow. Unlike mechanical compressors, sorption compressors have no moving parts, and therefore do not emit vibrations and are highly reliable. There exist different sorption compressors for different operating conditions and various gases. However, there are no published reports of sorption compressors for mixed gases. Such compressors, among other applications, may drive mixed-refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocoolers. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the sorption process in a compressor goes through varying states and mass changes; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In this research a numerical analysis for mixed gas sorption compressors is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics and the ideal adsorbed solution theory. Two pure gas adsorption models are used for calculating the conditions of the adsorbed phase: Langmuir and Sips; and the Peng-Robinson equation of state is used to calculate the conditions of the vapor phase. Two mixtures are investigated; nitrogen-methane and nitrogen-ethane. Finally, the analysis is verified against experimental results. This research provides initiatory observation for mixed gases sorption compressor in which each component is differently adsorbed.

  13. Gas chromatograph analysis on closed air and nitrogen oxide storage atmospheres of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus Alba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of recalcitrant seeds remains an unsolved problem. This study investigated the quantitative gas analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) and air atmospheres on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba by using gas chromatograph. Ten seeds were placed in each sealed atmospheric system of air and 98/2% N...

  14. A dynamic programming model for optimal planning of aquifer storage and recovery facility operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddameri, V.

    2007-01-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) is an innovative technology with the potential to augment dwindling water resources in regions experiencing rapid growth and development. Planning and design of ASR systems requires quantifying how much water should be stored and appropriate times for storage and withdrawals within a planning period. A monthly scale planning model has been developed in this study to derive optimal (least cost) long-term policies for operating ASR systems and is solved using a recursive deterministic dynamic programming approach. The outputs of the model include annual costs of operation, the amount of water to be imported each month as well as the schedule for storage and extraction. A case study modeled after a proposed ASR system for Mustang Island and Padre Island service areas of the city of Corpus Christi is used to illustrate the utility of the developed model. The results indicate that for the assumed baseline demands, the ASR system is to be kept operational for a period of 4 months starting from May through August. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that increased seasonal shortages can be met using ASR with little additional costs. For the assumed cost structure, a 16% shortage increased the costs by 1.6%. However, the operation time of ASR increased from 4 to 8 months. The developed dynamic programming model is a useful tool to assess the feasibility of evaluating the use of ASR systems during regional-scale water resources planning endeavors.

  15. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  16. Minimal framework density molecular sieves for natural gas storage. Final report, January 1992-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Szostak, R.

    1993-02-10

    A study of the ability of the aluminophosphate family of molecular sieves to adsorb methane is summarized. The work examines the sieves chosen for their lowest framework density and smallest pore diameter system. These materials represent a possible improvement in systems for on-board storage of natural gas as their physical properties can improve methane capacity inside the cavities and maximize framework-adsorbate interaction. The study details the topology of the aluminophospate molecular sieves and compares them to the aluminosilicate zeolites. Experimental procedures for synthesizing the sieves are described.

  17. Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

    2012-02-01

    Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

  18. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zimmerle, Daniel J; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Quinn, Casey; Subramanian, R; Duggan, Gerald P; Willson, Bryan; Opsomer, Jean D; Marchese, Anthony J; Martinez, David M; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-08-04

    The recent growth in production and utilization of natural gas offers potential climate benefits, but those benefits depend on lifecycle emissions of methane, the primary component of natural gas and a potent greenhouse gas. This study estimates methane emissions from the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the United States natural gas industry using new data collected during 2012, including 2,292 onsite measurements, additional emissions data from 677 facilities and activity data from 922 facilities. The largest emission sources were fugitive emissions from certain compressor-related equipment and "super-emitter" facilities. We estimate total methane emissions from the T&S sector at 1,503 [1,220 to 1,950] Gg/yr (95% confidence interval) compared to the 2012 Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate of 2,071 [1,680 to 2,690] Gg/yr. While the overlap in confidence intervals indicates that the difference is not statistically significant, this is the result of several significant, but offsetting, factors. Factors which reduce the study estimate include a lower estimated facility count, a shift away from engines toward lower-emitting turbine and electric compressor drivers, and reductions in the usage of gas-driven pneumatic devices. Factors that increase the study estimate relative to the GHGI include updated emission rates in certain emission categories and explicit treatment of skewed emissions at both component and facility levels. For T&S stations that are required to report to the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), this study estimates total emissions to be 260% [215% to 330%] of the reportable emissions for these stations, primarily due to the inclusion of emission sources that are not reported under the GHGRP rules, updated emission factors, and super-emitter emissions.

  19. Porous Polymer Networks: Synthesis, Porosity, and Applications in Gas Storage/Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhao, Dan; Schilling, Christine Inge; Plietzsch, Oliver; Muller, Thierry; Braese, Stefano; Guenther, Johannes; Blumel, Janet; Krishna, Rajamani; Li, Zhen; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-11-09

    Three porous polymer networks (PPNs) have been synthesized by the homocoupling of tetrahedral monomers. Like other hyper-cross-linked polymer networks, these materials are insoluble in conventional solvents and exhibit high thermal and chemical stability. Their porosity was confirmed by N₂ sorption isotherms at 77 K. One of these materials, PPN-3, has a Langmuir surface area of 5323 m² g-1. Their clean energy applications, especially in H₂, CH₄, and CO₂ storage, as well as CO₂/CH₄ separation, have been carefully investigated. Although PPN-1 has the highest gas affinity because of its smaller pore size, the maximal gas uptake capacity is directly proportional to their surface area. PPN-3 has the highest H₂ uptake capacity among these three (4.28 wt %, 77 K). Although possessing the lowest surface area, PPN-1 shows the best CO₂/CH₄ selectivity among them.

  20. Microporous polycarbazole with high specific surface area for gas storage and separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Luo, Min; Hammershøj, Peter; Zhou, Ding; Han, Ying; Laursen, Bo Wegge; Yan, Chao-Guo; Han, Bao-Hang

    2012-04-11

    Microporous polycarbazole via straightforward carbazole-based oxidative coupling polymerization is reported. The synthesis route exhibits cost-effective advantages, which are essential for scale-up preparation. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area for obtained polymer is up to 2220 m(2) g(-1). Gas (H(2) and CO(2)) adsorption isotherms show that its hydrogen storage can reach to 2.80 wt % (1.0 bar and 77 K) and the uptake capacity for carbon dioxide is up to 21.2 wt % (1.0 bar and 273 K), which show a promising potential for clean energy application and environmental field. Furthermore, the high selectivity toward CO(2) over N(2) and CH(4) makes the obtained polymer possess potential application in gas separation.

  1. Emissions from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Kofler, J. D.; Frost, G. J.; Miller, B. R.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Conley, S. A.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Warneke, C.; Martin, R. S.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Trainer, M.; Hardesty, R.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Uintah oil and natural gas Basin in Northeastern Utah experienced several days of high ozone levels in early 2011 during cold temperature inversions. To study the chemical and meteorological processes leading to these wintertime ozone pollution events, the State of Utah, EPA region 8 and oil and gas operators pulled together a multi-agency research team, including NOAA ESRL/CIRES scientists. The data gathering took place between January 15 and February 29, 2012.To document the chemical signature of various sources in the Basin, we outfitted a passenger van with in-situ analyzers (Picarro: CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, 13CH4; NOxCaRD: NO, NOx, 2B & NOxCaRD: O3) meteorological sensors, GPS units, discrete flask sampling apparatus, as well as a data logging and "real-time" in-situ data visualization system. The instrumented van, called Mobile Lab, also hosted a KIT Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (suite of VOCs in situ measurements) for part of the campaign. For close to a month, the Mobile Lab traveled the roads of the oil and gas field, documenting ambient levels of several tracers. Close to 180 valid air samples were collected in February by the Mobile Lab for future analysis in the NOAA and CU/INSTAAR labs in Boulder. At the same time as the surface effort was going on, an instrumented light aircraft conducted transects over the Basin collecting air samples mostly in the boundary layer and measuring in situ the following species CH4, CO2, NO2, O3. We will present some of the data collected by the Mobile Lab and the aircraft and discuss analysis results.

  2. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  3. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  4. Arctic greenhouse-gas storage and release modulated by late-glacial ice sheet fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Patton, Henry; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Knies, Jochen; Hubbard, Alun I.

    2016-04-01

    The subglacial footprint of the Barents Sea Ice sheet which advanced across northern Eurasia from 26 to 22 ka BP had a major impact on the underlying gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) leading to storage of methane and other hydrocarbons. With the onset of deglaciation, these hydrocarbon rich hydrates dissociated, releasing potent greenhouse gas into the ocean and possibly atmosphere over a period of thousands of years. We present a wide-range of observational data acquired from offshore western Svalbard and the Barents Sea to robustly constrain a coupled model of the subglacial evolution of gas hydrate reservoirs during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Our results indicate that even under minimum ice thickness reconstructions, an extensive, ~500-meter thick GHSZ existed beneath the ice sheet in our study area offshore of western Svalbard (Portnov et al., 2016). An offshore corridor of methane release did though also persist throughout maximum ice conditions on the upper continental margin. Throughout the LGM a marine ice sheet directly comparable to those of Greenland and Antarctica today inundated the continental margin offshore of western Svalbard and the vast shelf areas of the Barents Sea. However, with climatic amelioration the Barents Sea ice sheet experienced a 4ka period of dynamic retreat with concurrent flooding of the shelf by rising sea levels, which provided a high magnitude perturbation to the substrate pressure and temperature domains. By analogy, the future response of Polar ice sheets is an emerging concern as their ongoing thinning and retreat will likewise perturb the present day subglacial GHSZ leading to potential widespread gas hydrate destabilisation and release. Portnov, Alexey, et al. "Ice-sheet-driven methane storage and release in the Arctic", Nature Comm. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10314. (2016).

  5. The role of sediment structure in gas bubble storage and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wilkinson, J.; Koca, K.; Buchmann, C.; Lorke, A.

    2016-07-01

    Ebullition is an important pathway for methane emission from inland waters. However, the mechanisms controlling methane bubble formation and release in aquatic sediments remain unclear. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the dynamics of methane bubble formation, storage, and release in response to hydrostatic head drops in three different types of natural sediment. Homogenized clayey, silty, and sandy sediments (initially quasi-uniform through the depth of the columns) were incubated in chambers for 3 weeks. We observed three distinct stages of methane bubble formation and release: stage I—microbubble formation-displacing mobile water from sediment pores with negligible ebullition; stage II—formation of large bubbles, displacing the surrounding sediment with concurrent increase in ebullition; and stage III—formation of conduits with relatively steady ebullition. The maximum depth-averaged volumetric gas content at steady state varied from 18.8% in clayey to 12.0% in silty and 13.2% in sandy sediment. Gas storage in the sediment columns showed strong vertical stratification: most of the free gas was stored in an upper layer, whose thickness varied with sediment grain size. The magnitude of individual ebullition episodes was linearly correlated to hydrostatic head drop and decreased from clayey to sandy to silty sediment and was in excess of that estimated from gas expansion alone, indicating the release of pore water methane. These findings combined with a hydrodynamic model capable of determining dominant sediment type and depositional zones could help resolve spatial heterogeneities in methane ebullition at medium to larger scales in inland waters.

  6. Operations and Maintenance Concept Plan for the Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JANIN, L.F.

    2000-08-30

    This O&M Concept looks at the future operations and maintenance of the IHLW/CSB interim storage facility. It defines the overall strategy, objectives, and functional requirements for the portion of the building to be utilized by Project W-464. The concept supports the tasks of safety basis planning, risk mitigation, alternative analysis, decision making, etc. and will be updated as required to support the evolving design.

  7. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 68079 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Submitted for Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion... requirements in the regulations under Subpart E, Oil and Gas Well Completion Operations. This notice also... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number:...

  9. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Floerchinger, Cody; Tkacik, Daniel S; Mitchell, Austin L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Equipment- and site-level methane emissions from 45 compressor stations in the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the US natural gas system were measured, including 25 sites required to report under the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program (GHGRP). Direct measurements of fugitive and vented sources were combined with AP-42-based exhaust emission factors (for operating reciprocating engines and turbines) to produce a study onsite estimate. Site-level methane emissions were also concurrently measured with downwind-tracer-flux techniques. At most sites, these two independent estimates agreed within experimental uncertainty. Site-level methane emissions varied from 2-880 SCFM. Compressor vents, leaky isolation valves, reciprocating engine exhaust, and equipment leaks were major sources, and substantial emissions were observed at both operating and standby compressor stations. The site-level methane emission rates were highly skewed; the highest emitting 10% of sites (including two superemitters) contributed 50% of the aggregate methane emissions, while the lowest emitting 50% of sites contributed less than 10% of the aggregate emissions. Excluding the two superemitters, study-average methane emissions from compressor housings and noncompressor sources are comparable to or lower than the corresponding effective emission factors used in the EPA greenhouse gas inventory. If the two superemitters are included in the analysis, then the average emission factors based on this study could exceed the EPA greenhouse gas inventory emission factors, which highlights the potentially important contribution of superemitters to national emissions. However, quantification of their influence requires knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of superemitters across the entire T&S sector. Only 38% of the methane emissions measured by the comprehensive onsite measurements were reportable under the new EPA GHGRP because of a combination of inaccurate emission factors for leakers and

  10. Anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX by original bacterial communities from an underground gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Berlendis, Sabrina; Lascourreges, Jean-François; Schraauwers, Blandine; Sivadon, Pierre; Magot, Michel

    2010-05-01

    BTEX biodegradation by an indigenous deep subsurface microbial community was evaluated in a water sample collected in the area of an underground gas storage. Five different sulfate-reducing microbial communities able to use at least either benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or xylene (BTEX) compounds were studied. A total of 21 different bacterial phylotypes were identified, each community containing three to nine bacterial phylotypes. Archaeal phylotypes were retrieved from only three communities. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that i) these consortia were mainly composed of novel species, some of which belonging to bacterial groups not previously suspected to be involved in BTEX anaerobic degradation, ii) three consortia were dominated by an uncultured Pelobacter sp. previously detected in biodegraded oil reservoirs, iii) a deeply branching species distantly affiliated to Thermotogales was abundant in two consortia, and that iv) Firmicutes related to the Desulfotomaculum and Carboxydocella genera represented the only three detectable phylotypes in a toluene-degrading consortium. This work shows that subdominant microbial populations present in a deep subsurface aquifer used for seasonal underground gas storage could be involved in the natural attenuation of the traces of BTEX coinjected with methane in the deep subsurface.

  11. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH4) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH4 concentration occurred as CO2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other methods of

  12. Anisotropic mechanical behaviour of sedimentary basins inferred by advanced radar interferometry above gas storage fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Gambolati, G.; Ferretti, A.

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas is commonly stored underground in depleted oil and gas fields to provide safe storage capacity and deliverability to market areas where production is limited, or to take advantage of seasonal price swings. In response to summer gas injection and winter gas withdrawal the reservoir expands and contracts with the overlying land that moves accordingly. Depending on the field burial depth, a few kilometres of the upper lithosphere are subject to local three-dimensional deformations with the related cyclic motion of the ground surface being both vertical and horizontal. Advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of these seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D poro-mechanical finite-element model of the gas injection/removal occurrence. Model calibration based on the observed cyclic motions, which are on the range of 10-15 mm and 5-10 mm in the vertical and horizontal west-east directions, respectively, helps characterize the nonlinear hysteretic geomechanical properties of the basin. First, using a basin-scale relationship between the oedometric rock compressibility cM in virgin loading conditions versus the effective intergranular stress derived from previous experimental studies, the modeling results show that the ratio s between loading and unloading-reloading cM is about 4, consistent with in-situ expansions measured by the radioactive marker technique in similar reservoirs

  13. Operation of gas turbine engines in volcanic ash clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.G.; Baran, A.J.; Miatech, J.

    1996-10-01

    Results are reported for a technology program designed to determine the behavior of gas turbine engines when operating in particle-laden clouds. There are several ways that such clouds may be created, i.e., explosive volcanic eruption, sand storm, military conflict, etc. The response of several different engines, among them the Pratt and Whitney JT3D turbofan, the Pratt and Whitney J57 turbojet, a Pratt and Whitney engine of the JT9 vintage, and an engine of the General Electric CF6 vintage has been determined. The particular damage mode that will be dominant when an engine experiences a dust cloud depends upon the particular engine (the turbine inlet temperature at which the engine is operating when it encounters the dust cloud), the concentration of foreign material in the cloud, and the constituents of the foreign material (the respective melting temperature of the various constituents). Further, the rate at which engine damage will occur depends upon all of the factors given above, and the damage is cumulative with continued exposure. An important part of the Calspan effort has been to identify environmental warning signs and to determine which of the engine parameters available for monitoring by the flight crew can provide an early indication of impending difficulty. On the basis of current knowledge, if one knows the location of a particle-laden cloud, then that region should be avoided. However, if the cloud location is unknown, which is generally the case, then it is important to know how to recognize when an encounter has occurred and to understand how to operate safely, which is another part of the Calspan effort.

  14. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty.

  15. TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence J. Pekot

    2004-06-30

    Two gas storage fields were studied for this project. Overisel field, operated by Consumer's Energy, is located near the town of Holland, Michigan. Huntsman Storage Unit, operated by Kinder Morgan, is located in Cheyenne County, Nebraska near the town of Sidney. Wells in both fields experienced declining performance over several years of their annual injection/production cycle. In both fields, the presence of hydrocarbons, organic materials or production chemicals was suspected as the cause of progressive formation damage leading to the performance decline. Core specimens and several material samples were collected from these two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

  16. Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.

    PubMed

    Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions.

  17. Gas-liquid separator and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Whitt, David Brandon

    2009-07-14

    A system for gas-liquid separation in electrolysis processes is provided. The system includes a first compartment having a liquid carrier including a first gas therein and a second compartment having the liquid carrier including a second gas therein. The system also includes a gas-liquid separator fluidically coupled to the first and second compartments for separating the liquid carrier from the first and second gases.

  18. Geological Modeling and Fluid Flow Simulation of Acid Gas Storage, Nugget Sandstone, Moxa Arch, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Du, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Moxa Arch Anticline is a regional-scale northwest-trending uplift in western Wyoming where geological storage of acid gases (CO2, CH4, N2, H2S, He) from ExxonMobile's Shute Creek Gas Plant is under consideration. The Nugget Sandstone, a deep saline aquifer at depths exceeding 17,170 ft, is a candidate formation for acid gas storage. As part of a larger goal of determining site suitability, this study builds three-dimensional local to regional scale geological and fluid flow models for the Nugget Sandstone, its caprock (Twin Creek Limestone), and an underlying aquifer (Ankareh Sandstone), or together, the ``Nugget Suite''. For an area of 3000 square miles, geological and engineering data were assembled, screened for accuracy, and digitized, covering an average formation thickness of ~1700 feet. The data include 900 public-domain well logs (SP, Gamma Ray, Neutron Porosity, Density, Sonic, shallow and deep Resistivity, Lithology, Deviated well logs), 784 feet of core measurements (porosity and permeability), 4 regional geological cross sections, and 3 isopach maps. Data were interpreted and correlated for geological formations and facies, the later categorized using both Neural Network and Gaussian Hierarchical Clustering algorithms. Well log porosities were calibrated with core measurements, those of permeability estimated using formation-specific porosity-permeability transforms. Using conditional geostatistical simulations (first indicator simulation of facies, then sequential Gaussian simulation of facies-specific porosity), data were integrated at the regional-scale to create a geological model from which a local-scale simulation model surrounding the Shute Creek injection site was extracted. Based on this model, full compositional multiphase flow simulations were conducted with which we explore (1) an appropriate grid resolution for accurate acid gas predictions (pressure, saturation, and mass balance); (2) sensitivity of key geological and engineering

  19. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  20. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  1. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  2. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  3. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  4. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    and combat support vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the adoption of natural gas —whether as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG...tacticaldefensemedia.com16 | DoD Power & Energy Fall 2014 For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas By Bret...Strogen and Patrick Lobner Abundance and Utility Fueling the Force Natural Gas M ilitary energy strategists often recount the British Royal Navy’s decision

  5. Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

    The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

  6. Sorption pumps and storage for gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, Peter; Bethel, Dylan

    2016-08-16

    A method and system for filling gas storage vessels from a source operates by cooling a sorbent, opening a valve to transfer gas by physisorption, regulating the sorbent temperature to achieve the desired degree of filling, closing the valve connecting to the gas source, and warming the tank, sorbent, and gas to provide a predetermined pressure at room temperature.

  7. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  8. CO2 Storage by Sorption on Organic Matter and Clay in Gas Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-10-10

    Simulations of methane production and supercritical carbon dioxide injection were developed that consider competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on both organic matter and montmorillonite. The results were used to assess the potential for storage of CO2 in a hydraulically fractured shale gas reservoir and for enhanced recovery of CH4. Assuming equal volume fractions of organic matter and montmorillonite, amounts of CO2 adsorbed on both materials were comparable, while methane desorption was from clays was two times greater than desorption from organic material. The most successful strategy considered CO2 injection from a separate well and enhanced methane recovery by 73%, while storing 240 kmt of CO2.

  9. Geological model of Lobodice underground gas storage facility based on 3D seismic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopal, Lukáš; Čížek, Pavel; Milička, Ján

    2016-06-01

    The Lobodice underground gas storage (UGS) is developed in a natural aquifer reservoir located in the Central Moravian part of the Carpathian Foredeep in the Czech Republic. In order to learn more about the UGS geological structure a 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. The reservoir is rather shallow, 400-500 m below the surface. This article describes the process workflow from the 3D seismic field data acquisition to the creation of the geological model. The outcomes of this workflow define the geometry of the UGS reservoir, its tectonics and the sealing features of the structure. Better geological knowledge of the reservoir will reduce the risks involved in the localization of new wells for increasing UGS withdrawal rates.

  10. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhiliang; McGuire, A. David

    2016-06-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  11. CAIS standard manual. System number 26. Industrial gas storage and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  13. Optimum Operation Condition on Distributed Power Supply System with Micro Gas Turbine/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Miki; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    In order to find the optimum operation condition of a distributed power supply system of 30kW class micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system with the combination of line electric power and supplied gas, a system analysis has been performed. In this study, an absorption chiller and a boiler were mounted to utilize the exhausted heat from the MGT/SOFC system. The time variation of energy consumption in 24 hours for house and market models was taken into consideration for the calculation of the energy saving ratio of the present system. The operation ratio defined with the ratio of power supply of MGT/SOFC system to the power required at the peak load was changed as a parameter. From the comparison with the system using line power and gas, it is found that the present system shows high energy saving ratio around 0.4 of the operation ratio, but the energy saving ratio severely decreases in the range of high operation ratio. In this study, it is revealed that the thermal storage system effectively improves the energy saving ratio especially for the house model in winter season.

  14. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  15. Mathematical Modelling-Based Energy System Operation Strategy Considering Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-Hyung; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-06-25

    Renewable energy resources are widely recognized as an alternative to environmentally harmful fossil fuels. More renewable energy technologies will need to penetrate into fossil fuel dominated energy systems to mitigate the globally witnessed climate changes and environmental pollutions. It is necessary to prepare for the potential problems with increased proportions of renewable energy in the energy system, to prevent higher costs and decreased reliability. Motivated by this need, this paper addresses the operation of an energy system with an energy storage system in the context of developing a decision-supporting framework.

  16. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.; Dilgen, T.; Rose, B.; Gash, W.; Ravindranath, V.; Yeddulla, M.; Papu, J.; Davila, P.; Holub, B.; Tagger, J.; Sikora, R.; Ramirez, G.; Kulpin, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  17. Safe operating conditions for NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Amundsen, C.; Ha, K.; Hussein, A.

    2015-04-02

    The NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends are designed to safely accept the synchrotron radiation fan produced by respective insertion device when the electron beam orbit through the ID is locked inside the predefined Active Interlock Envelope. The Active Interlock is getting enabled at a particular beam current known as AI safe current limit. Below such current the beam orbit can be anywhere within the limits of the SR beam acceptance. During the FE commissioning the beam orbit is getting intentionally disturbed in the particular ID. In this paper we explore safe operating conditions for the Frontends commissioning.

  18. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  19. Preliminary study of the effect of pumped-storage plant operation on zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Tseyeb, Y.Y.; Zhdanova, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hydromechanical effect of hydroelectric stations on zooplankton is customarily regarded as a constantly acting and comparatively harmless factor, since its destruction is inevitable when water masses are passed through hydroelectric stations, but its capacity for restoration is high (i.e., destruction of the zooplankton of the forebay is compensated by its production in the after bay). It is not known how correct such an opinion is, or what is the true balance of losses and reproduction of zooplankton in the forebays and after bays of hydroelectric stations. However, hydroelectric plants of a new type, pumped-storage plants, have been constructed in recent years and others are planned for the Dnieper reservoirs. The operational principle and purpose of these plants is that they employ special vertical turbine-electric pumps that pump water at night from the reservoirs into pumped-storage facilities at high levels, and then release this water during daytime peaks through pipes to the turbines that generate additional electric power. Such pumped-storage plants are planned, in particular, as part of the Danube-Dnieper water economy complex and for some reservoirs in the North European regions of the USSR.

  20. Tuning the composition of guest molecules in clathrate hydrates: NMR identification and its significance to gas storage.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yutaek; Lee, Jong-Won; Kumar, Rajnish; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Lee, Huen; Ripmeester, John A

    2009-08-03

    Gas hydrates represent an attractive way of storing large quantities of gas such as methane and carbon dioxide, although to date there has been little effort to optimize the storage capacity and to understand the trade-offs between storage conditions and storage capacity. In this work, we present estimates for gas storage based on the ideal structures, and show how these must be modified given the little data available on hydrate composition. We then examine the hypothesis based on solid-solution theory for clathrate hydrates as to how storage capacity may be improved for structure II hydrates, and test the hypothesis for a structure II hydrate of THF and methane, paying special attention to the synthetic approach used. Phase equilibrium data are used to map the region of stability of the double hydrate in P-T space as a function of the concentration of THF. In situ high-pressure NMR experiments were used to measure the kinetics of reaction between frozen THF solutions and methane gas, and (13)C MAS NMR experiments were used to measure the distribution of the guests over the cage sites. As known from previous work, at high concentrations of THF, methane only occupies the small cages in structure II hydrate, and in accordance with the hypothesis posed, we confirm that methane can be introduced into the large cage of structure II hydrate by lowering the concentration of THF to below 1.0 mol %. We note that in some preparations the cage occupancies appear to fluctuate with time and are not necessarily homogeneous over the sample. Although the tuning mechanism is generally valid, the composition and homogeneity of the product vary with the details of the synthetic procedure. The best results, those obtained from the gas-liquid reaction, are in good agreement with thermodynamic predictions; those obtained for the gas-solid reaction do not agree nearly as well.

  1. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-02

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity.

  2. Methane Emissions from Leak and Loss Audits of Natural Gas Compressor Stations and Storage Facilities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2015-07-07

    As part of the Environmental Defense Fund's Barnett Coordinated Campaign, researchers completed leak and loss audits for methane emissions at three natural gas compressor stations and two natural gas storage facilities. Researchers employed microdilution high-volume sampling systems in conjunction with in situ methane analyzers, bag samples, and Fourier transform infrared analyzers for emissions rate quantification. All sites had a combined total methane emissions rate of 94.2 kg/h, yet only 12% of the emissions total resulted from leaks. Methane slip from exhausts represented 44% of the total emissions. Remaining methane emissions were attributed to losses from pneumatic actuators and controls, engine crankcases, compressor packing vents, wet seal vents, and slop tanks. Measured values were compared with those reported in literature. Exhaust methane emissions were lower than emissions factor estimates for engine exhausts, but when combined with crankcase emissions, measured values were 11.4% lower than predicted by AP-42 as applicable to emissions factors for four-stroke, lean-burn engines. Average measured wet seal emissions were 3.5 times higher than GRI values but 14 times lower than those reported by Allen et al. Reciprocating compressor packing vent emissions were 39 times higher than values reported by GRI, but about half of values reported by Allen et al. Though the data set was small, researchers have suggested a method to estimate site-wide emissions factors for those powered by four-stroke, lean-burn engines based on fuel consumption and site throughput.

  3. Geochemical implications of gas leakage associated with geologic CO2 storage--a qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Omar R; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Cantrell, Kirk J; Lee, Giehyeon; Amonette, James E; Brown, Christopher F

    2013-01-02

    Gas leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A systematic understanding of how such leakage would impact the geochemistry of potable aquifers and the vadose zone is crucial to the maintenance of environmental quality and the widespread acceptance of GCS. This paper reviews the current literature and discusses current knowledge gaps on how elevated CO(2) levels could influence geochemical processes (e.g., adsorption/desorption and dissolution/precipitation) in potable aquifers and the vadose zone. The review revealed that despite an increase in research and evidence for both beneficial and deleterious consequences of CO(2) migration into potable aquifers and the vadose zone, significant knowledge gaps still exist. Primary among these knowledge gaps is the role/influence of pertinent geochemical factors such as redox condition, CO(2) influx rate, gas stream composition, microbial activity, and mineralogy in CO(2)-induced reactions. Although these factors by no means represent an exhaustive list of knowledge gaps we believe that addressing them is pivotal in advancing current scientific knowledge on how leakage from GCS may impact the environment, improving predictions of CO(2)-induced geochemical changes in the subsurface, and facilitating science-based decision- and policy-making on risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration.

  4. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  5. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

  6. Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

  7. Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.

  8. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of hazardous...

  9. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of hazardous...

  10. 33 CFR 127.1313 - Storage of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1313 Storage of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of hazardous...

  11. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    One important issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine the resulting field-scale-induced displacements and consequences of overpressures on the mechanical integrity of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated for the first time on an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3 year-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells are accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area shows sub- centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with ASR cycle. Deformations are found to be temporally out phased with the injection and recovery events due to complex groundwater flow. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections.

  12. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher E.; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey A.; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, E. C.

    2015-08-11

    A main issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine their field-scale-induced displacements and consequences on the mechanical behavior of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated in an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3/yr-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells was accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area suggests the occurrence of sub-centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with the ASR cycle. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections. The gravity signal reflects deep phenomena and gives additional insight into the repartition of fluids in the subsurface.

  13. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    DOE PAGES

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher E.; ...

    2015-08-11

    A main issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine their field-scale-induced displacements and consequences on the mechanical behavior of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated in an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3/yr-1more » into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells was accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area suggests the occurrence of sub-centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with the ASR cycle. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections. The gravity signal reflects deep phenomena and gives additional insight into the repartition of fluids in the subsurface.« less

  14. 76 FR 62055 - Wabash Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Wabash Gas Storage, LLC (Wabash) near Paris in Edgar County, Illinois. This EA will be used by the..., 2011, Knights of Columbus Meeting Hall, 614 North Main Street, Paris, IL 61944, (217) 465-1085. This... mutually acceptable agreement. However, if the project is approved by the Commission, that approval...

  15. 75 FR 78986 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... in the West Peetz and Lewis Creek Fields to gas storage injection/withdrawal (I/W) wells. This EA..., using existing well pads and well bores; Reduction of the number of water disposal wells from four to... proposed project amendment under these general headings: Geology and soils; Land use; Water...

  16. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  17. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  18. Operation of Battery Energy Storage System in Demand Side using Local Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Ryuichi; Shimizukawa, Jun; Iba, Kenji; Tanaka, Kouji; Seki, Tomomichi

    Recently, the various political movements, which reduce CO2-emission, have been proposed against global warming. Therefore, battery energy storage systems (BESSs) such as NAS (sodium and sulfur) battery are attracting attention around the world. The first purpose of BESS was the improvement of load factors. The second purpose is the improvement of power quality, especially against voltage-sag. The recent interest is oriented to utilize BESS to mitigate the intermittency of renewable energy. NAS battery has two operation modes. The first one is a fixed pattern operation, which is time-schedule in advance. The second mode is the load following operation. Although this mode can perform more the flexible operation by adjusting the change of load, it has the risks of shortage/surplus of battery energy. In this paper, an accurate demand forecasting method, which is based on multiple regression models, is proposed. Using this load forecasting, the more advanced control of load following operation for NAS battery is proposed.

  19. The influence of woody encroachment on the nitrogen cycle: fixation, storage and gas loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, F.; Sparks, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Woody encroachment is a pervasive land cover change throughout the tropics and subtropics. Encroachment is frequently catalyzed by nitrogen (N)-fixing trees and the resulting N inputs potentially alter whole-ecosystem N cycling, accumulation and loss. In the southern US, widespread encroachment by legume Prosopis glandulosa is associated with increased soil total N storage, inorganic N concentrations, and net mineralization and nitrification rates. To better understand the effects of this process on ecosystem N cycling, we investigated patterns of symbiotic N fixation, N accrual and soil N trace gas and N2 emissions during Prosopis encroachment into the southern Rio Grande Plains. Analyses of d15N in foliage, xylem sap and plant-available soil N suggested that N fixation rates increase with tree age and are influenced by abiotic conditions. A model of soil N accrual around individual trees, accounting for atmospheric inputs and gas losses, generates lifetimes N fixation estimates of up to 9 kg for a 100-year-old tree and current rates of 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, these N inputs and increased soil cycling rates do not translate into increased N gas losses. Two years of field measurements of a complete suite of N trace gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and other oxidized N compounds) found no difference in flux between upland Prosopis groves and adjacent unencroached grasslands. Total emissions for both land cover types average 0.56-0.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, comparable to other southern US grasslands. Additional lab experiments suggested that N2 losses are low and that field oxygen conditions are not usually conducive to denitrification. Taken together, results suggest that this ecosystem is currently experiencing a period of net N accrual under ongoing encroachment.

  20. Endohedral nitrogen storage in carbon fullerene structures: physisorption to chemisorption transition with increasing gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Barraza, R E; Guirado-López, R A

    2009-06-21

    We present extensive pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the structural properties and chemical reactivity of nitrogen molecules confined in spheroidal (C(82)) and tubelike (C(110)) carbon fullerene structures. For a small number of encapsulated nitrogens, the N(2) species exist in a nonbonded state within the cavities and form well defined molecular conformations such as linear chains, zigzag arrays, as well as both spheroidal and tubular configurations. However, with increasing the number of stored molecules, the interaction among the confined nitrogens as well as between the N(2) species and the fullerene wall is not always mainly repulsive. Actually, at high densities of the encapsulated gas, we found both adsorption of N(2) to the inner carbon surface together with the formation of (N(2))(m) molecular clusters. Total energy DFT calculations reveal that the shape of the interaction potential of a test molecule moving within the carbon cavities strongly varies with the number and proximity of the coadsorbed N(2) from being purely repulsive to having short-range attractive contributions close to the inner wall. In particular, the latter are always found when a group of closely spaced nitrogens is located near the carbon cage (a fact that will naturally occur at high densities of the encapsulated gas), inducing the formation of covalent bonds between the N(2) and the fullerene network. Interestingly, in some cases, the previous nitrogen adsorption to the inner surface is reversible by reducing the gas pressure. The calculated average density of states of our considered carbon compounds reveals the appearance of well defined features that clearly reflect the occurring structural changes and modifications in the adsorption properties in the systems. Our results clearly underline the crucial role played by confinement effects on the reactivity of our endohedral compounds, define this kind of materials as nonideal