Science.gov

Sample records for gas supply systems

  1. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  2. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  3. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin, Khan; Firozkhan, Pathan; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Siju, George; Gattu, Ramesh; Hima, Bindu; Dilip, C. Raval; Prashant, Thankey; Kalpesh, Dhanani; Subrata, Pradhan

    2013-02-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here.

  4. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  5. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  6. Critique of the mid-range energy forecasting, system oil and gas supply models

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.

    1980-10-01

    The Mid-Range Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) is a model used by the Department of Energy to forecast domestic production, consumption and price for conventional energy sources on a regional basis over a period of 5 to 15 years. Among the energy sources included in the model are oil, gas and other petroleum fuels, coal, uranium, and electricity. Final consumption of alternative energy sources is broken into end-use categories, such as residential, commercial and industrial uses. Regional prices for all energy sources are calculated by iteratively equating domestic supply and demand. The purpose of this paper is to assess the ability of the Oil and Gas Supply Submodels of MEFS to reliably and accurately project oil and gas supply curves, which are used in the integrating model, along with fuel demand curves to estimate market price. The reliability and accuracy of the oil and gas model cannot be judged by comparing its predictions against actual observations because those observations have not yet occurred. The reliability and reasonableness of the oil and gas supply model can be judged, however, by analyzing how well its assumptions and predictions correspond to accepted economic principles. This is the approach taken in this critique. The remainder of this paper describes the general structure of the oil and gas supply model and how it functions to project the quantity of oil and gas forthcoming at given prices in a particular year, then discusses the economic soundness of the model, and finally suggests model changes to improve its performance.

  7. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  8. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  9. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  10. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  11. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  12. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  13. Anaesthesia gas supply: gas cylinders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-09-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment.

  14. Anaesthesia Gas Supply: Gas Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment. PMID:24249883

  15. Demand-type gas supply system for rocket borne thin-window proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple closed loop control system has been developed to maintain the gas pressure in thin-window proportional counters during rocket flights. This system permits convenient external control of detector pressure and system flushing rate. The control system is activated at launch with the sealing of a reference volume at the existing system pressure. Inflight control to plus or minus 2 torr at a working pressure of 760 torr has been achieved on six rocket flights.

  16. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle

  17. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Cooling supply system for stage 3 bucket of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Burns, James Lee; Palmer, Gene David; Leone, Sal Albert; Drlik, Gary Joseph; Gibler, Edward Eugene

    2002-01-01

    In a land based gas turbine including a compressor, a combustor and turbine section including at least three stages, an improvement comprising an inlet into a third stage nozzle from the compressor for feeding cooling air from the compressor to the third stage nozzle; at least one passageway running substantially radially through each airfoil of the third stage nozzle and an associated diaphragm, into an annular space between the rotor and the diaphragm; and passageways communicating between the annular space and individual buckets of the third stage.

  19. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  20. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  1. Gas Feeding System Supplying the U-400M Cyclotron Ion Source with Hydrogen Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Angilopov, V.V.; Apasov, V.A.

    2005-07-15

    Automated system feeding into ion source hydrogen isotopes as molecules with preset ratio of the fluxes is described. The control system automatically maintained the working parameters and provided graphic and digital representation of the controlled processes. The radiofrequency (RF) ion source installed at the axial injection line of the cyclotron produced ion beams of HD{sup +}, HT{sup +}, DT{sup +}, D{sub 2}H{sup +}, etc. At a several months DT{sup +} beam acceleration the tritium consumption was less than 108 Bq/hr. The intensity of a 58.2 MeV triton beam (T{sup +} ions) extracted from the cyclotron chamber was about 10 nA.

  2. Risk analysis of highly combustible gas storage, supply, and distribution systems in PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simion, G.P.; VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen distribution configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen distribution system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement.

  3. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  4. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fuel supply system. 3285.605... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.605 Fuel supply system. (a) Proper supply pressure. The gas piping system in the home...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuel supply system. 3285.605... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.605 Fuel supply system. (a) Proper supply pressure. The gas piping system in the home...

  6. Star formation and gas supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catinella, B.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of how gas cycles in and around galaxies, and how it depends on galaxy properties such as stellar mass and star formation rate, is crucial to understand galaxy formation and evolution. We take advantage of the most sensitive surveys of cold gas in massive galaxies, GASS and COLD GASS, as well as of the state-of-the-art HI blind survey ALFALFA to investigate how molecular and atomic hydrogen reservoirs vary along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies.

  7. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  8. The growing world LP-gas supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, M.C.

    1988-11-01

    The possible range of future (LPG) export availabilities is huge, but actual production levels depend on factors, many of which are beyond our direct control - world demand for crude oil and gas, developments in technology, and the price of both energy in general and LPG specifically. Although these factors limit some of the potential developments, a substantial increase in LPG supply is certain, and this is likely to depress its price relative to other products. Over the last few years, a dramatic expansion has taken place in the industry. From 1980 to 1987, non-Communist world production of LPG increased by close to 35%, to a total of 115 million tonnes. If this is set against the general energy scene, LPG represented 3.7% of crude oil production by weight in 1980, rising to 5.4% in 1987. This growth reflects rise in consciousness around the world of the value of the product. LPG is no longer regarded as a byproduct, which is flared or disposed of at low value, but increasingly as a co-product, and much of the growth in production has been due to the installation of tailored recovery systems. LPG markets historically developed around sources of supply, constrained by the costs of transportation. The major exceptions, of course, were the Middle East, the large exporter, and Japan, the large importer.

  9. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  10. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  11. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 3280.704 Fuel supply systems. (a) LP—Gas system design and service line pressure. (1) Systems... have a design pressure of at least 312.5 psig. (i) Container supply systems shall be arranged for vapor... such openings. (6) LP-gas system enclosure and mounting. (i) Housings and enclosures shall be...

  13. Oil and Gas Supply Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Defines the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model's basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  14. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  15. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  16. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  17. Gas energy supply outlook through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kalisch, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    Late in 1984 the American Gas Association published a study by the Gas Supply Committee titled, ''The Outlook for Gas Energy Through 2010.'' This study was a joint effort by many people of the gas industry including GRI, IGT and AGA. The study observed that come 1646 Tcf of natural gas is judged to be ultimately recoverable in the US. Of this total, 665 Tcf were produced up to year-end 1984. At that time an additional 197 Tcf were categorized as proved reserves, i.e., known to exist with reasonable certainty and producible under current economic and operating conditions. An additional 784 Tcf were classified as potential supply. In short, about 60 % of the nation's ultimately recoverable resource still is available; only 40 % has been produced to data. This is a formidable gas resource for the lower-48; in 1984 the production level was about 17 Tcf; proved reserves were approximately 163 Tcf - more than nine times the 1984 production. 2 references, 2 tables.

  18. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2... Gas supply charges. An interstate natural gas pipeline that transports under part 284 of this chapter may include in its tariff a charge, not related to facilities, for standing ready to supply gas...

  19. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2... Gas supply charges. An interstate natural gas pipeline that transports under part 284 of this chapter may include in its tariff a charge, not related to facilities, for standing ready to supply gas...

  20. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  1. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 91 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salable natural gas available from domestic in-the-ground reserves; gas purchased under contracts with other interstate pipeline companies; domestically produced coal gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas (SNG); and imported natural gas and LNG. The domestic in-the-ground reserves consist of company owned reserves including natural gas in underground storage, reserves dedicated to or warranted under contracts with independent producers, and supplemental or short-term supplies purchased from independent producers and intrastate pipeline companies. To avoid duplicate reporting of domestic in-the-ground reserves, the volumes of gas under contract agreement between jurisdictional pipelines have been excluded in summarizing state and national reserves. Volumes contracted under agreements with foreign suppliers include pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico and LNG from Algeria. 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1985-12-04

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of 89 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salable natural gas available from domestic in-the-ground reserves; gas purchased under contracts with other interstate pipeline companies; domestically produced coal gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas (SNG); and imported natural gas and LNG. The domestic in-the-ground reserves consist of company-owned reserves including natural gas in underground storage, reserves dedicated to or warranted under contracts with independent producers, and supplemental or short-term supplies purchased from independent producers and intrastate pipeline companies. To avoid duplicate reporting of domestic in-the-ground reserves, the volumes of gas under contract agreement between jurisdictional pipelines have been excluded in summarizing state and national reserves. Volumes contracted under agreements with foreign suppliers include pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico and LNG from Algeria. 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. New Approach to Microclimate Parameter Selection for the Production Area with Heat Supply Systems Based on Gas Infrared Radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilenko, N. I.; Kurilenko, E. Yu.; Mamontov, G. Ya

    2016-02-01

    There presented experimental research results for the heat transfer behavior in the areas with the radiant heating systems based on the gas infrared radiators. The model of heat-gravitational convection is formulated, that conforms to the transformation conditions of radiant energy coming from the radiators. A new approach to the parameter selection of the indoor climate with the radiant heating systems is developed based on the analysis and collation of experimental data for the temperature patterns and that of the heat flows of the object of research.

  4. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... diver. (d) A primary breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to support the diver for...) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to allow the diver... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A...

  5. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diver. (d) A primary breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to support the diver for...) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply for SCUBA diving must be sufficient to allow the diver... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A...

  6. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  7. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.

    1984-11-01

    This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  8. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  9. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statement of General Policy to... Gas supply charges. An interstate natural gas pipeline that transports under part 284 of this...

  10. Engine powered auxiliary air supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Lean, J.R.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an auxiliary air supply system comprising: an engine; at least one exhaust driven turbocharger including a turbine and a compressor associated therewith for supply of compressed air to the engine; a low pressure compressor including means for powering the low pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive a portion of the compressed air exiting the engine turbocharger compressor; a high pressure compressor including means for powering the high pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive the compressed air exiting the low pressure compressor; and means for directing engine exhaust gases between at least one engine turbocharger and the means for powering the low and high pressure compressors.

  11. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group... Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas Association,...

  12. 76 FR 18749 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice Application Take notice that on March 7, 2011, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), filed an application in Docket No... Access Project. National Fuel requests authorization to: (1) Construct a new compressor station in...

  13. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  14. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.T.

    1984-04-27

    The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to turn to more costly supplies of gas as the closer, traditional areas of gas supply are exhausted. A principal motivation for Canada's participation in the ANGTS was the prospect of a jointly sponsored pipeline through Canada which would facilitate bringing frontier gas to market - through the so-called Dempster lateral. The high cost of transportation systems in the Artic necessitates pipelines with large capacities in order to minimize the cost of transportation per unit of gas delivered. It is clear that Canada still strongly supports the ANGTS project as a means of opening up the frontier resources of both Alaska and Canada.

  15. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Use of this purchase specification is not mandatory. User should review the document and determine if it meets the user`s purpose. This document contains a fill-in-the-blanks guide specification for the procurement of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems greater than 10 kVA, organized as follows: Parts 1 through 7--technical requirements; Appendix A--technical requirements to be included in the proposal; Appendix B--UPS system data sheets to be completed by each bidder (Seller) and submitted with the proposal; Appendix C--general guidelines giving the specifier parameters for selecting a UPS system; it should be read before preparing an actual specification, and is not attached to the specification; Attachment 1--sketches prepared by the purchaser (Owner); Attachment 2--sample title page.

  16. 77 FR 60972 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 18, 2012, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), 6363 Main Street.... Reitz, Deputy General Counsel, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street,...

  17. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  18. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E; Ladner, Edward P

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  19. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 3280.704 Fuel supply systems. (a) LP—Gas system design and service line pressure. (1) Systems... container is in service or shall be provided with a suitable internal withdrawal tube which communicates with the vapor space on or near the highest point in the container when it is mounted in...

  20. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  1. Volatile constraints on the magma supply, dynamics and plumbing system of a top-ranking basaltic gas emitter: Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    P. Allard1,2, A. Aiuppa3,4, P. Bani5, N. Métrich1,6, A. Bertagnini6, M. Burton7, P-J. Gauthier5, F. Parello3, H. Shinohara8, G. Sawyer9, E. Bagnato3, E. Garaebiti10 1IPGP, UMR7154 CNRS, Paris France; 2INGV, Sezione di Catania, Italy; 3DiSTEM, Palermo University, Italy; 4INGV, Sezione di Palermo, Italy; 5LMV-OPGC, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 6INGV, Sezione di Pisa, Italy; 7SEAES, University of Manchester, UK; 8Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; 9Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK; 10GEOHAZARD, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Ambrym basaltic volcano (central Vanuatu arc) is one of the most active volcanic systems of the Southwest Pacific region, where recurrent lava lake activity sustains voluminous gas release from two main cones, Benbow and Marum, in a 12 km-wide summit caldera. In 2007-2008 we could perform the first detailed investigations of gas emissions from this very active but remote and hardly accessible intra-oceanic arc volcano, combining ground-based and airborne measurements and using both in situ and remote sensing tools. The degassing budget of major, minor, trace and radioactive volatile species reveals that Ambrym ranks amongst the three most powerful persistent emitters of magmatic volatiles at global scale [1]. Coupled with the analysis of dissolved volatiles in the feeding basalt (olivine-hosted melt inclusions), the gas emission rates imply a very high average magma supply/degassing rate of 25 m3/s - 6 times the rate at Mount Etna - from a reservoir emplaced at about 4 km depth beneath the caldera floor. The chemical composition of emitted volcanic gases is compatible with dominant closed-system ascent and degassing of the basalt, followed by open degassing at shallow depth as water exsolution becomes extensive. The modest time-averaged extrusion rate, estimated from caldera infilling over the past 2 ka, requires convective downward recycling of the denser degassed magma in conduits with diameter of order 10 m. High resolution OP

  2. Gas supply 2000: Meeting the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, S.L. )

    1994-08-01

    The gas industry is experiencing turbulent times. Competition has attacked under many guises, putting it into defensive, reactionary positions. It faces not only traditional competition such as fuel-switching, but multiple suppliers of energy, service offerings, transportation, and delivery and storage. It is entering the era of the gas [open quotes]price club[close quotes], when customers demand and get bargains with little regard for a [open quotes]great[close quotes] service history. It also faces a rapidly changing regulatory environment that is increasing competition but still requiring operation within the constraints of a public utility, rather than allowing function as a [open quotes]true[close quotes] competitive business. Southern California Gas Co. (SoCalGas) is adapting to these realities. As the largest natural gas utility in the nation, and the third largest utility in California, it has had to react with vigor to the changing regulatory and competitive environment by reducing the cost of providing gas to all customers-both core customers (those with no alternative fuel choice) and noncore customers (those with alternative fuel choice or usage that exceeds 250,000 therms a year). This article uses a model presented at a seminar for executives at the University of Southern California. The basic premise is that customers in a truly competitive capitalistic democracy will select the cheapest product they can find to meet their minimum requirements. This is true of core and noncore customers alike, and creates conflict with both our past and present models for doing business.

  3. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  4. Small turbines in distributed utility application: Natural gas pressure supply requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.L.

    1996-05-01

    Implementing distributed utility can strengthen the local distribution system and help avoid or delay the expense of upgrading transformers and feeders. The gas turbine-generator set is an attractive option based on its low front-end capital cost, reliable performance at unmanned stations, and environmental performance characteristics. This report assesses gas turbine utilization issues from a perspective of fuel supply pressure requirements and discusses both cost and operational factors. A primary operational consideration for siting gas turbines on the electric distribution system is whether the local gas distribution company can supply gas at the required pressure. Currently available gas turbine engines require gas supply pressures of at least 150 pounds per square inch gauge, more typically, 250 to 350 psig. Few LDCs maintain line pressure in excess of 125 psig. One option for meeting the gas pressure requirements is to upgrade or extend an existing pipeline and connect that pipeline to a high-pressure supply source, such as an interstate transmission line. However, constructing new pipeline is expensive, and the small volume of gas required by the turbine for the application offers little incentive for the LDC to provide this service. Another way to meet gas pressure requirements is to boost the compression of the fuel gas at the gas turbine site. Fuel gas booster compressors are readily available as stand-alone units and can satisfactorily increase the supply pressure to meet the turbine engine requirement. However, the life-cycle costs of this equipment are not inconsequential, and maintenance and reliability issues for boosters in this application are questionable and require further study. These factors may make the gas turbine option a less attractive solution in DU applications than first indicated by just the $/kW capital cost. On the other hand, for some applications other DU technologies, such as photovoltaics, may be the more attractive option.

  5. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  6. Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Kulis, Michael J.; Lytle, John K.; Fisher, John W.; Vaccaro, Helen; Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical needs are a key to long term space missions. Currently, trash and waste generated during a mission is carried during the entire roundtrip mission or stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The goal of the Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) project is to develop space technology alternatives for converting trash and other waste materials from human spaceflight into high-value products that might include propellants or power system fuels in addition to life support oxygen and water. In addition to producing a useful product from waste, TtSG will decrease the volume needed to store waste on long term space missions. This paper presents an overview of the TtSG technologies and future plans for the project.

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

  8. New 48-inch line gives Wales more gas supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    A new 11-mile, 48-in pipeline will not only supply an even flow of gas from the British Gas national grid to towns in the Wales Gas district but also serve as a daily storage facility by means of nightime linepacking at 700 psi. The largest diameter gas line to be constructed in the UK, the pipeline is confined to a 165-ft wide corridor leading through wet and dry moorland, farms, reclaimed colliery tips, and bogs. Construction engineers took care to protect archeological features along the route and to restore the land to its original condition.

  9. Automated Gas Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  10. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  11. Long-term trends and opportunities for managing regional water supply and wastewater greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Murray R; West, Jim; Sherman, Bradford; Lane, Joe; de Haas, David

    2011-06-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions are likely to rise faster than growth in population and more than double for water supply and wastewater services over the next 50 years in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. New sources of water supply such as rainwater tanks, recycled water, and desalination currently have greater energy intensity than traditional sources. In addition, direct greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs and wastewater treatment and handling have potentially the same magnitude as emissions from the use of energy. Centralized and decentralized water supply and wastewater systems are considered for a scenario based upon a government water supply strategy for the next 50 years. Many sources of data have large uncertainties which are estimated following the IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. Important sources of emissions with large uncertainties such as rainwater tanks and direct emissions were identified for further research and potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. An algorithm for selection and design of hybrid power supplies for MEMS with a case study of a micro-gas chromatograph system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. A.; Sastry, A. M.

    The Wireless Integrated Microsystems (WIMS)-environmental monitor testbed (EMT) is a multi-component microelectromechanical system (MEMS), incorporating complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) materials for high-precision circuits used for integrated sensors such as micro-g accelerometers, micro-gyroscopes, and pressure sensors. The WIMS-EMT duty cycle, like many autonomous MEMS systems, has low-power standby periods for sensing, and high-power pulses for R/F transmission and reception. In this paper, we present results of three strategies for providing power to this system, including (1) specification of a single, aggregate power supply, resulting in a single battery electrochemistry and cell size; (2) specification of several power supplies, by a priori division of power sources by power range; and (3) specification of an arbitrary number of power "bundles," based on available space in the device. The second approach provided the best results of mass (0.032 kg) and volume (0.028 L) among the three approaches. The second and third approaches provided the best battery lifetime results; both systems produced lifetimes in excess of 2E3 h. Future work will incorporate CMOS operational amplifier (op-amp) technologies to accommodate large voltage fluxes in many MEMS devices, and implementation of our approaches into a user-friendly code.

  13. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  14. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statement of General Policy...

  15. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statement of General Policy...

  16. HIRFL-CSR power supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Daqing; Zhou, Zhongzu; Chen, Youxin; Wu, Rong; Shangguan, Jingbin; Bai, Zhen

    2001-12-01

    There are more than 200 power supplies will be employed in CSR power supply system. These power supplies provide DC and pulsed exciting current for all magnets in main ring (CSRm), experiment ring (CSRe), injection line of CSRm and RIB line. Six small-scale prototypes have been designed and made before formal manufacture. One thyristor rectifier pulsed converter was delivered to Lanzhou in January and all measurement has been finished in April. The result is satisfied.

  17. 76 FR 52652 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice... Access Project and Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company's (TGP) proposed Station 230C Project in the above... County, to permit bi-directional flow; Modifications to underground piping and valves at the...

  18. EIA model documentation: Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projects are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region.

  19. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  20. Power supply for negative impedance gas discharge lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bees, G.L.

    1987-12-29

    An adjustable constant current power supply for a negative impedance gas discharge laser is described comprising: means for providing constant output of current, means connected between the constant current providing means and the gas discharge laser for matching the current output of the constant current providing means with lasing requirements of the gas discharge laser, the constant current providing means providing electrical energy to pump the gas discharge laser; and means electrically connected to the constant current providing means for feeding a variable controlled voltage to the constant current providing means the variable voltage altering the constant output of current over a preselected range feedback circuit means for providing a control signal to the variably controlled voltage feeding means; such that output power of the gas discharge laser varies with the output of current from the current providing means.

  1. The Effect of Natural Gas Supply on US Renewable Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Bistline, J.; Inman, M.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that more abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall energy use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-2055 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable energy, more abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  2. Fuel supply control system for engine carburetors

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Hidekazu, K.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel supply control system for a vehicle internal combustion engine having a variable venturi type carburetor with a fixed main nozzle and a variable nozzle in which a higher suction of intake air than a predetermined rate increases the opening area of the variable nozzle. The principal component features of this system are, firstly, a separate first and second fuel supply increasing means connected to the main nozzle for selectively increasing the amount of fuel supplied through it and, secondly, a modality which can cause the first means to increase the fuel supply within a low-speed range of vehicle operation and also effect the first and second means to increase the fuel supply within a high-load range of engine operation.

  3. Gaps in natural gas glut revive old supply debates

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, P.

    1982-03-01

    DOE analysts are debating the possibility of latent gas demand causing supply shortages despite deregulation and the effects of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Industrial shortages are possible in Louisiana and Texas during 1982, and scattered curtailments were imposed on some low-priority users during the past winter. Several examples of supply problems are examined to see if they threaten a latent demand shortage when, for example, dual-fuel users elect to use oil or users elect to use no fuel because of the high price. New figures issued by the Energy Information Administration challenge the concept of unmet demand. The article summarizes disagreements arising over how plant managers will make fuel choices and the complications of the regulatory disadvantages imposed on intrastate pipelines. (DCK)

  4. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  5. Gas expander based power plant system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerija, Z.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a method for generating electricity where gas pressure from a high pressure gas transmission line is reduced with a gas expander system capable of operating with fluctuating high pressure gas conditions and maintaining required outlet gas conditions for delivery to a lower pressure gas distribution line. It comprises supplying a portion of the lower pressure gas to the combustion apparatus of a steam generator, heating feedwater in the steam generator and producing a low pressure steam, condensing the steam in a heat exchange using the heat of condensation of the steam to heat a portion of high pressure gas in a heat exchange, mixing the heated high pressure gas with unheated high pressure gas in proportion to controlled variable requirements, reducing the pressure of the combined high pressure gas by passing the gas through a gas expander which produces useful shaft power for driving an electrical generator or for mechanical drive applications.

  6. 78 FR 9679 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On January 24, 2013, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel) filed with the Federal..., National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221, or by calling...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas piping systems. 3280.705... Systems § 3280.705 Gas piping systems. (a) General. The requirements of this section shall govern the installation of all fuel gas piping attached to any manufactured home. The gas piping supply system shall...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas piping systems. 3280.705... Systems § 3280.705 Gas piping systems. (a) General. The requirements of this section shall govern the installation of all fuel gas piping attached to any manufactured home. The gas piping supply system shall...

  9. ISABELLE magnet power supply system performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The power supply system that will energize the superconducting magnets in the ISABELLE 400 x 400 GeV accelerator must supply various voltages and currents. The voltages for the correction winding range from ten to one hundred twenty-five volts unipolar and bipolar with current rating of 50 to 300 amperes. The main field winding requires voltages from 90V (at flattop) to 600V during maximum ramp rate or acceleration cycle. The power supplies are programmable over their full range of output current with a reproducibility error varying from +- 10 ppM to +- 400 ppM of full scale. Included within the reproducibility error are the long and short term stability requirements of the power supplies. The purpose of this paper is to define some of the design goals and outline the approach taken in reaching these goals.

  10. System automatically supplies precise analytical samples of high-pressure gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langdon, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    High-pressure-reducing and flow-stabilization system delivers analytical gas samples from a gas supply. The system employs parallel capillary restrictors for pressure reduction and downstream throttling valves for flow control. It is used in conjunction with a sampling valve and minimizes alterations of the sampled gas.

  11. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  12. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the...

  13. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the...

  14. Combined heat supply from heat and power plants with gas-net-heaters and thermo-transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozdrenko, G. V.; Grigoryeva, O. K.; Frantseva, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The article considers the process scheme and the cycle of power unit of heat and power plant in the system of combined heat supply with gas-net-heaters and interblock Freon thermo-transformers. Methodology and indicators for evaluation of efficiency of the heating power unit at such heat supply are presented.

  15. Separate low pressure gas storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Hallen, W.R.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a gas storage system. It comprises: a floor; anchor means surround the floor; a flexible floor membrane positioned upon the floor and having a periphery being substantially co-extensive with the anchor means; a flexible gas storage membrane overlying the flexible floor membrane and having a periphery sealingly secured to the periphery of the flexible floor membrane. The flexible gas storage membrane and the floor membrane forming a flexible gas storage chamber therebetween; gas inlet and outlet means connecting the gas storage chamber to a supply of gas; a flexible air membrane having an exterior and encompassing the gas storage membrane and having a periphery sealingly secured to the periphery of the flexible gas storage membrane. The flexible air membrane overlying the flexible gas storage membrane to form a flexible cover over the flexible gas storage membrane and to form an air chamber over the gas storage chamber; air supply means; air inlet means connecting the air chamber with the air supply means; air outlet means for venting air from the air chamber; and a plurality of flexible restraining members extending over the flexible air membrane for restraining the inflated flexible air membrane.

  16. Gas venting system

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  17. Exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Minoura, M.; Yorioka, K.

    1980-11-18

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the exhaust gas pressure while the ratio of the exhaust gas flow rate to the air intake into the engine is varied in correspondence to the intake pipe negative pressure. This exhaust gas recirculation system can be adapted to a fuel injection type intake system as well as other intake systems provided with an air valve for regulating air intake or having no venturi constriction such as employed in an su type carburetor.

  18. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  19. A study of industrial hydrogen and syngas supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, W. J.; Solomon, J.; Eliezer, K. F.

    1979-01-01

    The potential and incentives required for supplying hydrogen and syngas feedstocks to the U.S. chemical industry from coal gasification systems were evaluated. Future hydrogen and syngas demand for chemical manufacture was estimated by geographic area and projected economics for hydrogen and syngas manufacture was estimated with geographic area of manufacture and plant size as parameters. Natural gas, oil and coal feedstocks were considered. Problem areas presently affecting the commercial feasibility of coal gasification discussed include the impact of potential process improvements, factors involved in financing coal gasification plants, regulatory barriers affecting coal gasification, coal mining/transportation, air quality regulations, and competitive feedstock pricing barriers. The potential for making coal gasification the least costly H2 and syngas supply option. Options to stimulate coal gasification system development are discussed.

  20. Ultracapacitor-Based Uninterrupted Power Supply System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    The ultracapacitor-based uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system enhances system reliability; reduces life-of-system, maintenance, and downtime costs; and greatly reduces environmental impact when compared to conventional UPS energy storage systems. This design provides power when required and absorbs power when required to smooth the system load and also has excellent low-temperature performance. The UPS used during hardware tests at Glenn is an efficient, compact, maintenance-free, rack-mount, pure sine-wave inverter unit. The UPS provides a continuous output power up to 1,700 W with a surge rating of 1,870 W for up to one minute at a nominal output voltage of 115 VAC. The ultracapacitor energy storage system tested in conjunction with the UPS is rated at 5.8 F. This is a bank of ten symmetric ultracapacitor modules. Each module is actively balanced using a linear voltage balancing technique in which the cell-to-cell leakage is dependent upon the imbalance of the individual cells. The ultracapacitors are charged by a DC power supply, which can provide up to 300 VDC at 4 A. A constant-voltage, constant-current power supply was selected for this application. The long life of ultracapacitors greatly enhances system reliability, which is significant in critical applications such as medical power systems and space power systems. The energy storage system can usually last longer than the application, given its 20-year life span. This means that the ultracapacitors will probably never need to be replaced and disposed of, whereas batteries require frequent replacement and disposal. The charge-discharge efficiency of rechargeable batteries is approximately 50 percent, and after some hundreds of charges and discharges, they must be replaced. The charge-discharge efficiency of ultracapacitors exceeds 90 percent, and can accept more than a million charges and discharges. Thus, there is a significant energy savings through the efficiency improvement, and there is far less

  1. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  2. Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, James B. (Inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

  3. Natural gas supply product and services guide. 1996-1997 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This is the Gas Research Institute`s Natural Gas Supply Product and Services Guide for 1996-97. It presents gas exploration, production and processing products developed for Gas Research Institute (GRI) by its contractors, to help reduce production costs and increase recoverable reserves.

  4. 46 CFR 197.434 - Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving. 197.434 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.434 Surface-supplied mixed-gas diving. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) When...

  5. 76 FR 45240 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 8, 2011, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), 6363 Main...

  6. 78 FR 53745 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 12, 2013, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel),...

  7. 76 FR 51027 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket... Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221-5887 at telephone (716)...

  8. 76 FR 52650 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 15, 2011, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), 6363 Main Street...) 502-8659. National Fuel proposes to reclassify Compressor Unit 3 at its Beech Hill compressor...

  9. 75 FR 39010 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application June 29, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), 363 Main... Buffalo Compressor Station in Washington County, Pennsylvania. National Fuel states that the project...

  10. 77 FR 39745 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Power Supplies.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in..., entitled, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  11. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Raphael; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2009-01-01

    Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy intensive steps in enzyme

  12. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  13. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  14. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the tank shutoff valve. The fuel oil filter or strainer shall contain a sump with a drain for the... outlet of an oil supply tank. The valve shall be installed to close against the supply. (4) Fuel oil... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fuel supply systems....

  15. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the tank shutoff valve. The fuel oil filter or strainer shall contain a sump with a drain for the... outlet of an oil supply tank. The valve shall be installed to close against the supply. (4) Fuel oil... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuel supply systems....

  16. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the tank shutoff valve. The fuel oil filter or strainer shall contain a sump with a drain for the... outlet of an oil supply tank. The valve shall be installed to close against the supply. (4) Fuel oil... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fuel supply systems....

  17. Revamping AK-Ashland gas cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, H.; Koerbel, R.; Haberkamp, K.; Keeton, S.

    1995-07-01

    AK Steel`s (formerly Armco) BOF shop was using a static precipitator for the primary collection. The system was designed for full combustion in the gas collecting hoods. No secondary dust collection was in place. A detailed study on alternative solutions led to a completely different system in 1990, and an order was awarded to Mannesmann Demag Corp. (MDC) in Dec. 1990. The new gas collection system is using suppressed combustion with the capability to collect Co at a later stage. The gas cleaning uses the Mannesmann Demag Baumco scrubber with a venturi throat for gas flow control. All auxiliary components, water treatment plant, electric substations and sludge handling were designed and supplied by MDC. The secondary dust collection covers the hot metal and scrap charging into the BOF`s, reladling, desulfurization and deslagging by a pulse jet baghouse. All emission limits set by the EPA and guaranteed by MDC have been met by the systems installed.

  18. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  19. Direct current uninterruptible power supply method and system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Gautam

    2003-12-02

    A method and system are described for providing a direct current (DC) uninterruptible power supply with the method including, for example: continuously supplying fuel to a turbine; converting mechanical power from the turbine into alternating current (AC) electrical power; converting the AC electrical power to DC power within a predetermined voltage level range; supplying the DC power to a load; and maintaining a DC load voltage within the predetermined voltage level range by adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the turbine.

  20. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Christine; Bistline, John; Inman, Mason; Davis, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall electricity use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-55 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable electricity, abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  1. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  2. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  3. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Cafferty, Kara G.; Searcy, Erin M.; Nguyen, Long; Spatari, Sabrina

    2014-11-01

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this

  4. Use of Laboratory-Supplied Natural Gas in Breakthrough Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiceman, G. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Natural gas from regular commercial lines contains enough carbon-8 and above hydrocarbon contaminants to serve as a satisfactory sample for breakthrough experiments. Procedures used, typical results obtained, and theoretical background information are provided. (JN)

  5. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test system supply facilities. 160.45 Section 160.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 160.45 Test system supply facilities. (a) There...

  6. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  7. Worldwide Natural Gas Supply and Demand and the Outlook for Global LNG Trade

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article is adapted from testimony by Jay Hakes, Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on July 23, 1997. The hearing focused on the examination of certain aspects of natural gas into the next century with special emphasis on world natural gas supply and demand to 2015.

  8. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F.; Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  9. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  10. [Phylogeny of gas exchange systems].

    PubMed

    Jürgens, K D; Gros, G

    2002-04-01

    Several systems of gas transport have developed during evolution, all of which are able to sufficiently supply oxygen to the tissues and eliminate the CO2 produced by the metabolism, in spite of great distances between the environment and the individual cells of the tissues. Almost all these systems utilize a combination of convection and diffusion steps. Convection achieves an efficient transport of gas over large distances, but requires energy and cannot occur across tissue barriers. Diffusion, on the other hand, achieves gas transport across barriers, but requires optimization of diffusion paths and diffusion areas. When two convectional gas flows are linked via a diffusional barrier (gas/fluid in the case of the avian lung, fluid/fluid in the case of gills), the directions in which the respective convectional movements pass each other are important determinants of gas exchange efficiency (concurrent, countercurrent and cross-current systems). The tracheal respiration found in insects has the advantage of circumventing the convective gas transport step in the blood, thereby avoiding the high energy expenditure of circulatory systems. This is made possible by a system of tracheae, ending in tracheoles, that reaches from the body surface to every cell within the body. The last step of gas transfer in these animals occurs by diffusion from the tracheoles ("air capillaries") to the mitochondria of cells. The disadvantage is that the tracheal system occupies a substantial fraction of body volume and that, due to limited mechanical stability of tracheal walls, this system would not be able to operate under conditions of high hydrostatic pressures, i. e. in large animals. Respiration in an "open" system, i. e. direct exposure of the diffusional barrier to the environmental air, eliminates the problem of bringing the oxygen to the barrier by convection, as is necessary in the avian and mammalian lung, in the insects' tracheal system and in the gills. An open system is

  11. Reserve growth important to U.S. gas supply

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoker, J.W.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1997-01-27

    The term reserve growth refers to the typical increases in estimated ultimate recovery that occur as oil or gas fields are developed and produced. An example for a particular field helps explain the nature of reserve growth. This gas field was discovered in the mid-1940s. In 1977, its ultimate recovery was estimated to be 2.1 tcf of gas. One might think that after some 30 years of development and production, the resource potential of a field would be well understood. However, by 1991 the estimated ultimate recovery of this field had increased to 3.1 tcf. Reserve growth over the 15 year period totaled 1 tcf, and it shows no sign of stopping. The paper discusses reserve growth trends, reserve growth roots, and future reserve growth. It is concluded that much work remains to be done on the phenomenon of reserve growth, which is arguably the most significant research problem in the field of hydrocarbon resource assessment.

  12. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  13. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  15. Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Hindes, Clyde J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

  16. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  17. Gas turbine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  18. Development of an integrated medical supply information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Eric; Wermus, Marek; Blythe Bauman, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The integrated medical supply inventory control system introduced in this study is a hybrid system that is shaped by the nature of medical supply, usage and storage capacity limitations of health care facilities. The system links demand, service provided at the clinic, health care service provider's information, inventory storage data and decision support tools into an integrated information system. ABC analysis method, economic order quantity model, two-bin method and safety stock concept are applied as decision support models to tackle inventory management issues at health care facilities. In the decision support module, each medical item and storage location has been scrutinised to determine the best-fit inventory control policy. The pilot case study demonstrates that the integrated medical supply information system holds several advantages for inventory managers, since it entails benefits of deploying enterprise information systems to manage medical supply and better patient services.

  19. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  20. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    BLM evaluates economic performance of the engineered system, as well as determining energy consumption and green house gas performance of the design. This paper presents a BLM case study delivering corn stover to produce cellulosic ethanol. The case study utilizes the BLM to model the performance of several feedstock supply system designs. The case study also explores the impact of temporal variations in climate conditions to test the sensitivity of the engineering designs. Results from the case study show that under certain conditions corn stover can be delivered to the cellulosic ethanol biorefinery for $35/dry ton.

  1. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  2. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  3. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  4. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  5. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  6. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  7. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  8. Gas-Recovery System

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R. A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  9. Gas-recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R.A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  10. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  11. Improving the current system for supplying organs for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Horton, R L; Horton, P J

    1993-01-01

    The United States currently relies on a voluntary, altruistic system for supplying organs for transplantation. It is now generally recognized that this system, as currently operated, produces a seriously inadequate supply of organs. A number of scholars have argued that some type of (generally unspecified) market system is necessary. Two articles appearing in the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law have proposed relatively specific market systems for increasing the supply of organs. In this paper we argue that market systems are at best premature. In particular, there is little to suggest that any type of market system for organs will be permitted in the United States in the foreseeable future. We present data that strongly suggest that the current voluntary, altruistic system has not been developed to its full potential and offer a number of specific suggestions for improving the system.

  12. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  13. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  14. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  15. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  16. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  17. Process gas solidification system

    DOEpatents

    Fort, William G. S.; Lee, Jr., William W.

    1978-01-01

    It has been the practice to (a) withdraw hot, liquid UF.sub.6 from various systems, (b) direct the UF.sub.6 into storage cylinders, and (c) transport the filled cylinders to another area where the UF.sub.6 is permitted to solidify by natural cooling. However, some hazard attends the movement of cylinders containing liquid UF.sub.6, which is dense, toxic, and corrosive. As illustrated in terms of one of its applications, the invention is directed to withdrawing hot liquid UF.sub.6 from a system including (a) a compressor for increasing the pressure and temperature of a stream of gaseous UF.sub.6 to above its triple point and (b) a condenser for liquefying the compressed gas. A network containing block valves and at least first and second portable storage cylinders is connected between the outlet of the condenser and the suction inlet of the compressor. After an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser has been admitted to the first cylinder, the cylinder is connected to the suction of the compressor to flash off UF.sub.6 from the cylinder, thus gradually solidifying UF.sub.6 therein. While the first cylinder is being cooled in this manner, an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser is transferred into the second cylinder. UF.sub.6 then is flashed from the second cylinder while another increment of liquid UF.sub.6 is being fed to the first. The operations are repeated until both cylinders are filled with solid UF.sub.6, after which they can be moved safely. As compared with the previous technique, this procedure is safer, faster, and more economical. The method also provides the additional advantage of removing volatile impurities from the UF.sub.6 while it is being cooled.

  18. Public water-supply systems and associated water use in Tennessee, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, John A.; Brooks, Jaala M.

    2010-01-01

    Public water-supply systems in Tennessee provide water to for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses, and municipal services. In 2005, more than 569 public water-supply systems distributed about 920 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of non-purchased surface water and groundwater to a population of nearly 6 million in Tennessee. Surface-water sources provided 64 percent (about 591 Mgal/d) of the State's water supplies. Groundwater produced from wells and springs in Middle and East Tennessee and from wells in West Tennessee provided 36 percent (about 329 Mgal/d) of the public water supplies. Gross per capita water use for Tennessee in 2005 was about 171 gallons per day. Water withdrawals by public water-supply systems in Tennessee have increased from 250 Mgal/d in 1955 to 920 Mgal/d in 2005. Tennessee public water-supply systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. However, 34 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2000–2005, and 15 of these 34 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. The county with the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (130 Mgal/d) was Davidson County. Each of Tennessee's 95 counties was served by at least one public water-supply system in 2005. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (about 167 Mgal/d) by a single public water-supply system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served 654,267 people in Shelby County in 2005.

  19. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  20. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  1. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  2. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, jr., David J.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Tan, Eric; Jacobson, Jacob; Schwab, Amy; Wu, May; Argo, Andrew; Brandt, Craig C.; Cafferty, Kara; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Dutta, Abhijit; Eaton, Laurence M.; Searcy, Erin

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  3. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    PubMed

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. PMID:23598495

  4. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    PubMed

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines.

  5. 75 FR 65477 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Line N Projects October 18, 2010. The staff of the Federal...

  6. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  7. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2009-12-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  8. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  9. Natural gas supply product and services guide, 1995-1996 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The guide presents available natural gas exploration, production, and processing products developed for Gas Research Institute by its contractors to help reduce production costs and increase recoverable reserves. The described products include software, databases, reports, process hardware, maps and atlases, manuals, services, and portfolios of various product types. They cover the following areas of supply research: environment/safety, gas processing, geology/geophysics, formation evaluation, reservoir engineering, production engineering, drilling engineering, and technology transfer. The guide includes an alphabetical index and reader service cards for requesting additional information or ordering the products.

  10. System of treating flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  11. COST FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge for the society in the twenty-first century will be design, rehabilitation, replacement, and optimal management of drinking water distribution systems. A recent survey conducted by the USEPA found that $138B will be needed to maintain and replace existing drinki...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-26.602-5 Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources. (a) Natural gas... natural gas procurements at a facility exceed 20,000 mcf annually and the facility can accept... natural gas shall be forwarded to the Public Utilities Division (PPU), Office of Procurement,...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-26.602-5 Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources. (a) Natural gas... natural gas procurements at a facility exceed 20,000 mcf annually and the facility can accept... natural gas shall be forwarded to the Public Utilities Division (PPU), Office of Procurement,...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-26.602-5 Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources. (a) Natural gas... natural gas procurements at a facility exceed 20,000 mcf annually and the facility can accept... natural gas shall be forwarded to the Public Utilities Division (PPU), Office of Procurement,...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-26.602-5 Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources. (a) Natural gas... natural gas procurements at a facility exceed 20,000 mcf annually and the facility can accept... natural gas shall be forwarded to the Public Utilities Division (PPU), Office of Procurement,...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-26.602-5 Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources. (a) Natural gas... natural gas procurements at a facility exceed 20,000 mcf annually and the facility can accept... natural gas shall be forwarded to the Public Utilities Division (PPU), Office of Procurement,...

  17. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  18. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  19. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  20. Effect of residential solar and storage on centralized electricity supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Scott; Dargusch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Residential solar photovoltaic systems combined with affordable battery storage are becoming increasingly likely to drive a consumer-led, low-emission evolution of modern electricity supply systems. In the past decade, a multi-billion-dollar boom in solar photovoltaic development across the globe has disrupted the way in which centralized electricity systems operate. At the same time, solar photovoltaic power has begun to make a material contribution to reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions. Viable electricity storage solutions are now on the cusp of a rapidly declining price trajectory. When coupled with solar photovoltaic systems, battery storage could become one of the most disruptive influences to impact the electricity sector in decades, yet governments and the broader power sector are poorly prepared. In this Perspective, we examine emerging trends and proffer a systems framework to analyse the disruptive influence of residential solar photovoltaic and storage systems on existing centralized electricity supply systems.

  1. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test system supply facilities. 792.45 Section 792.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 792.45 Test system...

  2. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 6: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of the cryogenic supply system for space shuttles is discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) auxiliary power unit parametric data, (2) propellant acquisition, (3) thermal protection and thermodynamic properties, (4) instrumentation and controls, and (5) initial component redundancy evaluations. Diagrams of the systems are provided. Graphs of the performance capabilities are included.

  3. Multi-Megawatt Gas Turbine Power Systems for Lunar Colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    A concept for development of second generation 10 MWe prototype lunar power plant utilizing a gas cooled fission reactor supplying heated helium working fluid to two parallel 5 MWe closed cycle gas turbines is presented. Such a power system is expected to supply the energy needs for an initial lunar colony with a crew of up to 50 persons engaged in mining and manufacturing activities. System performance and mass details were generated by an author developed code (BRMAPS). The proposed pilot power plant can be a model for future plants of the same capacity that could be tied to an evolutionary lunar power grid.

  4. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shurr, G.W.; Ridgley, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks. Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana. The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part. Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma. Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks. Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are

  5. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  6. Magma supply and primary melt volatile content at Kilauea Volcano from multiphysical modeling of deformation and gas emissions data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Poland, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Kilauea Volcano has been intensively studied for more than a century, yet many properties of the volcanic system remain poorly constrained, including short-term rates of magma supply, storage, and eruption, and the volatile content of the primary melt. These properties have traditionally been estimated separately using techniques that do not always produce physically-consistent results, and which require that many unknowns be fixed to assumed values. For instance, gas emissions data can provide constraint on rates of magma supply and eruption, but these inferences require assumptions about the primary melt composition. Physics-based models of volcanic systems can be used to relate a wide range of observations and physical properties to one another in a coherent system. In this work we develop a simple, holistic model of magma ascent, storage, and eruption at Kilauea Volcano. The model is capable of predicting CO2 and SO2 emissions and ground deformation and it allows us to use diverse data sets to simultaneously constrain magma fluxes and properties of the melt. Inversions are performed using a Bayesian approach, which yields probability distributions for all estimated parameters. We use observations from the ongoing Pu`u `O`o eruption of Kilauea Volcano and look for changes associated with an inferred surge in magma supply during 2003-2007. Preliminary results suggest that Kilauea's magma supply rate approximately doubled by 2006 compared to 2001 (in agreement with results by Poland et al. [2012]), that only a relatively small percentage of the magma supply was stored in the summit reservoir system, and that the CO2 content of the primary melt may be high (perhaps >1 wt%) compared with previous estimates [e.g., Gerlach et al., 2002]. This work represents a first step towards the development of more realistic physics-based models of the magma plumbing system. Such models will allow us to better utilize and interpret the remarkable diversity and quantity of

  7. An automated gas expansion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

  8. An automated gas expansion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, K.

    1993-05-01

    The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

  9. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  10. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  11. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 78 FR 36278 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1282 on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period was extended until September 28, 2012 (77 FR 48177). Public comments were received... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  14. Collaborative Learning in Advanced Supply Systems: The KLASS Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ed; Carter, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems (KLASS) project developed collaborative learning networks of suppliers in the British automotive and aerospace industries. Methods included face-to-face and distance learning, work toward National Vocational Qualifications, and diagnostic workshops for senior managers on improving quality,…

  15. The Research Path to Determining the Natural Gas Supply Potential of Marine Gas Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Baker, R.C.

    2008-06-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. National Interagency Gas Hydrates R&D program is to determine the natural gas production potential of marine gas hydrates. In pursuing this goal, four primary areas of effort are being conducted in parallel. First, are wide-ranging basic scientific investigations in both the laboratory and in the field designed to advance the understanding of the nature and behavior of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS). This multi-disciplinary work has wide-ranging direct applications to resource recovery, including assisting the development of exploration and production technologies through better rock physics models for GHBS and also in providing key data for numerical simulations of productivity, reservoir geomechanical response, and other phenomena. In addition, fundamental science efforts are essential to developing a fuller understanding of the role gas hydrates play in the natural environment and the potential environmental implications of gas hydrate production, a critical precursor to commercial extraction. A second area of effort is the confirmation of resource presence and viability via a series of multi-well marine drilling expeditions. The collection of data in the field is essential to further clarifying what proportion of the likely immense in-place marine gas hydrate resource exists in accumulations of sufficient quality to represent potential commercial production prospects. A third research focus area is the integration of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical field data into an effective suite of exploration tools that can support the delineation and characterization commercial gas hydrate prospects prior to drilling. The fourth primary research focus is the development and testing of well-based extraction technologies (including drilling, completion, stimulation and production) that can safely deliver commercial gas production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs in a variety of settings. Initial efforts will take advantage of the

  16. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  17. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  18. The long-term trends in US gas supply and prices: 1991 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    This report summarizes the gas supply outlook in the 1991 Edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of US Energy Supply and Demand, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1992 research and development program. The 1991 projection presents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and the energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. It was prepared independently by GRI using publicly available data and a framework of commercially available models that GRI has developed over several years. It is not derived from the views of GRI member companies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. The power supply system of the CLEO III silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Toerne, E.; Burns, J.; Duboscq, J.; Eckhart, E.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Larsen, D.; Rush, C.; Smith, S.; Thayer, J. B.

    2002-04-01

    The CLEO III detector has recently commenced data taking at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). One important component of this detector is a four layer double-sided silicon tracker with 93% solid angle coverage. This detector ranges in size and number of readout channels between the LEP and LHC silicon detectors. In order to reach the detector performance goals of signal-to-noise ratios greater than 15 : 1 low noise front-end electronics together with highly regulated low noise power supplies were used. In this paper, we describe the low-noise power supply system and associated monitoring and safety features used by the CLEO III silicon tracker.

  20. A number of upgrades on RHIC power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Operation of a reliable superconducting magnet power supply system is a key factor of an accelerator’s performance. Over the past 15 years, the RHIC power supply group has made many improvements to increase the machine availability and reduce failures. During these past 15 years of operating RHIC a lot of problems have been solved or addressed. In this paper some of the essential upgrades/improvements are discussed.

  1. Optical fibre gas detections systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This tutorial review covers the principles of and prospects for fibre optic sensor technology in gas detection. Many of the potential benefits common to fibre sensor technology also apply in the context of gas sensing - notably long distance - many km - access to multiple remote measurement points; invariably intrinsic safety; access to numerous important gas species and often uniquely high levels of selectivity and/or sensitivity. Furthermore, the range of fibre sensor network architectures - single point, multiple point and distributed - enable unprecedented flexibility in system implementation. Additionally, competitive technologies and regulatory issues contribute to final application potential.

  2. Design layout for gas monitoring system II (GMS-2) computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, V.; Philipp, B.L.; Manke, M.P.

    1995-08-02

    This document provides a general overview of the computer systems software that perform the data acquisition and control for the 241-SY-101 Gas Monitoring System II (GMS-2). It outlines the system layout, and contains descriptions of components and the functions they perform. The GMS-2 system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company

  3. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  4. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  5. Effect of Alternate Supply of Shielding Gases of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Neelam Vilas; Telsang, Martand Tamanacharya

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an attempt is made to study the effect of alternate supply of the shielding gas in comparison with the conventional method of TIG welding with pure argon gas. The two sets of combination are used as 10-10 and 40-20 s for alternate supply of the Argon and Helium shielding gas respectively. The effect of alternate supply of shielding gas is studied on the mechanical properties like bend test, tensile test and impact test. The full factorial experimental design is applied for three set of combinations. The ANOVA is used to find significant parameters for the process and regression analysis used to develop the mathematical model. The result shows that the alternate supply of the shielding gas for 10-10 s provides better result for the bend, tensile and impact test as compared with the conventional argon gas and the alternate supply of 40-20 s argon and helium gas respectively. Welding speed can be increased for alternate supply of the shielding gas that can reduce the total welding cost.

  6. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  7. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOEpatents

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  8. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  10. Operation and control of a water supply system.

    PubMed

    Eker, Ilyas; Kara, Tolgay

    2003-07-01

    The control of water supply systems is becoming more important, since there are increasing requirements to improve operation. A need exists to model and simulate water supply systems so that their behavior can be fully understood and the total process optimized. This paper describes the simulation and control of a water supply system consisting of a sequence of pumping stations that deliver water through pipelines to intermediate storage reservoirs. The system is represented by dominant system variables that represent active and passive dynamical elements. The hydraulic models include the nonlinear coupling between flow rates and reservoir heads. The bisection numerical solution approach is used to obtain a roughness dependent friction coefficient. The whole system is simulated and the results are presented and compared with the real-time measured data. A water level controller using the robust polynomial H(infinity) optimization method by manipulating pump speed is obtained. The stochastic nature of the disturbance and loads is considered for controller design. The parametrized dynamic weighting functions of the design theory are selected to achieve the required control functions and robustness.

  11. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the...

  12. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The...

  13. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the...

  14. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the...

  15. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The...

  16. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The...

  17. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the...

  18. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The...

  19. 46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas systems. 184.240 Section 184.240 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the...

  20. 46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas systems. 121.240 Section 121.240 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.240 Gas systems. Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements: (a) The...

  1. National Petroleum Council Source and Supply Study - the potential for natural gas in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D.L. ); Brown, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the contribution of the Source and Supply Task Group to the recent (December 1992) National Petroleum Council (NPC) study entitled [open quotes]The Potential for Natural Gas in the United States.[close quotes] This task group evaluated potential sources of additions to US natural gas reserves with a team of more than 100 participants, representing various trade, academic, government, and industry organizations. The group evaluated reserve growth, unconventional resources, and undiscovered conventional resources of natural gas over a range of prices and to the year 2010. The study concluded that the US recoverable resource base consists of nearly 1,300 Tcf in the lower 48 States alone, of which more than 413 Tcf will be in new fields and 203 Tcf will be added from reserve appreciation. In addition, more than 519 Tcf will be available as recoverable unconventional resources of gas in coalbeds, gas shales, tight sands, and in other categories. Of the total resource, more than 600 Tcf will be recoverable at wellhead prices of $2.50 per million British thermal units. The NPC evaluation of the US resource base concluded that the domestic natural-gas resource is plentiful and that technological advances will ensure that the resources will be available to fill any foreseeable demand over the next few decades. 3 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Conceptual design and analysis of orbital cryogenic liquid storage and supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Cunnington, G. R.; Johns, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A wide variety of orbital cryogenic liquid storage and supply systems are defined in NASA and DOD long-range plans. These systems include small cooling applications, large chemical and electrical orbit transfer vehicles and supply tankers. All have the common requirements of low-g fluid management to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and efficient thermal control to manage heat leak and tank pressure. A preliminary design study was performed to evaluate tanks ranging from 0.6 to 37.4 cu m (22 to 1320 cu ft). Liquids of interest were hydrogen, oxygen, methane, argon and helium. Conceptual designs were generated for each tank system and fluid dynamic, thermal and structural analyses were performed for Shuttle compatible operations. Design trades considered the paradox of conservative support structure and minimum thermal input. Orbital performance and weight data were developed, and a technology evaluation was completed.

  3. Experimental performance evaluation of heat pump-based steam supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, T.; Sakuraba, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Hasegawa, H.

    2015-08-01

    Heat pumps have become increasingly important as a technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse effect gas emission. They are presently used mainly on residential air-conditioning and domestic hot water and are expected to spread to industrial heating processes. In 2011, Kobe Steel, Ltd. developed and commercialized two heat pump- based steam supply systems; the high efficiency steam supply system with a steam temperature of 120°C (SGH120) and the system which enables a steam temperature of 165°C (sGh165). For promoting the spread of these industrial heat pumps and enhancing the reliability of them, we investigate experimentally steam generation rate, energy efficiency and controlled performance of the SGH165 under various operating conditions on the assumption of actual different industrial processes, and evaluate technical possibilities for better performance.

  4. Global cropland and greenhouse gas impacts of UK food supply are increasingly located overseas.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Henri; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Matthews, Robin B; Kastner, Thomas; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Producing sufficient, healthy food for a growing world population amid a changing climate is a major challenge for the twenty-first century. Agricultural trade could help alleviate this challenge by using comparative productivity advantages between countries. However, agricultural trade has implications for national food security and could displace environmental impacts from developed to developing countries. This study illustrates the global effects resulting from the agricultural trade of a single country, by analysing the global cropland and greenhouse gas impacts of the UK's food and feed supply. The global cropland footprint associated with the UK food and feed supply increased by 2022 kha (+23%) from 1986 to 2009. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) associated with fertilizer and manure application, and rice cultivation remained relatively constant at 7.9 Mt CO2e between 1987 and 2008. Including GHGE from land-use change, however, leads to an increase from 19.1 in 1987 to 21.9 Mt CO2e in 2008. The UK is currently importing over 50% of its food and feed, whereas 70% and 64% of the associated cropland and GHGE impacts, respectively, are located abroad. These results imply that the UK is increasingly reliant on external resources and that the environmental impact of its food supply is increasingly displaced overseas. PMID:26740576

  5. Global cropland and greenhouse gas impacts of UK food supply are increasingly located overseas.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Henri; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Matthews, Robin B; Kastner, Thomas; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Producing sufficient, healthy food for a growing world population amid a changing climate is a major challenge for the twenty-first century. Agricultural trade could help alleviate this challenge by using comparative productivity advantages between countries. However, agricultural trade has implications for national food security and could displace environmental impacts from developed to developing countries. This study illustrates the global effects resulting from the agricultural trade of a single country, by analysing the global cropland and greenhouse gas impacts of the UK's food and feed supply. The global cropland footprint associated with the UK food and feed supply increased by 2022 kha (+23%) from 1986 to 2009. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) associated with fertilizer and manure application, and rice cultivation remained relatively constant at 7.9 Mt CO2e between 1987 and 2008. Including GHGE from land-use change, however, leads to an increase from 19.1 in 1987 to 21.9 Mt CO2e in 2008. The UK is currently importing over 50% of its food and feed, whereas 70% and 64% of the associated cropland and GHGE impacts, respectively, are located abroad. These results imply that the UK is increasingly reliant on external resources and that the environmental impact of its food supply is increasingly displaced overseas.

  6. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  7. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  8. Evaluation of neighborhood treatment systems for potable water supply.

    PubMed

    Corella-Barud, Veronica; Mena, Kristina D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Gurian, Patrick L; Barud, Alberto

    2009-02-01

    Piped water is available in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, but residual disinfectant is not reliably found in the public drinking water supply. Lack of confidence in the public supply leads many residents to rely on bottled water. To provide consistent disinfection, two health clinics were equipped with ultraviolet disinfection systems, and neighboring households were encouraged to obtain their drinking water from the treatment systems. Use of the treated water declined from 62% of self-selected study participants at the time of the first visit to 40% at the second visit. During the first visit, diarrhea prevalence was similar among households using treated water and other water sources yet diarrhea prevalence was higher among households using the treated water during the second visit. Microbiological quality of the treated water in the homes was not demonstrably superior to that of other sources.

  9. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  10. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  11. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  12. Supply of reactants for Redox bulk energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    World resources, reserves, production, and costs of reactant materials, iron, chromium, titanium and bromine for proposed redox cell bulk energy storage systems are reviewed. Supplying required materials for multimegawatt hour systems appears to be feasible even at current production levels. Iron and chromium ores are the most abundant and lowest cost of four reactants. Chromium is not a domestic reserve, but redox system installations would represent a small fraction of U.S. imports. Vast quantities of bromine are available, but present production is low and therefore cost is high. Titanium is currently available at reasonable cost, with ample reserves available for the next fifty years.

  13. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  14. Evaluating the economic impacts of pipeline useage on the Texas oil & gas supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jashandeep

    The objective of this dissertation is to find the minimum supply chain cost for the Texas oil and gas industry, when pipeline is used as the major mode of transporting oil. The problem is solved, by introducing a mixed -- integer linear programming model which will help in taking the necessary decisions based on the cost estimates for various scenarios. In order to meet the objective, specific objectives were put down to evaluate their impacts. First was to evaluate the economic impact of mode of transport and the infrastructure second was to evaluate the economic impact of refinery flow. Finally this dissertation aims at the mixed -- integer programming model to demonstrate the economic impacts of pipeline usage on the supply chain.

  15. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is

  16. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 5A-1: Users manual for math models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Integrated Math Model for Cryogenic Systems is a flexible, broadly applicable systems parametric analysis tool. The program will effectively accommodate systems of considerable complexity involving large numbers of performance dependent variables such as are found in the individual and integrated cryogen systems. Basically, the program logic structure pursues an orderly progression path through any given system in much the same fashion as is employed for manual systems analysis. The system configuration schematic is converted to an alpha-numeric formatted configuration data table input starting with the cryogen consumer and identifying all components, such as lines, fittings, and valves, each in its proper order and ending with the cryogen supply source assembly. Then, for each of the constituent component assemblies, such as gas generators, turbo machinery, heat exchangers, and accumulators, the performance requirements are assembled in input data tabulations. Systems operating constraints and duty cycle definitions are further added as input data coded to the configuration operating sequence.

  17. Code System for Toxic Gas Accident Analysis.

    2001-09-24

    Version 00 TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate aremore » supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses.« less

  18. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  19. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  20. Factors that will influence oil and gas supply and demand in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Holditch, S.A.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2008-04-15

    A recent report published by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) in the United States predicted a 50-60% growth in total global demand for energy by 2030. Because oil, gas, and coal will continue to be the primary energy sources during this time, the energy industry will have to continue increasing the supply of these fuels to meet this increasing demand. Achieving this goal will require the exploitation of both conventional and unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas in (including coalbed methane) an environmentally acceptable manner. Such efforts will, in turn, require advancements in materials science, particularly in the development of materials that can withstand high-pressure, high-temperature, and high-stress conditions.

  1. Optimal reconstruction of historical water supply to a distribution system: A. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Aral, M M; Guan, J; Maslia, M L; Sautner, J B; Gillig, R E; Reyes, J J; Williams, R C

    2004-09-01

    model, which was based on the first solution. Numerous other sensitivity analyses were also conducted using these two models. Both models are solved using a two-stage progressive optimality algorithm along with genetic algorithms (GAs) and the EPANET2 water distribution network solver. This process reduced the required solution time and generated a historically consistent water supply strategy for the water distribution system. PMID:15497810

  2. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    DOEpatents

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  3. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    PubMed

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP.

  4. Drought Resilience of Water Supplies for Shale Gas Extraction and Related Power Generation in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Nicot, J. P.; Uhlman, K.

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable concern about water availability to support energy production in Texas, particularly considering that many of the shale plays are in semiarid areas of Texas and the state experienced the most extreme drought on record in 2011. The Eagle Ford shale play provides an excellent case study. Hydraulic fracturing water use for shale gas extraction in the play totaled ~ 12 billion gallons (bgal) in 2012, representing ~7 - 10% of total water use in the 16 county play area. The dominant source of water is groundwater which is not highly vulnerable to drought from a recharge perspective because water is primarily stored in the confined portion of aquifers that were recharged thousands of years ago. Water supply drought vulnerability results primarily from increased water use for irrigation. Irrigation water use in the Eagle Ford play was 30 billion gallons higher in the 2011 drought year relative to 2010. Recent trends toward increased use of brackish groundwater for shale gas extraction in the Eagle Ford also reduce pressure on fresh water resources. Evaluating the impacts of natural gas development on water resources should consider the use of natural gas in power generation, which now represents 50% of power generation in Texas. Water consumed in extracting the natural gas required for power generation is equivalent to ~7% of the water consumed in cooling these power plants in the state. However, natural gas production from shale plays can be overall beneficial in terms of water resources in the state because natural gas combined cycle power generation decreases water consumption by ~60% relative to traditional coal, nuclear, and natural gas plants that use steam turbine generation. This reduced water consumption enhances drought resilience of power generation in the state. In addition, natural gas combined cycle plants provide peaking capacity that complements increasing renewable wind generation which has no cooling water requirement. However, water

  5. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  6. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  7. Report on ISS O2 Production, Gas Supply and Partial Pressure Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan N.; Cook, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is used on International Space Station (ISS) for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Nitrogen is used to maintain total pressure and account for losses associated with leakage and operational losses. Oxygen and nitrogen have been supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to the on-orbit oxygen production capability. Starting in 2014, new high pressure oxygen/nitrogen tanks are available to launch on commercial cargo vehicles and will replace the high pressure gas source that Shuttle used to provide. To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen and nitrogen partial pressures are controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable partial pressures along with the increased ISS cabin volume are utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen and nitrogen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes the amount of gas supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing partial pressures along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  8. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  9. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings.

  10. Shuttle Orbiter medical system equipment/supplies evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maidlow, Kristin; Schulz, John M.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Breeding, Tiffany

    1991-01-01

    The effectivity was evaluated in zero gravity of several medical equipment and supply items flown in the Shuttle Orbiter Medical System (SOMS). Several procedures listed in Medical Operations Medical Checklist, JSC 1732 were also evaluated. Several items were drawn out of the kits and tested on the KC-135. In two different flights, the following elements were examined: (1) measuring IV flow (drip chamber, one way flow valve, and air/fluid separator); (2) chemstrip protocol for urine analysis in zero-gravity; and (3) tamper resistant seals for injectable medications.

  11. Fuel Costs, Propulsion Systems and Interplanetary Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.

    A perspective on the economics of space logistics in a future state where there are continuous supply routes between Earth and outlying bodies in the solar system is discussed. In particular, the dependence of the cost of transport on specific impulse and % of non-fuel mass as cargo is discussed. Also, a simple way to calculate the optimal cargo mass of a transport ship carrying a commodity with constant demand is proposed as well as qualitative issues regarding backhaul and inventory that space logistics planners will have to one day confront.

  12. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-02-27

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  13. Gas sampling system for matrix of semiconductor gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor gas sensors are popular commercial sensors applied in numerous gas detection systems. They are reliable, small, rugged and inexpensive. However, there are a few problem limiting the wider use of such sensors. Semiconductor gas sensor usually exhibits a low selectivity, low repeatability, drift of response, strong temperature and moisture influence on sensor properties. Sample flow rate is one of the parameters that influence sensors response what should be considered in the measurement system. This paper describes low cost module for controlling measured gas flow rate. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of contamination in air.

  14. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  15. Design considerations for divers' breathing gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, O. R.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the design methods used to establish the gas storage, mixing, and transfer requirements for existing deep dive systems are discussed. Gas mixing systems appear essential to provide the low oxygen concentration mixtures within the converging tolerance range dictated by applications to increasing depths. Time related use of gas together with the performance of the gas transfer system insures a reasonable time frame for systems application.

  16. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  17. Configuration complexity assessment of convergent supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrak, Vladimir; Marton, David

    2014-07-01

    System designers usually generate alternative configurations of supply chains (SCs) by varying especially fixed assets to satisfy a desired production scope and rate. Such alternatives often vary in associated costs and other facets including degrees of complexity. Hence, a measure of configuration complexity can be a tool for comparison and decision-making. This paper presents three approaches to assessment of configuration complexity and their applications to designing convergent SC systems. Presented approaches are conceptually distinct ways of measuring structural complexity parameters based on different preconditions and circumstances of assembly systems which are typical representatives of convergent SCs. There are applied two similar approaches based on different preconditions that are related to demand shares. Third approach does not consider any special condition relating to character of final product demand. Subsequently, we propose a framework for modeling of assembly SC models, which are dividing to classes.

  18. Offshore liquified gas transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, R.D.

    1982-02-16

    A hose assembly is described for use in the transference of cooled liquified gas to a vessel, in a system that requires the flexible hose to lie in the water. The hose assembly includes a flexible inner hose forming a central passage through which liquified gas can pass towards the vessel and having walls that are permeable to the bleeding of vapor therethrough, to avoid damage by expanding liquid droplets that find their way into the inner hose wall. The assembly also includes an outer hose with substantially impermeable walls, the outer hose surrounding the inner hose and leaving an annular passage between them which can receive the vapor permeating the inner hose. The annular passage also can be used to carry vapor from the vessel back to a shorebased installation which reliquifies it.

  19. Automatic flue gas heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.A.

    1983-02-22

    An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

  20. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  1. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  2. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  3. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  4. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  5. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA.

  6. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; et al

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richnessmore » in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.« less

  7. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richness in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.

  8. Extravehicular mobility unit subcritical liquid oxygen storage and supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John; Martin, Timothy; Hodgson, ED

    1992-01-01

    The storage of life support oxygen in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit in the liquid state offers some advantages over the current method of storing the oxygen as a high pressure gas. Storage volume is reduced because of the increased density associated with liquid. The lower storage and operating pressures also reduce the potential for leakage or bursting of the storage tank. The potential for combustion resulting from adiabatic combustion of the gas within lines and components is substantially reduced. Design constraints on components are also relaxed due to the lower system pressures. A design study was performed to determine the requirements for a liquid storage system and prepare a conceptual design. The study involved four tasks. The first was to identify system operating requirements that influence or direct the design of the system. The second was to define candidate storage system concepts that could possibly satisfy the requirements. An evaluation and comparison of the candidate concepts was conducted in the third task. The fourth task was devoted to preparing a conceptual design of the recommended storage system and to evaluate concerns with integration of the concept into the EMU. The results are presented.

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Plumbing. Course: Supply Piping Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of three individualized courses included in a plumbing curriculum, this course covers installing, servicing, and repairing supply lines and fixtures commonly found in residential/commercial structures. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Pipe and Fittings, (2) Cold Water Supply, (3) Hot Water Supply, and (4) Fixtures. Each unit begins…

  10. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  11. Shuttle cryogenics supply system optimization study. Volume 5, B-3, part 2: Appendix to programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer programmer's manual for a digital computer which will permit rapid and accurate parametric analysis of current and advanced attitude control propulsion systems is presented. The concept is for a cold helium pressurized, subcritical cryogen fluid supplied, bipropellant gas-fed attitude control propulsion system. The cryogen fluids are stored as liquids under low pressure and temperature conditions. The mathematical model provides a generalized form for the procedural technique employed in setting up the analysis program.

  12. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  13. SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Dilip C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; Manthena, Himabindu; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

  14. Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain. Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-08-01

    A growing number of studies have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain. In particular, a number of measurement studies have suggested that actual levels of CH4 emissions may be higher than estimated by EPA" tm s U.S. GHG Emission Inventory. We reviewed the literature to identify the growing number of studies that have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain.

  15. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs.

  16. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs. PMID:22737889

  17. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  18. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto

    DOEpatents

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution and supply system for use with a fuel cell having means for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by capillary tubes to the respective fuel cells. Hydrostatic pressure is maintained individually for each of the fuel cells by separately elevating each compartment of the storing means to a specific height above the corresponding fuel cell which is to be fed from that compartment of the storing means. The individual compartments are filled with electrolyte by allowing the compartments to overflow thereby maintaining the requisite depth of electrolyte in each of the storage compartments.

  19. Anode flooding characteristics as design boundary for a hydrogen supply system for automotive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenssen, Dirk; Berger, Oliver; Krewer, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    An automotive fuel cell is investigated to define the design boundaries for an automotive hydrogen supply system with regard to anode flooding. The flooding characteristics of the fuel cell anode at various operating conditions (hydrogen flow rate, pressure, temperature, current density) are analyzed by in-situ and ex-situ measurements. Stable operation conditions are identified and a relation to the operating conditions is established. For adequate water removal, a minimum Reynolds number in the gas channels has to be adjusted. Using this information, different hydrogen supply system designs are compared in their compliance with the stability requirements. It is shown that passive hydrogen supply systems do not achieve all fuel cell requirements regarding power density, lifetime and robustness.

  20. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Harvey, Karen; Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  1. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  2. Evaluation of CO2 Emissions from End-use Heat and Power Supplying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiho, Mariko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Ito, Akito

    It is required for the energy systems to satisfy simultaneous solutions to the problems, such as cost reduction, global warming, assurance of energy security, and resource conservation. To evaluate optimal end-use energy systems from the stand point of CO2 emissions, we apply a comprehensive approach based on the life cycle assessment. Several combinations of electricity and heat supplying systems are compared. They include the electricity driven heat pump, gas engine co-generation, absorption refrigeration and so on. Calculations represent total CO2 emission by energy consumption of several operation patterns, based on the actual data of energy demand, CO2 intensity of the grid electricity and the equipment specifications. The results indicate that CO2 emissions can be minimized by maximum utilization of electricity from the grid.

  3. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  4. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  5. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  6. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  7. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  8. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  9. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  10. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  11. Volcanic gas emissions from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat 1995-2009, with implications for mafic magma supply and degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Thomas; Edmonds, Marie; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Herd, Richard A.

    2010-02-01

    Volcanic gas emissions illustrate a complex volatile budget for Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Fluxes of sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen chloride (and probably water) are substantial from this arc volcano. Additional sources of volatiles in addition to the erupting andesite are required to satisfy the mass balance defined by gas emissions and petrological constraints. Mafic magma is intruded at depths of >10 km, supplying volatiles by quenching, crystallising and vesiculating at the andesite-mafic magma interface. Sulphur, carbon dioxide and other volatiles supplied to the system migrate to the surface and their fluxes remain high while mafic recharge at depth is sustained. Decompression degassing of porphyritic andesite supplies chlorine and water to the gas plume. Chlorine partitions into vapour from the melt during periods of active extrusion, making the HCl/SO2 ratio of volcanic gases a reliable indicator of the onset of eruptive activity. Studies of this volatile budget highlight the role of deep degassing and vapour production at arc volcanoes, which are important mechanisms for driving the eruption due to its effects on magma buoyancy and the advection of heat through the system.

  12. Helium Gas Regulation System for the Light-Ion Guide Gas Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Bryan; Clark, Henry; Chen, Lixin

    2013-10-01

    This is a proof-of-concept project to show that it is possible to construct a cost-effective helium gas regulation system for TAMU Cyclotron Institute's light-ion guide gas cell, using store ordered components. By purchasing the individual necessary parts, we designed and constructed a system that was less expensive than purchasing a pre-constructed system from a manufacturer, and could easily be scaled larger or smaller to accommodate any number of gas bottles. Utilizing LabVIEW software, I was able to write a program that allows the system to be controlled remotely, and an automation program that causes the system to change immediately between bottles, whenever one is almost empty, allowing the system to supply a constant flow of helium gas for several days. Although both the construction and the programming of the system can be seen as rough and unrefined, due to the time-restraints placed on me, the project adequately proves that the concept is valid and entirely possible, as the system is fully functional and able to fulfill its intended purpose. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  13. 76 FR 51965 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... (Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation... Buffalo Compressor Station, the construction of a pig launcher/receiver \\1\\ at milepost 4.85 and the replacement of pipeline at four road crossings south of the Buffalo Compressor Station. \\1\\ A ``pig'' is...

  14. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  15. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  16. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  17. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  18. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  19. Efficiency and supply resource options for the upgrade of the Plzen district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    We examined options for meeting the district heating system steam and hot water heating loads associated with the Plzefi Central Heating Plant, two interconnected boilers serving the Kosutka and Bory regions, and the distributed systems in the Letna/Doubravka and Svetovar regions. The assessment applied integrated resource planning to combine the separate supply and demand-side assessments conducted for the system. Four system load scenarios were examined-high and low growth with and without programmatic efficiency. Hot water loads ranged from the current level of 277 megawatts thermal (MW{sub t}) to 320 MW{sub t} in a high growth scenario without efficiency to 253 MW{sub t} in a low growth scenario with programmatic efficiency. The high growth scenario includes an addition of approximately 50 MW{sub t} load from the connection of distributed boilers. An additional 250 MW{sub t} load served by distributed boilers may provide additional potential for system expansion. Steam loads are projected to increase from 93 MW{sub t} to 100 MW{sub t} in the high growth scenario and. decrease to 89 MW{sub t}, in the low growth scenario. Two system expansion cases were considered. The moderate system expansion provided for the Heat Line East I connection to serve the Letna/Doubravka region and the fall system expansion case further provided for the Heat Line East II connection to serve the Svetovar region. In the moderate case, the life of the Svetovar plant is extended to continue as a stand-alone system. Four central plant supply configurations providing for additional cogeneration capacity were applied to the load scenarios: 1. Life extension to existing facilities with a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 2003, 2. Retirement of some existing units and a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 3. Retirement of some existing units and a new gas- fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 4. Gas: Retirement of some exiting units a new gas-fired cogeneration unit in 1997.

  20. Visible solar-ray supply system for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kei; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiko; Yamashita, Masamichi

    The solar-ray supply system presented here will mainly provide the visible solar ray necessary for the various activities in the space station, such as cultivation experiments on plants, fishes, birds and animals, room lighting for modules, and crew sun-bathing. Even natural solar rays reaching earth surface contain harmful rays for human beings, animals, higher plants and algae: Ultraviolet rays of medium (UV-B) and long wavelength (UV-A), infrared and heat rays, are all harmful to life. On a space station, the most dangerous short-wavelength ultraviolet (UB-C), X-ray and gamma-ray are additionally included, besides those cited above in markedly higher intensity. The range of rays useful and harmless to life is the visible band of wavelengths. No conclusive studies have been conducted concerning the unexpected powerful effects on the growth of plants and algae that can be brought by pure visible solar rays, in comparison with the corresponding effects of other kinds of artificial light source.

  1. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  2. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  3. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.

    1981-02-03

    An E.G.R. control system includes a pressure modulator operative to modulate the magnitude of the port vacuum as applied to a diaphragm type actuator of an E.G.R. valve. The modulator comprises a housing and a diaphragm assembly disposed in the housing and consisting of a pair of diaphragms and a member connecting the diaphragms so that they are deformed simultaneously. The diaphragm assembly divides the interior of the housing into first, second and third chambers which are communicated with the engine carburetor venturi, vented to the atmosphere and communicated with the E.G.R. passage between the E.G.R. valve and a fixed restriction in the E.G.R. passage upstream of the E.G.R. valve, respectively, so that the diaphragm assembly is moved in response to variation in the venturi vacuum and also in response to variation in the exhaust gas pressure in the E.G.R. passage between the restriction and the E.G.R. valve. A valve member is mounted on the diaphragm assembly for movement therewith to control the flow of the atmospheric air from the second chamber into the E.G.R. valve actuator so that the port vacuum as applied to the E.G.R. valve actuator is modulated. The controlled flow of the recirculated exhaust gases through the E.G.R. passage from the exhaust pipe into the intake pipe is in proportion to the intake air flow.

  5. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  6. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  7. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    SciTech Connect

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000{sup R} reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam

  8. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  9. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Timothy T

    2013-09-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about "hydrofracking" or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. PMID:23722091

  10. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Timothy T

    2013-09-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about "hydrofracking" or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State.

  11. Noble Gas Analysis for the OMEGA Gas Sampling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G. T.; Hupcher, S. M.; Freeman, C. G.; Stoyer, M. A.; Sangster, T. C.

    2007-11-01

    The OMEGA Gas Sampling System (OGSS) at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics can be used to study a wide variety of implosion parameters in inertial confinement fusion. By doping a target capsule with carefully chosen detector nuclei, nuclear reactions between fusion products and detector nuclei can produce noble gas isotopes. Following a capsule implosion, these gases are pumped out of the target chamber and are collected into sample bottles. We have developed a bench-top analysis station at Geneseo capable of determining the number of noble gas atoms present in the sample bottles. A needle valve is used to admit gas from the sample bottles into a vacuum chamber at a controlled rate. The conductance of the needle valve is a function of pressure and gas type. A residual gas analyzer (RGA) is used to measure the partial pressures of each type of noble gas in the vacuum chamber. The RGA is calibrated with a calibrated leak, which allows known amounts of different gases into the chamber at a constant rate. Analysis of the gasses collected following a D^3He implosion is currently underway.

  12. Fundamental Considerations Of Gas Core Reactor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussard, Robert W.

    1988-04-01

    Fundamental physics and engineering limitations on gas core reactors (GCR) have been found from coupled effects of reactor neutronics with oscillatory core fuel gas flows and with overall gas dynamics. These show allowable regimes for system operation as natural re-sults of the basiciphysics of the system. Cylindrical BeO-moderated systems, such as the acoustic GCR (AGCR ), are found to be well-suited for pressure wave oscillation at 100-Hz frequencies. These result in stable oscillations of core gas electrical conductivity which may be used for direct alternating current electric power production in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convertors. In contrast, single-cavity axial-flow spherical GCR (SGCR2) systems are inherently limited by core flow and fission energy-generation fluctuation phenomena (to continuous wave operation with mixed flows that cannot sustain high internal core gas tempera-ture gradients. Resulting low mixed-mean temperatures place upper limits on system MHD electrical performance.

  13. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.

    1985-01-01

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  14. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  15. Batch Gas-Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Vernon, Jr.; Miller, E. L.; Rollins, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sampler collects air or other gases in consistent way and stabilizes them for later chemical analysis. Device used for concentrations ranging from few parts per million to 100 percent. Also separates and collects particles in gas for analysis. Gas flows into vacuum sphere when solenoid valve opened. As it passes through conversion tube, constituent of gas forms stable compound that remains in conversion tube for analysis at later time. Sampler parts made of glass, polytetrafluoroethylene, and stainless steel so they do not react with sample.

  16. Energy-effective method for low-temperature deaeration of make-up water on the heating supply system of heat power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Pazushkina, O. V.; Kudryavtseva, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The technology for low-temperature deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems is developed that makes it possible to substantially enhance the energy efficiency of heat power plants (HPPs). As a desorbing agent for deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems, it is proposed to use not steam or superheated water but a gas supplied to boiler burners. Natural gas supplied to steam boilers of HPPs has very low or often negative temperature after reducing devices. At the same time, it is virtually corrosive gas-free (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and, therefore, can be successfully used as the desorbing agent for water deaeration. These factors make it possible to perform deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems at relatively low temperatures (10-30°C). Mixing of the cold deaerated make-up water with the return delivery water results in a significant decrease in the temperature the return delivery water before a lower delivery heater of a dual-purpose turbine plant, increase in the power output with the heat consumption, and, consequently, enhancement in the operation efficiency of the HPP. The article presents the calculation of the consumption of gas theoretically required for deaeration and reveals the evaluation of the energy efficiency of the technology for a typical energy unit of thermal power station. The mass transfer efficiency of the deaeration of the make-up water of heating supply systems is estimated for the case of using natural gas as the desorbing agent for which the specific gas consumption required theoretically for deaeration is calculated. It is shown that the consumption of natural gas used as fuel in boilers of HPPs is sufficient for the deaeration of any volumes of the make-up water of heating supply systems. The energy efficiency of the developed technology is evaluated for a typical heat power-generating unit of the HPP with a T-100-12.8 turbine. The calculation showed that the application of the new technology

  17. Development of SIGNAL: An early warning system of city gas network

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Yoichi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Fumio; Katayama, Tsuneo; Akasaka, Nozomu

    1995-12-31

    An earthquake monitoring and early warning system for a large-scale city gas network has been developed in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The monitoring system consists of 356 earthquake sensors. Once an earthquake occurs, values monitored by these sensors will be sent to the supply control center by radio. Then estimation of damage to customers` buildings and pipelines, estimation of the magnitude and hypocenter, evaluation of the response spectrum, and decision analysis whether to shut-off or maintain the supply will be conducted. The system will play an important role in mitigating gas-related secondary disasters due to earthquakes.

  18. Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

    2010-01-01

    A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near

  19. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  20. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  1. Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

  2. [Use od ozone for disinfection of ships' system of water supply contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Strikalenko, T V; Mokienko, A V; Stoianova, N V; Gutsel', Iu I

    1990-11-01

    Experimental substantiation is given of the use of ozone in doses, recommended for disinfection of water and ship water supply systems infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The positive effect of ozonation of water supply systems infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by results of field testing on ships of the Black sea marine steam-navigation.

  3. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  4. Structures and Opportunities to Supply the Telecommunication Systems in Underground Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojaczek, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Telecommunication systems in underground mines require reliable power supply both of stationary and underground devices. Special problems connected with power supply occur in a case when subscriber devices are located in explosion hazard areas. The paper presents the basic problems connected with power supply of stationary elements of safety systems as well as subscriber devices located in explosion hazard areas that are significantly distant from stationary elements. Acceptable methods of supplying the subscribers devices under technical environment conditions of mine undergrounds have been determined.

  5. Gas dispersion measurements using a mobile Raman lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, J. D.; Brown, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The exploitation of natural gas resources to supply energy demands has resulted in the need to engineer pipelines and plants capable of handling extremely high pressures and throughputs. Consequently, more attention has been directed to evaluating the consequences of releases of material whether accidental or deliberate in nature. An important aspect of assessing the consequences of a release is an understanding of how gas disperses in the atmosphere over a wide range of release and atmospheric conditions. The most cost effective way of providing such information is through the development and use of reliable theoretical prediction methods. The need for some form of remote sensing device was identified. The various possibilities studied led to the conclusion that LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) offered the most suitable method. The system designed and built is described, and its recent use in monitoring operational ventings from a high pressure transmission system is discussed.

  6. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  7. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  8. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  9. Diesel exhaust-gas purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, B.J.

    1982-07-01

    The design of a diesel exhaust gas purification system is presented. It will provide 2000 scfm of dry, anerobic gas (essentially nitrogen) for use in air drilling operations where drill pipe corrosion is a problem, such as geothermal applications. The system is operable in the field and may be transported via highways. It will operate at ambient temperatures up to 110/sup 0/F and requires no water - diesel fuel is used to combust excess oxygen and to generate electricity for the system. Gas production costs, including capital amortization, operations, fuel and maintenance (for reasonable utilization) are about $1.50/1000 scf.

  10. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Townsend, Carl W.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  11. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  12. Line gas sampling system ensures accurate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Tremendous changes in the natural gas business have resulted in new approaches to the way natural gas is measured. Electronic flow measurement has altered the business forever, with developments in instrumentation and a new sensitivity to the importance of proper natural gas sampling techniques. This paper reports that YZ Industries Inc., Snyder, Texas, combined its 40 years of sampling experience with the latest in microprocessor-based technology to develop the KynaPak 2000 series, the first on-line natural gas sampling system that is both compact and extremely accurate. This means the composition of the sampled gas must be representative of the whole and related to flow. If so, relative measurement and sampling techniques are married, gas volumes are accurately accounted for and adjustments to composition can be made.

  13. Hot gas filter and system assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Palmer, Kathryn Miles; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Alvin, Mary Anne; Smeltzer, Eugene E.; Bachovchin, Dennis Michael

    1999-01-01

    A filter element for separating fine dirty particles from a hot gas. The filter element comprises a first porous wall and a second porous wall. Each porous wall has an outer surface and an inner surface. The first and second porous walls being coupled together thereby forming a substantially closed figure and open at one end. The open end is formed to be coupled to a hot gas clean up system support structure. The first and second porous walls define a channel beginning at the open end and terminate at the closed end through which a filtered clean gas can flow through and out into the clean gas side of a hot gas clean up system.

  14. Hot gas filter and system assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Palmer, K.M.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1999-08-31

    A filter element is described for separating fine dirty particles from a hot gas. The filter element comprises a first porous wall and a second porous wall. Each porous wall has an outer surface and an inner surface. The first and second porous walls being coupled together thereby forming a substantially closed figure and open at one end. The open end is formed to be coupled to a hot gas clean up system support structure. The first and second porous walls define a channel beginning at the open end and terminate at the closed end through which a filtered clean gas can flow through and out into the clean gas side of a hot gas clean up system. 8 figs.

  15. Design for a bioreactor with sunlight supply and operations systems for use in the space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kei; Ohya, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Kanji; Furuune, Hiroyuki; Isozaki, Kyôko; Siekmeier, Peter

    An experiment was carried out to determine the characteristics of an operations system that can support fast cultivation of algae at high densities in the weightlessness of space. The experiment was conducted in glass bioreactor tanks, in which light was supplied by radiator rods connected to optical fiber cables. The illumination areas of the tanks were 2600 cm2, 6000 cm2, and 9200 cm2 per liter of solution. The characteristics of O2-CO2 gas exchange, concentration and separation of chlorella in the growth medium, dialysis of ionic salts in the growth medium, etc. were examined. Chlorella ellipsoidea was used in the experiment, yielding the following results: o (1)By increasing the ratio of illumination area to volume, growth rates of up to approximately 0.6 g/L.h could be obtained in a highly concentrated solution (one that contains 20 g/L or more of algae). (2)The most suitable proportions of carbon dioxide and oxygen gases for growing algae quickly at high concentrations were found to be 10% CO2 and 10% O2 (by volume). (3)There was a high optimum concentration for fast cultivation, and the data obtained resembled the theoretical curve postulated by P. Behrens et al. (4)It was possible to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen using gas-permeable membrane modules. (5)It was possible to separare the chlorella from the growth medium and recycle the medium.

  16. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, Mark P.; Kedl, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  17. Public Water-Supply Systems and Associated Water Use in Tennessee, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    2003-01-01

    Public water-supply systems in Tennessee provide water to meet customer needs for domestic, industrial, and commercial users and municipal services. In 2000, more than 500 public water-supply systems distributed about 890 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water and ground water to a population of about 5 million in Tennessee. Surface-water sources provided 64 percent (about 569 Mgal/d) of the State?s water supplies, primarily in Middle and East Tennessee. Ground water produced from wells and springs in Middle and East Tennessee and from wells in West Tennessee provided 36 percent (about 321 Mgal/d) of the public water supplies. Springs in Middle and East Tennessee provided about 14 percent (about 42 Mgal/d) of ground-water supplies used in the State. Per capita water use for Tennessee in 2000 was about 136 gallons per day. An additional 146 public water-supply systems provided approximately 84 Mgal/d of water supplies that were purchased from other water systems. Water withdrawals by public water-supply systems in Tennessee have increased by over 250 percent; from 250 Mgal/d in 1955 to 890 Mgal/d in 2000. Although Tennessee public water-supply systems withdraw less ground water than surface water, ground-water withdrawal rates reported by these systems continue to increase. In addition, the number of public water-supply systems reporting ground-water withdrawals of 1 Mgal/d or more in West Tennessee is increasing.

  18. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  19. Development of Sic Gas Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Okojie, R. S.; Beheim, G. M.; Thomas, V.; Chen, L.; Lukco, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have significant potential to address the gas sensing needs of aerospace applications such as emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, and fire detection. However, in order to reach that potential, a range of technical challenges must be overcome. These challenges go beyond the development of the basic sensor itself and include the need for viable enabling technologies to make a complete gas sensor system: electrical contacts, packaging, and transfer of information from the sensor to the outside world. This paper reviews the status at NASA Glenn Research Center of SiC Schottky diode gas sensor development as well as that of enabling technologies supporting SiC gas sensor system implementation. A vision of a complete high temperature microfabricated SiC gas sensor system is proposed. In the long-term, it is believed that improvements in the SiC semiconductor material itself could have a dramatic effect on the performance of SiC gas sensor systems.

  20. Cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David; Salamah, Samir Armando; Bylina, Noel Jacob

    2003-01-01

    A plurality of arcuate circumferentially spaced supply and return manifold segments are arranged on the rim of a rotor for respectively receiving and distributing cooling steam through exit ports for distribution to first and second-stage buckets and receiving spent cooling steam from the first and second-stage buckets through inlet ports for transmission to axially extending return passages. Each of the supply and return manifold segments has a retention system for precluding substantial axial, radial and circumferential displacement relative to the rotor. The segments also include guide vanes for minimizing pressure losses in the supply and return of the cooling steam. The segments lie substantially equal distances from the centerline of the rotor and crossover tubes extend through each of the segments for communicating steam between the axially adjacent buckets of the first and second stages, respectively.

  1. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  2. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory....

  3. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Localizing Food Systems: The Case of Dairy Supply Chains in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gómez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine

    2015-10-20

    We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach. PMID:26401757

  4. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Localizing Food Systems: The Case of Dairy Supply Chains in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gómez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine

    2015-10-20

    We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach.

  5. Development of Bio-GAS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayanagi, M.; Kitamura, S.; Nemoto, H.; Kimura, T.; Zaiki, Y.; Kitakohji, T.; Fujita, S.; Kameda, M.; Noda, M.; Kawasaki, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Four experiment systems which have fundamental significance in the field of biotechnology are developed for the Get Away Special (GAS). Unique considerations were necessary to develop the systems which carry out biotechnological experiments under GAS's restricted conditions: delicate thermal control, fluid handling and protection from contamination. All experimental processes are controlled by internal sequencers and results of the experiments are recorded as images and numerical data within the systems. The systems are standardized in order to enable repeated use with a variety of experiments by replacement of the experiment modules and modification of experiment sequencing programs.

  6. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

  7. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    X. Zhao, S. Ramakrishnan, J. Lawson, C.Neumeyer, R. Marsala, H. Schneider, Engineering Operations

    2009-09-24

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  8. Gas turbine systems development to meet the requirements of a dual fuel biomass/diesel oil application

    SciTech Connect

    Mina, T.I.; Robinson, G.S.; Seamer, A.

    1994-12-31

    The present work describes the necessary development and modifications undertaken to supply an EGT TYPHOON gas turbine to operate on a gas fuel, produced by the gasification of wood waste (biomass gas fuel), with a lower calorific value, (LCV), in the range of 4.6 to 5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The systems involved are air bleed, fuel, combustion and control. All systems have been developed to production standards and meet the requirements for a dual fuel biomass/diesel commercial application. The gasification process utilises an air blown pressurised bed type gasifier. The air is supplied to the gasifier from the gas turbine compressor via a booster compressor. The air bleed system is designed to supply up to 15% of total compressor air to the gasification process with minimum disturbance to the combustion system and minimum pressure loss. The biomass fuel is supplied to the gas turbine at a temperature in the range of 300{degrees}C to 400{degrees}C and a working pressure up to 22 bara. The gas fuel system is designed to supply and control the biomass fuel flow at the above conditions and to compensate for variation in the LCV of the gas. The biomass fuel will not be available until the gasifier has reached steady state operating conditions, therefore, the gas turbine must run for a considerable length of time on an alternative fuel, in this case diesel oil. The gas turbine combustion system is designed to operate on the biomass fuel and diesel oil. The system has been developed to be capable of starting on the auxiliary fuel and operating around the required engine cycle, including on-load fuel change over. An imposed restriction on the combustion system design has been to maintain physical interchangeability with the standard conventional TYPHOON combustion system. The gas turbine control system has been modified to allow satisfactory interaction with the integrated plant.

  9. Integrated assessment of supply and efficiency resources for the district heating system, City of Handlova, Republic of Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This city needs to replace its old district heating system which is unreliable and expensive to maintain. Current plant is owned by a state-run utility; the plant is scheduled for privatization, and the city is examining options for its upgrade. Analysis and preparation for this activity is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses and in this integrated demand/supply report. Preliminary projections indicate the cost of heating from a cost per unit of energy basis and from the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova on a total cost per year basis. The centralized coal cogeneration option is the least expensive on a levelized energy cost both with and without energy efficiency. Centralized coal/gas dual-fuel cogeneration is a close second, and the decentralized gas natural gas boilers is significantly more expensive. When the effect of building efficiency measures is evaluated, efficiency always increases the cost on a levelized energy cost basis, but on a levelized cost per flat basis, both centralized systems with buildings efficiency are less expensive than without.

  10. Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Gencorp Aerojet Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System was developed through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government. Although the original purpose of the system was to detect leaks in the main engine of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, it also has significant commercial potential in applications for which there are no existing commercial systems. With high sensitivity, the system can detect hydrogen leaks at low concentrations in inert environments. The sensors are integrated with hardware and software to form a complete system. Several of these systems have already been purchased for use on the Ford Motor Company assembly line for natural gas vehicles. This system to detect trace hydrogen gas leaks from pressurized systems consists of a microprocessor-based control unit that operates a network of sensors. The sensors can be deployed around pipes, connectors, flanges, and tanks of pressurized systems where leaks may occur. The control unit monitors the sensors and provides the operator with a visual representation of the magnitude and locations of the leak as a function of time. The system can be customized to fit the user's needs; for example, it can monitor and display the condition of the flanges and fittings associated with the tank of a natural gas vehicle.

  11. In-duct flue gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    In a system for conditioning flue gas generated by a boiler furnace prior to its emission to the atmosphere, including conduit means for conducting a flow of flue gas from said boiler furnace to the atmosphere and an electrostatic precipitator located in said conduit means for electrostatically removing particulate matter entrained in the flue gas, the improvement is described comprising: an assembly arranged upstream of the electrostatic precipitator for converting a portion of sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas flow to sulfur trioxide, said conversion assembly including catalytic conversion means having an operative position wherein a substantial portion of the flue gas flow passes through said catalytic converter for converting a portion of the sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas flow to sulfur trioxide, and an inoperative position, wherein the flue gas flow does not pass through said catalytic conversion means said catalytic conversion means being movable and said assembly including means to move the catalytic conversion means between said operative and inoperative positions based upon the need for or lack of need for conditioning of the flue gas flow.

  12. Modelling magmatic gas scrubbing in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Rossella; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Valenza, Mariano; Bergsson, Baldur; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Rakel Guðjónsdóttir, Sylvía

    2015-04-01

    In volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems, the chemistry of deeply rising magmatic gases is extensively modified by gas-water-rock interactions taking place within the hydrothermal reservoir, and/or at shallow groundwaters conditions. These reactions can scrub reactive, water-soluble species (S, halogens) from the magmatic gas phase, so that their quantitative assessment is central to understanding the chemistry of surface gas manifestations, and brings profound implications to the interpretation of volcanic-hydrothermal unrests. Here, we present the results of numerical simulations of magmatic gas scrubbing, in which the reaction path modelling approach (Helgeson, 1968) is used to reproduce hydrothermal gas-water-rock interactions at both shallow (temperature up to 109°C; low-T model runs) and deep reservoir (temperature range: 150-250 °C; high-T model runs) conditions. The model was built based upon the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery and Daveler, 1992), and consisted into a step by step addition of a high-temperature magmatic gas to an initial meteoric water, in the presence of a dissolving aquifer rock. The model outputted, at each step of gas addition, the chemical composition of a new aqueous solution formed after gas-water-rock interactions; which, upon reaching gas over-pressuring (PgasTOT > Psat(H2O) at run T), is degassed (by single-step degassing) to separate a scrubbed gas phase. As an application of the model results, the model compositions of the separated gases are finally compared with compositions of natural gas emissions from Hekla volcano (T< 100°C) and from Krisuvik geothermal system (T> 100°C), resulting into an excellent agreement. The compositions of the model solutions are also in fair agreement with compositions of natural thermal water samples. We conclude that our EQ3/6-based reaction path simulations offer a realistic representation of gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring underneath active magmatic-hydrothermal systems

  13. Computer systems and software description for gas characterization system

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1997-04-01

    The Gas Characterization System Project was commissioned by TWRS management with funding from TWRS Safety, on December 1, 1994. The project objective is to establish an instrumentation system to measure flammable gas concentrations in the vapor space of selected watch list tanks, starting with tank AN-105 and AW-101. Data collected by this system is meant to support first tank characterization, then tank safety. System design is premised upon Characterization rather than mitigation, therefore redundancy is not required.

  14. Steam and gas emission rates from La Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Antilles arc): implications for the magmatic supply degassing during unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Patrick; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Beauducel, François; Calabrese, Sergio; Di Napoli, Rossella; Crispi, Olivier; Gaudin, Damien; Parello, Franceso; Hammouya, Gilbert; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    Since its last magmatic eruption in 1530 AD, La Soufrière andesitic volcano in Guadeloupe has displayed intense hydrothermal activity and six phreatic eruptive crises (the last of which, in 1976-1977, with 73000 evacuees). Here we report on the first direct quantification of gas plume emissions from La Soufrière summit vents, which gradually intensified during the past 20 years. Gas fluxes were determined in 2006 then 2012 [1] by measuring the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic gas concentrations in the air-diluted plume, the composition of the hot fumarolic fluid at exit (108°C), and scaling to the speed of plume transport (in situ measurements and FLIR imaging). We first demonstrate that all fumarolic vents of La Soufrière are fed by a common H2O-rich (97-98 mol %) fluid end-member, emitted almost unmodified at the most active South Crater while affected by secondary alterations (steam condensation, sulphur scrubbing) at other vents. Daily fluxes in 2012 (200 tons of H2O, 15 tons of CO2, ~4 tons of H2S and 1 ton of HCl) were augmented by a factor ~3 compared to 2006, in agreement with increasing activity. Summit fumarolic degassing contributes most of the bulk volatile and heat budget (8 MW) of the volcano. Isotopic evidences demonstrate that La Soufrière hydrothermal emissions are sustained by continuous heat and gas supply from an andesitic magma reservoir confined at 6-7 km depth. This magmatic supply mixes with abundant groundwater of tropical meteoric origin in the hydrothermal system. Based on petro-geochemical data for the erupted magma(s), we assess that the volcanic gas fluxes in 2012 can be accounted for by the release of free magmatic gas derived from about 1000 m3 per day of the basaltic melt replenishing the reservoir at depth. In terms of mass budget, the current degassing unrest is compatible with enhanced free gas release from that reservoir, without requiring any (actually undetected) magma intrusion. We recommend a regular

  15. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eftink, A.J.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least two cylinders, each cylinder having a displacement volume V{sub 1}, the improved means for supplying air to each cylinder. It comprises: a rotary, trochoidal chamber air pump defining at least one pair of pumping chambers, the number of pumping chambers being equal to the number of cylinders in the engine; air intake conduits connecting each pumping chamber to one cylinder of the engine; a rotor rotatable in each pair of pumping chambers, the rotor having three faces such that passage of a face of the rotor through a pumping chamber forces air in the pumping chamber into the associated air intake conduit and, consequently, into the engine cylinder; and means interconnecting the rotor and the crankshaft so as to rotate the rotor approximately one revolution for every three revolutions of the crankshaft.

  16. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  17. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  18. Unconventional Shale-Gas Resource Systems and Processes Affecting Gas Generation, Retention, Storage, and Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvie, D. M.; Philp, R. P.; Jarvie, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and petrophysical characterization of various shale-gas systems in the U.S. indicates a variety of unconventional shale-gas system types. The most basic distinction is gas type: biogenic and thermogenic, although there can also be mixtures of the two gas types. Thermogenic shale-gas systems are further segregated into various sub-types depending on geochemistry and geology. The shale-gas system categories are: (1) high thermal maturity shale; (2) low thermal maturity shales; (3) mixed lithology intra-formational systems containing shale, sands, and silts; (4) inter-formational systems where gas is generated in a mature shale and stored in a less mature shale, and (5) mixed systems. A key difference among these shale-gas systems are initial gas flow rates. High thermal maturity systems tend to have much higher gas flow rates than low maturity systems because of gas charge and storage mechanisms. Certainly other non-geochemical factors, such as shale mineralogy, are extremely important in being able to stimulate these shales to flow gas. Geochemical comparison of the Antrim Shale (Michigan Basin), New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin), and Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin) are used to illustrate these different systems as well as other systems. These systems show significant differences in gas type, organic richness, thermal maturity, and gas flow rates. Gas flow rates are then dependent upon the amount of gas stored (or generated) and the ability to release gas from adsorption sites as well as connecting to micro-reservoir compartments.

  19. Development of advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; Little, D.A.; Wiant, B.C.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems study is to investigate innovative natural gas fired cycle developments to determine the feasibility of achieving 60% efficiency within a 8-year time frame. The potential system was to be environmentally superior, cost competitive and adaptable to coal-derived fuels. Progress is described.

  20. Evaluating a groundwater supply contamination incident attributed to Marcellus Shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Garth T; Dorman, Frank; Westland, J L; Yoxtheimer, D; Grieve, Paul; Sowers, Todd; Humston-Fulmer, E; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-05-19

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has revolutionized the oil and gas industry worldwide but has been accompanied by highly controversial incidents of reported water contamination. For example, groundwater contamination by stray natural gas and spillage of brine and other gas drilling-related fluids is known to occur. However, contamination of shallow potable aquifers by HVHF at depth has never been fully documented. We investigated a case where Marcellus Shale gas wells in Pennsylvania caused inundation of natural gas and foam in initially potable groundwater used by several households. With comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS), an unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds was identified in the aquifer. Similar signatures were also observed in flowback from Marcellus Shale gas wells. A compound identified in flowback, 2-n-Butoxyethanol, was also positively identified in one of the foaming drinking water wells at nanogram-per-liter concentrations. The most likely explanation of the incident is that stray natural gas and drilling or HF compounds were driven ∼ 1-3 km along shallow to intermediate depth fractures to the aquifer used as a potable water source. Part of the problem may have been wastewaters from a pit leak reported at the nearest gas well pad-the only nearby pad where wells were hydraulically fractured before the contamination incident. If samples of drilling, pit, and HVHF fluids had been available, GCxGC-TOFMS might have fingerprinted the contamination source. Such evaluations would contribute significantly to better management practices as the shale gas industry expands worldwide. PMID:25941400

  1. Evaluating a groundwater supply contamination incident attributed to Marcellus Shale gas development

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Garth T.; Dorman, Frank; Westland, J. L.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Grieve, Paul; Sowers, Todd; Humston-Fulmer, E.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has revolutionized the oil and gas industry worldwide but has been accompanied by highly controversial incidents of reported water contamination. For example, groundwater contamination by stray natural gas and spillage of brine and other gas drilling-related fluids is known to occur. However, contamination of shallow potable aquifers by HVHF at depth has never been fully documented. We investigated a case where Marcellus Shale gas wells in Pennsylvania caused inundation of natural gas and foam in initially potable groundwater used by several households. With comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS), an unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds was identified in the aquifer. Similar signatures were also observed in flowback from Marcellus Shale gas wells. A compound identified in flowback, 2-n-Butoxyethanol, was also positively identified in one of the foaming drinking water wells at nanogram-per-liter concentrations. The most likely explanation of the incident is that stray natural gas and drilling or HF compounds were driven ∼1–3 km along shallow to intermediate depth fractures to the aquifer used as a potable water source. Part of the problem may have been wastewaters from a pit leak reported at the nearest gas well pad—the only nearby pad where wells were hydraulically fractured before the contamination incident. If samples of drilling, pit, and HVHF fluids had been available, GCxGC-TOFMS might have fingerprinted the contamination source. Such evaluations would contribute significantly to better management practices as the shale gas industry expands worldwide. PMID:25941400

  2. Evaluating a groundwater supply contamination incident attributed to Marcellus Shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Garth T; Dorman, Frank; Westland, J L; Yoxtheimer, D; Grieve, Paul; Sowers, Todd; Humston-Fulmer, E; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-05-19

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has revolutionized the oil and gas industry worldwide but has been accompanied by highly controversial incidents of reported water contamination. For example, groundwater contamination by stray natural gas and spillage of brine and other gas drilling-related fluids is known to occur. However, contamination of shallow potable aquifers by HVHF at depth has never been fully documented. We investigated a case where Marcellus Shale gas wells in Pennsylvania caused inundation of natural gas and foam in initially potable groundwater used by several households. With comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS), an unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds was identified in the aquifer. Similar signatures were also observed in flowback from Marcellus Shale gas wells. A compound identified in flowback, 2-n-Butoxyethanol, was also positively identified in one of the foaming drinking water wells at nanogram-per-liter concentrations. The most likely explanation of the incident is that stray natural gas and drilling or HF compounds were driven ∼ 1-3 km along shallow to intermediate depth fractures to the aquifer used as a potable water source. Part of the problem may have been wastewaters from a pit leak reported at the nearest gas well pad-the only nearby pad where wells were hydraulically fractured before the contamination incident. If samples of drilling, pit, and HVHF fluids had been available, GCxGC-TOFMS might have fingerprinted the contamination source. Such evaluations would contribute significantly to better management practices as the shale gas industry expands worldwide.

  3. Automated power distribution system hardware. [for space station power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul M.; Martin, James A.; Thomason, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    An automated power distribution system testbed for the space station common modules has been developed. It incorporates automated control and monitoring of a utility-type power system. Automated power system switchgear, control and sensor hardware requirements, hardware design, test results, and potential applications are discussed. The system is designed so that the automated control and monitoring of the power system is compatible with both a 208-V, 20-kHz single-phase AC system and a high-voltage (120 to 150 V) DC system.

  4. [Comparison of different types automatic water-supply system for mouse rearing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Suzuki, M; Tagashira, Y

    1979-04-01

    Rearing and breeding scores were compared between groups of mice (JCL : ICR and ddN strains) raised with two different types of automatic water-supply systems; the Japanese type and the American type, using manual water-supply system as control. The mice raised with the manual water-supply system were superior in body weight gain as compared to those with two automatic water-supply systems. As to the survival rate, however, the m; anual water-supply system and the Japanese type gave better results than the American type. As to weanling rate in the breeding test, the manual water-supply system gave somewhat better result than either of the two automatic types. Accidental water leaks, which are serious problems of automatic systems, occurred frequently only when the American type was used. Only one defect of the Japanese type revealed was that it was unfavorable for mice with smaller size (e.g., young ddN mice), resulting in lower body weight gain as well as lower breeding scores. PMID:477745

  5. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  6. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  7. Frequency response of a jet engine test facility air supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, M. E.; Ross, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency response of a laboratory scale model of a portion of the air supply system of an engine test facility is obtained both experimentally and using one-dimensional, small-signal, distributed parameter theory. The effects of line terminations and mean flow are considered. Good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. Predictions are extended to a full scale test facility air supply system operating under several possible test conditions.

  8. Arsenic occurrence in drinking water supply systems in ten municipalities in Vojvodina Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragana; Jakovljević, Branko; Rašić-Milutinović, Zorica; Paunović, Katarina; Peković, Gordana; Knezević, Tanja

    2011-02-01

    Vojvodina, a northern region of Serbia, belongs to the Pannonian Basin, whose aquifers contain high concentrations of arsenic. This study represents arsenic levels in drinking water in ten municipalities in Serbia. Around 63% of all water samples exceeded Serbian and European standards for arsenic in drinking water. Large variations in arsenic were observed among supply systems. Arsenic concentrations in public water supply systems in Vojvodina were much higher than in other countries in the Pannonian Basin.

  9. Keeping landfill gas systems in tune

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, L.; Myers, L.; Bjerkin, L.; Freemon, P.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of LFG recovery systems is influenced by many complex and interrelated factors including atmospheric conditions and LFG dynamics. In order to balance the operation of a LFG system, the factors that influence the system, such as the effects of atmospheric conditions must be understood and taken into consideration. The dynamics include: typical, daily diurnal changes in barometric pressure and the temperature and density of the ambient air due to local meteorological conditions; major changes in barometric pressure and the temperature and density of ambient air due to transient high and low pressure systems related to weather conditions; dynamics of the biochemical activity within the landfill; and dynamics of the LFG flowing through the gas extraction system pipe lines. These factors dramatically influence LFG density, mass flow, quantity, and quality. They also influence the ability of a well designed gas collection system to effectively control gas migration and to provide a reasonably high gas product for energy recovery. Thus, an efficient LFG extraction system must attempt to compensate for these varying and uncontrollable conditions.

  10. Maintaining urban gas systems demands special technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anglero, T.F. )

    1994-04-01

    Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has been providing gas to 50% of the population of New York City for the last 100 years. The company has constructed an elaborate gas distribution network that includes a gas main under nearly every city street in a service territory that includes Brooklyn, Staten Island and parts of Queens. Conventional ways of pipeline construction and maintenance are inadequate in today's environment of heightened competition, increased regulations and, most importantly, demanding customer expectations of quality service. As a result, Brooklyn Union Gas must use special construction and maintenance methods in its operations, and in particular trenchless technologies. Over the past 10 years the company has paid close attention to developing a variety of trenchless techniques. Like many gas distribution companies providing service in densely populated urban areas, Brooklyn Union must operate and maintain its gas distribution network in a challenging environment of increasing governmental regulation and escalating field construction costs. Technological innovation is not a luxury, but instead a necessity to achieve corporate growth, regulatory compliance and greater customer satisfaction. Trenchless technologies offset rising pipe installation costs and provide benefits both to the customer and the company. Of special value to Brooklyn Union is the development of systems that renovate old metal pipes by lining. Such techniques are described.

  11. Risk indicators for water supply systems for a drought Decision Support System in central Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Garrote, Luis; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the occurrence, the extent and the magnitude of a drought can be delicate, requiring detection of depletions of supplies and increases in demand. Drought indices, particularly the meteorological ones, can describe the onset and the persistency of droughts, especially in natural systems. However they have to be used cautiously when applied to water supply systems. They show little correlation with water shortage situations, since water storage, as well as demand fluctuation, play an important role in water resources management. For that reason a more dynamic indicator relating supply and demand is required in order to identify situations when there is risk of water shortages. In water supply systems there is great variability on the natural water resources and also on the demands. These quantities can only be defined probabilistically. This great variability is faced defining some threshold values, expressed in probabilistic terms, that measure the hydrologic state of the system. They can identify specific actions in an operational context in different levels of severity, like the normal, pre-alert, alert and emergency scenarios. They can simplify the decision-making required during stressful periods and can help mitigate the impacts of drought by clearly defining the conditions requiring actions. The threshold values are defined considering the probability to satisfy a given fraction of the demand in a certain time horizon, and are calibrated through discussion with water managers. A simplified model of the water resources system is built to evaluate the threshold values and the management rules. The threshold values are validated with a long term simulation that takes into account the characteristics of the evaluated system. The levels and volumes in the different reservoirs are simulated using 20-30 years time series. The critical situations are assessed month by month in order to evaluate optimal management rules during the year and avoid conditions

  12. Accuracy and time requirements of a bar-code inventory system for medical supplies.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L B; Weinswig, M H; De Muth, J E

    1988-02-01

    The effects of implementing a bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to nursing units at a university teaching hospital were evaluated. Data on the time required to issue medical supplies to three nursing units at a 480-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital were collected (1) before the bar-code system was implemented (i.e., when the manual system was in use), (2) one month after implementation, and (3) four months after implementation. At the same times, the accuracy of the central supply perpetual inventory was monitored using 15 selected items. One-way analysis of variance tests were done to determine any significant differences between the bar-code and manual systems. Using the bar-code system took longer than using the manual system because of a significant difference in the time required for order entry into the computer. Multiple-use requirements of the central supply computer system made entering bar-code data a much slower process. There was, however, a significant improvement in the accuracy of the perpetual inventory. Using the bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to the nursing units takes longer than using the manual system. However, the accuracy of the perpetual inventory was significantly improved with the implementation of the bar-code system.

  13. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Hemoptysis by Abnormal Systemic Pulmonary Artery Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, J.J. Garcia, J.A.; Bentabol, M.; Padin, M.I.; Serrano, F.

    2008-03-15

    We report the case of a 29-year-old man with hemoptysis. The patient came to the emergency department, where a laboratory test and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The following day the patient again had hemoptysis, though less than previously. He reported no chest pain, dyspnea, fever, catarrh, changes in urine or feces, contact with patients with bacillus disease or constitutional symptoms. Doppler ultrasound of the chest showed right basal parenchymatous condensation containing a vessel with arterial flow (in the opposite direction to the aortic flow) compatible with an aberrant vessel, possibly a sequestration, leaving the aorta above the celiac trunk. Because of the findings of the chest echogram and magnetic resonance study, thoracoabdominal computed tomography angiography was undertaken; this showed right basal condensation and an anomalous vessel originating 1 cm above the celiac trunk, supplying the right lower lobe. An aortic and pulmonary arteriogram via an arterial and right femoral vein approach confirmed the findings. The patient was treated successfully with percutaneous embolization with coils. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  15. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  16. Tectonic and sediment supply control of deep rift lake turbidite systems: Lake Baikal, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Karabanov, E.B.; Colman, Steven M.; Escutia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Tectonically influenced half-graben morphology controls the amount and type of sediment supply and consequent type of late Quaternary turbidite systems developed in the active rift basins of Lake Baikal, Russia. Steep border fault slopes (footwall) on the northwest sides of half-graben basins provide a limited supply of coarser grained clastic material to multiple small fan deltas. These multiple sediment sources in turn laterally feed small (65 km) axially fed elongate mud-rich fans sourced by regional exterior drainage of the Selenga River that supplies large quantities of silt. Basin plain turbidites in the center of the linear basins and axial channels that are controlled by rift-parallel faults are fed from, and interfinger with, aprons and fans. The predictability of the turbidite systems in Lake Baikal provides the best example yet studied of how tectonics and sediment supply interact to control the development of a wide variety of coeval turbidite systems on a single basin floor.

  17. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  19. Degradation in the efficiency of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated without external gas supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.

    2015-06-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are particle detectors commonly used by the high energy physics community. Their normal operation requires a constant flow of gas mixture to prevent self-poisoning which reduces the chamber's capability to detect particles. We studied how quickly the efficiency of two RPCs drops when operated in sealed mode, i.e. without refreshing the gas mixture. The test aim is to determine how RPCs could be used as particle detectors in non-laboratory applications, such as those exploiting muon tomography for geological imaging or homeland security. The two sealed RPCs were operated in proportional mode for a period of more than three months, and their efficiencies were recorded continuously and analysed in 8-hours intervals. The results show that the efficiency drops on average by 0.79 ± 0.01 % every 24 hours of operation and returns close to the initial value after purging the old gas mixture and flushing the chambers with fresh gas.

  20. Carbon monoxide safety systems for gas appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, T.G.; Palmer, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the development of a self-powered carbon monoxide safety control system for application to gas appliances is reported. A comparison of the various possible technologies is made, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed. Results of an experimental study of a chemioptical sensor, describing its CO sensitivity, dose response time, reusibility, and dependence on temperature and humidity are presented. The effects of four interfering gasses, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acrolein, and formic acid, are also included. Details are shown for a safety control system now undergoing field tests in gas room heaters.

  1. Public water-supply systems and water use in Tennessee, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Morris, A. Jannine

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Division of Water Supply in 1988. Data gathered during an inventory by the TDEC were collated to determine water use, supply sources, population served, and design and storage capacities of the systems. The inventory was limited to systems that were active on June 30, 1988. Results of a survey of the systems conducted by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment during 1988 were a primary source of data for this report. Data from computer and manual files maintained by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment and the U.S. Geological Survey also were used. The Division of Water Supply, TDEC, surveyed 541 public water-supply systems. These systems served 81 percent of the population of the State, or 3.95 million people. The gross per capita use statewide for public-supplied water was 179 gallons per day. Total water withdrawals for public supply increased about 39 percent from 510 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1980, to 708 Mgalld in 1988. During the same period, the population increased about 7 percent. Surface-water withdrawals accounted for 63 percent (446 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn in the State. All of these withdrawals occurred in the Tennessee (56 percent or 249 Mgal/d) and the Ohio (44 percent or 197 Mgalld) hydrologic regions. Ground water supplied 262 Mgal/d or 37 percent of the total water withdrawn by public-supply systems statewide. Of that amount, 79 percent, or 208 Mgalld, was used in western Tennessee.

  2. Prospects for the development of independent power supply systems on the basis of solid fuel thermal conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanguzin, I. A.; Fedyukhin, A. V.; Kurzanov, S. Yu.; Gyulmaliev, A. M.; Stepanova, T. A.; Tumanovsky, V. A.; Titov, D. P.

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical principles of using solid fuel for organizing independent power supply to small settlements and industrial consumers are considered. Thermogravimetric experiments have been carried out for a few types of wood with determining the universal kinetic parameters characterizing the pyrolysis process. A procedure for describing the solid fuel thermal decomposition process has been proposed that is based on writing the equations of four independent parallel thermal decomposition reactions for each component of the initial raw material. A software package has been developed using which the calorific value, composition, and volume of the gas produced in the thermal conversion of solid fuels can be estimated. The impact of operating parameters on the synthesis gas composition has been evaluated. It has been found that increasing the thermal conversion temperature results in a higher calorific value of the obtained gas per unit weight of the feedstock. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the computational model and the results obtained during experimental studies on the existing gasifier has been carried out. It is shown that the parameters of gas obtained on the test bench are consistent with the calculated ones in both the amount of gas and its chemical energy. The combined-cycle power plant flow chart involving the biomass gasification process has been numerically simulated in the Aspen Plus computer program, and calculations aimed at determining the optimal operating parameters of different thermal process circuit components and of the entire CCP system were performed.

  3. Power supply of autonomous systems using solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Zotov, L. G.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Yugai, V. V.; Tatkeeva, G. G.

    2015-04-01

    The article shows the methods of constructing autonomous decentralized energy systems from solar modules. It shows the operation of up DC inverter. It demonstrates the effectiveness of DC inverters with varying structure. The system has high efficiency and low level of conductive impulse noise and at the same time the system is practically feasible. Electrical processes have been analyzed to determine the characteristics of operating modes of the main circuit elements. Recommendations on using the converters have been given.

  4. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  5. Thermal Maturation of Gas Shale Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Shale gas systems serve as sources, reservoirs, and seals for unconventional natural gas accumulations. These reservoirs bring numerous challenges to geologists and petroleum engineers in reservoir characterization, most notably because of their heterogeneous character due to depositional and diagenetic processes but also because of their constituent rocks' fine-grained nature and small pore size -- much smaller than in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Significant advances have recently been achieved in unraveling the gaseous hydrocarbon generation and retention processes that occur within these complex systems. In addition, cutting-edge characterization technologies have allowed precise documentation of the spatial variability in chemistry and structure of thermally mature organic-rich shales at the submicrometer scale, revealing the presence of geochemical heterogeneities within overmature gas shale samples and, notably, the presence of nanoporous pyrobitumen. Such research advances will undoubtedly lead to improved performance, producibility, and modeling of such strategic resources at the reservoir scale.

  6. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling a gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extend in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  7. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extends in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  8. Easily constructed, economical seawater intake and supply system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    A water intake system was designed and installed in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The dual system consisted of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes, a concrete pit and pumps located on shore at zero tide; and cables attached laterally to the pipelines and terminally between a shoreward anchor and to a seaward intake sled held in place with an 1800 kg Dansforth anchor. The overall construction costs were much lower than those for concrete-lined ductile iron pipe. Nearly three years after its construction, this system has withstood tides and storms without apparent adverse effect. Its application to lakes or rivers is equally possible.

  9. Energy harvesting circuit for sensor system power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, P.; Drexler, P.

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents two example approaches to energy harvesting. Mechanical energy harvesting system is based on vibrational minigenerator. Basic relations of its analytical model are given in order to obtain an idea about the operating conditions. Electromagnetic harvesting system is based on tuned resonant nano-structure. Its concepts allows impedance matching in order to operate in given frequency range. The matching properties are verified by means of numerical finite element analysis. For power management of vibration energy harvesting system several circuit design concepts are presented together with simulation results and basic properties comparison.

  10. Coverage versus supply cost in facility location: Physics of frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Li, Bo

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive coverage is crucial for communication, supply, and transportation networks, yet it is limited by the requirement of extensive infrastructure and heavy energy consumption. Here, we draw an analogy between spins in antiferromagnet and outlets in supply networks, and apply techniques from the studies of disordered systems to elucidate the effects of balancing the coverage and supply costs on the network behavior. A readily applicable, coverage optimization algorithm is derived. Simulation results show that magnetized and antiferromagnetic domains emerge and coexist to balance the need for coverage and energy saving. The scaling of parameters with system size agrees with the continuum approximation in two dimensions and the tree approximation in random graphs. Due to frustration caused by the competition between coverage and supply cost, a transition between easy and hard computation regimes is observed. We further suggest a local expansion approach to greatly simplify the message updates which shed light on simplifications in other problems.

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-9 - Automatic fire detecting system, power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system, power supply. 161.002-9 Section 161.002-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-9 Automatic fire detecting system,...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. 75.1107-8 Section 75.1107-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-8 Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. 75.1107-8 Section 75.1107-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-8 Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water...

  14. Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-24

    We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

  15. Leak Locating Experiment for Actual Underground Water Supply Pipelines with a Novel Locating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Sup; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Kang, Seokhoon; Jun, Kyungkoo; Choi, Byoungjo

    This paper presents a novel leak locating system to identify precise position of leak spots of underground water supply pipelines. The system has been studied and developed upon excellent foundation with modern mobile communication technology and the internet. However, the leak locating algorithm in the new system requires knowing the exact acoustical wave speed inside water-filled pipelines and the accurate time arrival difference between sensors to detect precise leak location. Especially the time difference is calculated with optimal maximum likelihood method. For the demonstration of the new system, an intensive experiment performed with 315 m long actual underground water supply pipelines showed an excellent detection capability.

  16. NSTX High Field Side Gas Fueling System

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; M. Anderson; G. Barnes; M. Bell; W. Blanchard; L. Dudek; D. Gates; R. Gernhardt; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; T. Provost; R. Raman; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Winston

    2003-10-09

    Fueling National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas with gas injected from the high field side (HFS) has produced earlier, more reliable transitions to the H-mode, longer H-mode durations, higher toroidal rotation, and higher edge electron temperature compared with similar discharges using the low field side (LFS) gas fueling injectors. The HFS gas fueling system consists of a Center Stack midplane injector, and an injector at the inner, upper corner of the Center Stack. The challenging design and installation constraints for the HFS gas system involved placing the control components as close as possible to the machine-vacuum interface, devising a special feed-through flange, traversing through vessel regions whose temperatures during bake-out range from 150 to 350 degrees Centigrade, adapting the gas transport tubing size and route to the small instrumentation wire channels behind the existing graphite plasma facing component tiles on the Center Stack, and providing output orifices shielded from excessive plasma power depositions while concentrating the output flow to facilitate fast camera viewing and analysis. Design, recent performance, and future upgrades will be presented.

  17. Supersonic gas-liquid cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    A system to perform cleaning and cleanliness verification is being developed to replace solvent flush methods using CFC 113 for fluid system components. The system is designed for two purposes: internal and external cleaning and verification. External cleaning is performed with the nozzle mounted at the end of a wand similar to a conventional pressure washer. Internal cleaning is performed with a variety of fixtures designed for specific applications. Internal cleaning includes tubes, pipes, flex hoses, and active fluid components such as valves and regulators. The system uses gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the object to be cleaned. Compressed air or any inert gas may be used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid. The converging-diverging nozzles accelerate the gas-liquid mixture to supersonic velocities. The liquid being accelerated may be any solvent including water. This system may be used commercially to replace CFC and other solvent cleaning methods widely used to remove dust, dirt, flux, and lubricants. In addition, cleanliness verification can be performed without the solvents which are typically involved. This paper will present the technical details of the system, the results achieved during testing at KSC, and future applications for this system.

  18. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  19. 46 CFR 153.500 - Inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inert gas systems. 153.500 Section 153.500 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.500 Inert gas systems. When Table 1 refers to this section, a cargo containment system...

  20. 46 CFR 153.500 - Inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inert gas systems. 153.500 Section 153.500 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.500 Inert gas systems. When Table 1 refers to this section, a cargo containment system...

  1. 46 CFR 153.500 - Inert gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inert gas systems. 153.500 Section 153.500 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements § 153.500 Inert gas systems. When Table 1 refers to this section, a cargo containment system...

  2. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  3. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  4. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  5. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  6. 77 FR 48177 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... regulatory guide; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745), the U.S. Nuclear...-0159. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly... ADAMS. II. Background On July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745), the NRC published a notice of issuance...

  7. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  8. Strategic stockpiling of power system supplies for disaster recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Coffrein, Carleton; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2010-11-23

    This paper studies the Power System Stochastic Storage Problem (PSSSP), a novel application in power restoration which consists of deciding how to store power system components throughout a populated area to maximize the amount of power served after disaster restoration. The paper proposes an exact mixed-integer formulation for the linearized DC power flow model and a general column-generation approach. Both formulations were evaluated experimentally on benchmarks using the electrical power infrastructure of the United States and disaster scenarios generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. The results show that the column-generation algorithm produces near-optimal solutions quickly and produces orders of magnitude speedups over the exact formulation for large benchmarks. Moreover, both the exact and the column-generation formulations produce significant improvements over greedy approach and hence should yield significant benefits in practice.

  9. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the

  10. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  11. Test and Operation of the WHMFC 12.6 MJ Capacitor Bank Power Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H. F.; Jiang, C. X.; Xu, Y.; Ding, T. H.; Zou, X. T.; Li, L.; Pan, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The 12.6 MJ capacitor bank power supply system of the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC) at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) consists of 11 independent 1 MJ modules and 2 independent 0.8 MJ modules; it was tested and put into operation in October 2010. The capacitor bank power supply system connects to 8 measurement cells through three current collectors and four selectors. A number of nondestructive magnets for different bore sizes and peak fields have been energized by this system, including an 83 T dual stage magnet. The results of tests and operation are presented in this paper.

  12. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  13. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  14. Focusing Conservation Efforts on Ecosystem Service Supply May Increase Vulnerability of Socio-Ecological Systems.

    PubMed

    Laterra, Pedro; Barral, Paula; Carmona, Alejandra; Nahuelhual, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Growing concern about the loss of ecosystem services (ES) promotes their spatial representation as a key tool for the internalization of the ES framework into land use policies. Paradoxically, mapping approaches meant to inform policy decisions focus on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the biophysical supply of ES, largely ignoring the social mechanisms by which these services influence human wellbeing. If social mechanisms affecting ES demand, enhancing it or reducing it, are taken more into account, then policies are more effective. By developing and applying a new mapping routine to two distinct socio-ecological systems, we show a strong spatial uncoupling between ES supply and socio-ecological vulnerability to the loss of ES, under scenarios of land use and cover change. Public policies based on ES supply might not only fail at detecting priority conservation areas for the wellbeing of human societies, but may also increase their vulnerability by neglecting areas of currently low, but highly valued ES supply.

  15. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  16. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  17. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution.

  18. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  19. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  20. HPF HIGH PRESSURE FACILITY GAS ANALYSIS SYSTEM IN BASEMENT / HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS FACILITY IN THE E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    HPF HIGH PRESSURE FACILITY GAS ANALYSIS SYSTEM IN BASEMENT / HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS FACILITY IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB TEST CELL CE-13 / AUTOMATIC SCAN VALUE SYSTEM ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE INSTRUMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY IRL

  1. Digital system for vacuum and gas-filled devices testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejovic, Milic M.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an improved electrical system aimed at measuring and data acquisition of the breakdown voltage of vacuum and gas-filled devices at low pressures using a discretized dynamic method. The previous system [M. M. Pejovic, C. S. Milosavljevic, and M. M. Pejovic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3127 (2002)] included a complex analog circuit for breakdown detection, which did not provide the required reliability. The smallest voltage step which this system could provide was 250 mV. In order to increase the reliability of the breakdown detection, the Keithley model 248 high power supply was added to the system. The breakdown is detected from a monitor output at model 248 rear panel. The disadvantage of this system was the fact that the minimal value of the voltage step in this case is 1 V. An additional Keithley model 2400 Source Meter was introduced as a serial connection with the Keithley model 248 with the aim of decreasing the minimal value of the voltage step, which is in this case 1 mV. PC controls both Keithley models using standard IEEE 488 interface bus. This system provides a minimal voltage step value of 1 mV which results in a high precision in breakdown voltage determination. The proposed system controls a large number of parameters, which makes significantly influences the breakdown voltage value. The system was tested with a neon-filled tube at 6.6 mbar, where two parameters were varied, the relaxation time and the voltage step. The experimental results are in accordance with the literature regarding the influence of these two parameters on the breakdown voltage of gas-filled tubes.

  2. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masayasu; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  3. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  4. Analysis of trends in the development of cities' heat supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stennikov, V. A.; Mednikova, E. E.

    2016-09-01

    New challenges—including the modern urban development policy, formation of the market of energy efficient technologies and different types of equipment of a broad power capacity range, tightening requirements to reliability, quality, and economic accessibility of heat supply—enhance the competitiveness of decentralized heat supply. In addition, its spontaneous growth and not always reasonable implementation lead to unjustified expenses, low efficiency, and ecological inconsistency. This proves the relevance of solving the problems of dividing an urban territory into zones of centralized heating (CH) and decentralized heating (DCH) along with their planning and justification, as well as determining a reasonable level of heat supply centralization and concentration of heat sources' power capacity. Solving these problems using the suggested method will allow optimizing the application areas for various types of heat supply and heat sources, justifying the degree of heat power capacity concentration and the extent of the systems as early as at the phase of a detailed urban planning project and then refining them during the design of urban heat supply systems. This will dramatically improve the reasonability of the decisions made and will simplify the procedure of their implementation. For criteria of limiting the extent (radius) of heat supply systems and defining their type, we suggest using standard values—the density of heat load per unit length of the pipeline and per unit area of urban territory. Standard values must be differentiated across the territory of Russia taking into account regional climatic and economic conditions and unique characteristics of heat supply development in cities and towns. The present article continues and develops the statements made in the previous articles created within the framework of the Theory of Hydraulic Circuits and takes into account the current situation and emerging trends in heat supply.

  5. Low-Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal/Recovery System

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.; Wijams, H.; Baker, R.W.

    1997-10-01

    Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. Much raw gas is `subquality`, that is, it exceeds the pipeline specifications for nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide content, and much of this low-quality natural gas cannot be produced economically with present processing technology. Against this background, a number of industry-wide trends are affecting the natural gas industry. Despite the current low price of natural gas, long-term demand is expected to outstrip supply, requiring new gas fields to be developed. Several important consequences will result. First, gas fields not being used because of low-quality products will have to be tapped. In the future, the proportion of the gas supply that must be treated to remove impurities prior to delivery to the pipeline will increase substantially. The extent of treatment required to bring the gas up to specification will also increase. Gas Research Institute studies have shown that a substantial capital investment in facilities is likely to occur over the next decade. The estimated overall investment for all gas processing facilities up to the year 2000 alone is approximates $1.2 Billion, of which acid gas removal and sulfur recovery are a significant part in terms of invested capital. This large market size and the known shortcomings of conventional processing techniques will encourage development and commercialization of newer technologies such as membrane processes. Second, much of today`s gas production is from large, readily accessible fields. As new reserves are exploited, more gas will be produced from smaller fields in remote or offshore locations. The result is an increasing need for technology able to treat small-scale gas streams.

  6. Systemic Supply to a Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Potential Explanation for Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Wispelaere, Jean-Francois De; Trigaux, Jean-Paul; Weynants, Patrick; Delos, Monique; Coene, Beatrice De

    1996-04-15

    A pregnant woman presented with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) and a single pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) that had been embolized 5 years previously. Partly due to pregnancy, recanalization of the aneurysm occurred with subsequent hemoptysis. Despite successful therapeutic reembolization of the afferent pulmonary artery, hemoptysis recurred 5 days later. At this time, recanalization of the pulmonary artery was not demonstrated by pulmonary angiography, but a systemic angiogram revealed a bronchial arterial supply to the pulmonary AVM. A systemic supply should always be sought in cases of recurrent hemoptysis after technically successful embolization of the feeding pulmonary artery.

  7. Geographic information system programs for use in the water-supply-allocation permitting process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Paul; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer programs designed for use in a geographic information system as an aid in the water-supply- allocation permitting process are described. These programs were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey during a project conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The programs enable a user to display proposed water-supply-allocation sites in a defined area together with present sites and important hydrologic and geographic features on a computer screen or on hardcopy plots. The programs are menu-driven and do not require familiarity with geographic information systems. Source codes for the programs are included in appendixes.

  8. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  9. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  10. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  11. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  12. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  14. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2002-07-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  15. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2001-07-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  16. [Migration of main odorous compounds in a water supply system with Huangpu River as raw water in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ming-De; Jia, Cheng-Shen

    2011-01-01

    Migration and variation of odorous compounds as geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and residual chlorine in drinking water taken from Huangpu River were studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction procedure (HSPME) and gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry. The results showed that, raw water, processed water, pipe water (taken from pump station) and secondary-supply water all contained MIB and geosmin ranging from 2 ng/L to 18 ng/L and 2.68 ng/L to 5.06 ng/L respectively and decreased dramatically during the water processing and distribution system. MIB is proved to be a kind of the odorous compounds in drinking water of Shanghai by comparing the concentrations of MIB and GSM with their odor threshold. The concentration of residual chlorine declined greatly in the distribution system, but because of the high value at the outlet of waterworks, it still may exceeded the influence of MIB and cause the odour problems.

  17. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Floridan Aquifer System Near Tampa, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Temple Terrace, Florida, northeast of Tampa. The well selected for study typically produces water at the rate of 700 gallons per minute from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents nitrate, arsenic, uranium, radon-222, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although all were detected at concentrations less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Temple Terrace: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) short-circuiting of contaminated water through sinkholes; (3) natural geochemical processes within the aquifer; and (4) pumping stress. Although the public-supply well is completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer, it produces water with concentrations of nitrate, VOCs, and the natural contaminant radon that are intermediate between the typical composition of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and that of the overlying surficial aquifer system. Mixing calculations show that the water produced by the public-supply well could consist of upwards of 50 percent water from the surficial aquifer system mixed with water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Anthropogenically affected water from the surficial aquifer system travels rapidly to depth through sinkholes that must be directly connected to the cavernous zone intersected by the public-supply well (and several other production wells in the region). Such solution features serve as fast pathways to the well and circumvent the natural attenuation of nitrate and

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  19. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Laug, Matthew T.; Lambert, John D. B.; Herzog, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod.

  20. Power control system for a hot gas engine

    DOEpatents

    Berntell, John O.

    1986-01-01

    A power control system for a hot gas engine of the type in which the power output is controlled by varying the mean pressure of the working gas charge in the engine has according to the present invention been provided with two working gas reservoirs at substantially different pressure levels. At working gas pressures below the lower of said levels the high pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the control system, and at higher pressures the low pressure gas reservoir is cut out from the system, thereby enabling a single one-stage compressor to handle gas within a wide pressure range at a low compression ratio.

  1. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

    1997-02-11

    A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

  2. Customer system efficiency improvement assessment: Supply curves for transmission and distribution conservation options

    SciTech Connect

    Tepel, R.C.; Callaway, J.W.; De Steese, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Task 6 in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment Project. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for energy conservation in the transmission and distribution (TandD) systems of electric utilities in the BPA service area. The scope of this assessment covers BPA customers in the Pacific Northwest region and all non-federal TandD systems, including those that currently place no load on the BPA system. Supply curves were developed to describe the conservation resource potentially available from TandD-system efficiency improvements. These supply curves relate the levelized cost of upgrading existing equipment to the estimated amount of energy saved. Stated in this form, the resource represented by TandD loss reductions can be compared with other conservation options and regional electrical generation resources to determine the most cost-effective method of supplying power to the Pacific Northwest. The development of the supply curves required data acquisition and methodology development that are also described in this report. 11 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in wheat plants supplied with silicon and infected with Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Perez, Carlos Eduardo Aucique; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si) on the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters (net CO2 assimilation rate [A], stomatal conductance to water vapor [gs], internal CO2 concentration [Ci], and transpiration rate [E]) and chlorophyll fluorescence a parameters (maximum quantum quenching [Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm'], photochemical [qP] and nonphotochemical [NPQ] quenching coefficients, and electron transport rate [ETR]) in wheat plants grown in a nutrient solution containing 0 mM (-Si) or 2 mM (+Si) Si and noninoculated or inoculated with Pyricularia oryzae. Blast severity decreased due to higher foliar Si concentration. For the inoculated +Si plants, A, gs, and E were significantly higher in contrast to the inoculated -Si plants. For the inoculated +Si plants, significant differences of Fv/Fm between the -Si and +Si plants occurred at 48, 96, and 120 h after inoculation (hai) and at 72, 96, and 120 hai for Fv'/Fm'. The Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm', in addition to total chlorophyll concentration (a + b) and the chlorophyll a/b ratio, significantly decreased in the -Si plants compared with the +Si plants. Significant differences between the -Si and +Si inoculated plants occurred for qP, NPQ, and ETR. The supply of Si contributed to decrease blast severity in addition to improving gas exchange performance and causing less dysfunction at the photochemical level. PMID:24047250

  4. Leveraging the LEDA high voltage power supply systems for the LANSCE refurbishment project

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Iii, Joseph Thomas; Rees, Daniel E; Roybal, William T; Young, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) will revitalize the LANSCE accelerator infrastructure. Much of the equipment has been in use for over 39 years and is approaching the end of its design lifetime. As obsolescence issues make like-for-like replacements increasingly more expensive, modern systems with lower costs become a reasonable alternative. As part of the LANSCE-R project, four of the seven HV power supplies for the 805 MHz RF klystrons will be replaced. The present and future requirements for these power supplies influence the selection of replacement options. Details of the HV power supply replacement requirements and the different replacement options will be discussed. One option is to use four 95 kV, 21 A DC power supplies originally installed nearby as part of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. Significant material and labor cost savings can be achieved by leaving these supplies installed where they are and building a HV transport system to bring high voltage power from the existing LEDA facility to the LANSCE facility. The different replacement options will be compared based on material and labor costs as offset by long-term energy savings.

  5. A new computer-controlled multi-channel high voltage supply system for GRACE instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Mukhopadhayay, P. K.

    2002-03-01

    The high energy gamma ray telescopes being set up by the Bhabha Atomic Research Institute Centre (BARC) at Mt. Abu, Rajasthan, as part of the GRACE project, require a very large number (~ 1000) of programmable high voltage power supplies for biasing photomultiplier tubes for the detection and characterization of the atmospheric Cerenkov events. These HV supplies need to be very compact, lightweight and rugged, as they will be mounted on the base of the moving telescope. This paper describes the design aspects of the overall HV system and the performance of the prototype HV modules developed for such applications. In the new design, the inverter switching frequency of the HV supplies has been increased threefold as compared to the earlier design, and surface mounted devices have been used to achieve overall size and weight reductions. The system consists of multiple HV modules, each containing 16 independently programmable HV supplies. Each HV module has an on-board micro-controller for doing control and supervisory functions and is interconnected via a serial 12C bus. The HV supplies have built in over voltage/current, thermal overload protections with output voltage readback and adjustable slew rate control facilities.

  6. Energy/economic model analysis. Macroeconomic impacts of research and development in gas supply and end use technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettle, R. J., IV; Hudson, E. A.

    1980-06-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) needs to consider the economic impact of the various technologies whose research and development is supported by GRI funding. Three energy-economic models are useful for such a technology assessment. These models are: Energy Economic Modeling System, Energy Policy Model, and Time Stepped Energy System Optimization/Long Term Inter-Industry Transaction Model. These three models were used to help in the economic impact evaluation of various GRI research and development programs.

  7. Hydrogen mitigation Gas Characterization System: System design description

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1998-07-17

    The Gas Characterization System (GCS) design is described for flammable gas monitoring. Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) is known to experience periodic tank level increases and decreases during which hydrogen gas is released. It is believed that the generated gases accumulate in the solids-containing layer near the bottom of the tank. Solids and gases are also present in the crust and may be present in the interstitial liquid layer. The accumulation of gases creates a buoyancy that eventually overcomes the density and bonding strength of the bottom layer. When this happens, the gas from the bottom layer is released upward through the liquid layer to the vapor space above the tank crust. Previous monitoring of the vapor space gases during such an event indicates hydrogen release concentrations greater than the lower flammability limit (LFL) of hydrogen in a partial nitrous oxide atmosphere. Tanks 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, and 241-SY-103 have been identified as having the potential to behave similar to SY-101. These waste tanks have been placed on the flammable gas watch list (FGWL). All waste tanks on the FGWL will have a standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) installed to measure hydrogen. In the event that hydrogen levels exceed 0.75% by volume, additional characterization will be required. The purpose of this additional vapor space characterization is to determine the actual lower flammability limit of these tanks, accurately measure low baseline gas release concentrations, and to determine potential hazards associated with larger Gas Release Events (GREs). The instruments to be installed in the GCS for vapor monitoring will allow accurate analysis of samples from the tank vapor space. It will be possible to detect a wide range of hydrogen from parts per million to percent by volume, as well as other gas species suspected to be generated in waste tanks.

  8. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  9. Regenerative system for a gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1987-04-28

    A regenerative system is described for a gas turbine, wherein the turbine has a single shaft on which are mounted a compressor section and a work section, comprising: an air heater mounted adjacent the exit of the work section, the hot exit gas and pressurized air passing through passages formed in the air heater; combustor housings surrounding the compressor section, each containing a combustor mounted within it and extending coaxially thereof, each combustor having a transition section extending to the entrance to the work section; an annular connector housing extending between the combustor housing and the exit of the compressor section to carry the compressed air radially; an outer duct leading from the connector housing to one end of the air heater; and an inner duct attached to the other end of the air heater.

  10. All metal valve structure for gas systems

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Ray W.; Pawlak, Donald A.; Ramey, Alford J.

    1984-11-13

    A valve assembly with a resilient metal seat member is disclosed for providing a gas-tight seal in a gas handling system. The valve assembly also includes a valve element for sealing against the valve seat member; and an actuating means for operating the valve element. The valve seat member is a one-piece stainless steel ring having a central valve port and peripheral mounting flange, and an annular corrugation in between. A groove between the first and second ridges serves as a flexure zone during operation of the valve member and thus provides the seating pressure between the inner ridge or valve seat and the valve element. The outer annular ridge has a diameter less than said valve element to limit the seating motion of the valve element, preventing non-elastic deformation of the seat member.

  11. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-01

    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  12. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-01

    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  13. 46 CFR 153.501 - Requirement for dry inert gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 153.501 Requirement for dry inert gas. When Table 1 refers to this section, an inert gas system for the containment system must supply inert gas containing no more than 100 ppm water....

  14. Electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electrical storage-supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Remick, R.J.; Ang, P.G.P.

    1984-11-27

    An electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electric storage-supply system and process is disclosed using a sodium or potassium sulfidepolysulfide anolyte reaction and an iodide-polyiodide, chloride-chlorine or bromide-bromine species catholyte reaction. The catholyte and anolyte are separated by an ion selective membrane permeable to positive sodium and potassium ions and substantially impermeable to negative bromide, chloride, iodide, sulfide and polysulfide ions. A flowing electrolyte system is disclosed with external electrolyte storage vessels. The apparatus and process provide an electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation system in which the electrolytes may be maintained at near neutral or slightly basic pH, with virtually no parasitic side reactions upon charging, such as hydrogen or oxygen evolution, and the disclosed storage and supply system provides higher energy densities than referenced prior art systems.

  15. Power supply sharing in the Apollo telescope mount electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, R., Jr.; Kapustka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular dc power supply power sharing technique was developed for the Apollo telescope mount electrical power sytem on Skylab. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques used are reviewed and compared. The new technique design is discussed, and results of its implementation in the power system are reviewed.

  16. A Survey of Teacher Supply and Demand Data Collection Systems in NASDTEC Central Region States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert A.

    The Central Region States of the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) were surveyed in 1980 regarding their systems for collecting information and their information needs on teacher supply and demand. The 13 states involved were Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,…

  17. Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains; Final Report,

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABOUT THE WORKSHOP The Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains was held September 12–13, 2011 at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) offices in Arlington, Virginia. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (...

  18. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  19. 46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inert gas systems: General. 154.903 Section 154.903... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas...

  20. 46 CFR 154.904 - Inert gas system: Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inert gas system: Controls. 154.904 Section 154.904... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.904 Inert gas system: Controls. The inert gas...

  1. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  2. 46 CFR 154.904 - Inert gas system: Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inert gas system: Controls. 154.904 Section 154.904... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.904 Inert gas system: Controls. The inert gas...

  3. 46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inert gas systems: General. 154.903 Section 154.903... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas...

  4. 46 CFR 154.904 - Inert gas system: Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inert gas system: Controls. 154.904 Section 154.904... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.904 Inert gas system: Controls. The inert gas...

  5. 46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inert gas systems: General. 154.903 Section 154.903... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas...

  6. Strengthening Carrying Capacity of a Water Supply System under Climate Change with the Drought Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin

    2016-04-01

    The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System

  7. Performance of current measurement system in poloidal field power supply for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. M.; Li, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lu, Z.; Wang, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Lu, C. H.; Huang, J.

    2016-11-01

    As one of the core subsystems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), the poloidal field power system supplies energy to EAST's superconducting coils. To measure the converter current in the poloidal field power system, a current measurement system has been designed. The proposed measurement system is composed of a Rogowski coil and a newly designed integrator. The results of the resistor-inductor-capacitor discharge test and the converter equal current test show that the current measurement system provides good reliability and stability, and the maximum error of the proposed system is less than 1%.

  8. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  9. An optimal operational advisory system for a brewery's energy supply plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.; Shiba, T.; Yokoyama, R. . Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering); Sakashita, S. . Mayekawa Energy Management Research Center)

    1994-03-01

    An optimal operational advisory system is proposed to operate rationally a brewery's energy supply plant from the economical viewpoint. A mixed-integer linear programming problem is formulated so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to constraints such as equipment performance characteristics, energy supply-demand relations, and some practical operational restrictions. This problem includes lots of unknown variables and a hierarchical approach is adopted to derive numerical solutions. The optimal solution obtained by this methods is indicated to the plant operators so as to support their decision making. Through the numerical study for a real brewery plant, the possibility of saving operational cost is ascertained.

  10. Optimization of carbon dioxide supply in raceway reactors: Influence of carbon dioxide molar fraction and gas flow rate.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Santos, T; Mendoza-Martín, J L; Acién Fernández, F G; Molina, E; Vieira-Costa, J A; Heaven, S

    2016-07-01

    Influence of CO2 composition and gas flow rate to control pH in a pilot-scale raceway producing Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Light and temperature determined the biomass productivity whereas neither the CO2 molar fraction nor the gas flow rate used influenced it; because pH was always controlled and carbon limitation did not take place. The CO2 molar fraction and the gas flow rate influenced carbon loss in the system. At low CO2 molar fraction (2-6%) or gas flow rate (75-100l·min(-1)) the carbon efficiency in the sump was higher than 95%, 85% of the injected carbon being transformed into biomass. Conversely, at high CO2 molar fraction (14%) or gas flow rate (150l·min(-1)) the carbon efficiency in the sump was lower than 67%, 32% of the carbon being fixed as biomass. Analysis here reported allows the pH control to be optimized and production costs to be reduced by optimizing CO2 efficiency.

  11. Comparing Supply-Side Specifications in Models of Global Agriculture and the Food System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sherman; van Meijl, Hans; Willenbockel, Dirk; Valin, Hugo; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Sands, Ronald; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Havlik, Petr; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Tabeau, Andrzej; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Schmitz, Christoph; Dietrich, Jan P.; von Lampe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical specification of production and technical change across the partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two modeling approaches have different theoretical underpinnings concerning the scope of economic activity they capture and how they represent technology and the behavior of supply and demand in markets. This paper focuses on their different specifications of technology and supply behavior, comparing their theoretical and empirical treatments. While the models differ widely in their specifications of technology, both within and between the PE and CGE classes of models, we find that the theoretical responsiveness of supply to changes in prices can be similar, depending on parameter choices that define the behavior of supply functions over the domain of applicability defined by the common scenarios used in the AgMIP comparisons. In particular, we compare the theoretical specification of supply in CGE models with neoclassical production functions and PE models that focus on land and crop yields in agriculture. In practice, however, comparability of results given parameter choices is an empirical question, and the models differ in their sensitivity to variations in specification. To illustrate the issues, sensitivity analysis is done with one global CGE model, MAGNET, to indicate how the results vary with different specification of technical change, and how they compare with the results from PE models.

  12. Lean production in improving supply chain performance through hybrid model SCOR 11.0 - system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Chairul; Fatcha Mubiena, Ghaida; Immawan, Taufiq; Hassan, Azmi

    2016-02-01

    Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) is a method to measure supply chain serving the business process framework, performance indicators and unique technologies to support communication and collaboration among supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to measure Supply Chain Management performance by using SCOR version 11.0 for production typology of MTS-MTO in Indonesian Batik Industry. This research combines SCOR's model and System Dynamics in order to predict the complex activities on batik industry. The hybrid SCOR-SD could identify the interaction among five attributes with the associated variables simultaneously. The results are obtained after the performance of lean production application is increased and the targets are achieved, even exceeding the target. For reliability attributes that associated with perfect order fulfilment started from 2015 to 2019 respectively are calculated as 80.06%, 103.53%, 105.58%, 93.76%, and 72.17%. Responsiveness attributes associated with the order fulfilment cycle time, respectively 122.45%, 149.10%, 159.26%, 131.53%, and 119.36%. Attributes associated with the total cost of service charge respectively 93.46%, 93.53%, 93.45%, 93.49, and 93.49%. Attributes associated with cash management assets to cash cycle time in a row were 160%, 153%, 146.3%, 150%, and 126.7%. The latter attribute is agility attributes associated with supply chain flexibility upside respectively 100%, 87.2%, 100%, 82%, and 82%.

  13. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  14. A Power-Efficient Wireless System With Adaptive Supply Control for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-09-01

    A power-efficient wireless stimulating system for a head-mounted deep brain stimulator (DBS) is presented. A new adaptive rectifier generates a variable DC supply voltage from a constant AC power carrier utilizing phase control feedback, while achieving high AC-DC power conversion efficiency (PCE) through active synchronous switching. A current-controlled stimulator adopts closed-loop supply control to automatically adjust the stimulation compliance voltage by detecting stimulation site potentials through a voltage readout channel, and improve the stimulation efficiency. The stimulator also utilizes closed-loop active charge balancing to maintain the residual charge at each site within a safe limit, while receiving the stimulation parameters wirelessly from the amplitude-shift-keyed power carrier. A 4-ch wireless stimulating system prototype was fabricated in a 0.5-μm 3M2P standard CMOS process, occupying 2.25 mm². With 5 V peak AC input at 2 MHz, the adaptive rectifier provides an adjustable DC output between 2.5 V and 4.6 V at 2.8 mA loading, resulting in measured PCE of 72 ~ 87%. The adaptive supply control increases the stimulation efficiency up to 30% higher than a fixed supply voltage to 58 ~ 68%. The prototype wireless stimulating system was verified in vitro. PMID:24678126

  15. A Power-Efficient Wireless System With Adaptive Supply Control for Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless stimulating system for a head-mounted deep brain stimulator (DBS) is presented. A new adaptive rectifier generates a variable DC supply voltage from a constant AC power carrier utilizing phase control feedback, while achieving high AC-DC power conversion efficiency (PCE) through active synchronous switching. A current-controlled stimulator adopts closed-loop supply control to automatically adjust the stimulation compliance voltage by detecting stimulation site potentials through a voltage readout channel, and improve the stimulation efficiency. The stimulator also utilizes closed-loop active charge balancing to maintain the residual charge at each site within a safe limit, while receiving the stimulation parameters wirelessly from the amplitude-shift-keyed power carrier. A 4-ch wireless stimulating system prototype was fabricated in a 0.5-μm 3M2P standard CMOS process, occupying 2.25 mm². With 5 V peak AC input at 2 MHz, the adaptive rectifier provides an adjustable DC output between 2.5 V and 4.6 V at 2.8 mA loading, resulting in measured PCE of 72 ~ 87%. The adaptive supply control increases the stimulation efficiency up to 30% higher than a fixed supply voltage to 58 ~ 68%. The prototype wireless stimulating system was verified in vitro. PMID:24678126

  16. [Surveillance of drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles].

    PubMed

    Rädel, U; Puchert, W; Suchenwirth, R

    2007-03-01

    The new German Drinking Water Ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) demands that the requirements of water intended for human consumption be met up to the intrinsic tap, at which the water is used. This also applies to water supply systems for food trade aboard non-stationary facilities and in vehicles for commercial purposes. In contrast to stationary units for drinking water supply, the nonstationary units relocate and the responsibility changes with each public health authority agent. Therefore, a coordinated action between the federal states is desirable and necessary. The experience of the public health departments presents many non-compliant parameters of microbiology in water supply systems on markets and in vehicles. The development of practical and consistent recommendations for the surveillance of non-stationary units is required to give consistent standards to the users. The article gives a review about legal foundations and technical rules in order to define the drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles in compliance with the German Drinking Water Ordinance. Examples of laboratory results from different monitoring episodes from three federal states are shown.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility well-logging unit with single power supply thermoregulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R. L.

    1985-11-05

    The magnetic susceptibility well-logging unit with single power supply thermoregulation system provides power from a single surface power supply over a well-logging cable to an integrated circuit voltage regulator system downhole. This voltage regulator system supplies regulated voltages to a temperature control system and also to a Maxwell bridge sensing unit which includes the solenoid of a magnetic susceptibility probe. The temperature control system is provided with power from the voltage regulator system and operates to permit one of several predetermined temperatures to be chosen, and then operates to maintain the solenoid of a magnetic susceptibility probe at this chosen temperature. The temperature control system responds to a temperature sensor mounted upon the probe solenoid to cause resistance heaters concentrically spaced from the probe solenoid to maintain the chosen temperature. A second temperature sensor on the probe solenoid provides a temperature signal to a temperature transmitting unit, which initially converts the sensed temperature to a representative voltage. This voltage is then converted to a representative current signal which is transmitted by current telemetry over the well logging cable to a surface electronic unit which then reconverts the current signal to a voltage signal.

  18. Design of Instantaneous High Power Supply System with power distribution management for portable military devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kiho; Kwak, Dongmin; Yoon, Joohong

    2015-08-01

    A design of an Instantaneous High Power Supply System (IHPSS) with a power distribution management (PDM) for portable military devices is newly addressed. The system includes a power board and a hybrid battery that can not only supply instantaneous high power but also maintain stable operation at critical low temperature (-30 °C). The power leakage and battery overcharge are effectively prevented by the optimal PDM. The performance of the proposed system under the required pulse loads and the operating conditions of a Korean Advanced Combat Rifle employed in the battlefield is modeled with simulations and verified experimentally. The system with the IHPSS charged the fuse setter with 1.7 times higher voltage (8.6 V) than the one without (5.4 V) under the pulse discharging rate (1 A at 0.5 duty, 1 ms) for 500 ms.

  19. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specific gravity of 0.65 and rated at 1000 B.T.U. per cubic foot. The natural gas supply connection(s... gage calibrated so as to be read in increments of not greater than one-tenth pound, or an equivalent device. The source of normal operating pressure shall be isolated before the pressure tests are...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specific gravity of 0.65 and rated at 1000 B.T.U. per cubic foot. The natural gas supply connection(s... gage calibrated so as to be read in increments of not greater than one-tenth pound, or an equivalent device. The source of normal operating pressure shall be isolated before the pressure tests are...

  1. Microprocessor system controlling gas-carburizing process

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, D.

    1986-01-01

    This report introduces a microprocessor system composed of a Z-80 single-board computer controlling a gas-carburizing process. The system has 7 analogical input and output signals 24 switch signal-input and 12 switch signal-output signals, which are applicable for temperature, carbon potential, and mechanical-movement control of multipurpose sealed furnaces, or for mutiple-zone temperature, carbon potential, and mechanical-movement control of continuous gas carburizing furnaces; or for distributed control of pit-type carburizing furnaces. The setpoints of variables, such as treating time, temperature, carbon potential of carburizing period, carbon potential of diffusion period, depth of carburizing layer, P.I.D. etc., are entered by keyboard and stored into memories, and actual values are displayed by digital tubes. Furthermore, the fault of thermocouple, oxygen probe, or infrared CO/sub 2/ analyzer; carbon potential, or temperature exceeding the setting value; beginning, eliminating and ending of process, are also displayed or alarmed. The system is based on the arithmetical model with three variables, i.e. CO/sub 2/, CO, and temperature, or O/sub 2/, CO, and temperature so as to control the carbon potential. Temperature is regulated and controlled by the P.I.D. arithmetical model. These models were written into 2716 EPROM memory by assembly languages.

  2. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  3. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 1, System construction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    A high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been constructed for the biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. The reactors in the system consist of a 650 mL continuous stirred tank reactor and a 1 L continuous column reactor. The reactors are designed for individual or dual operation in series or parallel, with continuous gas and liquid feed. The system is housed in a constant temperature, explosion-proof room, equipped with gas leak detectors.

  4. Edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010: An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Koklauner, A.B.; Lihn, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    The report summarizes the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which is a major element in the internal planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) research and development program. The baseline projection represents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. The report presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1993 edition of the projection, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the IPP and SPP projections, a comparison of the 1993 edition of the projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection.

  5. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for the reporting period October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 are described in this quarterly report. No new membership, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, six research progress reports were received (3 final reports and 3 semi-annual reports). The University of Central Florida contract SR080 was terminated during this period, as UCF was unable to secure research facilities. AGTSR now projects that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately 340-350K$.

  6. Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Wong, C. Channy

    1999-08-02

    A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

  7. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  8. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  9. Design of a 60 T Quasi-continuous Magnetic Field System with a Hybrid Capacitor/Rectifier Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Ding, H. F.; Peng, T.; Xiao, H. X.; Jiang, C. X.

    2013-03-01

    At the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, a 135 MW rectifier power supply is being installed nearby a 11 MJ capacitor bank power supply. By combining the two power supplies, a 60 T / 100 ms quasi-continuous magnetic field can be achieved in a monolithic copper coil magnet with a 22 mm diameter bore. Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a and Matlab 7.11.0 were adopted to verify the performance of the magnet and the hybrid power supply system. Details of the designed magnet, the power supply and the simulation results are presented.

  10. Dynamic investigation of PEFC stacks in interaction with the air supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, F.; Simons, G.; Schiefer, K.

    This paper explores the behaviour of a dynamically operated fuel cell system regarding to an automotive application, examining the air supply and their interaction with the fuel cell stacks. The dynamic limits of stack operation are also discussed. Finally, the paper provides a description of the test facility used in these investigations. The research of dynamically operated fuel cell stacks shows that in order to achieve high energy efficiency, a power-dependent modulation of the pressure and flow rate of the air supply is necessary. A test facility designed for energy management and power train research (up to 42 kW) was used for the experiment. A number of 11.5 kW fuel cell stacks was examined experimentally with respect to performance in interaction with the air supply in stationary and dynamic operation. The stacks were tested individually and in parallel. All of them were operated "dead-end" on the hydrogen side. Experimental results varying the parameters and load curves applied to the air supply system are given in the paper. The results show different dynamic behaviours between the stacks and a substantial difference in efficiency and dynamic response of the fuel cell system operated with different strategies. The results of different operating strategies for fuel cell systems, with respect to the interaction between the fuel cell stack and the air supply and in their dependency on air mass flow and pressure level are presented. The examinations were done with the test facility using real current demand profile of the experimental car HyLite ® from zero to full load and the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).

  11. Model simulation of the Manasquan water-supply system in Monmouth County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Ming; Tasker, Gary D.; Nieswand, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Model simulation of the Manasquan Water Supply System in Monmouth County, New Jersey, was completed using historic hydrologic data to evaluate the effects of operational and withdrawal alternatives on the Manasquan reservoir and pumping system. Changes in the system operations can be simulated with the model using precipitation forecasts. The Manasquan Reservoir system model operates by using daily streamflow values, which were reconstructed from historical U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station records. The model is able to run in two modes--General Risk analysis Model (GRAM) and Position Analysis Model (POSA). The GRAM simulation procedure uses reconstructed historical streamflow records to provide probability estimates of certain events, such as reservoir storage levels declining below a specific level, when given an assumed set of operating rules and withdrawal rates. POSA can be used to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes, such as streamflows falling below statutory passing flows, associated with a specific working plan for the water-supply system over a period of months. The user can manipulate the model and generate graphs and tables of streamflows and storage, for example. This model can be used as a management tool to facilitate the development of drought warning and drought emergency rule curves and safe yield values for the water-supply system.

  12. Pressure Systems Energy Release Protection (Gas Pressurized Systems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A survey of studies into hazards associated with closed or pressurized system rupture and preliminary guidelines for the performance design of primary, secondary, and protective receptors of these hazards are provided. The hazards discussed in the survey are: blast, fragments, ground motion, heat radiation, biological, and chemical. Performance guidelines for receptors are limited to pressurized systems that contain inert gas. The performance guidelines for protection against the remaining unaddressed degenerative hazards are to be covered in another study.

  13. Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.; Downs, Robert E.; King, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

  14. Pricing strategy in a dual-channel and remanufacturing supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chengzhi; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Zhaohan

    2010-07-01

    This article addresses the pricing strategy problems in a supply chain system where the manufacturer sells original products and remanufactured products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. Due to the complexity of that system, agent technologies that provide a new way for analysing complex systems are used for modelling. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the computational load of searching procedure for optimal prices and profits, a learning search algorithm is designed and implemented within the multi-agent supply chain model. The simulation results show that the proposed model can find out optimal prices of original products and remanufactured products in both channels, which lead to optimal profits of the manufacturer and the retailer. It is also found that the optimal profits are increased by introducing direct channel and remanufacturing. Furthermore, the effect of customer preference, direct channel cost and remanufactured unit cost on optimal prices and profits are examined.

  15. 46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas carried... tanks, hold and interbarrier spaces, and insulation. (b) The boiling point and dewpoint at atmospheric pressure of the inert gas must be below the temperature of any surface in those spaces or −45 °C (−49...

  16. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each...

  17. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each...

  18. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas... optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  19. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each...

  20. 46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. 28.320 Section 28..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.320 Fixed gas fire extinguishing...) or more in length must be fitted with a fixed gas fire extinguishing system in the following...